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Sample records for factors influencing imaging

  1. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  2. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  3. Adolescent Girls: Factors Influencing Low and High Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Mahle Lutter, Judy

    1995-01-01

    Past research on women has indicated that a fear of becoming fat emerges during adolescence and continues into adulthood. This study focused on factors associated with negative or positive body image, such as weight, physical activity, teasing, comparison to others and racial identity. Data was drawn from an eight-page questionnaire completed by…

  4. Technical Factors Influencing Cone Packing Density Estimates in Adaptive Optics Flood Illuminated Retinal Images

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. Methods Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL). The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr), the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. Results The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. Conclusions The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi diagrams of the cone

  5. What do you think of my picture? Investigating factors of influence in profile images context perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, F.; Da Silva, M. P.; Le Callet, P.; Heynderickx, I. E. J.

    2015-03-01

    Multimedia quality assessment has been an important research topic during the last decades. The original focus on artifact visibility has been extended during the years to aspects as image aesthetics, interestingness and memorability. More recently, Fedorovskaya proposed the concept of 'image psychology': this concept focuses on additional quality dimensions related to human content processing. While these additional dimensions are very valuable in understanding preferences, it is very hard to define, isolate and measure their effect on quality. In this paper we continue our research on face pictures investigating which image factors influence context perception. We collected perceived fit of a set of images to various content categories. These categories were selected based on current typologies in social networks. Logistic regression was adopted to model category fit based on images features. In this model we used both low level and high level features, the latter focusing on complex features related to image content. In order to extract these high level features, we relied on crowdsourcing, since computer vision algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate for the features we needed. Our results underline the importance of some high level content features, e.g. the dress of the portrayed person and scene setting, in categorizing image.

  6. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  7. Influence of various factors on the accuracy of gallium-67 imaging for occult infection

    SciTech Connect

    Maderazo, E.G.; Hickingbotham, N.B.; Woronick, C.L.; Sziklas, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    To examine whether the results and interpretation of gallium-67 citrate imaging may be adversely influenced by factors present in compromised patients, we reviewed our 1-year experience in 69 patients in intensive care units, renal transplants, and those on hemodialysis. Our results indicate that it is an inappropriate diagnostic procedure for acute pancreatitis since seven of nine had false-negative results. Using loglinear modeling and chi-square analysis we found that treatment with antiinflammatory steroids, severe liver disease, end-stage renal disease, and renal transplantation with immunosuppressive therapy did not interfere with gallium-67 uptake. Increased rate of true-negative results in patients with end-stage renal disease was due to a greater and earlier use of the test in the febrile transplant patient and in hemodialysis patients with infections not amenable to diagnosis with gallium-67 scan (transient bacteremia and bacteriuria). We conclude that gallium-67 imaging is a useful diagnostic tool that, with the exception of acute pancreatitis, has very few false-negative results.

  8. Megavoltage Computed Tomography Image Guidance With Helical Tomotherapy in Patients With Vertebral Tumors: Analysis of Factors Influencing Interobserver Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Levegruen, Sabine; Poettgen, Christoph; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Berkovic, Katharina; Hepp, Rodrigo; Stuschke, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)-based image guidance with helical tomotherapy in patients with vertebral tumors by analyzing factors influencing interobserver variability, considered as quality criterion of image guidance. Methods and Materials: Five radiation oncologists retrospectively registered 103 MVCTs in 10 patients to planning kilovoltage CTs by rigid transformations in 4 df. Interobserver variabilities were quantified using the standard deviations (SDs) of the distributions of the correction vector components about the observers' fraction mean. To assess intraobserver variabilities, registrations were repeated after {>=}4 weeks. Residual deviations after setup correction due to uncorrectable rotational errors and elastic deformations were determined at 3 craniocaudal target positions. To differentiate observer-related variations in minimizing these residual deviations across the 3-dimensional MVCT from image resolution effects, 2-dimensional registrations were performed in 30 single transverse and sagittal MVCT slices. Axial and longitudinal MVCT image resolutions were quantified. For comparison, image resolution of kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) and interobserver variability in registrations of 43 CBCTs were determined. Results: Axial MVCT image resolution is 3.9 lp/cm. Longitudinal MVCT resolution amounts to 6.3 mm, assessed as full-width at half-maximum of thin objects in MVCTs with finest pitch. Longitudinal CBCT resolution is better (full-width at half-maximum, 2.5 mm for CBCTs with 1-mm slices). In MVCT registrations, interobserver variability in the craniocaudal direction (SD 1.23 mm) is significantly larger than in the lateral and ventrodorsal directions (SD 0.84 and 0.91 mm, respectively) and significantly larger compared with CBCT alignments (SD 1.04 mm). Intraobserver variabilities are significantly smaller than corresponding interobserver variabilities (variance ratio [VR] 1.8-3.1). Compared with 3-dimensional

  9. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  10. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  11. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures.

  12. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  13. Imaging Factors That Influence Surgical Margins After Preoperative 125I Radioactive Seed Localization of Breast Lesions: Comparison With Wire Localization

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Mark J.; Dogan, Basak E.; Fox, Patricia; Wang, Cuiyan; Black, Dalliah M.; Hunt, Kelly; Yang, Wei Tse

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the potential Influence of imaging variables on surgical margins after preoperative radioactive seed localization (RSL) and wire localization (WL) techniques. Materials and Methods A total of 565 women with 660 breast lesions underwent RSL or WL between May 16, 2012, and May 30, 2013. Patient age, lesion type (mass, calcifications, mass with associated calcifications, other), lesion size, number of seeds or wires used, surgical margin status (close positive or negative margins), and reexcision and mastectomy rates were recorded. Results Of 660 lesions, 127 (19%) underwent RSL and 533 (81%) underwent WL pre-operatively. Mean lesion size was 1.8 cm in the RSL group and 1.8 cm in the WL group (p = 0.35). No difference in lesion type was identified in the RSL and WL groups (p = 0.63). RSL with a single seed was used in 105 of 127 (83%) RSLs compared with WL with a single wire in 349 of 533 (65%) WLs (p = 0.0003). The number of cases with a close positive margin was similar for RSLs (26/127, 20%) and WLs (104/533, 20%) (p = 0.81). There was no difference between the RSL group and the WL group in close positive margin status (20% each, p = 0.81), reexcision rates (20% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.36), or mastectomy rates (6% each, p = 0.96). Lesions containing calcifications were more likely to require more than one wire (odds ratio [OR], 4.44; 95% CI, 2.8–7.0) or more than one seed (OR, 7.03; 95% CI, 1.6–30.0) when compared with masses alone (p < 0.0001). Increasing lesion size and the presence of calcifications were significant predictors of positive margins, whereas the use of more than one wire or seed was not (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5–1.5) (p = 0.75). Conclusion Close positive margin, reexcision, and mastectomy rates remained similar in the WL group and RSL group. The presence of calcifications and increasing lesion size increased the odds of a close positive margin in both the WL and RSL groups, whereas the use

  14. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  15. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  16. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

  17. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

  18. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge). Conclusions Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies. PMID:22938135

  19. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  20. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  1. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  2. Factors Influencing Return to Work

    PubMed Central

    Brewerton, D. A.; Daniel, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with severe brachial plexus injuries were interviewed two or more years later to determine their success in returning to work and the factors that had led to good or bad resettlement. For most of them these were crucial issues potentially influencing the rest of their lives. When interviewed virtually all had regular jobs in open industry, but many had endured long delays and most were working entirely one-handed. Failure of communication was regrettably common. Too often advice by doctors had been lacking, and there was evidence that the services for vocational resettlement could be improved. PMID:5123911

  3. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  4. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake. PMID:26702781

  5. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake.

  6. Factors Influencing College Curriculum Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Carl L.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study conducted at the University of Illinois on what influences college students to consider the agricultural education curriculum showed that the curriculum choice process is somewhat different for agricultural education majors than for students in the non-agricultural education group. Important influences include vocational agriculture…

  7. Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

  8. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  9. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  10. The impact of using musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and other influencing factors on medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kanta; Raza, Karim; Gill, Paramjit; Greenfield, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication can ease symptoms and limit disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite this, nonadherence to medication is common in RA. We explored the determinants of high and low adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with RA and provide suggestions on approaches to improving adherence to DMARDs. Methods Patients with RA were identified from those who had previously participated in a questionnaire measuring levels of medication adherence. Twenty patients participated (ten high and ten low adherers, as determined by responses to the Medication Adherence Report Scale). In-depth individual semistructured interviews were undertaken until data saturation was reached. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results Four main themes related to adherence were identified: 1) symptom severity; 2) illness perception; 3) perceived benefits and risks of DMARDs; and 4) the quality and quantity of information about RA and DMARDs. In addition, patients’ suggestions about strategies to optimize adherence to DMARDs were captured and they fell within the following themes: 1) musculoskeletal ultrasound to explain the disease process and to provide objective feedback about the extent to which their disease activity is being effectively controlled; 2) better explanations of the consequences of poorly controlled RA; and 3) a good relationship with the health professional. Conclusion Patients’ beliefs about medicines, perceptions about RA, and level of satisfaction with information about DMARDs influenced their adherence to DMARDs. The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound to image the inflamed joint may help to improve patient adherence to DMARDs. PMID:27366054

  11. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  12. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  13. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  14. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  15. Parent Involvement: Influencing Factors and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Delores C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the involvement of Mexican American parents in their children's elementary schools. Interviews with teachers, parents, and administrators and observations of parent activities indicated that parent involvement was influenced by factors like language, parent cliques, parent education, school staff attitudes, cultural factors, and…

  16. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  17. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M.; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M. L.; Hallin, Emil

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  18. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M L; Hallin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  19. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M L; Hallin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed. PMID:26183486

  20. Kidney dosimetry in ¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: influence of image timing, time-activity integration method, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, F; Ferrari, M E; Botta, F; Fioroni, F; Grassi, E; Versari, A; Sarnelli, A; Pacilio, M; Amato, E; Strigari, L; Bodei, L; Paganelli, G; Iori, M; Pedroli, G; Cremonesi, M

    2013-01-01

    Kidney dosimetry in (177)Lu and (90)Y PRRT requires 3 to 6 whole-body/SPECT scans to extrapolate the peptide kinetics, and it is considered time and resource consuming. We investigated the most adequate timing for imaging and time-activity interpolating curve, as well as the performance of a simplified dosimetry, by means of just 1-2 scans. Finally the influence of risk factors and of the peptide (DOTATOC versus DOTATATE) is considered. 28 patients treated at first cycle with (177)Lu DOTATATE and 30 with (177)Lu DOTATOC underwent SPECT scans at 2 and 6 hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after the radiopharmaceutical injection. Dose was calculated with our simplified method, as well as the ones most used in the clinic, that is, trapezoids, monoexponential, and biexponential functions. The same was done skipping the 6 h and the 3 d points. We found that data should be collected until 100 h for (177)Lu therapy and 70 h for (90)Y therapy, otherwise the dose calculation is strongly influenced by the curve interpolating the data and should be carefully chosen. Risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) cause a rather statistically significant 20% increase in dose (t-test, P < 0.10), with DOTATATE affecting an increase of 25% compared to DOTATOC (t-test, P < 0.05).

  1. Factors influencing recall of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M L

    1995-10-01

    Selective literatures providing perspective on recall of childhood sexual abuse memories are reviewed. These include known patterns of autobiographical memories in adulthood, metacognitive mechanisms, interpersonal influences, and automatic cognitive processing which can influence judgments and reports of memory recall in children and adults. Some factors in adult experience such as mood state, presence of emotional disorders, past and current relationships, and participation in psychotherapy which can influence autobiographical memory and recall of childhood events are delineated. Available studies directly exploring recovered memories of childhood abuse are considered in light of these studies. Finally, some applications to clinical work and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  2. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  3. Factors Influencing Learning at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    The Walberg Educational Productivity Model theorizes that learning in its affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects is causally influenced by factors in the areas of individual aptitude (i.e., prior achievement, age or stage of maturation, and motivation), instructional treatment (i.e., quantity of time spent in learning situations and…

  4. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  5. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  6. Factors Influencing School Connectedness: Chinese Adolescents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie A. Y.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.; Shea, Peter M. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness…

  7. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  8. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  9. Factors influencing the inhibition of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Hau, Jean-Christophe; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Pover, Alain De; Erdmann, Dirk; Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase field is a very active research area in the pharmaceutical industry and many activities are ongoing to identify inhibitors of these proteins. The design of new chemical entities with improved pharmacological properties requires a deeper understanding of the factors that modulate inhibitor-kinase interactions. In this report, we studied the effect of two of these factors--the magnesium ion cofactor and the protein substrate--on inhibitors of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our results show that the concentration of magnesium ion influences the potency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitors, suggesting an explanation for the observation that such compounds retain their nanomolar potency in cells despite the presence of millimolar levels of ATP. We also showed that the peptidic substrate affects the potency of these inhibitors in a different manner, suggesting that the influence of this substrate on compound potency should be taken into consideration during drug discovery.

  10. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression. PMID:24575656

  11. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Factors influencing patients' dignity: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Manookian, Arpi; Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-05-01

    Dignity represents the essence of nursing care; hence, nurses are professionally responsible for promoting understanding about the promotion, provision, and preservation of every patient's dignity, while considering contextual differences. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence, promote, or compromise patient dignity. A purposeful sample of 14 participants with hospitalization experience was chosen, and individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Using inductive content analysis, the themes and subthemes related to factors influencing patients' dignity were explored: "persona" ("personal beliefs" and "personal characteristics"), "communication behaviors" ("verbal interaction," "body language," "compassionate behavior," and "devoting enough time"), and "staff conduct" ("professional commitment," "adequate human resources," and "staff's proficiency and competency"). The findings revealed that it is essential to expand nurses' insights and knowledge about preserving patients' dignity and the factors that influence these. Recognizing and focusing on these factors will help nurses to establish practical measures for preserving and promoting patients' dignity and providing more dignified care at the bedside.

  13. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  14. Factors Controlling Wellbore Imaging of Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fahmi, M. M.; Cartwright, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many scientific and engineering methods in petroleum industry for collecting data about small fractures in subsurface. The acquired data is predominantly indirect, and constrained by the bounds of technology and the subtle nature of small fractures. Among the various data types, cores and wellbore images reliably provide the data to observe small fractures, and help characterize important fracture properties such as density, geometry and aperture. There is, however, a major uncertainty about how thorough is the illustration of the small fractures in the wellbore electrical images which are widely used instead of cutting core for practical and economical grounds. We present novel results to help with understanding the potential and limits of wellbore electrical imagers to detect small fractures. We compare and discuss observations from high-quality microresistivity images and their equivalent core samples that are obtained from sub-horizontal wells drilled into carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in eastern Arabia. We observed that the wellbore images give limited and inconsistent fracture sampling. The reduction in fracture sampling is related to the fracture nature that defies the imager-resolution capacity. We propose that the imaging capacity is constrained by: 1) degree of fracture roughness, 2) contrast between resistivity and conductivity of the geologic features, 3) effective stress action that is increasing and decreasing fracture aperture, and 4) fracture intake of drilling fluids under a variable fluid pressure balancing between wellbore and reservoir. The wellbore imaging outcomes influence fracture studies, particularly the areas of measuring static and dynamic properties of reservoir fractures and estimating trends and magnitudes of in situ stress.

  15. Factors influencing public participation in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Othman, Areej; Shahrouri, Manal; Mustafa, Ebtihal

    2014-04-01

    A diversity of public participation in biobanking is a highlight for the success of biobanks. It was previously reported that only two-thirds of Jordanians expressed interest in biobanking. To promote public involvement in a biobank, it is imperative to determine the aspects that influence the decision-making to participate. On the basis of a national survey involving 3196 respondents, the influence of 13 biobanking factors was assessed, including returning research results, privacy, freedom of choice, uncertainties about research, monetary and health considerations, and personal belief. Perception toward each factor was also correlated with willingness to participate in a biobank. A considerable number of respondents indicated returning research results as influential in their decision to become biobank donors. Interestingly, whereas the positive perception of availability of general results (39%) correlated with willingness to donate for biobanking, the negative view of unavailability of individualized results (47%) did not correlate with unwillingness. Religious permission of sample donation for research had the strongest positive influence (61%) and the highest correlation to participate among positively perceived factors. Unspecified research was highly indicated as a negative factor (45%), but did not correlate with unwillingness to become a biobank donor, whereas allowed withdrawal had a positive effect (31%) and correlation to contribute to biobanking. The negative perception of accessing medical information (9.5%) and re-contact (8.5%) had the strongest correlation with unwillingness to donate to a biobank. These results may provide an insight into how to formulate strategies to promote public participation in biomedical research and biobanking. PMID:23921537

  16. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  17. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety.

  18. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  19. Factors influencing participation in breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Lynne; Glackin, Marie; Hughes, Caroline; Rogers, Katherine Mary Ann

    Despite the efficacy of mammography and the widespread promotion of screening programmes, a significant number of eligible women still do not attend for regular breast screening. An integrative review methodology was considered the most appropriate means to critically analyse the available literature pertaining to factors which influence participation in breast cancer screening. From the extensive literature search, 12 selected core research papers met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the literature review. Four themes emerged from the literature which impact on participation in mammography screening: psychological and practical issues, ethnicity issues, influence of socioeconomic status and issues related to screening programmes. The recent Independent Review Panel on Breast Cancer Screening endorsed the importance of access to information which clearly communicates the harms and benefits of breast screening to enable women to make informed decisions about their health. The recommendations from the panel and others have been included in this review. PMID:24067312

  20. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  1. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains. PMID:16521499

  2. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  3. The Influence of Imaging Capacity on Visual Art Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose; Campos, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is a component of fundamental cognitive processes employed in a variety of cognitive activities. In particular, imaging is of special relevance to artistic skills. As part of our research on the relationships between mental images and the plastic arts, the influence of the imaging capacity in the visual art skills was investigated.…

  4. Factors that influence engagement in collaborative practice

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.; Bainbridge, Lesley; Bickford, Julia; Baptiste, Susan; Brajtman, Susan; Dryden, Trish; Hall, Pippa; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate hypotheses regarding factors that might influence engagement in collaborative practice. DESIGN Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING Participants interviewed each other in dyads. The pairing was based upon geographical location and proximity to each other. PARTICIPANTS Eight professionals from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and massage therapy. METHOD Semistructured interviews, lasting 30 to 45 minutes each, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were read by all research team members using independent content analysis for common words, phrases, statements, or units of text for key themes. At a subsequent face-to-face meeting, the team used an iterative process of comparing and contrasting key themes until consensus was reached. The transcripts were then analyzed further for subthemes using NVivo software. MAIN FINDINGS Initial findings suggest that some common characteristics grounded in family history, school experiences, social interactions, and professional training might influence collaborative practice choices. The narrative form of the interview broke down interpersonal and interprofessional barriers, creating a new level of trust and respect that could improve professional collaboration. CONCLUSION This study suggests that life experiences from childhood into later adulthood can and do influence professional choices. PMID:17872847

  5. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices.

  6. Factors influencing decisions on seclusion and restraint.

    PubMed

    Larue, C; Dumais, A; Ahern, E; Bernheim, E; Mailhot, M-P

    2009-06-01

    Seclusion with or without restraint is a measure for managing aggressive or agitated clients and promoting site security, particularly in an emergency psychiatric setting. The decision to control a potentially dangerous person's behaviour by removal or seclusion seems ethically justifiable in such a setting. However, although the decisions on these restrictive measures are based on rational needs, they are also influenced by the healthcare team's perceptions of the client and by the characteristics of the team and the environment. The purpose of this paper is to set out and categorize the factors in play in aggression- and agitation-management situations as perceived by the healthcare teams, particularly the nurses. The first part of the paper deals briefly with the settings in which control measures are applied in a province in eastern Canada and the effect of such measures on patients and healthcare teams. The second part identifies the factors involved in the management of agitation and aggression behaviour. The final part discusses the current spin-offs from this knowledge as well as promising paths for further research on the factors involved. The ultimate objective is to reduce recourse to coercive measures and enhance professional practices. PMID:19538600

  7. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  8. Factors Affecting Image Quality in Near-field Ultra-wideband Radar Imaging for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Charlotte

    Near-field ultra-wideband radar imaging has potential as a new breast imaging modality. While a number of reconstruction algorithms have been published with the goal of reducing undesired responses or clutter, an in-depth analysis of the dominant sources of clutter has not been conducted. In this thesis, time domain radar image reconstruction is demonstrated to be equivalent to frequency domain synthetic aperture radar. This reveals several assumptions inherent to the reconstruction algorithm related to radial spreading, point source antennas, and the independent summation of point scatterers. Each of these assumptions is examined in turn to determine which has the greatest impact on the resulting image quality and interpretation. In addition, issues related to heterogeneous and dispersive media are addressed. Variations in imaging parameters are tested by observing their influence on the system point spread function. Results are then confirmed by testing on simple and detailed simulation models, followed by data acquired from human volunteers. Recommended parameters are combined into a new imaging operator that is demonstrated to generate results comparable to a more accurate signal model, but with a 50 fold improvement in computational efficiency. Finally, the most significant factor affecting image quality is determined to be the estimate of tissue properties used to form the image.

  9. Factors that can influence mentorship relationships.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Beverly

    2009-07-01

    Mentorship is an integral part of the qualified nurse role that supports learning and development. The quality of the relationship between mentor and mentee can affect learning, particularly any disparity in their expectations. A fictitious scenario is used in this article to highlight the effect of different perceptions of the mentorship relationship, with a particular focus on the nursing student and qualified nurse. Factors that can have a negative influence on mentoring include poor communication, differing expectations between mentor and mentee, lack of trust and lack of appreciation of everyday life circumstances that affects each person. The use of learning contracts, formulation of ground rules, use of information in student handbooks and discussion of the expectations of the mentor and mentee can help prevent or counteract problems in the relationship. PMID:19623801

  10. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  11. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  12. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Meyrick C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of “being there” in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users’ attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds. PMID:24199058

  13. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  14. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  15. The Influence of University Image on Student Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of image on student satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: In order to accomplish the objectives proposed, a model reflecting the influence of image on student satisfaction and loyalty is applied. The model is tested through use of structural equations and the final…

  16. Factors influencing warfarin response in hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Mahmoud I.; Ali, Mostafa A. Sayed; Hassan, Ayman K.M.; Elfaham, Tahani H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simultaneous factors that potentially keep patients far from achieving target INR range at discharge in hospitalized patients. Prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted at the Cardiology Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Assiut University Hospitals. One-hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study from July 2013 to January 2014. Outcome measures were discharge INRs, bleeding and thromboembolic episodes. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to determine independent risk factors that can keep patients outside target INR range. Patients who were newly initiated warfarin on hospital admission were given low initiation dose (2.8 mg ± 0.9). They were more likely to have INR values below 1.5 during hospital stay, 13 (27.7%) patients compared with 9 (12.3%) previously treated patients, respectively (p = .034). We found that the best predictors of achieving below target INR range relative to within target INR range were; shorter hospital stay periods (OR, 0.82 for every day increase [95% CI, 0.72–0.94]), being a male patient (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.05–7.69]), concurrent infection (OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.07–0.59]) and new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission (OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 1.28–10.9]). Gender, new initiation of warfarin therapy on hospital admission, shorter hospital stay periods and concurrent infection can have a significant effect on discharge INRs. Initiation of warfarin without giving loading doses increases the risk of having INRs below 1.5 during hospital stay and increases the likelihood of a patient to be discharged with INR below target range. Following warfarin dosing nomograms and careful monitoring of the effect of various factors on warfarin response should be greatly considered. PMID:26702259

  17. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Reynald C.; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm2), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

  18. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  19. Factors Driving Biofuel Crops' Influence on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.

    2010-12-01

    grass parameters in CLM in order to identify a smaller set of parameters that exerts the most control on climatically relevant terms such as energy and carbon fluxes. By revealing those parameters that are most and least influential in terms of climate forcing, systematic sensitivity analysis helps to prioritize the search for observational data, constrains the process of tuning parameters to limited data, and leads the way to characterizing the uncertainty in biofuel crops’ influence on climate. Furthermore, due to similarities across managed ecosystems, these results offer general insight into those plant physiological properties and management factors that must be well-characterized in order to model changes in energy and carbon fluxes resulting from human land use.

  20. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-02-16

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.

  1. Factors influencing triage decisions in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Margaret; Herrman, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Endacott, Ruth

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the factors influencing the timing of an assessment after contact with a triage program in a community-based area mental health service in Australia. Triage decisions apparently were influenced by several groups of factors: patient characteristics; the source and mode of the contact with triage; and to a large extent by mental health service factors including the training, supervision and support of triage workers and the perceived availability of an assessment. While demand factors such as patient characteristics influenced the triage decision, supply factors also played an important role.

  2. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  3. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    D'hooghe, M B; Nagels, G; Bissay, V; De Keyser, J

    2010-07-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetanus appear to be safe. Surgery, general and epidural anaesthesia, and physical trauma are not associated with an increased risk of relapses. Factors that have been associated with a reduced relapse rate are pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, sunlight exposure and higher vitamin D levels. A number of medications, including hormonal fertility treatment, seem to be able to trigger relapses. Factors that may worsen progression of disability include stressful life events, radiotherapy to the head, low levels of physical activity and low vitamin D levels. Strong evidence suggests that smoking promotes disease progression, both clinically and on brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no evidence for an increased progression of disability following childbirth in women with multiple sclerosis. Moderate alcohol intake and exercise might have a neuroprotective effect, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:20483884

  4. Influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Cai, Yuanli

    2011-06-20

    Aero-optic imaging deviation is a kind of aero-optic effect. It characterizes the image position displacement on an imaging plane. This paper studies the influence of altitude on aero-optic imaging deviation. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver provided in FLUENT was used for flow computations. The Runge-Kutta method based ray tracing was adopted for optics calculations. The orthogonal array was brought in for the experiment arrangement. Four representative suites of imaging deviations and imaging deviation slopes were obtained in the altitude range of 10-60 km. The results show that as altitude increases, the imaging deviation decreases, and the imaging deviation slope approaches zero from a negative value. PMID:21691360

  5. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  6. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  7. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  8. Anatomical Factors Influencing Pneumatization of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Seunghun; Choi, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aim of the present study was to define the relationship between petrous apex pneumatization and the nearby major anatomical landmarks using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images. Methods This retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study analyzed CT images of 84 patients that showed normal findings bilaterally. Pneumatization of the petrous apex was classified using two methods. Eight parameters were as follows: angle between the posterior cranial fossa and internal auditory canal, Morimitsu classification of anterior epitympanic space, distance between the carotid canal and jugular bulb, distance between the cochlear modiolus and carotid canal, distance between the tympanic segment and jugular bulb, high jugular bulb, distance between the vertical segment and jugular bulb, and distance between the lateral semicircular canals and middle cranial fossa. Results There was a significant difference in Morimitsu classification of the anterior epitympanic space between the two classification methods. Poorly pneumatic upper petrous apices were distributed uniformly in three types of Morimitsu classification, but more pneumatic upper petrous apices were found more often in anterior type. Lower petrous apex was well pneumatized regardless of the types of anterior epitympanic space, but the largest amount of pneumatization was found more frequently in the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space. Conclusion This study showed that there was no reliable anatomic marker to estimate petrous apex pneumatization and suggests that the pneumatization of the petrous apex may be an independent process from other part of the temporal bone, and may not be influenced by the nearby major anatomical structures in the temporal bone. In this study, the anterior type of anterior epitympanic space was found to be closely related to more well-pneumatized petrous apices, which implies that the anterior saccule of the saccus medius may be the main factor

  9. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  10. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis. PMID:18389351

  11. Factors influencing host susceptibility to meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, F P; Blackwell, C C; Weir, D M

    1985-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions influencing the development of the protective humoral immune response to Neisseria meningitidis are briefly reviewed. Possible consequences of the observed decreased titres of bactericidal activity specific for meningococcal serogroups A, B and C among patients with gonorrhoea are discussed with reference to: the epidemiology of the two diseases, the protective role of "natural" antibodies to the Neisseria species and the carriage rate of serogroupable strains of N. meningitidis among patients with gonorrhoea and a control population.

  12. Factors influencing alternative splice site utilization in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, X Y; Manley, J L

    1987-01-01

    To study factors that influence the choice of alternative pre-mRNA splicing pathways, we introduced plasmids expressing either wild-type or mutated simian virus 40 (SV40) early regions into tissue culture cells and then measured the quantities of small-t and large-T RNAs produced. One important element controlling splice site selection was found to be the size of the intron removed in the production of small-t mRNA; expansion of this intron (from 66 to 77 or more nucleotides) resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of small-t mRNA produced relative to large-T mRNA. This suggests that in the normal course of SV40 early pre-mRNA processing, large-T splicing is at a competitive advantage relative to small-t splicing because of the small size of the latter intron. Several additional features of the pre-mRNA that can influence splice site selection were also identified by analyzing the effects of mutations containing splice site duplications. These include the strengths of competing 5' splice sites and the relative positions of splice sites in the pre-mRNA. Finally, we showed that the ratio of small-t to large-T mRNA was 10 to 15-fold greater in human 293 cells than in HeLa cells or other mammalian cell types. These results suggest the existence of cell-specific trans-acting factors that can dramatically alter the pattern of splice site selection in a pre-mRNA. Images PMID:3029566

  13. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  14. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  15. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  16. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation followed by…

  17. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, R S; Collins, M T

    1992-01-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis does not produce any detectable mycobactin, an iron-binding compound that is synthesized by most Mycobacterium spp. and necessary for the growth of all mycobacteria. This study examined the influence of various culture conditions on mycobactin dependence in M. paratuberculosis. Using a radiometric growth assay, we found the minimal concentration of mycobactin J necessary for growth of M. paratuberculosis to be 0.006 microM, whereas 1.2 microM (1 microgram/ml) was required for optimal growth. In media without mycobactin at iron concentrations less than or equal to 100 microM, growth of M. paratuberculosis occurred at pH 5.0, but not pH 6.8. Iron concentrations greater than 100 microM did not significantly increase growth at pH 5.0, but at pH 6.8 the growth rate increased with increasing amounts of iron reaching a rate equal to control cultures containing mycobactin. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis appeared to lose mycobactin dependence when subcultured; however, this was subsequently shown to be a result of mycobactin carried over from primary medium. Removal of this contaminating cell-wall-associated mycobactin reestablished mycobactin dependence. We conclude that mycobactin dependence must be carefully determined because it is a key test used in identification of M. paratuberculosis and may be easily influenced by media pH, iron concentration, and mycobactin carryover from primary media. PMID:1582168

  18. Influence of hereditary factors in psychogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of a research project, a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of nonidentical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins, n = 100 test persons) was examined between 1963 and 1969 and recently, 20 years later, followed up. The index twins were drawn from among the patients making use of the services of an outpatient clinic; they had been diagnosed as having psychoneurotic, character-neurotic of psychosomatic disorders. The question again looked into was that of nature versus nurture: identical twins displayed significantly higher similarity with regard to both severity of their neuroses and manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did nonidentical twins. The hereditary factor proved to be of greater import for the continuing childhood neuroses than for the subsiding childhood neuroses. Yet a certain hereditary factor effect was observed for the neuroses which first manifest themselves in adulthood. Our findings indicate that the hereditary factor is not more pronounced in childhood than in adulthood; it is equally effective in adults. PMID:7480573

  19. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C.; Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  20. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  1. Factors influencing the algebra ``reversal error''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Elaine; Kanim, Stephen E.

    2005-11-01

    Given a written problem statement about a proportional relationship between two quantities, many students will place the constant of proportionality on the wrong side of the equals sign. Introductory physics is one of the first courses in which students encounter multiple-step problems that require algebraic (rather than numeric) solutions, and this "reversal error" is relatively common in student solutions to these types of problems. We describe an investigation into three possible influences on students who make this reversal error: variable symbol choice, sentence structure, and context familiarity. Our results, from a calculus-based physics course and an intermediate algebra course, show that sentence structure is the most significant of these three possibilities. However, sentence structure alone does not provide a complete explanation for the reversal error.

  2. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  3. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  4. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  5. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  6. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads. PMID:21476837

  7. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  8. Factors influencing whether children walk to school.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  9. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  10. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  11. Medical image fusion based on non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daoming; Zhang, Xianda

    2009-10-01

    Medical image fusion is a process of obtaining a new composite image from two or more source images which are from different modalities. In this paper, we proposed a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm, the only resulted basis image is just the fused image. Since the CT and MRI images have a lot of pixels which are zeros, the NMF algorithm can not be employed directly. To overcome this difficulty, we first add a positive bias to the original data matrix and remove the bias from the resulted fusion image after the NMF procedure. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing wavelet-based methods and Laplacian pyramid-based methods.

  12. The physical and psychological factors governing sound-image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurozumi, K.; Ohgushi, K.

    1984-03-01

    One of the most important psychological impressions produced by a conventional two-loudspeakers reproduction-system is a localization of the sound image in the horizontal plane. The sound image is localized to some degree by varying the level and the time differences of the two acoustic signals. Even if the sound image was localized in the same direction, different impressions - for example, a feeling of the width of the sound image - are sometimes produced. These different impressions are explained by the phrase sound-image quality. The purpose is to find out the psychological and physical factors governing sound-image quality. To begin with, the effect on sound-image quality of varying the cross-correlation coefficient for white noise is investigated. A number of studies were performed in which the relationship between the cross-correlation coefficient and the sound-image quality were investigated.

  13. Self-reported factors influencing exercise adherence in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity-controlled, graded dance exercise and selected components of behavior modification on exercise adherence in overweight middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, aged 35 to 58, participated in a 16 1/2 week dance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 20) that received intensity-controlled, graded exercise and individual and group reinforcement, or to a control group (n = 18) that exercised at a moderate intensity typical of commercial fitness classes and received no special reinforcement. Before exercise training began and at the completion of 16 1/2 weeks, a structured, open-ended interview was conducted. Ninety-four percent of the women in both groups adhered to the program, an exceptionally high adherence rate for this population. Eight participant-identified factors seemed to have influenced exercise adherence: group homogeneity, carpooling and social networks, pleasurable feelings associated with increased energy and fitness, leader with a health-related background, time limitation of exercise program, commitment to an established goal, desire to change body image, and desire to change health status and improve physical health.

  14. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debarun; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria. PMID:22259220

  15. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  16. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  17. Human factors in automatic image retrieval system design and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Image retrieval is a human-centered task: images are created by people and are ultimately accessed and used by people for human-related activities. In designing image retrieval systems and algorithms, or measuring their performance, it is therefore imperative to consider the conditions that surround both the indexing of image content and the retrieval. This includes examining the different levels of interpretation for retrieval, possible search strategies, and image uses. Furthermore, we must consider different levels of similarity and the role of human factors such as culture, memory, and personal context. This paper takes a human-centered perspective in outlining levels of description, types of users, search strategies, image uses, and human factors that affect the construction and evaluation of automatic content-based retrieval systems, such as human memory, context, and subjectivity.

  18. Factors influencing visits to school nurses by pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S P; Telleen, S; Mitchell, D R; Chen, E H

    1992-01-01

    The influence of five factors on the first visit to school nurses by pregnant adolescents and adequacy of prenatal care was analyzed. Only one factor, age of baby's father, was found to be associated with adequacy of prenatal care. PMID:1518672

  19. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  20. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  1. Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education: Validating a Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra M.

    This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…

  2. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  3. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  4. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Methods Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Results Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). Conclusions This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further. PMID:19897506

  5. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  6. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    PubMed

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs. PMID:24878405

  7. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  8. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss of spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.

  9. Multispectral image processing: the nature factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Wendell R.

    1998-09-01

    The images processed by our brain represent our window into the world. For some animals this window is derived from a single eye, for others, including humans, two eyes provide stereo imagery, for others like the black widow spider several eyes are used (8 eyes), and some insects like the common housefly utilize thousands of eyes (ommatidia). Still other animals like the bat and dolphin have eyes for regular vision, but employ acoustic sonar vision for seeing where their regular eyes don't work such as in pitch black caves or turbid water. Of course, other animals have adapted to dark environments by bringing along their own lighting such as the firefly and several creates from the depths of the ocean floor. Animal vision is truly varied and has developed over millennia in many remarkable ways. We have learned a lot about vision processes by studying these animal systems and can still learn even more.

  10. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research. PMID:26775077

  11. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  12. Assessment of the influence of a carbon fiber tabletop on portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiarz, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Paweł; Swat, Kaja; Andrasiak, Michał

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate beam attenuation caused by a carbon-fiber tabletop and its influence on portal image quality. The dose was measured by a Farmer type jonization chamber. The measurements of the portal image quality were performed with an EPID QC phantom for 6 MV beam for a specified field size (covering all test elements of the phantom completely -26×26 cm2 in the isocenter, SSD 96.2 cm) and various portal—isocenter distances. The beam attenuation factor was measured for Polkam 16 treatment table with a carbon fiber tabletop. Carbon fiber tabletop induces beam attenuation in vertical direction by a factor of 3.39%. The lowest maximum deviation to the regression line for linearity was measured for 40 cm portal—phantom distance. The lowest signal to noise ratio was observed for the portal—phantom distance of 30 cm. This factor dropped by 9% for images with a tabletop. The difference in high contrast: horizontal is 3.64; 0.32; 3.25 for 50 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm respectively and vertical—3.64%; 0.32%; 4.01% for 50 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm respectively. The visibility of the holes with the smallest diameters (1 mm) is the same for 50 and 40 cm while it is better for 30 cm, as can be expected due to the lower SNR. Carbon-fiber inserts, tabletops play a vital role in modern radiotherapy. One of the most important advantages of carbon-fiber tabletops is the lack of the gantry direction limitations. In this paper the attenuation of a carbon-fiber tabletop and its influence on a portal image quality were investigated. Dose attenuation effects, comparable to other measurements, were found. That effect influences dose distribution delivered to the target volume and can increase the time of irradiation needed to take a portal image. It has been found that the best conditions for taking portal image occur when the distance from the phantom (patient) to the portal is 40 cm and the portal is parallel to the tabletop. In such conditions one observes the

  13. Optimal filling factor of nanorod lenses for subwavelength imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kosulnikov, Sergey Yu.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the effect of the filling factor on the imaging performance of metallic nanorod lenses. We observe that thicker nanorods allow lower reflection in the canalization regime and we find optimal values of the filling factor to achieve a transfer function with the characteristics of a perfect lens in a wide range of spatial frequencies.

  14. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  15. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  16. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  17. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Efficient Hyperspectral Image Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacchetta, Alexander S.; Fienup, James R.; Leisawitz, David T.; Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging for remote sensing has prompted development of hyperspectral image projectors that can be used to characterize hyperspectral imaging cameras and techniques in the lab. One such emerging astronomical hyperspectral imaging technique is wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. NASA's current, state-of-the-art, Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) uses a Calibrated Hyperspectral Image Projector (CHIP) to generate test scenes and provide a more complete understanding of wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. Given enough time, the CHIP is capable of projecting scenes with astronomically realistic spatial and spectral complexity. However, this would require a very lengthy data collection process. For accurate but time-efficient projection of complicated hyperspectral images with the CHIP, the field must be decomposed both spectrally and spatially in a way that provides a favorable trade-off between accurately projecting the hyperspectral image and the time required for data collection. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to decompose hyperspectral astronomical datacubes into eigenspectra and eigenimages that allow time-efficient projection with the CHIP. Included is a brief analysis of NMF parameters that affect accuracy, including the number of eigenspectra and eigenimages used to approximate the hyperspectral image to be projected. For the chosen field, the normalized mean squared synthesis error is under 0.01 with just 8 eigenspectra. NMF of hyperspectral astronomical fields better utilizes the CHIP's capabilities, providing time-efficient and accurate representations of astronomical scenes to be imaged with the WIIT.

  18. Body Image Ideal among Males and Females: Sociocultural Influences and Focus on Different Body Parts.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Jacqueline N; McCabe, Marita P

    2002-11-01

    Past research has obtained mixed findings in relation to gender differences and other factors that shape ideal body image. The current study was designed to investigate these differences further, using a digital body image program to assess body image individually. As expected, females desired a body that was smaller than their current size, whereas males were split between wanting a smaller and larger body. The perceived messages from peers and parents were consistent with the individual's ideal image. Gender differences were also found with ratings of attractiveness and effectiveness. Females rated messages from peers and parents as more important than did males. For both males and females, opposite sex peers were the most important influences, and parents the least important. PMID:22113409

  19. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  20. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  1. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  2. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  3. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  4. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  5. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  6. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  7. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  8. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  9. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  10. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  11. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  12. Factors Influencing Federal Employee Worker Satisfaction: A Baseline Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Wallace V.; And Others

    Utilizing data from the Federal Employee Attitude Survey, 1979, a survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of 20,000 employees to identify and analyze the factors influencing federal employee worker satisfaction. Questions on the survey ranged from demographics to personal evaluations of the work environment as recorded on a…

  13. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  14. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  15. Factors that Influence Elementary Teachers Use of Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the ways elementary teachers use computer technology for instructional purposes and the factors that influence their use of computers. The population consisted of recent graduates from the elementary teacher preparation program at a mid-Atlantic university. Data were gathered using a survey…

  16. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  17. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  18. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  19. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  20. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  1. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  2. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  3. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  4. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  5. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  6. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  7. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  8. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  9. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  10. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  11. Factors Influencing the Dielectric Properties of Agricultural and Food Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radio-frequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the ...

  12. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  13. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  14. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  15. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  16. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  17. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  18. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  19. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  20. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  1. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    PubMed

    Ebben, Remco H A; Vloet, Lilian C M; de Groot, Joke Mintjes; van Achterberg, Theo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses' self-reported adherence to the EDNP was 38%, 55% of the nurses and 44% of the physicians were aware of the protocol. Interference with professional autonomy, insufficient organizational support and the EDNP's applicability were indicated as barriers for adherence. The main influencing factor seems awareness. Other factors related to the individual, the organization and to protocol characteristics. Solely disseminating the EDNP is not enough to get the protocol used in clinical practice. PMID:21552130

  2. Cross-species cloning: influence of cytoplasmic factors on development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2014-06-01

    It is widely accepted that the crosstalk between naive nucleus and maternal factors deposited in the egg cytoplasm before zygotic genome activation is crucial for early development. This crosstalk may also exert some influence on later development. It is interesting to clarify the relative roles of the zygotic genome and the cytoplasmic factors in development. Cross-species nuclear transfer (NT) between two distantly related species provides a unique system to study the relative role and crosstalk between egg cytoplasm and zygotic nucleus in development. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress of cross-species NT, with emphasis on the cross-species NT in fish and the influence of cytoplasmic factors on development. Finally, we conclude that the developmental process and its evolution should be interpreted in a systemic way, rather than in a way that solely focuses on the role of the nuclear genome.

  3. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. PMID:26409145

  4. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  5. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  8. Brain abscess and subdural empyema. Factors influencing mortality and results of various surgical techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Van Alphen, H A; Dreissen, J J

    1976-01-01

    The authors review the results of various surgical techniques in relation to mortality and morbidity in 100 consecutive cases of brain abscess and subdural empyema. The mortality rate is the same with total excision and fractional drainage of brain abscesses, although in acute and subacute cases slight differences between both techniques are seen. In terms of morbidity, fractional drainage appears to be more favourable than total excision. The authors believe that factors other than surgical procedure influence mortality in cases of brain abscess and subdural empyema. These factors are defined in detail. Images PMID:932767

  9. An Empirical Comparison of Factor, Image, Component, and Scale Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Joseph L.; Velicer, Wayne F.

    1992-01-01

    Principal component, image component, three types of factor score estimates, and one scale score method were compared over different levels of variables, saturations, sample sizes, variable to component ratios, and pattern rotations. There were virtually no overall differences among methods, with the average correlation between matched scores…

  10. Judging the difference between attractiveness and health: does exposure to model images influence the judgments made by men and women?

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Perera, A Treshi-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women's own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people's preferred weight in other women's bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men's and women's judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women's bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women's but not men's preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women's perceptions of attractiveness but not health.

  11. The influence of image content on oculomotor plasticity.

    PubMed

    Meermeier, Annegret; Gremmler, Svenja; Lappe, Markus

    2016-06-01

    When we observe a scene, we shift our gaze to different points of interest via saccadic eye movements. Saccades provide high resolution views of objects and are essential for vision. The successful view of an interesting target might constitute a rewarding experience to the oculomotor system. We measured the influence of image content on learning efficiency in saccade control. We compared meaningful pictures to luminance and spatial frequency-matched random noise images in a saccadic adaptation paradigm. In this paradigm a shift of the target during the saccades results in a gradual increase of saccade amplitude. Stimuli were masked at different times after saccade onset. For immediate masking of the stimuli, as well as for their permanent visibility, saccadic adaptation was similar for both types of targets. However, when stimuli were masked 200 ms after saccade onset, adaptation of saccades directed toward the meaningful target stimuli was significantly greater than that of saccades directed toward noise targets. Thus, the percept of a meaningful image at the saccade landing position facilitates learning of the appropriate parameters for saccadic motor control when time constraints exist. We conclude that oculomotor learning, which is traditionally considered a low-level and highly automatized process, is modulated by the visual content of the image. PMID:27355835

  12. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abellan, P; Woehl, T J; Parent, L R; Browning, N D; Evans, J E; Arslan, I

    2014-05-18

    One of the experimental challenges in the study of nanomaterials in liquids in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) is gaining quantitative information. A successful experiment in the fluid stage will depend upon the ability to plan for sensitive factors such as the electron dose applied, imaging mode, acceleration voltage, beam-induced solution chemistry changes, and the specifics of solution reactivity. In this paper, we make use of a visual approach to show the extent of damage of different instrumental and experimental factors in liquid samples imaged in the (S)TEM. Previous results as well as new insights are presented to create an overview of beam-sample interactions identified for changing imaging and experimental conditions. This work establishes procedures to understand the effect of the electron beam on a solution, provides information to allow for a deliberate choice of the optimal experimental conditions to enable quantification, and identifies the experimental factors that require further analysis for achieving fully quantitative results in the liquid (S)TEM.

  13. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. PMID:27139449

  14. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  15. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kwak, Young-Sook; Hong, Sung-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Won; Yoo, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents. Methods In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26) and related factors. Results Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015) and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001) or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders. PMID:24868156

  16. [Seasonal variation and related influencing factors for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Lu, Z Q; Xie, H; Duan, Q H

    2016-08-10

    Tuberculosis is recognized as a chronic respiratory infectious disease and still one of the important public health issues in the world. Douglas reported an unique seasonal pattern (summer peak) of tuberculosis, when compared with most other respiratory diseases in 1996. Since then, there had been many other researchers notified various patterns of seasonality on TB. This paper reviewed all the studies published in the last five years and analyzed the current findings on seasonal variability and influencing factors, in order to explore the risk factors to provide evidence for prevention and control strategies on tuberculosis. PMID:27539356

  17. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  18. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  19. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  20. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  1. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration. PMID:25980512

  2. Assessment of some experimental and image analysis factors for background-oriented schlieren measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow properties can be achieved by background oriented schlieren. In this paper it is shown that this depends on several factors. Image quality index is used to investigate the influence of the image sensor and the quality of its output. Image evaluation is applied to synthetic images which are treated with a step function, so that they simulate the sharp density jump. The gradual change of the evaluated vector shift revealed the major dependence on the interrogation window, and less so on the background features. BOS applied to shock wave reflection from a wedge in a shock tube gave qualitative results, due to large uncertainties. But, the application to cooling by natural convection gave satisfactory results, comparable to thermocouple data and theory.

  3. Assessment of some experimental and image analysis factors for background-oriented schlieren measurements.

    PubMed

    Gojani, Ardian B; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative measurements of fluid flow properties can be achieved by background-oriented schlieren (BOS). In this paper, it is shown that this depends on several factors. Image-quality index is used to investigate the influence of the image sensor and the quality of its output. Image evaluation is applied to synthetic images, which are treated with a step function, so that they simulate the sharp density jump. The gradual change of the evaluated vector shift revealed the major dependence on the interrogation window, and revealed less of a dependence on background features. BOS applied to shock-wave reflection from a wedge in a shock tube gave qualitative results, due to large uncertainties. But, the application to cooling by natural convection gave satisfactory results, comparable to thermocouple data and theory.

  4. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  5. [Influencing factors in measuring absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-long; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jin-fang

    2013-05-01

    Absorption coefficient of suspended particulate matters in natural water is one of the key parameters in ocean color remote sensing. In order to study the influencing factors that affect the measurement, a series of experiments were designed to measure samples using transmittance method (T method), transmittance-reflectance method (T-R method) and absorptance method (A method). The results shows that absorption coefficient measured by the A method has a much lower error compared to the T method and T-R method due to influencing factors,such as filter-to-filter variations, water content of the filter, and homogeneity of filter load and so on. Another factor influence absorption coefficient is path-length amplification induced by multiple scattering inside the filter. To determine the path-length amplification, the true absorption was measured by AC-s (WetLabs). The linear fitting result shows that the mean path-length amplification is much higher for the A method than that of the T-R method and the T method (4.01 versus 2.20 and 2.32), and the corresponding correlation coefficient are 0.90, 0.87 and 0.80. For the A method and the T-R method, higher correlation coefficients are calculated when using polynomial fitting, and the value are 0.95 and 0.94. Analysis of the mean relative error caused by different influencing factors indicates that path-length amplification is the largest error source in measuring the absorption coefficient.

  6. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  7. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  8. Influence of Blackness on Visual Impression of Color Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Tetsuya; Koike, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Sakurako; Ishikawa, Tomoharu; Ozaki, Koichi; Ayama, Miyoshi

    Two experiments, using color images of Japanese lacquer objects, investigated the relation between the strength of blackness and the visual and artistic impression of digital color images presented on a display. The first experiment determined the mean RGB values of black surface areas in the test stimuli where observers began to perceive the areas as “black”, and the mean RGB values where observers perceived the areas “really black”. Results indicate that to perceive a “really black” surface, RGB values should be lower than those of the original image in some pictures. The second experiment investigated, how, and to what degree the RGB values of black areas affect the visual impression of an artistic picture. Three factors, “high-quality axis”, “mysterious axis”, and “feeling of material axis”, were extracted by factor analysis. Results indicate that the Art students seem to be more sensitive in the evaluations along the “high-quality axis” and “mysterious axis” than the Engineering students are, while the opposite tendency is observed in the evaluation along the “feeling of material axis”.

  9. Possible confounding factors on cerebral diffusion tensor imaging measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nenonen, Miina; Hakulinen, Ullamari; Brander, Antti; Ohman, Juha; Dastidar, Prasun

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is prone to numerous systemic confounding factors that should be acknowledged to avoid false conclusions. Purpose To investigate the possible effects of age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and education on cerebral DTI parameters in a generally healthy homogenous sample with no neurological or psychiatric diseases. Material and Methods Forty (n = 40) subjects (mean age, 40.3 years; SD, 12.3) underwent brain DTI with 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At enrolment, all the subjects were interviewed with respect to general health, education, history of smoking, and alcohol consumption. Studied DTI parameters included: (i) fractional anisotropy (FA); and (ii) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Region-of-interest (ROI)-based measurements were estimated at 13 anatomical locations bilaterally on the axial images, except for the corpus callosum in which the ROIs were placed on the sagittal images. Circular ROI measurements were mainly used. Freehand ROI method was used with the forceps minor, uncinate fasciculus, and thalamus. Intra-observer variability and repeatability were assessed. Results The most consistent finding was that aging decreased FA values in the frontal brain regions. Regarding the other confounding factors, the results were discontinuous and no concrete conclusions could be drawn from these findings. In general, intra-observer repeatability of the DTI measurement was considered relatively good. Conclusion Age should be noted as considerable confounding factors in ROI-based DTI analysis. More research on the effects of gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, and education is needed. PMID:25793107

  10. Factors influencing the accuracy of biomechanical breast models.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Christine; Schnabel, Julia A; Hill, Derek L G; Hawkes, David J; Leach, Martin O; Hose, D Rodney

    2006-06-01

    Recently it has been suggested that finite element methods could be used to predict breast deformations in a number of applications, including comparison of multimodality images, validation of image registration and image guided interventions. Unfortunately knowledge of the mechanical properties of breast tissues is limited. This study evaluated the accuracy with which biomechanical breast models based on finite element methods can predict the displacements of tissue within the breast in the practical clinical situation where the boundaries of the organ might be known reasonably accurately but there is some uncertainty on the mechanical properties of the tissue. For two datasets, we investigate the influence of tissue elasticity values, Poisson's ratios, boundary conditions, finite element solvers and mesh resolutions. Magnetic resonance images were acquired before and after compressing each volunteer's breast by about 20%. Surface displacement boundary conditions were derived from a three-dimensional nonrigid image registration. Six linear and three nonlinear elastic material models with and without skin were tested. These were compared to hyperelastic models. The accuracy of the models was evaluated by assessing the ability of the model to predict the location of 12 corresponding anatomical landmarks. The accuracy was most sensitive to the Poisson's ratio and the boundary condition. Best results were achieved for accurate boundary conditions, appropriate Poisson's ratios and models where fibroglandular tissue was at most four times stiffer than fatty tissue. These configurations reduced the mean (maximum) distance of the landmarks from 6.6 mm (12.4 mm) to 2.1 mm (3.4 mm) averaged over all experiments.

  11. The influence of image reconstruction algorithms on linear thorax EIT image analysis of ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Frerichs, Inéz; Pulletz, Sven; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Analysis methods of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on different reconstruction algorithms were examined. EIT measurements were performed on eight mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A maneuver with step increase of airway pressure was performed. EIT raw data were reconstructed offline with (1) filtered back-projection (BP); (2) the Dräger algorithm based on linearized Newton-Raphson (DR); (3) the GREIT (Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT) reconstruction algorithm with a circular forward model (GR(C)) and (4) GREIT with individual thorax geometry (GR(T)). Individual thorax contours were automatically determined from the routine computed tomography images. Five indices were calculated on the resulting EIT images respectively: (a) the ratio between tidal and deep inflation impedance changes; (b) tidal impedance changes in the right and left lungs; (c) center of gravity; (d) the global inhomogeneity index and (e) ventilation delay at mid-dorsal regions. No significant differences were found in all examined indices among the four reconstruction algorithms (p > 0.2, Kruskal-Wallis test). The examined algorithms used for EIT image reconstruction do not influence the selected indices derived from the EIT image analysis. Indices that validated for images with one reconstruction algorithm are also valid for other reconstruction algorithms.

  12. Genetic Factors Influence Serological Measures of Common Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Leach, Charles T.; Kraig, Ellen; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Yolken, Robert; Göring, Harald H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Antibodies against infectious pathogens provide information on past or present exposure to infectious agents. While host genetic factors are known to affect the immune response, the influence of genetic factors on antibody levels to common infectious agents is largely unknown. Here we test whether antibody levels for 13 common infections are significantly heritable. Methods IgG antibodies to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, adenovirus 36 (Ad36), hepatitis A virus, influenza A and B, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and −2, human herpesvirus-6, and varicella zoster virus were determined for 1,227 Mexican Americans. Both quantitative and dichotomous (seropositive/seronegative) traits were analyzed. Influences of genetic and shared environmental factors were estimated using variance components pedigree analysis, and sharing of underlying genetic factors among traits was investigated using bivariate analyses. Results Serological phenotypes were significantly heritable for most pathogens (h2 = 0.17–0.39), except for Ad36 and HSV-2. Shared environment was significant for several pathogens (c2 = 0.10–0.32). The underlying genetic etiology appears to be largely different for most pathogens. Conclusions Our results demonstrate, for the first time for many of these pathogens, that individual genetic differences of the human host contribute substantially to antibody levels to many common infectious agents, providing impetus for the identification of underlying genetic variants, which may be of clinical importance. PMID:21996708

  13. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'.

  14. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  15. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude. PMID:22164706

  16. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Chinedum Peace; Morse, Gene D.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity. PMID:27777797

  17. Adolescent risk behaviours and protective factors against peer influence.

    PubMed

    Cattelino, Elena; Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel; Testa, Silvia; Bina, Manuela; Calandri, Emanuela

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between protective factors and involvement in risk behaviour of Italian adolescents with friends involved in risk. Protective factors were drawn from models of peers and from individual skills (perceived regulatory self-efficacy, intolerant attitudes about deviance) and orientation (to health, school, religion). The data are from two waves, 1 year apart, of a questionnaire survey of adolescents in northwestern Italy. Participants were 908 adolescents (42% boys) ages 14-16 years. Results of a hierarchical regression revealed that religiosity is a protective factor and that friends' models for conventional behaviours and positive attitude about health can mitigate the influence of deviant friends on adolescent risk behaviour 1 year later, even after controlling for prior levels of risk behaviour. Possible implications of this study suggest the importance of implementing preventive interventions by involving the peer group, especially at about 16 years, and working with heterogeneous (deviant and nondeviant) groups. PMID:25448830

  18. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  19. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college. PMID:686027

  20. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  1. Factors influencing scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Vanessa; Bishop, Somer; Gotham, Katherine; Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a parent-completed screening questionnaire often used to measure ASD severity. Although child characteristics are known to influence scores from other ASD-symptom measures, as well as parent-questionnaires more broadly, there has been limited consideration of how non-ASD-specific factors may affect interpretation of SRS scores. Previous studies have explored effects of behavior problems on SRS specificity, but have not addressed influences on the use of the SRS as a quantitative measure of ASD-symptoms. Method Raw scores (SRS-Raw) from parent-completed SRS were analyzed for 2,368 probands with ASD and 1,913 unaffected siblings. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between SRS scores and demographic, language, cognitive, and behavior measures. Results For probands, higher SRS-Raw were associated with greater non-ASD behavior problems, higher age, and more impaired language and cognitive skills, as well as scores from other parent report measures of social development and ASD-symptoms. For unaffected siblings, having more behavior problems predicted higher SRS-Raw; male gender, younger age and poorer adaptive social and expressive communication skills also showed small, but significant effects. Conclusions When using the SRS as a quantitative phenotype measure, the influence of behavior problems, age, and expressive language or cognitive level on scores must be considered. If effects of non-ASD-specific factors are not addressed, SRS scores are more appropriately interpreted as indicating general levels of impairment, than as severity of ASD-specific symptoms or social impairment. Further research is needed to consider how these factors influence the SRS’ sensitivity and specificity in large, clinical samples including individuals with disorders other than ASD. PMID:22823182

  2. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  3. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  4. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  5. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  6. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E.; Main, Luana C.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key points Effective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment. A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff. A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level. PMID:25729301

  7. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  8. Influence of slice overlap on positron emission tomography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Clare; Gillen, Gerry; Dempsey, Mary Frances; Findlay, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    PET scans use overlapping acquisition beds to correct for reduced sensitivity at bed edges. The optimum overlap size for the General Electric (GE) Discovery 690 has not been established. This study assesses how image quality is affected by slice overlap. Efficacy of 23% overlaps (recommended by GE) and 49% overlaps (maximum possible overlap) were specifically assessed. European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for calculating minimum injected activities based on overlap size were also reviewed. A uniform flood phantom was used to assess noise (coefficient of variation, (COV)) and voxel accuracy (activity concentrations, Bq ml-1). A NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) body phantom with hot/cold spheres in a background activity was used to assess contrast recovery coefficients (CRCs) and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Different overlap sizes and sphere-to-background ratios were assessed. COVs for 49% and 23% overlaps were 9% and 13% respectively. This increased noise was difficult to visualise on the 23% overlap images. Mean voxel activity concentrations were not affected by overlap size. No clinically significant differences in CRCs were observed. However, visibility and SNR of small, low contrast spheres (⩽13 mm diameter, 2:1 sphere to background ratio) may be affected by overlap size in low count studies if they are located in the overlap area. There was minimal detectable influence on image quality in terms of noise, mean activity concentrations or mean CRCs when comparing 23% overlap with 49% overlap. Detectability of small, low contrast lesions may be affected in low count studies—however, this is a worst-case scenario. The marginal benefits of increasing overlap from 23% to 49% are likely to be offset by increased patient scan times. A 23% overlap is therefore appropriate for clinical use. An amendment to EANM guidelines for calculating injected activities is also proposed which better reflects the effect overlap size has

  9. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  10. [Factors influencing psychotherapeutic treatment outcome of various syndromes].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Sebastian; Zepf, Siegfried

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated specific and unspecific factors influencing the psychotherapeutic treatment of various syndromes using a questionnaire which systematically replicated the Consumer Reports Study performed in the USA in 1994. The authors were particularly concerned with the degree to which certain psychotherapeutic methods - psychoanalysis, depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy - produced differing results following treatment of syndromes. Using cluster-analysis, two groups of syndromes could be distinguished: Patients with depressive symptoms, stress-related disorders and/or relationship problems (depression-group) and patients with anxiety disorders and/or eating-related disorders (anxiety-group). With the help of cart-analysis (Classification and Regression Trees) it was possible to identify factors influencing the improvement of symptoms. The method of treatment had not a specific effect on the improvement of symptoms. In both groups the most important predictor was the length of treatment. Furthermore in the depression group the sex of the patients and a possible restriction of the treatment by the health insurance companies influenced the treatment results and in the anxiety group the frequency of treatment and the age of the patients. PMID:15551189

  11. Ultrasound harmonic enhanced imaging using eigenspace-based coherence factor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis. Few efforts have been made to pursue the THI with high resolution and good small target visibility at the same time. In this paper, we proposed a new eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF) beamformer to solve this problem. A new kind of coherence factor (CF), named as ESBCF, is firstly proposed to detect the point targets. The detected region-of-interest (ROI) is then enhanced adaptively by using a newly developed beamforming method. The ESBCF combines the information from signal eigenspace and coherence factor by expanding the CF to the covariance matrix of signal. Analogous to the image processing but in the radio frequency (RF) data domain, the proposed method fully utilizes the information from the fundamental and harmonic components. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and phantom experiments. The improvement of the point contrast ratio (PCR) is 7.6dB in the simulated data, and 6.0dB in the phantom experiment. Thanks to the improved small point detection ability of the ESBCF, the proposed beamforming algorithm can enhance the PCR considerably and maintain the high resolution of the THI at the same time. PMID:27513207

  12. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  13. Influencing factors of transient elastography in detecting liver stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Rong; Yin, Hong; Yang, Wenjuan; Li, Jianzhi; Zhang, Meifang; Zhao, Min; Shao, Jiang; Wang, Aiguang

    2016-01-01

    Liver stiffness, which correlates well with liver fibrosis stage, can be measured noninvasively by transient elastography, also known as Fibroscan. The present study aimed to determine the independent factors influencing Fibroscan detection by multiple regression analysis. A total of 181 patients who required liver biopsy were enrolled. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was detected by Fibroscan on the day of liver biopsy, while clinical information and routine biochemical examination results were also collected. Correlation was analyzed by Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the independent influencing factors. The results demonstrated that platelet (PLT) levels, serum albumin (ALB), prothrombin activity (PTA) and body mass index (BMI) were independent predictors of liver stiffness. The contribution of these four predictors to the regression equation was in the following descending order: PLT (negative correlation) > ALB (negative correlation) > PTA (negative correlation) > BMI (positive correlation). In conclusion, the parameters of PLT, ALB, PTA and BMI are independent predicting factors affecting Fibroscan detection. Therefore, the diagnosis and evaluation of liver fibrosis should comprehensively consider the results of Fibroscan, and clinical and laboratory examinations.

  14. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  15. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  16. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  17. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Rebecca L; Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians' interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients' conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to define

  18. Training community health workers: factors that influence mammography use.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Garzon, Laurel; Lombard, John; Karlowicz, Karen

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence mammography use among volunteer community health workers (CHWs). Data trends indicate lower mammography rates among minority and low-income women. Although CHW interventions have been shown to promote mammography use among this population, training strategies and the use of a comprehensive needs assessment are lacking. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected via a mailed survey. The dependent variable was mammography use within the past 2 years. The independent variables were categorized according to the factors in the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Predisposing factors included susceptibility, barriers, benefits, health motivation, self-efficacy, education, and age. Enabling factors included income, health insurance, and regular source of care. Reinforcing factors included physician recommendation to get a mammogram, social norms, and family history of breast cancer. Self-reported data from a mailed survey were obtained from a convenience sample of urban CHWS (N = 109) ages 40-73 with a mean age of 55 (SD = 9.43). The sample included 90% African American and 8% White women. Logistic regression results showed barriers to be predictive of mammography use among CHWs controlling for age, self-efficacy, health motivation, and social norms. The findings suggest CHW training focus on how to identify and address barriers to increase the likelihood of mammography use among CHWs. Future research is needed to identify cultural differences in barriers for minority CHWs.

  19. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  20. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  1. Autofluorescence imaging of macular pigment: influence and correction of ocular media opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Obana, Akira; Gohto, Yuko; Seto, Takahiko; Gellermann, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The healthy adult human retina contains in its macular region a high concentration of blue-light absorbing carotenoid compounds, known as macular pigment (MP). Consisting of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, the MP is thought to shield the vulnerable tissue layers in the retina from light-induced damage through its function as an optical attenuator and to protect the tissue cells within its immediate vicinity through its function as a potent antioxidant. Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) is emerging as a viable optical method for MP screening of large subject populations, for tracking of MP changes over time, and for monitoring MP uptake in response to dietary supplementation. To investigate the influence of ocular media opacities on AFI-based MP measurements, in particular, the influence of lens cataracts, we conducted a clinical trial with a large subject population (93 subjects) measured before and after cataract surgery. General AFI image contrast, retinal blood vessel contrast, and presurgery lens opacity scores [Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III)] were investigated as potential predictors for image degradation. These clinical results show that lens cataracts can severely degrade the achievable pixel contrasts in the AFI images, which results in nominal MP optical density levels that are artifactually reduced. While LOCS III scores and blood vessel contrast are found to be only a weak predictor for this effect, a strong correlation exists between the reduction factor and the image contrast, which can be quantified via pixel intensity histogram parameters. Choosing the base width of the histogram, the presence or absence of ocular media opacities can be determined and, if needed, the nominal MP levels can be corrected with factors depending on the strength of the opacity.

  2. Factors influencing outcome of pregnancy in heavy-drinking women.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Q H; Chua, A; Milman, D; Solish, G

    1982-01-01

    18 pregnant women identified as heavy drinkers by the criteria of Cahalan et al., gave birth to 6 normal infants, 5 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 7 with partial FAS. Average daily alcohol consumption of mothers of normal infants was less than that of mothers of FAS and partial FAS infants. Lower socioeconomic class, higher parity and increased use of tobacco and other drugs were non-alcohol-related maternal factors which appeared to influence the outcome of pregnancy in heavy-drinking women.

  3. Manual flying skills under the influence of performance shaping factors.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Schubert, Ekkehart; Onnasch, Linda; Hüttig, Gerhard; Bubb, Heiner; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots' manual flying skills. In today's line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results. PMID:22316719

  4. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  5. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  6. Cognitive Factors in the Study of Visual Images: Moving Image Recognition Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    This paper argues that a completed study pertaining to the various factors involved in the proper recognition and aesthetic application of moving images (primarily television pictures) should consider: (1) the individual viewer's general self-awareness, knowledge, expertise, confidence, values, beliefs, and motivation; (2) the viewer's…

  7. Specific factors influencing histotypic aggregation of chick embryo hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, L; Proffitt, R T; Petersen, J R; Pogell, B M

    1977-01-01

    Conditions are described for the reproducible assay of substances affecting the in vitro rate of aggregation of isolated chick embryo hepatocytes. Two low molecular weight (less than 1000) fractions--one that promotes hepatocyte aggregation (HAP) and the other that inhibits this stimulation (HAI)--have been isolated and partially purified from adult chicken liver. One major active component of HAP was identified as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate). The presence of HAP during the entire time of assay was required for largest aggregate formation. HAP had no effect on aggregation of chick embryo neural retina, kidney, or heart cells. Our results and the fact that puromycin completely inhibits aggregate formation suggest that HAP and HAI influence the specific synthesis and interaction of membrane macromolecules involved in the aggregation process. Images PMID:270696

  8. Factors influencing Australian construction industry apprentices' dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices.

  9. Factors influencing Australian construction industry apprentices' dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been a theoretical and empirical gap in workplace-centered health promotion research-particularly as it applies to blue-collar men's diets. To begin addressing the paucity of research, five qualitative focus groups (N = 53) were conducted in Australian training colleges to explore the dietary behaviors of apprentices. Thematic analysis was used by the researcher who concludes that although some apprentices were health conscious and attempted to eat healthy foods, many had diets high in saturated fats and sugar. These types of diets are associated with increased risks for developing chronic disease and are associated with decreased life expectancy. As such it poses a serious challenge for health promoters. Apprentices' dietary practices were also found to be moderated by convenience, availability, and cost of foods in their environment. Their nutritional beliefs, significant others, colleagues in the workplace, and their body image also influence their food choices. PMID:21862566

  10. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  11. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  12. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  13. Influencing factors of hydrogen bonding intensity in beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi; Gu, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding was prone to be formed by many components in beer. Different sorts of flavor substances can affect the Chemical Shift due to their different concentrations in beer. Several key factors including 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 6 ions, 9 acids, 7 polyphenols, and 2 gravity indexes (OG and RG) were determined in this research. They could be used to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bonding intensity and the flavor components in bottled larger beers through the Correlation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that ethanol content was the primary influencing factor, and its correlation coefficient was 0.629 for Correlation Analysis. Some factors had a positive correlation with hydrogen bonding intensity, including the content of original gravity, ethanol, isobutanol, Cl(-), K(+), pyruvic acid, lactic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and Catechin in beer. A mathematic model of hydrogen bonding Chemical Shift and the content of ethanol, pyruvic acid, K(+), and gallic acid was obtained through the Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis , with the adjusted R(2) being 0.779 (P = 0.001). Ethanol content was proved to be the most important factor which could impact on hydrogen bonding association in beer by Principal Component Analysis. And then, a multiple non-linearity model could be obtained as follows: [Formula: see text]. The average error was 1.23 % in the validated experiment. PMID:26396290

  14. Factors influencing inclusion of patients with malignancies in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tournoux, Caroline; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chevret, Sylvie; Levy, Vincent

    2006-01-15

    Participation in clinical trials remains low and is a central issue in oncology. The authors identified, through a systematic review, 75 papers published up to August 2004 that report barriers to recruitment of patients in clinical trials. These barriers range from patient preference and concern about information/consent to clinical problems with protocols. Strategies to overcome barriers on the part of patients and clinicians are needed and should be carefully evaluated. Thirty-three (44%) papers reported factors related to patients as influencing the inclusion of patients, 28 (37%) reported clinician's related factors, and 37 (49%) other factors from either specific groups of patients (30 papers, 40%) and/or other scopes (13 papers, 17%). No differences in prevalence were found between papers dedicated to hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Factors related to clinicians as influential were more frequently reported before 1995 (70%) than thereafter (25%; P = 0.0009). Reporting specific groups of patients as influential was more frequent in North American articles (50%) than in others (14%, P = 0.008). Patients' barriers included mostly patient preference (12 papers), concern about information and/or consent (11 papers), worry about uncertainty (7 papers), and/or relationship with medical team (7 papers). Concerning clinicians, incompatibility of protocol with normal practice (nine papers), problems in complying with the protocol (eight papers), and/or consent procedure (eight papers) were the most reported factors. The remaining factors mostly relied on specific groups of patients (30 papers), notably age of patients (18 papers) and/or minority population (11 papers, all from the USA). Strategies to overcome these barriers are needed and should be carefully evaluated. PMID:16397866

  15. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  16. Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea.

  17. A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

    PubMed

    Kubsch, Sylvia M; Sternard, Marsha J; Hovarter, Rebecca; Matzke, Vicki

    2004-02-01

    Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy. PMID:14744505

  18. Equilibrium and kinetic factors influencing bile sequestrant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Luner, P E; Amidon, G L

    1992-05-01

    In vitro bile salt binding equilibria and kinetic studies were performed with cholestyramine to determine how these factors influence bile sequestrant efficacy in vivo. Chloride ion at physiologic concentrations caused more than a twofold reduction in glycocholate (GCH) binding, compared to binding in the absence of salt, over a range of GCH concentrations and was also observed to displace bound GCH. In addition, chloride ion displaced from cholestyramine as a result of bile salt binding was measured using a chloride selective electrode, and the results show that bile salt binding is due to ion exchange. Comparison of the results of the equilibrium binding experiments to human data shows that the effect of anion binding competition alone cannot account for the lack of efficacy of cholestyramine. Consideration of other effects, such as additional binding competition or poor availability for binding, based on data from the literature, shows that adequate bile salt binding potential exists and that these interferences are not major factors influencing resin efficacy. In kinetic studies, both binding uptake of GCH and displacement of GCH from cholestyramine by chloride ion were relatively rapid, indicating that cholestyramine should equilibrate rapidly with bile salts in the GI tract. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the low efficacy of cholestyramine is a result mainly of its relatively poor ability to prevent bile salt reabsorption in the ileum.

  19. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    PubMed Central

    Fecho, Karamarie; Jackson, Freeman; Smith, Frances; Overdyk, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival. Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival. Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05). Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events. PMID:20057895

  20. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  1. A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

    PubMed

    Kubsch, Sylvia M; Sternard, Marsha J; Hovarter, Rebecca; Matzke, Vicki

    2004-02-01

    Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy.

  2. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity). PMID:27163368

  3. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  4. Strength training does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Goekint, Maaike; De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Njemini, Rose; Bautmans, Ivan; Mets, Tony; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effect of a strength training session on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor 1. Furthermore, the influence of a 10-week strength training program on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resting levels and memory performance was studied. Fifteen untrained subjects followed a strength training program for 10 weeks. Eight control subjects remained physically inactive. To study the influence of an acute strength training session, blood samples were taken before and after the sixth and 30th sessions. Training effects were evaluated by taking blood samples at rest before and following the training program. Short- and mid-term memories were assessed using the digit span and a recall of images test. BDNF, IGF-1 and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) were measured in serum samples. Data were analyzed (p < 0.05) using a mixed design ANOVA model, Duncan's multiple range post hoc tests, and Pearson's correlation. A single strength training session did not influence BDNF and IGF-1 concentrations. No effect of the strength training period on BDNF, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 was found. No correlation was found between peripheral BDNF and IGF-1. Short-term memory improved in both the experimental and control groups, but no difference between groups was present. Mid-term memory did not improve following the 10 weeks of training. A period of strength training in sedentary subjects does not significantly change the growth factors or memory function compared to a control group. Also, BDNF and IGF-1 are not acutely influenced by a training session. Further research should focus on the beneficial role of physical exercise in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Some factors that influence semen characteristics in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Theau-Clément, M; Bolet, G; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study, based on a five-year-long experiment, was to analyse some of the factors that influence rabbit sperm production. A total of 174 bucks between 23 and 44 weeks of age from five successive groups were used for semen collection one day per week, two times, at a 15 min interval (ejaculates of rank 1 and 2), over a period of 21 weeks. Immediately after collection, pH, mass motility, volume and concentration were measured using classical methods, and a set of motility parameters were recorded by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. Between groups, the number of motile sperm per ejaculate, considered as a synthetic criterion combining both qualitative and quantitative aspects of semen characteristics, varied from simple to double (from 150 to 326×10(6)), reflecting the strong influence of uncontrolled environmental factors. Adult (37-43 weeks old) expressed a higher number of motile sperm/ejaculate than younger bucks (300 vs. 205×10(6)). In autumn the number of motile sperm/ejaculate was higher than in summer (287 vs. 188×10(6)). Sperm production was higher on average for the first ejaculate compared to the second one (270 vs. 167×10(6)). For several semen characteristics, the effect of the collector was significant but without any repercussion on sperm production. Bucks born to nulliparous or primiparous does had higher performances. This study highlights the high variability of rabbit semen characteristics and the multitude of factors involved, either controlled or uncontrolled. PMID:25862381

  6. Influencing factors for dietary behaviors of patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Kazuko; Kawata, Chieko; Shikata, Kenichi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the factors influencing the dietary behavior of patients with diabetic nephropathy. One hundred twenty-two patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the outpatients of Okayama University Hospital in Okayama, Japan. We performed a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire including 206 items among 18 categories as follows: background factors, coping behavior (coping scale), degree of uncertainty in illness (uncertainty scale), and dietary behavior. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. We found that those patients with microalbuminuria alone tended to recognize more mild about their kidney status than those with macroalbuminuria and chronic renal failure. We also found that common factors influencing the dietary behavior of diabetic patients with and without nephropathy are as follows: 1. coping with the problem (beta = 0.342, p < 0.01); 2. anxiety about prognosis (beta = -0.344, p < 0.01); 3. sex (beta = -0.234, p < 0.05); 4. uncertainty regarding treatment (beta = 0.377, p < 0.01); 5. negative coping (beta = -0.354, p< 0.01); and 6. employment status (beta = 0.367, p < 0.01). Coping and uncertainty in illness had a significant relation to positive support and lack of support. To maintain appropriate dietary behavior in diabetic patients, medical staff need to determine what the social supports are important for the patient, and also to ensure good communication among healthcare personnel as well as positive support for patients and families.

  7. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  8. Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke

    2012-02-01

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  9. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation.

  10. Factors that Influence Weekday Sleep Duration in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Hense, Sabrina; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Marild, Staffan; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare nocturnal sleep duration in children from 8 European countries and identify its determinants. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary schools and preschools participating in the IDEFICS study. Participants: 8,542 children aged 2 to 9 years from 8 European countries with complete information on nocturnal sleep duration. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements: Nocturnal sleep duration was assessed by means of a computer based parental 24-h recall. Data on personal, social, environmental, and behavioral factors were collected by means of standardized parental questionnaire. Physical activity was surveyed with accelerometers. Results: Nocturnal sleep duration in the participating countries ranged from 9.5 h (SD 0.8) in Estonia to 11.2 h (SD 0.7) in Belgium and differed significantly between countries (P < 0.001) in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses, with children from northern countries sleeping the longest. Sleep duration decreased by about 6 min with each year of age over all countries. No effect of season, daylight duration, overweight, parental education level, or lifestyle factors could be seen. Conclusion: Sleep duration differs significantly between countries. Our findings allow for the conclusion that regional affiliation, including culture and environmental characteristics, seems to overlay individual determinants of sleep duration. Citation: Hense S; Barba G; Pohlabeln H; De Henauw S; Marild S; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Hadjigeorgiou C; Veidebaum T; Ahrens W. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. SLEEP 2011;34(5):633-639. PMID:21532957

  11. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  12. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods.

  13. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  14. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations.

  15. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703

  16. Factors That Influence Line Managers' Perceptions of Hospital Performance Data

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Liane Soberman

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design and test a model of the factors that influence frontline and midlevel managers' perceptions of usefulness of comparative reports of hospital performance. Study Setting A total of 344 frontline and midlevel managers with responsibility for stroke and medical cardiac patients in 89 acute care hospitals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Study Design Fifty-nine percent of managers responded to a mail survey regarding managers' familiarity with a comparative report of hospital performance, ratings of the report's data quality, relevance and complexity, improvement culture of the organization, and perceptions of usefulness of the report. Extraction Methods Exploratory factor analysis was performed to assess the dimensionality of performance data characteristics and improvement culture. Antecedents of perceived usefulness and the role of improvement culture as a moderator were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. Principal Findings Both data characteristics variables including data quality, relevance, and report complexity, as well as organizational factors including dissemination intensity and improvement culture, explain significant amounts of variance in perceptions of usefulness of comparative reports of hospital performance. The total R2 for the full hierarchical regression model=.691. Improvement culture moderates the relationship between data relevance and perceived usefulness. Conclusions Organizations and those who fund and design performance reports need to recognize that both report characteristics and organizational context play an important role in determining line managers' response to and ability to use these types of data. PMID:12650391

  17. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  18. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  19. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  20. Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wäny, Martin; Voltz, Stephan; Gaspar, Fabio; Chen, Lei

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x 3um covered with RGB filters in Bayer pattern. The sensor operates fully autonomous, controlled by an on chip ring oscillator and readout state machine, which controls integration AD conversion and data transmission, thus the sensor only requires 4 pin's for power supply and data communication. The sensor provides a frame rate of 40Frames per second over a LVDS serial data link. The endoscopic application requires that the sensor must work without any local power decoupling capacitances at the end of up to 2m cabling and be able to sustain data communication over the same wire length without deteriorating image quality. This has been achieved by implementation of a current mode successive approximation ADC and current steering LVDS data transmission. An band gap circuit with -40dB PSRR at the data frequency was implemented as on chip reference to improve robustness against power supply ringing due to the high series inductance of the long cables. The B&W versions of the sensor provides a conversion gain of 30DN/nJ/cm2 at 550nm with a read noise in dark of 1.2DN when operated at 2m cable. Using the photon transfer method according to EMVA1288 standard the full well capacity was determined to be 18ke-. According to our knowledge the presented work is the currently world smallest fully digital image sensor. The chip was designed along with a aspheric single surface lens to assemble on the chip without increasing the form factor. The extremely small form factor of the resulting camera permit's to provide visualization with much higher than state of the art spatial resolution in sub 1mm endoscopic

  1. The influence of statistical variations on image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, Bror; Hertel, Dirk; Bullitt, Julian

    2006-01-01

    For more than thirty years imaging scientists have constructed metrics to predict psychovisually perceived image quality. Such metrics are based on a set of objectively measurable basis functions such as Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and characteristic curves of tone and color reproduction. Although these basis functions constitute a set of primitives that fully describe an imaging system from the standpoint of information theory, we found that in practical imaging systems the basis functions themselves are determined by system-specific primitives, i.e. technology parameters. In the example of a printer, MTF and NPS are largely determined by dot structure. In addition MTF is determined by color registration, and NPS by streaking and banding. Since any given imaging system is only a single representation of a class of more or less identical systems, the family of imaging systems and the single system are not described by a unique set of image primitives. For an image produced by a given imaging system, the set of image primitives describing that particular image will be a singular instantiation of the underlying statistical distribution of that primitive. If we know precisely the set of imaging primitives that describe the given image we should be able to predict its image quality. Since only the distributions are known, we can only predict the distribution in image quality for a given image as produced by the larger class of 'identical systems'. We will demonstrate the combinatorial effect of the underlying statistical variations in the image primitives on the objectively measured image quality of a population of printers as well as on the perceived image quality of a set of test images. We also will discuss the choice of test image sets and impact of scene content on the distribution of perceived image quality.

  2. Familial Influences on Conduct Disorder Reflect 2 Genetic Factors and 1 Shared Environmental Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Context Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. Objective To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Design Population-based twin registry. Setting Virginia. Participants Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. Results The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environ mental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single non-shared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. Conclusions From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators. PMID:23117573

  3. Factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ip, S W; Ko, H S; Applegate, K E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees. We distributed a 27-question written survey to all radiology registrars in Queensland. The questions investigated whether radiology was their first specialty choice, career satisfaction, ideal working conditions and attitudes regarding having children during the time of training. Forty-four of 51 surveys were returned (86% participation rate, 73% men, P = 0.048055) with 100% reporting a high job satisfaction; 28% of male registrars compared to 8% of female registrars did extra work outside of training to earn extra money (P = 0.000003), and 17% of female registrars took a leave of absence during their training, while no male registrar did (P = 0.087923). Only one female trainee worked part-time (P = 0.272727). In addition, 58% of female registrars planned a pregnancy (P = 0.731789) before completion of training; 83% of women versus 75% of men had no children (P = 0.329263). Only 5% of trainees agreed that it was easy to arrange part-time training, only 14% stated that it was easy to negotiate flexible work schedules and 7% agreed that it was easy to return to work after a period of absence. 'Time spent with immediate family' was rated the most important lifestyle factor, followed by 'work hours' and 'on-call duty'. The least important factors were 'being away from extended family', 'availability of part-time work' and whether 'work was in a rural location'. Overall job satisfaction is high among radiology trainees. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors, particularly those related to work time, are becoming more important for career decisions. This should be taken into account when designing and structuring radiology training to ensure that it is considered an attractive career choice. PMID:20518870

  4. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink. PMID:25953597

  5. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  6. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  7. [Greenhouse gas emission from reservoir and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-jie; Zhao, Tong-qian; Zheng, Hua; Duan, Xiao-nan; Chen, Fa-lin; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2008-08-01

    Reservoirs are significant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Discussing greenhouse gas emission from the reservoirs and its influence factors are propitious to evaluate emission of the greenhouse gas accurately, reduce gas emission under hydraulic engineering and hydropower development. This paper expatiates the mechanism of the greenhouse gas production, sums three approaches of the greenhouse gas emission, which are emissions from nature emission of the reservoirs, turbines and spillways and downstream of the dam, respectively. Effects of greenhouse gas emission were discussed from character of the reservoirs, climate, pH of the water, vegetation growing in the reservoirs and so on. Finally, it has analyzed the heterogeneity of the greenhouse gas emission as well as the root of the uncertainty and carried on the forecast with emphasis to the next research.

  8. Factors Influencing Black Churches' Readiness to Address HIV.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka Williams; Ogg, Siri A; Williams, Andrea L; Becton-Odum, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to understand factors that influence church readiness to engage in HIV prevention and treatment activities. A convenience sample of twenty-six Black faith leaders participated in four focus groups. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged. First, the pastor's blessing and authority as the church's decision-maker determines readiness to engage in HIV prevention. Second, the church's purview of sexual health as part of a holistic ministry facilitates faith leader's readiness. Lastly, securing financial and human resources makes it feasible for faith leaders to implement activities. Findings suggest HIV-related stigma alone does not explain readiness to address HIV. Participants also discussed activities their churches are equipped to handle, including HIV testing events and health fairs.

  9. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  10. Factors influencing the declining trend of vasectomy in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Nian, Cui; Xiaozhang, Liu; Xiaofang, Pan; Qing, Yang; Minxiang, Li

    2010-07-01

    Vasectomy was once the most common birth control method in both Sichuan Province, China and the world. However, since the 1990s the prevalence of vasectomy in Sichuan, has declined significantly compared to female sterilization in Sichuan and national prevalence of male/female sterilization during the same period. To explore possible reasons for this decline, 27 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in four strata of Sichuan. Procedures for qualitative data analysis were used. The findings reveal the decline in vasectomy in Sichuan Province is influenced by multiple factors, including shifts in demographics, changes in family planning working approach and people's perceptions of reproduction, lack of information and misunderstandings about vasectomy, the stereotype of male dominance, bias and preference of program and provider, and the impact of a market economy. Several implications arise from the study for future program development.

  11. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  12. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  13. Information booklets about cancer: factors influencing patient satisfaction and utilization.

    PubMed

    Butow, P; Brindle, E; McConnell, D; Boakes, R; Tattersall, M

    1998-02-01

    Providing patients with adequate information is an important component of care. This exploratory study investigated factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. The research was conducted in two stages. In stage 1, five commonly used cancer information booklets were reviewed by 36 Australian patients who were either receiving chemotherapy or had just completed treatment. Data were collected on patient satisfaction with, preference for and utilization of information booklets. In addition data were collected on variables identified in the literature as potentially influencing patient satisfaction, including patient characteristics, presentation and readability of booklets, and the timing of provision. A high level of satisfaction was found for all five information booklets, although a clear preference for one particular booklet emerged. The most notable feature of this booklet was its readability level (grade 8); in contrast the other booklets were written at levels equivalent to grades 11-12. Stage 2 focused on the side effects of patient information preference style on their satisfaction and recall of information presented in two booklets in the course of their treatment. No differences were found between patients who seek information and those who avoid it. The findings of this study suggest that patients' information needs may be better met if information booklets are written in plain English, and presented to patients prior to treatment. Future studies incorporating a larger sample of patients and greater selection and variety of information booklets are required to further determine if patient characteristics and features of booklet presentation influence patient satisfaction and preference. PMID:9732653

  14. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  15. Factors influencing dietary protein sources in the PREMIER trial population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Miwa, Saki; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Yanfang; Levy, Erma; Lastor, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Previous research suggests that protein intake, particularly plant protein, may benefit blood pressure control. However, very little has been published regarding protein sources in diets of US adults and factors influencing these choices. The purpose of this report is to describe specific sources of animal and plant proteins in diets of PREMIER clinical trial participants at baseline and how the PREMIER intervention, along with participant demographics, affected protein sources. Adult participants (n=809) who completed the 18-month PREMIER lifestyle intervention trial and had at least one diet recall at each of three study visits were included. Participants were recruited from four clinical centers in the Eastern, Southern, and Northeastern regions of United States. The PREMIER trial, conducted from 1999 to 2002, compared the impact on blood pressure of two structured behavioral interventions focusing on the traditional lifestyle modifications for blood pressure control with or without the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Protein sources were assessed by two unannounced 24-hour recalls at each of three study visits. Differences in protein sources were mainly related to participant demographics, with relatively moderate impact of the intervention. The top four protein sources for all the study participants were poultry, dairy, refined grains and beef, each contributing approximately 10% to 17% in descending order to the total protein intake at baseline. Animal and plant protein each comprised approximately 66% and 34%, respectively, to the total daily protein intake at baseline, and such overall contribution pattern remained relatively constant over time. However, sex, race, age, and body weight status all influenced contribution patterns from different food groups significantly. These influences significantly impact choice and are essential elements to consider when designing intervention programs to alter protein contributions from animal

  16. Factors influencing success of dietitians employed in business and industry.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, L J; Shanklin, C W; Johnson, J T

    1991-10-01

    Career opportunities in business and industry have been identified as one area of growth for the dietetics profession. The purposes of this study were to identify the skills, attributes, and knowledge areas dietitians need to succeed in business and industry; ascertain methods used to acquire these; assess factors that influenced career change; and determine the degree of perceived adequacy of academic preparation by practitioners employed in business and industry. A questionnaire, developed on the basis of a Delphi study involving 21 dietitians employed in business and industry, was administered to a national sample of 387 members of the Dietitians in Business and Industry (DIBI) dietetic practice group who were employed in business and industry. The overall response rate was 299 (77%); respondents were from 39 states. Skills, attributes, and knowledge areas were identified for specific employment classifications in business and industry. Self-motivation and work experience in business were identified as the most important methods for acquiring skills for this area of practice. Challenge of a new position and diversity of job responsibilities had the most influence on career change of respondents. Undergraduate and graduate education were rated somewhat inadequate and adequate, respectively, by the majority of respondents. The findings indicate that positions in business and industry require specific skills, attributes, and knowledge that may not necessarily be attained through traditional approaches. Self-assessment and appropriate self-development activities are essential for success.

  17. Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Per; Eriksson, Sune; Tareke, Eden; Karlsson, Patrik; Ehrenberg, Lar; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    Our finding that acrylamide is formed during heating of food initiated a range of studies on the formation of acrylamide. The present paper summarizes our follow-up studies on the characterization of parameters that influence the formation and degradation of acrylamide in heated foods. The system designed and used for studies of the influence of added factors was primarily homogenized potato heated in an oven. The net content of acrylamide after heating was examined with regard to the following parameters: heating temperature, duration of heating, pH and concentrations of various components. Higher temperature (200 degrees C) combined with prolonged heating led to reduced levels of acrylamide, due to elimination/degradation processes. At certain concentrations, the presence of asparagine or monosaccharides (in particular fructose, glucose and glyceraldehyde) was found to increase the net content of acrylamide. Addition of other free amino acids or a protein-rich food component strongly reduced the acrylamide content, probably by promoting competing reactions and/or covalently binding of formed acrylamide. The pH-dependence of acrylamide formation exhibited a maximum around pH 8; lower pH enhanced elimination and decelerated formation of acrylamide. In contrast, the effects of additions of antioxidants or peroxides on acrylamide content were not significant. The acrylamide content of heated foods is the net result of complex reactions leading to both the formation and elimination/degradation of this molecule.

  18. Factors influencing teacher decisions on school, classroom, and curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Robert K.; Banfield, Helen

    This article describes a study designed to explore sources of influence on the judgments made by science teachers on school characteristics, classroom features, and properties of a science curriculum. The study had its theoretical basis in the concept that members of a social organization operate under certain functional paradigms, which govern their approach to events within the organization, and particularly to the implementation of innovations. Empirically, the study formed part of the Canadian contribution to the Second International Science Study, and was based on a survey of some 2000 Canadian teachers. The survey used an adaptation of policy capturing methodology, in which teachers were presented with variations in a hypothetical scenario designed to simulate a decision-making situation. Results suggest that teachers' judgments center around a number of factors, the primary ones being concern for student ability and interest, teaching methods, and school spirit and morale. On the other hand, variations in the scientific basis of a curriculum appear to exert little influence. The results are interpreted as indicators of the major elements of teacher functional paradigms.

  19. Extrinsic Factors Influencing Fetal Deformations and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Moh, Wendy; Graham, John M.; Wadhawan, Isha; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are multifactorial with both intrinsic and extrinsic influences. While many studies focus on the intrinsic pathological causes, the possible long-term consequences resulting from extrinsic intrauterine physiological constraints merit additional consideration and further investigation. Infants with IUGR can exhibit early symmetric or late asymmetric growth abnormality patterns depending on the fetal stage of development, of which the latter is most common occurring in 70–80% of growth-restricted infants. Deformation is the consequence of extrinsic biomechanical factors interfering with normal growth, functioning, or positioning of the fetus in utero, typically arising during late gestation. Biomechanical forces play a critical role in the normal morphogenesis of most tissues. The magnitude and direction of force impact the form of the developing fetus, with a specific tissue response depending on its pliability and stage of development. Major uterine constraining factors include primigravida, small maternal size, uterine malformation, uterine fibromata, early pelvic engagement of the fetal head, aberrant fetal position, oligohydramnios, and multifetal gestation. Corrective mechanical forces similar to those that gave rise to the deformation to reshape the deformed structures are often used and should take advantage of the rapid postnatal growth to correct form. PMID:22888434

  20. Genetic and epigenetic factors influencing chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, L J; Duffy, S; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a serious public health problem because of its associated morbidity, premature mortality, and attendant healthcare costs. The rising number of persons with CKD is linked with the aging population structure and an increased prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. There is an inherited risk associated with developing CKD, as evidenced by familial clustering and differing prevalence rates across ethnic groups. Previous studies to determine the inherited risk factors for CKD rarely identified genetic variants that were robustly replicated. However, improvements in genotyping technologies and analytic methods are now helping to identify promising genetic loci aided by international collaboration and multiconsortia efforts. More recently, epigenetic modifications have been proposed to play a role in both the inherited susceptibility to CKD and, importantly, to explain how the environment dynamically interacts with the genome to alter an individual's disease risk. Genome-wide, epigenome-wide, and whole transcriptome studies have been performed, and optimal approaches for integrative analysis are being developed. This review summarizes recent research and the current status of genetic and epigenetic risk factors influencing CKD using population-based information.

  1. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  2. Toilet training age and influencing factors: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Hüseyin; Çakmak, Özgür; Akarken, İlker; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Ün, Sıtkı; Uzelli, Derya; Helvacı, Mehmet; Aksu, Nejat; Yavaşcan, Önder; Mutlubaş Özsan, Fatma; Cun, Selma; Koç, Feyza; Özkarakaş, Özlem; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    To determine toilet training age and the factors influencing this in our country, 1500 children who had completed toilet training were evaluated in a multicenter study. The mean age of toilet training was 22.32 ± 6.57 months. The duration it took to complete toilet training was 6.60 ± 2.20 months on the average. In univariant analysis, toilet training age increased as the parental education level, specifically that of the mother, increased. The training age of children whose mothers had over 12 years of education differed significantly from that of children of mothers with less education. There was no significant difference in toilet training age with regard to the education level of the father, or the employment status of the mother. We also found significant differences with respect to family income level, toilet type and training method. In multivariant analysis, family income >5000 TL and use of a potty chair were determined to be factors affecting toilet training age. In conclusion, toilet training age in Turkey, a developing country, was found to be lower than that in developed countries.

  3. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis.

  4. Physical Activity in Adolescents following Treatment for Cancer: Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marilyn; Bryans, Angie; Gray, Kaylin; Skinner, Leah; Verhoeve, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels and influencing individual and environmental factors in a group of adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparison group. Methods. The study was conducted using a "mixed methods" design. Quantitative data was collected from 48 adolescent survivors of cancer and 48 comparison adolescents using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale-Adolescents, and the Amherst Health and Activity Study-Student Survey. Qualitative data was collected in individual semistructured interviews. Results. Reported leisure-time physical activity total scores were not significantly different between groups. Physical activity levels were positively correlated with adult social support factors in the group of adolescent survivors of cancer, but not in the comparison group. Time was the primary barrier to physical activity in both groups. Fatigue scores were higher for the comparison but were not associated with physical activity levels in either group. The qualitative data further supported these findings. Conclusions. Barriers to physical activity were common between adolescent survivors of cancer and a comparative group. Increased knowledge of the motivators and barriers to physical activity may help health care providers and families provide more effective health promotion strategies to adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer.

  5. The hazard of sharp force injuries: Factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Stine; Normann, Stig-André; Morild, Inge; Lilleng, Peer Kåre; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dying from sharp force injury is difficult to ascertain. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed in Norway regarding mortality due to sharp force injury or factors that impact survival. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate and assess mortality in subjects with sharp force injury. This retrospective study comprises data on 136 subjects (34 female, 102 male) with suspected severe sharp force injury (self-inflicted or inflicted by others) admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2001 and 2010. The majority of subjects were intoxicated, and the injury was most often inflicted by a knife. The incidence of sharp force injury in Western Norway is similar to the incidence in other European countries. Almost half of the subjects with self-inflicted injury died. In cases with injury inflicted by another individual, one in five died. Mortality rates were higher in those with penetrating chest injuries than those with penetrating abdominal injuries and higher in cases with cardiac injury compared to pleural or lung injury. Sharp force injury can be fatal, but the overall mortality rate in this study was 29%. Factors influencing mortality rate were the number of injuries, the topographic regions of the body injured, the anatomical organs/structures inflicted, and emergency measures performed.

  6. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways. PMID:17687992

  7. Factors influencing the antibody response to vaccination against rabies.

    PubMed

    Jakel, V; König, M; Cussler, K; Hanschmann, K; Thiel, H-J

    2008-01-01

    Preventive vaccination against rabies virus is a highly effective method for preventing rabies in humans and animals. For travel purposes, vaccination of domestic carnivores is obligatory. In addition, some countries require testing for neutralizing antibodies against rabies. The minimal threshold level accepted by WHO/OIE is 0.5 IU/ml. Despite proper vaccination some animals do not reach the threshold. The objective of this study was to identify specific risk factors in dogs and cats for post-vaccination rabies antibody titres below 0.5 IU/ml by FAVN test. Rabies vaccination protocols and recommendations were reviewed with regard to travel regulations. Comprehensive data was collected on animals tested for rabies antibodies via a questionnaire sent to veterinarians who submitted sera for rabies titration. The questionnaire included data on species, age, sex, breed, vaccine used, date of last vaccination and blood sampling, vaccination history and further medical treatments at time of vaccination. Data on around 1,200 animals was analysed. Most animals older than one year had already received more than one rabies vaccination. The influence of breed and sex on antibody titre seems to be insignificant. Young dogs have a high risk of results below 0.5 IU/ml after their first vaccination. This risk can be minimised by the application of a second vaccination and blood sampling according to the manufacturer's recommendations. An important factor for the test outcome might be the virus strain used in the vaccine.

  8. Factors influencing prognosis in adults with acute myelogenous leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, D.; Beard, M. E.; Bateman, C. J.; Sewell, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the thymidine labelling index (TLI) of bone marrow blast cells in 58 untreated patients with acute myelogenous leukemia showed no correlation with remission rate but there was a strong correlation between labelling index and remission length in the 21 patients who achieved remission. The median remission length of the patients was 33 weeks. Of the 12 patients with initial labelling indices greater than 10%, only 2 had remissions longer than 33 weeks whereas 8 of the 9 patients with labelling indices less than 10% had remissions longer than 33 weeks. No correlation could be found between the degree of cytological differentiation and remission induction, remission length or survival. No correlation was found between the TLI and the degree of cytological differentiation. Age and initial platelet count were confirmed to be important factors influencing complete remission rate, but these factors did not correlate with remission length. Sixteen patients had their pretreatment sera assayed for mouse marrow colony stimulating activity and inhibitor levels but there was no correlation with subsequent response to treatment, although the number of patients examined was clearly too small for any definite conclusions to be drawn. PMID:1082343

  9. Impaired glucose tolerance: influence by environmental and hereditary factors.

    PubMed

    Cederholm, J; Wibell, L

    1991-01-01

    The influence on impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by obesity, physical leisure time activity (PLTA), family histories of diabetes mellitus (DM) and other characteristics were evaluated in a health survey of 807 middle-aged females and males, with the rate of IGT 8.4% (WHO-criteria). Independent (adjusted for covariates) odds ratios concerning IGT were estimated. The ratios were 5.3 with the presence of obesity and 2.2. (ns) with low compared to high PLTA. In a subgroup of summarized environmental factors (obesity and low PLTA versus no obesity and high PLTA, n = 339), the independent odds ratio for IGT was 9.6 with obesity and low PLTA. With one 1st degree DM relative the odds ratio for IGT was 3.1. The ratio was increased both with the presence of relatives with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with the presence of relatives with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetic mothers yielded a higher ratio for IGT than diabetic fathers. In conclusion, the independent relative risk for IGT in this Swedish middle-aged urban sample was about two times higher with environmental factors (obesity only/obesity with low PLTA) than with one 1st degree DM relative.

  10. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways.

  11. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:24330167

  12. Understanding the factors influencing safe and unsafe motorcycle rider intentions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliff, Deborah J; Watson, Barry C; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Schonfeld, Cynthia C; Wishart, Darren E

    2012-11-01

    The increasing popularity of motorcycles in Australia is a significant concern as motorcycle riders represent 15% of all road fatalities and an even greater proportion of serious injuries. This study assessed the psychosocial factors influencing motorcycle riders' intentions to perform both safe and risky riding behaviours. Using an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), motorcycle riders (n=229) from Queensland, Australia were surveyed to assess their riding attitudes, subjective norm (general and specific), perceived behavioural control (PBC), group norm, self-identity, sensation seeking, and aggression, as well as their intentions, in relation to three safe (e.g., handle my motorcycle skilfully) and three risky (e.g., bend road rules to get through traffic) riding behaviours. Although there was variability in the predictors of intention across the behaviours, results revealed that safer rider intentions were most consistently predicted by PBC, while riskier intentions were predicted by attitudes and sensation seeking. The TPB was able to explain a greater proportion of the variance for intentions to perform risky behaviours. Overall, this study has provided insight into the complexity of factors contributing to rider intentions and suggests that different practical strategies need to be adopted to facilitate safer and reduce risky rider decisions. PMID:23036390

  13. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Wegulo, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. PMID:23202310

  14. Factors influencing adolescents engagement in risky Internet behavior.

    PubMed

    Liau, Albert Kienfie; Khoo, Angeline; Ang, Peng Hwa

    2005-12-01

    The present study used data from the SAFT (Safety, Awareness, Facts and Tools) Singapore survey, a national survey of 1,124 youths aged 12-17, to explore the issue of risk on the Internet. We investigated factors that influence adolescents' engagement in risky Internet behavior, in particular, meeting face-to-face someone they first encountered online. The adolescents ranged from ages 12 to 17, with a mean of 14.32 (SD = 1.37); 49.6% of the adolescents were girls. The study utilized a 93-item survey that was part of the SAFT Project. Results indicated that 16% of adolescent Internet users in Singapore have had a face-to-face meeting with someone first encountered online. The following factors were found to be predictors of adolescents engagement in such face-to-face meetings: age, frequency of Internet use, frequency of chatting and gaming behavior, parental rules, type of personal information given out, amount of inappropriate messages received, whether inappropriate websites have been visited, and type of internet advice heard. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Factors affecting ultimate imaging depth of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Katichev, Aleksey R.

    2009-10-01

    Different aspects of multiple small-angle scattering effect on two-phonon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging ability are discussed in this paper. We focus on theoretical evaluation of the maximum accessible imaging depth. There are three main factors which potentially restrict imaging depth: i) decay of tightly focused excitation beam caused by scattering and accompanied by loss of diffraction-limited resolution; ii) out-of focus fluorescence originated from excessive illumination of the sample surface which is required to compensate for the lack of peak intensity inside scattering medium; iii) decrease of signal-to noise ratio of fluorescence signal due to Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law decrease of excitation intensity. Based on small-angle diffusive approximation of radiation transfer theory we compared the influence of these factors and found out that the first two factors define fundamental limitation of 2PEM potentialities in scattering medium while the last one provides principal instrumental limitation which prevails in state-of the-art commercial laser scanning microscopy systems.

  16. Factors affecting ultimate imaging depth of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in scattering medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Katichev, Aleksey R.

    2010-02-01

    Different aspects of multiple small-angle scattering effect on two-phonon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging ability are discussed in this paper. We focus on theoretical evaluation of the maximum accessible imaging depth. There are three main factors which potentially restrict imaging depth: i) decay of tightly focused excitation beam caused by scattering and accompanied by loss of diffraction-limited resolution; ii) out-of focus fluorescence originated from excessive illumination of the sample surface which is required to compensate for the lack of peak intensity inside scattering medium; iii) decrease of signal-to noise ratio of fluorescence signal due to Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law decrease of excitation intensity. Based on small-angle diffusive approximation of radiation transfer theory we compared the influence of these factors and found out that the first two factors define fundamental limitation of 2PEM potentialities in scattering medium while the last one provides principal instrumental limitation which prevails in state-of the-art commercial laser scanning microscopy systems.

  17. Adolescents’ perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi

    PubMed Central

    Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. Design This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. Setting The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Participants Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Main outcome measures Adolescents’ awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Results Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents’ awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants’ age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent–adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent–adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers’ ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and

  18. Influence of dietary factors on the pancreatotoxicity of ethionine.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, B.

    1976-01-01

    Choline deficiency enhances greatly the pancreatotoxicity of DL-ethionine. Mice fed DL-ethionine with a choline-deficient diet develop a fatal acute hemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis with fat necrosis (AHPN) in 5 days. Induction of the AHPN is completely prevented by dietary methionine and drastically reduced by dietary methionine and drastically reduced by dietary choline. The amount of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat in the diet influences its consumption by the animals and thus the severity of the pancreatic pathology. The histogenesis of the process is characterized by widespread alterations of the membranous organelles of the acinar cells, especially the endoplasmic reticulum and the zymogen granules. The onset of the hemorrhagic necrosis of the pancreas is due to an endogenous intraparenchymal activation of the zymogenic proteases, including proelastase. The new experimental model of AHPN appears to mimic very closely the clinical course, the anatomic pathologic lesions, and the postulated pathogenesis of the corresponding human disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:786037

  19. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  20. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  1. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  2. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  3. Influences of environmental factors on leaf morphology of Chinese jujubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  4. Factors influencing wood mobilization 1 in Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  5. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  6. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  7. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  8. A Phenomenological Study: The Influence of Noncognitive Factors on Academically Unprepared College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Danny Moire

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the influence of noncognitive factors in four areas: early educational factors, personal factors, affective factors, and noncognitive skill factors to understand the phenomenon of college students' academic underpreparedness. Findings related to textual categories indicated personal factors such as a…

  9. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  10. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  12. Imageability, age of acquisition, and frequency factors in acronym comprehension.

    PubMed

    Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    In spite of their unusual orthographic and phonological form, acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NATO) can become familiar to the reader, and their meaning can be accessed well enough that they are understood. The factors in semantic access for acronym stimuli were assessed using a word association task. Two analyses examined the time taken to generate a word association response to acronym cues. Responses were recorded more quickly to cues that elicited a large proportion of semantic responses, and those that were high in associative strength. Participants were shown to be faster to respond to cues which were imageable or early acquired. Frequency was not a significant predictor of word association responses. Implications for theories of lexical organisation are discussed. PMID:23153389

  13. Imageability, age of acquisition, and frequency factors in acronym comprehension.

    PubMed

    Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    In spite of their unusual orthographic and phonological form, acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NATO) can become familiar to the reader, and their meaning can be accessed well enough that they are understood. The factors in semantic access for acronym stimuli were assessed using a word association task. Two analyses examined the time taken to generate a word association response to acronym cues. Responses were recorded more quickly to cues that elicited a large proportion of semantic responses, and those that were high in associative strength. Participants were shown to be faster to respond to cues which were imageable or early acquired. Frequency was not a significant predictor of word association responses. Implications for theories of lexical organisation are discussed.

  14. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  15. Accumulation of mercury in edible macrofungi: influence of some factors.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J; Salgado, M J; García, M A; Melgar, M J

    2000-02-01

    The levels of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems are generally very low, but the strong accumulation in some species of macrofungi is an exception from this rule. Mercury contents of 41 samples of edible mushrooms fruiting bodies representing eight species (six wild and two cultivated) were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique (ASV) using a gold disc as the working electrode. Wild fungi were collected in unpolluted and polluted areas in the Province of Lugo (NW Spain). Influence of some factors (ecology, species, traffic pollution, and morphological portion) and the importance of mushrooms as a dietary source of mercury have been studied. Wild saprophytic species showed higher levels (ppm DW) than mycorrhizals species, with the exception of Boletus pinicola. There were significant differences according to the species analyzed (p < 0.001), the highest average content of mercury was found in Boletus pinicola (7.37 ppm DW), and the range was 0.35-33.07 ppm DW for hymenophore and 0.18-20.30 ppm DW for the rest of the fruit body. The cultivated species accumulated lower than wild species because the mean life is shorter. The traffic pollution factor did not show significant differences, so mushrooms are not realiable bioindicators of traffic pollution by mercury. Hymenophore was always the morphological portion that contained the highest mercury levels (p < 0.05), and the mean ratio of hymenophore/rest of the fruit body was 2.13. The mercury concentrations were compared to literature data and levels set by legislation, and the contribution of mushrooms to the weekly intake of mercury per person was evaluated. The possible health risk for people is pointed out. PMID:10629276

  16. Factors influencing university students' explicit and implicit sexual double standards.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John K; Milhausen, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative research has resulted in inconsistent evidence for the existence of a sexual double standard, leading Crawford and Popp ( 2003 ) to issue a call for methodological innovation. The implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ) is a measure that may provide a means to examine the double standard without the contamination of the demand characteristics and social desirability biases that plague self-report research (Marks & Fraley, 2005 ). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing explicit and implicit double standards, and to examine the relationship between these explicit and implicit double standards, and levels of socially desirable responding. One hundred and three university students completed a sexual double standard IAT, an explicit measure of the double standard, and measures of socially desirable responding. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that levels of socially desirable responding were not related to implicit or explicit double standards. Men endorsed a stronger explicit traditional double standard than women, whereas for implicit sexual standards, men demonstrated a relatively gender-neutral evaluation and women demonstrated a strong reverse double standard. These results suggest the existence of a complex double standard, and indicate that more research of sexual attitudes should include implicit measures.

  17. Oncologist Factors That Influence Referrals to Subspecialty Palliative Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Rabow, Michael W.; Smith, Cardinale B.; White, Douglas B.; Chu, Edward; Tiver, Greer A.; Einhorn, Sara; Arnold, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research and professional guidelines support expanded use of outpatient subspecialty palliative care in oncology, but provider referral practices vary widely. We sought to explore oncologist factors that influence referrals to outpatient palliative care. Methods: Multisite, qualitative interview study at three academic cancer centers in the United States with well-established palliative care clinics. Seventy-four medical oncologists participated in semistructured interviews between February and October 2012. The interview guide asked about experiences and decision making regarding outpatient palliative care use. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative methods to inductively develop and refine themes related to palliative care referral decisions. Results: We identified three main oncologist barriers to subspecialty palliative care referrals at sites with comprehensive palliative care clinics: persistent conceptions of palliative care as an alternative philosophy of care incompatible with cancer therapy, a predominant belief that providing palliative care is an integral part of the oncologist's role, and a lack of knowledge about locally available services. Participants described their views of subspecialty palliative care as evolving in response to increasing availability of services and positive referral experiences, but emphasized that views of palliative care as valuable in addition to standard oncology care were not universally shared by oncologists. Conclusions: Improving provision of palliative care in oncology will likely require efforts beyond increasing service availability. Raising awareness of ways in which subspecialty palliative care complements standard oncology care and developing ways for oncologists and palliative care physicians to collaborate and integrate their respective skills may help. PMID:24301842

  18. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption.

  19. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  20. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  1. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed. PMID:23064481

  2. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  3. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; D.Stormo, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly desired. Key inputs to such frameworks are protein residues that modulate the specificity of TF under consideration. Simple measures like mutual information (MI) to delineate specificity influencing residues (SIRs) from alignment fail due to structural constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of protein. Structural restraints on the evolution of the amino-acid sequence lead to identification of false SIRs. In this manuscript we extended three methods (Direct Information, PSICOV and adjusted mutual information) that have been used to disentangle spurious indirect protein residue-residue contacts from direct contacts, to identify SIRs from joint alignments of amino-acids and specificity. We predicted SIRs forhomeodomain (HD), helix-loop-helix, LacI and GntR families of TFs using these methods and compared to MI. Using various measures, we show that the performance of these three methods is comparable but better than MI. Implication of these methods in specificity prediction framework is discussed. The methods are implemented as an R package and available along with the alignments at stormo.wustl.edu/SpecPred. PMID:26753103

  4. Environmental factors influencing diatom communities in Antarctic cryoconite holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanish, L. F.; Bagshaw, E. A.; McKnight, D. M.; Fountain, A. G.; Tranter, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cryoconite holes are ice-bound habitats that can act as refuges for aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms on glacier surfaces. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, these holes are often capped by an ice lid that prevents the exchange of material and gases with the surrounding atmosphere and aquatic environment. Diatoms have been documented in cryoconite holes, and recent findings suggest that these habitats may harbour a distinctive diatom flora compared to the surrounding aquatic environments. In this study, we examined diatom community composition in cryoconite holes and environmental correlates across three glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The diatom communities were dominated by two genera, Muelleria and Diadesmis, both of which had high viability and could have been seeded from the surrounding ephemeral streams. The location of the cryoconite hole within the valley was a key determinant of community composition. A diatom species richness gradient was observed that corresponded to distance inland from the coast and co-varied with species richness in streams within the same lake basin. Cryoconite holes that were adjacent to streams with higher diversity displayed greater species richness. However, physical factors, such as the ability to withstand freeze-thaw conditions and to colonize coarse sediments, acted as additional selective filters and influenced diatom diversity, viability and community composition.

  5. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  6. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  7. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers. PMID:25460418

  8. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  9. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  10. Influence of imaging resolution on color fidelity in digital archiving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchang; Toque, Jay Arre; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Color fidelity is of paramount importance in digital archiving. In this paper, the relationship between color fidelity and imaging resolution was explored by calculating the color difference of an IT8.7/2 color chart with a CIELAB color difference formula for scanning and simulation images. Microscopic spatial sampling was used in selecting the image pixels for the calculations to highlight the loss of color information. A ratio, called the relative imaging definition (RID), was defined to express the correlation between image resolution and color fidelity. The results show that in order for color differences to remain unrecognizable, the imaging resolution should be at least 10 times higher than the physical dimension of the smallest feature in the object being studied.

  11. Filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on the quality of reconstructed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanbo; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluates the filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on its corresponding reconstructed image. A square aperture with different filling factor is added on the phase-only hologram of the target image, and average cross-section intensity profile of the reconstructed image is obtained and deconvolved with that of the target image to calculate the point spread function (PSF) of the image. Meanwhile, Lena image is used as the target image and evaluated by metrics RMSE and SSIM to assess the quality of reconstructed image. The results show that the PSF of the image agrees with the PSF of the Fourier transform of the mask, and as the filling factor of the mask decreases, the width of PSF increases and the quality of reconstructed image drops. These characteristics could be used in practical situations where phase-only hologram is confined or need to be sliced or tiled.

  12. Computer simulation technique to preview the influence of the recording system on the image sharpness in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Silva, Marcia A.; de Oliveira, Henrique J. Q.; Azevedo Marques, Paulo M.; Frere, Annie F.

    1998-07-01

    Following procedures used to simulate the image sharpness along the radiation field based on X-rays geometric exposure developed in previous work, here we describe another computer simulation procedure intended to evaluate the influence of any recording system as radiographic film or screen-film combinations, on the image sharpness in mammography. In this current work we take into account the parameters from the recording system besides the radiation projection from the focal spot in order to yield a simulated image on the computer screen relative to the expected image to be obtained in actual conditions with a singular recording system for a singular mammography equipment. The focal spot sizes in all field locations, as well as the respectives intensity distributions, the sensitometric curve for a radiographic film or for a screen-film combination, and also the screen intensifying factor, conversion efficiency, absorption factor and emission spectrum were used as input parameters for the simulation. Simulated images were compared to those obtained with actual mammographic equipment, by using a resolution phantom, and both types of images were in good agreement. The main advantage of this procedure will be the possibility of predicting the image sharpness characteristics for any mammography equipment with any type of recording system without exposure tests.

  13. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  14. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  15. 21 CFR 1404.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What factors may influence the debarring... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1006.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring...

  17. 22 CFR 208.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 208.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  18. 22 CFR 1508.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What factors may influence the debarring... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1508.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the...

  19. Influence of the scattering phase function in numerical modeling of hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2016-03-01

    In simulations of light transport in biological tissues and organs knowledge of tissue optical properties is imperative for realism of the predicted effects. One factor which is commonly overlooked is the choice of appropriate scattering phase function. Henyey-Greenstein phase function (PF) is often applied due to its suitability for analytical derivations and availability of the corresponding tissue anisotropy factors. At the same time it is known that it doesn't match the angular distribution of scattering in many tissues. In here, we study the influence of the PF in 3D Monte Carlo simulations of hyperspectral imaging (HSI). For a simple geometrical (three-layered) model of skin and a discrete blood vessel, hyperspectral images in the 400-1000 nm spectral range were simulated using Henyey-Greenstein, modified Henyey-Greenstein, and Mie PF, respectively. The results are compared in the spatial and spectral domains. In addition, the effective tissue properties as determined from the simulated HSI using 1D inverse MC are compared with the input parameter values. The results show that the choice of PF assumed in light transport models has a substantial impact on simulated HSI. Using an inappropriate PF can result in significantly altered HSI and considerable artifacts in extracted values of the skin parameters.

  20. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  1. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  2. Which factors influence psychiatric diagnosing in substance abuse treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of diagnosing and treating co-occurring psychiatric disorders among substance abusers in treatment has received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent co-occurring psychiatric disorders are diagnosed in a clinical population of substance abusers, and which factors (including the use of MINI-Plus) that influence the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Methods Patients (N = 275) who received inpatient substance use treatment in five different units in Northern Norway participated in the study. The patients’ clinicians gave information on diagnoses given during the stay in the units, and whether a systematic diagnostic tool was used for the diagnosing (MINI-Plus). Predictors of independent co-occurring psychiatric disorders were examined utilizing hierarchical regression analysis. Results One third of the patients were given an independent psychiatric diagnosis. Less than half of the patients were assessed using a diagnostic tool. The main predictor of diagnosing of independent psychiatric disorders was the use of the diagnostic tool MINI-Plus. Younger patients and patients that used less alcohol, were given independent psychiatric diagnoses more frequently. Conclusions The number of co-occurring independent psychiatric diagnoses was lower compared to other studies using standardized diagnostic tools. The low number of patients assessed by such a tool, and the strong relationship between the use of such a tool and the diagnosing of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, suggest that the implementation of standardized diagnostic tools should be addressed in the units. Generally, patients suffering from substance use disorders should be systematically screened for other psychiatric disorders, in order to improve their treatment and health. PMID:23742628

  3. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  4. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed. PMID:26544151

  5. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Yund, E. William; Herron, Timothy J.; Reed, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Simple reaction time (SRT), the minimal time needed to respond to a stimulus, is a basic measure of processing speed. SRTs were first measured by Francis Galton in the 19th century, who reported visual SRT latencies below 190 ms in young subjects. However, recent large-scale studies have reported substantially increased SRT latencies that differ markedly in different laboratories, in part due to timing delays introduced by the computer hardware and software used for SRT measurement. We developed a calibrated and temporally precise SRT test to analyze the factors that influence SRT latencies in a paradigm where visual stimuli were presented to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 examined a community sample of 1469 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 65. Mean SRT latencies were short (231, 213 ms when corrected for hardware delays) and increased significantly with age (0.55 ms/year), but were unaffected by sex or education. As in previous studies, SRTs were prolonged at shorter SOAs and were slightly faster for stimuli presented in the visual field contralateral to the responding hand. Stimulus detection time (SDT) was estimated by subtracting movement initiation time, measured in a speeded finger tapping test, from SRTs. SDT latencies averaged 131 ms and were unaffected by age. Experiment 2 tested 189 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in a different laboratory using a larger range of SOAs. Both SRTs and SDTs were slightly prolonged (by 7 ms). SRT latencies increased with age while SDT latencies remained stable. Precise computer-based measurements of SRT latencies show that processing speed is as fast in contemporary populations as in the Victorian era, and that age-related increases in SRT latencies are due primarily to slowed motor output. PMID:25859198

  6. Factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of numerical competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-04-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression analyses, revealed that undergraduates exhibiting greater confidence in their mathematical and numeracy skills, as evidenced by their higher self-evaluation scores and their higher scores on the confidence sub-scale contributing to the measurement of attitude, possess more cohesive, rather than fragmented, conceptions of mathematics, and display more positive attitudes towards mathematics/numeracy. They also exhibit lower levels of mathematics anxiety. Students exhibiting greater confidence also tended to be those who were relatively young (i.e. 18-29 years), whose degree programmes provided them with opportunities to practise and further develop their numeracy skills, and who possessed higher pre-university mathematics qualifications. The multiple regression analysis revealed two positive predictors (overall attitude towards mathematics/numeracy and possession of a higher pre-university mathematics qualification) and five negative predictors (mathematics anxiety, lack of opportunity to practise/develop numeracy skills, being a more mature student, being enrolled in Health and Social Care compared with Science and Technology, and possessing no formal mathematics/numeracy qualification compared with a General Certificate of Secondary Education or equivalent qualification) accounted for approximately 64% of the variation in students' perceptions of their numerical competence. Although the results initially suggested that male students were significantly more confident than females, one compounding variable was almost certainly the students' highest pre-university mathematics or numeracy qualification, since a higher

  7. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian’an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55–2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22–1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12–2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21–1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04–1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48–2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01–1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64–1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41–4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended. PMID:27324884

  8. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  9. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.

  10. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  11. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

  12. Local Variability of Macular Thickness Measurements With SD-OCT and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Amini, Navid; Gornbein, Jeff; Henry, Sharon; Romero, Pablo; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the intrasession variability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-derived local macular thickness measures and explore influencing factors. Methods One hundred two glaucomatous eyes (102 patients) and 21 healthy eyes (21 subjects) with three good quality macular images during the same session were enrolled. Thickness measurements were calculated for 3° superpixels for the inner plexiform (IPL), ganglion cell (GCL), or retinal nerve fiber layers (mRNFL), GC/IPL, ganglion cell complex, and full macular thickness. Spatial distribution and magnitude of measurement errors (ME; differences between the 3 individual superpixel values and their mean) and association between MEs and thickness, age, axial length, and image quality were explored. Results MEs had a normal distribution with mostly random noise along with a small fraction of outliers (1.2%–6.6%; highest variability in mRNFL and on the nasal border) based on M-estimation. Boundaries of 95% prediction intervals for variability reached a maximum of 3 μm for all layers and diagnostic groups after exclusion of outliers. Correlation between proportion of outliers and thickness measures varied among various parameters. Age, axial length, or image quality did not influence MEs (P > 0.05 for both groups). Conclusions Local variability of macular SD-OCT measurements is low and uniform across the macula. The relationship between superpixel thickness and outlier proportion varied as a function of the parameter of interest. Translational Relevance Given the low and uniform variability within and across eyes, definition of an individualized ‘variability space' seems unnecessary. The variability measurements from this study could be used for designing algorithms for detection of glaucoma progression. PMID:27486555

  13. On the Relations among Regular, Equal Unique Variances, and Image Factor Analysis Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Bentler, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the conditions under which the matrix of factor loadings from the factor analysis model with equal unique variances will give a good approximation to the matrix of factor loadings from the regular factor analysis model. Extends the results to the image factor analysis model. Discusses implications for practice. (SLD)

  14. Influence of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms on PET Image Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpetas, G. E.; Michail, C. M.; Fountos, G. P.; Valais, I. G.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction. The simulated PET scanner was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL, the ordered subsets separable paraboloidal surrogate (OSSPS), the median root prior (MRP) and OSMAPOSL with quadratic prior, algorithms. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using fixed subsets and various iterations, as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase with increasing iterations. MTF also improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method, based on the TLC plane source, can be useful in the resolution assessment of PET scanners.

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  16. Media influence on the body image of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Z; Sullivan, E A; Davies, P S W; Hill, R J

    2006-01-01

    To study the media messages portrayed to children, 925 students, from 9 to up to 14 years of age, completed "The Sociocultural Influences Questionnaire." The media section is the focus of this paper, and the responses from three questions were selected to examine the media's influence to be slimmer, increase weight, or increase muscle size. While the girls and boys exhibited different levels of agreement with each media influence, both genders disagreed that media messages were implying they should gain weight. This is in agreement with the belief that the media perpetuates the ideal of thinness and there is a negative stigma associated with being overweight.

  17. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in 124I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the 124I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR+) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 × 32 algorithm or

  18. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  19. Factors That Influence the Size of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Toumi, Ralf; Czaja, Arnaud; Van Kan, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) size is an important feature setting the extent of coastal flooding, the size of storm surge and area threatened by landfall. The importance of TC size is demonstrated comparing Hurricanes Sandy in 2012 and Bret in 1999. As a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale category-3 hurricane, the radius of gale-force wind of Hurricane Sandy exceeded 800 km prior to landfall, and the storm caused catastrophic storm surge into the New Jersey and New York coastlines, and damage up to an estimated total of 50 billion. Hurricane Bret, on the other hand, was a more intense category-4 hurricane with a radius of gale-force wind of only 140 km. Although Bret's intensity is considerable, damage was reported to be relatively light, totalling an estimated 60 million. The difference impacts are mainly caused by the difference in size. Despite the fact that a wide range of observed TC sizes has been recognised, the underlying factors that control both individual storm size and the climatological size variation remain mysterious. Here an idealized full-physics numerical cyclone model and a modified hurricane steady-state model (λ model) for TC wind profile are used to investigate the influence of environmental temperature and initial vortex properties on TC size. In the simulation we find that a sea surface temperature increase, a temperature decrease in the upper troposphere, a large or strong initial vortex can lead to the extension of TC size. The numerical model simulations show a Gaussian distribution with width, λ, of the moist entropy in the boundary layer. The width, λ, has good linear relationship with the size changes caused by different factors. With regards to TC size and intensity, we find that, unlike the intensity prediction based on the maximum potential intensity theory, it seems that there is no upper limit for TC size providing there is sufficient latent heat flux. The increase of TC size at the steady stage also causes a slight drop in intensity. In

  20. Nanoscale Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Lu, Zhengfang; Baumann, Ewa; Vobornik, Dusan; Taylor, Rod; Stanimirovic, Danica; Johnston, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of some solid tumors is associated with overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and often correlates with poor prognosis. Near field scanning optical microscopy, a technique with subdiffraction-limited optical resolution, was used to examine the influence of two inhibitors (the chimeric 225 antibody and tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor AG1478) on the nanoscale clustering of EGFR in HeLa cells. The EGFR is organized in small clusters, average diameter of 150 nm, on the plasma membrane for both control and EGF-treated cells. The numbers of receptors in individual clusters vary from as few as one or two proteins to greater than 100. Both inhibitors yield an increased cluster density and an increase in the fraction of clusters with smaller diameters and fewer receptors. Exposure to AG1478 also decreases the fraction of EGFR that colocalizes with both rafts and caveolae. EGF stimulation results in a significant loss of the full-length EGFR from the plasma membrane with the concomitant appearance of low molecular mass proteolytic products. By contrast, AG1478 reduces the level of EGFR degradation. Changes in receptor clustering provide one mechanism for regulating EGFR signaling and are relevant to the design of strategies for therapeutic interventions based on modulating EGFR signaling. PMID:19959837

  1. Risk factors influencing morbidity and mortality in perforated peptic ulcer disease

    PubMed Central

    Taş, İlhan; Ülger, Burak Veli; Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Bozdağ, Zübeyir

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peptic ulcer perforation continues to be a major surgical problem. In this study, risk factors that influence morbidity and mortality in perforated peptic ulcer disease were examined. Material and Methods: Files of 148 patients who were included in the study due to peptic ulcer perforation between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Data regarding age, gender, complaints, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and hospital admission, physical examination findings, co-morbid diseases, laboratory and imaging findings, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: The study group included 129 (87.2%) male and 19 (12.8%) female patients. The mean age was 51.7±20 (15-88) years. Forty five patients (30.4%) had at least one co-morbid disease. In the postoperative period, 30 patients (20.3%) had complications. The most common complication was wound infection. Mortality was observed in 27 patients (18.2%). The most common cause of mortality was sepsis. Multivariate analysis revealed age over 60 years, presence of co-morbidities and Mannheim peritonitis index as independent risk factors for morbidity. Age over 60 years, time to admission and Mannheim peritonitis index were detected as independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and proper treatment are important in patients presenting with peptic ulcer perforation. PMID:25931940

  2. Using Visual Literacy to Help Adolescents Understand How Images Influence Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2009-01-01

    Students with physical disabilities face challenges because of the way they look, communicate, or behave. What children see--the visual--is often central to what they think, and in today's world the thinking of adolescents is being influenced by images more than ever before. Both still and moving images are capturing the attention of adolescents…

  3. The Influence of Corporate Image and Specificity of Candidate Qualifications on Response to Recruitment Advertisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, John A.; Paolillo, Joseph G. P.

    1982-01-01

    Examined possible impact of corporate image and the degree of specificity of candidate qualifications, on likelihood of reader response to recruitment advertisement. Data indicated that corporate image of advertiser significantly influenced likelihood of reader response whereas degree of specificity of candidate qualifications did not influence…

  4. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  5. Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

  6. The influence of colour on oculomotor behaviour during image perception.

    PubMed

    von Wartburg, Roman; Ouerhani, Nabil; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nyffeler, Thomas; Wurtz, Pascal; Hügli, Heinz; Müri, René M

    2005-09-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate how oculomotor behaviour depends on the availability of colour information in pictorial stimuli. Forty study participants viewed complex images in colour or grey-scale, while their eye movements were recorded. We found two major effects of colour. First, although colour increases the complexity of an image, fixations on colour images were shorter than on their grey-scale versions. This suggests that colour enhances discriminability and thus affects low-level perceptual processing. Second, colour decreases the similarity of spatial fixation patterns between participants. The role of colour on visual attention seems to be more important than previously assumed, in theoretical as well as methodological terms.

  7. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  8. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society.

  9. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society. PMID:19196856

  10. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Darko; Murić, Branka; Pantelić, Dejan; Panić, Bratimir

    2009-07-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  11. No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2014-05-01

    The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error(MSE) and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

  12. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - factors influencing outcome and disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Dittmar, Yves; Settmacher, Utz; Rauchfuß, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation can be a curative treatment in selected patients. However, there are several factors that influence disease-free survival after transplantation. This review addresses the pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that influence the risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:26576092

  13. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  14. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  15. Alteration of Influencing Factors of E-Learning Continued Intention for Different Degrees of Online Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the variation of influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention for different degrees of participation and to examine moderating effects of degrees of participation on influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention. Participants included 670 learners from an adult professional…

  16. 29 CFR 98.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your present responsibility. In making a debarment decision, the debarring official may consider the... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What factors may influence the debarring official's decision... (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 98.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This...

  17. 41 CFR 105-68.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility. In making a debarment decision, the debarring official may consider the following factors: (a... influence the debarring official's decision? 105-68.860 Section 105-68.860 Public Contracts and Property...) Debarment § 105-68.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists...

  18. Overcoming Misconceptions via Analogical Reasoning: Factors Influencing Understanding in a Teaching Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.; Clement, John

    In most research that investigates factors influencing the success of analogies in instruction, an underlying assumption is that students have little or no knowledge of the target situation. It is interesting to ask what factors influence the success of analogies when students believe they understand the target situation. If this understanding is…

  19. Factors Influencing Nontraditional Vocational Education Enrollments: A Literature Review. Research and Development Series No. 150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Louise; And Others

    The literature on factors influencing nontraditional enrollment choices may be approached in this order: background information on the labor force and vocational education, factors influencing nontraditional enrollments, and strategies for increasing nontraditional enrollments. Despite an increase of women in nontraditional occupations, research…

  20. 21 CFR 1404.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? 1404.880 Section 1404.880 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.880 What factors may influence...

  1. Shaping an Identity: Factors Influencing the Achievement of Newly Married, Gifted Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing professional achievement of three newly married, gifted women recently graduated from college. Major findings include that participants attributed a significant part of their identities to their status as high achievers. Identify was also influenced by foundational influences, personality characteristics,…

  2. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  3. Factors that Influence Policy Decisions in Literacy: Perspectives of Key Policy Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of key policy informants on the factors that they believed influence policy decisions in literacy education. Participants were selected because they had significantly influenced, or had attempted to influence, policy decisions in literacy at either the national or state level.…

  4. Correlation Analysis of Potential Factors Influencing Graft Maturity After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Chen, Shuang; Tao, Hongyue; Li, Hongyun; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postoperatively, signal changes of the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images commonly occurs, which may be a cause for concern. The signal intensity changes are usually expressed by signal/noise quotient (SNQ) value, representing graft maturity. To date, little is known about the factors influencing the SNQ value of the reconstructed ACL graft. Purpose: To evaluate ACL graft SNQ value and associated factors after ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Male patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using autograft or allograft tendon from September 2004 to September 2011 were randomly invited to take part in this investigation, including functional scores, physical examination, and MRI scan. The femoral side graft was fixed with Endobutton CL or Rigidfix pins, and the tibial side graft was fixed with a bio-intrafix. SNQ values of each graft were measured on MRI to represent graft maturity. Sagittal ACL angle, ACL–Blumensaat line angle, and medial and lateral posterior tibial slope (PTS) were measured using MRI 3-dimensional dual-echo steady-state images. Potential risk factors, including age, body mass index, postoperative time, Tegner activity scale (TAS), sagittal ACL angle, ACL–Blumensaat line angle, medial PTS, lateral PTS, and primary graft diameter, were tested for their association with the graft SNQ value by multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Results: A total of 104 male subjects (mean follow-up, 30.7 months) were examined, including 62 allograft and 42 autograft reconstructions. There was a significant association between graft SNQ and postoperative time (r = −0.431, P < .001), TAS (r = 0.295, P = .002), and ACL–Blumensaat line angle (r = −0.304, P = .002). Univariate regression analysis showed that TAS (β = 6.15, P < .001) positively correlated, postoperative time (β = −0.26, P < .001) negatively correlated, and ACL

  5. Assessment of brain perfusion using parametric and factor images extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Anne L.; Moody, Alan R.

    1998-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers a minimally invasive method of investigating brain blood flow. This paper describes two different methods of extracting quantitative and qualitative information from this data. The first approach is to generate parametric images showing blood flow, blood volume and time-to-peak activity on a pixel by pixel basis. The second approach uses factor analysis. Principal components are extracted from the data and these orthogonal factors are then rotated to give a set of oblique factors, which satisfy certain simple constraints. In most cases three factors can be identified: a background or non- enhancing factor, an early vascular factor which is strongly correlated to arterial flow, and a late vascular factor which is strongly correlated to venous flow. The parametric and factor images are complimentary in nature: the former provides quantitative information that is readily understood by the clinician, while the latter makes no a priori assumptions about the underlying physiology and also allows more subtle changes in cerebral blood flow to be assessed. The factor images may also be of great value in defining regions of interest over which to carry out a more detailed quantitative analysis. This dual approach can be readily adapted to assess perfusion in other organs such as the heart or kidneys.

  6. Factors Influencing Satisfaction for Family Practice Residency Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Lawrence E.; D'Amico, Frank

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 383 faculty in family medical-residency programs explored perceptions of 60 professional, scheduling, compensation, and regional factors as they related to overall job satisfaction and career plans, and 59 factors related to the initial decision to enter academic family medicine. Results indicate high levels of satisfaction, feeling…

  7. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  8. Factors that Influence the Identity Development of Punjabi American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Satinder Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to understand the factors that contribute to the identity development of Punjabi American women in college. The identified factors are useful for enhancing the educational and psychological development of Punjabi American women in college. A qualitative phenomenological design was implemented to collect data from…

  9. Why Teachers Leave: Factors that Influence Retention and Resignation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersaint, Gladis; Lewis, Jennifer; Potter, Robert; Meisels, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior is used to examine continuing teachers' plans to remain or resign and the likelihood of resigned teachers to return to teaching in the next 3 years. Specifically, this study examined factors that encourage or hinder resigned teachers from returning to teaching, the importance of such factors, and the importance…

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model i...

  11. Management factors influencing fertility in synchronized and natural breeding programs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms involved in pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle are complex. This review has focused on some of the factors that affect pregnancy rates in both natural service and AI and synchronized and non-synchronized breeding programs. One of the best methods to look at factors influen...

  12. Factors that Influence Community College Faculty Participation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Quinn, Lisa Rosanne

    The purpose of this study was to determine what factors motivated community college faculty to participate in distance education. It examined the following factors from the perspective of faculty and division chairs: (1) preference toward synchronous and asynchronous course delivery; (2) rewards for distance education faculty; (3) rewards for…

  13. Influence of human factors on performance of Chinese speech recognition systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Jiang, Q; Yu, T

    1996-08-01

    Human factors affecting the performance of the speaker dependent isolated Chinese speech recognition system (SRS) were studied. The results showed that the training mode and dialect factors had significant influence upon recognition accuracy; speaker's psychological factor, cooperativeness and educational background had certain influence, while factors such as sex, age, and profession of the speaker had less influence on recognition performance. With the results taken into consideration, ways for improving performance of the speech recognition systems were explored from the point of view of man-machine integration.

  14. Factors Contributing to University Image: The Postgraduate Students' Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaz, Asal; Hashemi, Amin; Atashgah, Maryam S. Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Despite several studies having been conducted to examine organizational image from a business perspective, there has not been adequate research in the area of perceived image in nonprofit organizations such as universities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the factors contributing to university image, from the postgraduate students'…

  15. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM.

  16. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilaire, Estelle; Sarrut, David; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichiţa

    2016-04-01

    In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo simulation of the proton irradiation, through the Compton imaging of the PG distribution, up to the image reconstruction with a statistical MLEM method. We identify specific PG energy windows that are more relevant to detect discrepancies with the treatment plan. We find that for the simulated Compton device, the incomplete absorption of the photons with energy above about 2 MeV prevents the observation of the PG distributions at specific energies. It also leads to blurred images and smooths the distal slope of the 1D PG profiles obtained as projections on the central beam axis. We show that a selection of the events produced by γ photons having deposited almost all their energy in the camera allows to largely improve the images, a result that emphasizes the importance of the choice of the detector. However, this initial-energy-based selection is not accessible in practice. We then propose a method to estimate the range of the PG profile both for specific deposited-energy windows and for the full spectrum emission. The method relies on two parameters. We use a learning approach for their estimation and we show that it allows to detect few millimeter shifts of the PG profiles.

  18. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population.

  19. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. PMID:20739233

  20. Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha genetic predisposing factors can influence clinical severity in nephropathia epidemica.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Groeneveld, Paul H P; Colson, Paul; Huizinga, Tom W J; Van Ranst, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Severe human infection with Hantavirus is characterized by high fever, cold chills, thrombocytopenia, arterial hypotension, acute renal failure, and/or adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pulmonary involvement, but the clinical course varies greatly between individuals. We investigated whether genetically determined differences in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production can influence the severity of Hantavirus disease. We studied a TNF-alpha single-nucleotide promoter polymorphism (SNP) at position -238 (a guanine [G]-to-adenine [A] transition) and ex vivo TNF-alpha production in a recall study of 36 Belgian patients who had a serologically proven form of Puumala virus-induced Hantavirus infection with the kidney as main target organ. In our study, the highest creatinine levels were found in patients with the lowest ex vivo TNF-alpha production. Creatinine levels correlated inversely with TNF-alpha production (R = -0.35, p < 0.05). The number of thrombocytes was significantly lower in patients with the GA-238 genotype (low TNF-alpha producers) compared with patients with the GG-238 genotype. In our study, genetically determined low production of TNF-alpha was associated with some parameters indicating a more severe clinical course of Puumala Hantavirus infection in humans, possibly by impaired activation of TNF-alpha-dependent antiviral mechanisms, which could in turn result in decreased clearance of Hantavirus. PMID:16987073

  2. The influence of image position on urban place detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ability of ERTS-1 MSS imagery to detect small urban places appears to vary with the position of the place in the image, as well as from band to band. Urban places of smallest size (approximately 2000 population) seem more detectable in the westernmost 3.5 degree scan segment. A relationship may exist between shadowing of vertical features and detectability.

  3. Biosocial factors influencing women to become prostitutes in India.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, M; Bandyopadhyay, S; Duttagupta, C

    1994-01-01

    Based on materials collected during a study of risk factors associated with cervix cancer among prostitutes in Domjur, Howrah, West Bengal, this report explores various biosocial factors which may lead women to prostitution. When family and marital ties fail or disintegrate for various reasons, the life situations which a woman encounters may themselves generate a "process" of anchorlessness. The failure of family support along with the lack of ability to provide for themselves due to poverty and illiteracy were key factors why the women in this study had adopted prostitution.

  4. [Influence of school environmental factors and learning on pupils' health].

    PubMed

    Shpangenberg, St; Boeva, B

    2003-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research conducted at 10 schools of different education types (general educational school, specialized gymnasiums, language schools, colleges, lyceums) that are situated in Sofia. A relationship between the factors that characterize school and the training environment, and the health status of pupils was established by using currently available statistical methods. The findings show that the discrepancy between the school and training environment and the sanitary requirements and standards affect both the general and school age-specific morbidity rates in pupils. Knowing the factors, which characterize school in accordance with the claimed educational goals, and schooling factors enables one to arrange all schools.

  5. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kelly S.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the impact of diversity in higher education, it is important to consider the critical role that diversity plays in the educational process. This requires a broader understanding of the influence diversity can have on the curricular, co-curricular, and interpersonal experience of a developing college student (Denson & Chang,…

  6. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction and Perceived Learning in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Elena; Clara, Marc; Linder-Vanberschot, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Online education, with its genuine characteristics, has changed the way students experience learning processes. This fact led research to study the aspects of online learning settings that influence the way students experience their learning, and several aspects were identified from this effort. However, usually each study focuses on only one or a…

  7. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  8. Information Systems: An Exploration of the Factors Influencing Effective Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Examines expectations about a computerized student management-information system (SMIS) and how these perceptions influence effective use. Investigates relationships between design, use and effects in developing a model for understanding strategies for effective implementation and use. Focuses on a public school district in Texas. (AEF)

  9. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  10. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  11. The role of x-ray Swank factor in energy-resolving photon-counting imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved x-ray imaging has the potential to improve contrast-to-noise ratio by measuring the energy of each interacting photon and applying optimal weighting factors. The success of energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors relies on the ability of an x-ray detector to accurately measure the energy of each interacting photon. However, the escape of characteristic emissions and Compton scatter degrades spectral information. This article makes the theoretical connection between accuracy and imprecision in energy measurements with the x-ray Swank factor for a-Se, Si, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}-based detectors. Methods: For a detector that implements adaptive binning to sum all elements in which x-ray energy is deposited for a single interaction, energy imprecision is shown to depend on the Swank factor for a large element with x rays incident at the center. The response function for each converter material is determined using Monte Carlo methods and used to determine energy accuracy, Swank factor, and relative energy imprecision in photon-energy measurements. Results: For each material, at energies below the respective K edges, accuracy is close to unity and imprecision is only a few percent. Above the K-edge energies, characteristic emission results in a drop in accuracy and precision that depends on escape probability. In Si, and to some extent a-Se, Compton-scatter escape also degrades energy precision with increasing energy. The influence of converter thickness on energy accuracy and imprecision is modest for low-Z materials but becomes important when using high-Z materials at energies greater than the K-edge energies. Conclusions: Accuracy and precision in energy measurements by EPC detectors are determined largely by the energy-dependent x-ray Swank factor. Modest decreases in the Swank factor (5%-15%) result in large increases in relative imprecision (30%-40%).

  12. Perceived quality of wood images influenced by the skewness of image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Shigehito; Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2015-08-01

    The shape of image luminance histograms is related to material perception. We investigated how the luminance histogram contributed to improvements in the perceived quality of wood images by examining various natural wood and adhesive vinyl sheets with printed wood grain. In the first experiment, we visually evaluated the perceived quality of wood samples. In addition, we measured the colorimetric parameters of the wood samples and calculated statistics of image luminance. The relationship between visual evaluation scores and image statistics suggested that skewness and kurtosis affected the perceived quality of wood. In the second experiment, we evaluated the perceived quality of wood images with altered luminance skewness and kurtosis using a paired comparison method. Our result suggests that wood images are more realistic if the skewness of the luminance histogram is slightly negative.

  13. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  14. The influence of respiratory motion on CT image volume definition

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Romero, Ruth Castro-Tejero, Pablo

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy treatments are based on geometric and density information acquired from patient CT scans. It is well established that breathing motion during scan acquisition induces motion artifacts in CT images, which can alter the size, shape, and density of a patient's anatomy. The aim of this work is to examine and evaluate the impact of breathing motion on multislice CT imaging with respiratory synchronization (4DCT) and without it (3DCT). Methods: A specific phantom with a movable insert was used. Static and dynamic phantom acquisitions were obtained with a multislice CT. Four sinusoidal breath patterns were simulated to move known geometric structures longitudinally. Respiratory synchronized acquisitions (4DCT) were performed to generate images during inhale, intermediate, and exhale phases using prospective and retrospective techniques. Static phantom data were acquired in helical and sequential mode to define a baseline for each type of respiratory 4DCT technique. Taking into account the fact that respiratory 4DCT is not always available, 3DCT helical image studies were also acquired for several CT rotation periods. To study breath and acquisition coupling when respiratory 4DCT was not performed, the beginning of the CT image acquisition was matched with inhale, intermediate, or exhale respiratory phases, for each breath pattern. Other coupling scenarios were evaluated by simulating different phantom and CT acquisition parameters. Motion induced variations in shape and density were quantified by automatic threshold volume generation and Dice similarity coefficient calculation. The structure mass center positions were also determined to make a comparison with their theoretical expected position. Results: 4DCT acquisitions provided volume and position accuracies within ±3% and ±2 mm for structure dimensions >2 cm, breath amplitude ≤15 mm, and breath period ≥3 s. The smallest object (1 cm diameter) exceeded 5% volume variation for the breath

  15. The influence of noise on image quality in phase-diverse coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittler, H. P. A.; van Riessen, G. A.; Jones, M. W. M.

    2016-02-01

    Phase-diverse coherent diffraction imaging provides a route to high sensitivity and resolution with low radiation dose. To take full advantage of this, the characteristics and tolerable limits of measurement noise for high quality images must be understood. In this work we show the artefacts that manifest in images recovered from simulated data with noise of various characteristics in the illumination and diffraction pattern. We explore the limits at which images of acceptable quality can be obtained and suggest qualitative guidelines that would allow for faster data acquisition and minimize radiation dose.

  16. Influencing Factors on Reproducibility and Stability of MRI NIPAM Polymer Gel Dosimeter

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Farideh; Farajollahi, Alireza; Movafaghi, Ali; Naseri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: At present, the polymer gel dosimeter is considered to be the best possible dosimeter for measuring 3-dimesional radiation dose distribution in radiotherapy. These gels are normally toxic; therefore, manufacturing, handling and discarding them require special attention. In order to find less toxic recipe, N-isopropyle acrylamide polymer gel (NIPAM) was introduced. In this study, the reproducibility and stability of NIPAM polymer gel dose response together with some influencing factors related to MR imaging were studied. Methods: The NIPAM gel was prepared according to a method, described by senden et al in 2006. The gels were irradiated approximately 2 h after manufacturing and MR images of the gel were made 24 h after irradiation. The effects of different batches, post-irradiation time and the MRI room temperature on reproducibility and stability of polymer gel dose response were explored by analyzing the NMR response (R2) of the gel. Results:: In a fixed temperature, the response of the gel was found to be stable 24 h after irradiation. The results showed that the dose response of the NIPAM polymer gel is highly reproducible in the same and different batches of chemical. No inhomogeneity was observed for magnetic fields in the specified position of measurements and 5°C fluctuation was recorded for MRI room temperature. Conclusion: Fluctuation in MRI room temperature necessitates that stringent attention to be paid to controlling the gel temperature at the time of imaging. The new formulation of polymer gel ensures stability of the gels’ spatial resolution and makes it a suitable dosimeter for distant or remote measurements. PMID:24455479

  17. [Research on Cardiac Structure and Function in the Overweight and Obese population and Influence Factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Han, Lina; Huang, He; Yu, Yerong; Li, Jiangbo; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-02-01

    In this study we performed Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI), two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D- STI) and three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) on enrolled healthy, overweight and obese groups (34 subjects in each group), respectively, to analyze cardiac structure and its function. Compared with healthy group, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain(GAS) and global radial strain (GRS) decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to global early diastolic strain rate of left ventricle (E/e'sr) (r = 0.466, P < 0.001), GLS (r = 0.502, P < 0. 001), GCS (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), GAS (r = 0.535, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) were correlated with body mass index (BMI). E/e'sr (r = 0.37, P = 0.003), GLS (r = 0.455, P < 0.001), GCS (r = 0.282, P = 0.02), GAS (r = 0.412, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.471, P < 0.001) were correlated with free fatty acid (FFA). Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that BMI was independently correlated with E/e'sr, GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) was independently correlated with GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. FFA was independently correlated with E/e'sr (P < 0.05). The study showed that cardiac structure changed and impaired left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function in overweight and obes population. Moreover, BMI, WHR and FFA may be independent influence factors of cardiac function in overweight and obese population. PMID:27382752

  18. Research on the influence of site factors on the expansion of construction land in the Pearl River Delta, China: By using GIS and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yuyao; Zhang, Hongou; Liu, Kai; Wu, Qitao

    2013-04-01

    Landsat TM images of the Pearl River Delta taken in 1988, 1998 and 2006 are used to explore the site factors that influence the construction land expansion in this study. Several site factors, including landscape types and the distances to roads, coastlines, or city centers, had significant impacts on the expansion of construction land, influencing the direction, scale and intensity of the expansion. The site factors serve as important natural and spatial indicators of the preferable locales for construction land expansion, describing tendencies to expand to locations in suburbs, plains and areas near roads or coastlines.

  19. How does the pathophysiological context influence delivery of bone growth factors?☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Suárez-González, Darilis; Khalil, Andrew S.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    “Orthobiologics” represents an important category of therapeutics for the regeneration of bone defects caused by injuries or diseases, and bone growth factors are a particularly rapidly growing sub-category. Clinical application of bone growth factors has accelerated in the last two decades with the introduction of BMPs into clinical bone repair. Optimal use of growth factor-mediated treatments heavily relies on controlled delivery, which can substantially influence the local growth factor dose, release kinetics, and biological activity. The characteristics of the surrounding environment, or “context”, during delivery can dictate growth factor loading efficiency, release and biological activity. This review discusses the influence of the surrounding environment on therapeutic delivery of bone growth factors. We specifically focus on pathophysiological components, including soluble components and cells, and how they can actively influence the therapeutic delivery and perhaps efficacy of bone growth factors. PMID:25453269

  20. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps.

  1. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps. PMID:3925937

  2. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns. PMID:22063690

  3. Influence of formulation factors on the preparation of zein nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Podaralla, Satheesh; Perumal, Omathanu

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of various formulation parameters on the preparation of zein nanoparticles. 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin (DHC) was used as a model hydrophobic compound. The influence of pH of the aqueous phase, buffer type, ionic strength, surfactant, and zein concentration on particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles were studied. Smaller nanoparticles were formed when the pH was close to the isoelectric point of zein. DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles prepared using citrate buffer (pH 7.4) was better than phosphate buffer in preventing particle aggregation during lyophilization. The ionic strength did not have a significant influence on the particle size of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles. A combination of Pluronic F68 and lecithin in 2:1 ratio stabilized the zein nanoparticles. An increase in zein concentration led to increase in particle size of DHC-loaded zein nanoparticles. The use of optimal conditions produced DHC-loaded nanoparticles of 256 ± 30 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 78 ± 7%. Overall, the study demonstrated the optimal conditions to prepare zein nanoparticles for drug encapsulation.

  4. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organisations in recent years, particularly in nursing, because of potential labour shortages, their effect on patient care, and the associated costs. Work satisfaction is a major factor in nurse retention and the delivery of high quality care, but rapid changes in healthcare services have placed more demands on nurses and this has increased the need for organisations to consider ways to sustain and improve nurses' job satisfaction. To achieve this, they need to understand the factors that affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This article reports the results of a literature review that was aimed at examining and reaching a deeper understanding of the factors related to nurses' job satisfaction.

  5. Factors that influence effective evidence-based medicine instruction.

    PubMed

    Mi, Misa

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a health care practice is being incorporated into education programs across the spectrum of medical education to develop lifelong learning skills and to enhance the practice of evidence-based health care. Since improving the quality of patient care is the ultimate goal of EBM, EBM learning must be integrated with clinical application, and resulted outcomes must be reflected in learning transfer (or EBM practice) within the context of solving patient problems. Different factors may constitute the context or environment in which EBM is learned, practiced, and sustained. However, these contextual factors are seldom considered and examined in the development, implementation, and evaluation of EBM instruction for learners at different levels. This article will introduce several contextual factors as tips and strategies that affect EBM learning and transfer. Also included in the article are recommended practices for designing effective EBM instruction that would contribute to a sustainable change in learner behavior. PMID:24180650

  6. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organisations in recent years, particularly in nursing, because of potential labour shortages, their effect on patient care, and the associated costs. Work satisfaction is a major factor in nurse retention and the delivery of high quality care, but rapid changes in healthcare services have placed more demands on nurses and this has increased the need for organisations to consider ways to sustain and improve nurses' job satisfaction. To achieve this, they need to understand the factors that affect job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. This article reports the results of a literature review that was aimed at examining and reaching a deeper understanding of the factors related to nurses' job satisfaction. PMID:25921909

  7. Factors influencing medical information seeking among African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Alicia K; Sellergren, Sarah A; Manfredi, Clara; Williams, Maryann

    2002-01-01

    Qualitative research methods were used to explore factors that may affect medical information seeking, treatment engagement, and emotional adjustment among African American cancer patients. Focus group findings suggest that an array of cultural and socioeconomic factors plays important roles in the behavior of African American cancer patients. Participants described a number of important barriers and facilitators of medical information seeking and treatment participation. Factors linked to the health care-related behaviors and adjustment of African American cancer patients included limited knowledge and misinformation about cancer, mistrust of the medical community, concerns about privacy, lack of insurance, religious beliefs, and emotional issues such as fear and stigma associated with seeking emotional support. Recommendations are made that may assist mental and physical health providers in improving patient information and mental and physical health outcomes of African American cancer patients.

  8. Computer Self-Efficacy and Factors Influencing E-Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Tien-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of system and instructor factors on e-learning effectiveness under the interactions of computer self-efficacy. In this study, the factors of the e-learning system are functionality, interaction, and response. The factors of the e-learning instructor are attitude, technical skills,…

  9. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  10. 29 CFR 1471.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official's... CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.860 What factors... factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to debar you and the length...

  11. 29 CFR 1471.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official's... CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1471.860 What factors... factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to debar you and the length...

  12. 41 CFR 105-68.860 - What factors may influence the debarring official's decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What factors may...) Debarment § 105-68.860 What factors may influence the debarring official's decision? This section lists the mitigating and aggravating factors that the debarring official may consider in determining whether to...

  13. Factors influencing to earthquake caused economical losses on urban territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.

    2005-12-01

    Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of

  14. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  15. Understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction with ambulance services.

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, Svetlana; Tan, P J; Dunn, S P; Bizjak-Mikic, M

    2016-01-01

    The quality of ambulance services has an immense impact on patients' future well-being and quality of life. Patient satisfaction is one of the key metrics for evaluating the quality of this service. Yet, the patient satisfaction measurement may be limited in its ability to accurately reflect this service quality, and even reflect factors beyond the patient experiences. We analyze 10 years of survey data to reveal a number of factors that systematically bias ambulance satisfaction ratings. Taking into account these biases provides more robust comparison of ambulance performance over time or across different jurisdictions. PMID:27295008

  16. Factors Affecting University Image Formation among Prospective Higher Education Students: The Case of International Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now attempt to construct images of these institutions when deciding where to study. The aim of this…

  17. Physical image quality evaluation of a selenium-based digital x-ray imaging system under the influence of a scatter reduction grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidl, Hagen; Reichel, G.

    1999-05-01

    We investigated the influence of a scatter reduction grid on the spatial resolution properties of a digital X-ray imaging system (Philips Medical Systems, Thoravision). The spatial resolution using a grid was nearly independent of the X-ray energy as the modulation transfer function (MTF) showed. Maximum spatial resolution was reduced because of the grid in case of a constant exposure dose. The amount of absorbed photons raised and Wiener spectra were increased by the factor of ten. The scattered radiation was reduced by the grid at higher spatial frequencies and the Wiener spectra of different exposure parameters reached approximately the same value. The measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) showed the influence of absorption characteristics of the detector (aSe) on the resulting image quality. Detector absorption efficiency increased at a lower X-ray energy. This resulted in the opportunity to compensate the effects of low signal dynamics because of higher grid absorption. Inserting a filter in the X-ray beam altered the shape of the photon energy spectrum and influences image quality by changing the contrast. For this reason, we investigated the spectral composition of the X-rays, too. There were advantages using additional filtration opposite the scatter reduction grid. However, the scattered radiation was not reduced by the filtration and therefore this did not improve the signal-to- noise characteristic. The X-ray scatter reduction grid increased the detail detectability in high absorption image areas. However, without greater exposure doses, the use of a scatter reduction grid did not have as much advantage as expected. A detector material with higher quantum efficiency could solve this problem.

  18. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  19. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  20. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries.

  1. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  2. Factors Influencing Grant Writing of K-12 Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turpin, Tammye; Cage, Bob N.

    A study examined whether number of years of teaching, number of grant proposals written, and level of funding received were distinguished among K-12 teachers in relationship to factors perceived as motivating grant writing; obstacles encountered in grant writing; and needed support for continued grant writing. Questionnaires were mailed to 121…

  3. Organisational and Task Factors Influencing Teachers' Professional Development at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Van der Heijden, Béatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers' professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has become a permanent issue on the agenda of schools…

  4. Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived…

  5. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gerry R.

    This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…

  6. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  7. Factors Influencing College Persistence for First-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sheilynda; Lim, Doo Hun; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Using Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of institutional departure, this study examined demographic variables, family characteristics, precollege and college academic performance factors, and extent to which mandatory placement in remedial courses predict persistence at a public research institution. This study also examined the relationship…

  8. Personal Factors that Influence Deaf College Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertini, John A.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the "Noel-Levitz College Student…

  9. Assessing Factors Influencing Student Academic Success in Law School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detwiler, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on student academic success of law students is limited to mostly single institution studies, and as such, a nationwide, multi-institutional empirical study of the factors that predict student academic success is greatly needed by higher education scholars, law school admission officers, faculty, and administrators. This dissertation…

  10. Strategies and Factors Influencing Public School District Referendums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffacher, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are in need of a successful plan of action for school district referendums. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceived effectiveness between factors and strategies surrounding referendums and the passage of those measures meant to improve school funding and facilities. The findings from Johnson and…

  11. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  12. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Kragelund, Birthe B; Olsen, Ole H

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa. The resulting variant exhibited increased intrinsic activity, concurrent with maturation of the active site, a less accessible N-terminus, and, interestingly, an altered macromolecular substrate specificity reflected in an increased ability to cleave factor IX (FIX) and a decreased rate of FX activation compared to that of wild-type FVIIa. In complex with tissue factor, activation of FIX, but not of FX, returned to normal. Deconvolution of the loop graft in order to identify important side chain substitutions resulted in the mutant Val(158{21})Asp/Leu(287{144})Thr/Ala(294{152})Ser/Glu(296{154}) Ile/Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation cascade due to its prominent position in the macromolecular exosite and possibly via its interaction with the corresponding position in the substrate (i.e. FIX or FX). PMID:17182039

  13. Socioeconomic Factors Influence Physical Activity and Sport in Quebec Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Lebel, Alexandre; Robitaille, Éric; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: School environments providing a wide selection of physical activities and sufficient facilities are both essential and formative to ensure young people adopt active lifestyles. We describe the association between school opportunities for physical activity and socioeconomic factors measured by low-income cutoff index, school size…

  14. Personal factors that influence deaf college students' academic success.

    PubMed

    Albertini, John A; Kelly, Ronald R; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the Noel-Levitz College Student Inventory Form B and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, second edition (LASSI). Entering students in 3 successive cohorts (total n =437) participated in this study. Results show that in addition to entry measurements of reading and mathematic skills, personal factors contributed to the academic performance of students in their first quarter in college. The Noel-Levitz provided the comparatively better predictive value of academic performance: Motivation for Academic Study Scale (e.g., desire to finish college). The LASSI also showed statistically significant predictors, the Self-Regulation Component (e.g., time management) and Will Component (e.g., self-discipline), but accounted for relatively less variability in the students' initial grade point averages. For this group of underprepared students, results show that personal factors can play a significant role in academic success. Deaf students' personal factors are discussed as they relate to other first-year college students and to their subsequent academic performance and persistence.

  15. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries. PMID:10270713

  16. Influence of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Latman, N S

    1987-01-15

    There appears to be ample evidence to conclude that various meteorological factors do exert a significant impact on some people with various rheumatic diseases. The data is, however, crude relative to our general understanding. Most of this research on RA has dealt with the primary signs and symptoms of inflammation. We know, however, many of the chemical mediators of inflammation. It seems like a logical progression of research to determine the effects of the meteorological/atmospheric factors of concern on these specific intrinsic mediators of inflammation. In general, gout can be very well controlled through medication. The evidence suggests, however, that we may gain a much better understanding of how atmospheric factors such as temperature can effect the body through changes in its physico-chemical processes by using Gout as a model. The work with SLE has already yielded useful applications. Sun screening pharmaceuticals have been quite successful in reducing exacerbations of symptoms. But we don't know why only some people are photosensitive. The previous research on the effects of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases has illustrated key issues in methodology: large sample sizes are critical, objective and quantifiable disease variables are important, the variables measured must be specific to the questions investigated, the diseases investigated must be as specifically and accurately defined as possible, and the various aspects of 'weather' to be investigated must be specifically defined and quantified. It is apparent that there is much more important and useful work to be performed before we can understand the effects of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases.

  17. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F

    2015-10-01

    Abstract. Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10  μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications. PMID:26502233

  18. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  19. Research on Influencing Factors of Salespeople's Empowerment Readiness in Green Energy Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    As market competition in green energy enterprises continues to intensify, marketing activities are enlarging and customer demand is increasingly growing and diversifying. More and more green energy enterprises have empowered their own salespeople. And managers in green energy enterprises are more concerned with the issues which employees suit to be empowered and which factors will influence employee empowerment readiness. This paper proposes the definition of salespeople's empowerment readiness, analyzes influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, discusses the effect mechanism of influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, finally, and puts forward some suggestions to enhance salespeople's empowerment readiness from the perspective of human resource management practice.

  20. Analysis of factors influencing organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oraman, Yasemin; Unakitan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influences on the purchasing decisions of fruit and vegetable consumers and presents findings from a survey conducted with 385 respondents living in urban areas in Istanbul, Turkey. It uses a binary logistic model to estimate factor effects in organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Turkey. The results indicate that concern for human health and safety is a key factor that influences consumer preferences for organic food. Findings will help organic product suppliers understand the key factors influencing consumer purchasing and consumption behaviors. PMID:21888573

  1. [Influence Factors on Monomer Conversion of Dental Composite Resin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yuntao; Wang, Fanghui; Wang, Qingshan

    2015-04-01

    Dental composite resin is a kind of material which has been widely used in dental restoration. Research has found that the influence of residual monomer on the material mechanical, chemical and biological properties cannot be ignored. This paper elaborates these harms of residual monomers. The effects of resin matrix, inorganic filler and initiating system, illumination, secondarily treatment on the degree of conversion were also analyzed. The paper also discusses the effective measures to increase the conversion, and offers theoretical basis for the clinical application and development of composite resin.

  2. Environmental factors influencing isolation of enteroviruses from polluted surface waters.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, T G; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-05-01

    The influence of water quality upon the concentration of virus on location was assessed in field studies conducted in the Houston ship channel, Galveston Bay, and Houston waste treatment plants. Clarification of polluted surface waters was accomplished with minimal loss of virus. Virus from clarified sewage effluents and saline waters was then adsorbed and concentrated on textile and membrane filter surfaces. Direct measurements of virus from large volumes of polluted surface waters under existing field conditions were then made using the virus concentrator equipment.

  3. Factors influencing the utilisation of health services by rural men.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Dermot; Lower, Tony

    2002-01-01

    This research identified the barriers and enablers that influence the utilisation of health services by rural men in the Midwest region of Western Australia. The methodology was based on participatory action research, including qualitative assessments to determine the issues for a larger quantitative study. Four variables were identified as predictors for the use of health services: those who attended for preventive reasons; those not affected by seasonal work; men who thought a medical telephone line was not important; and those who did not consider privacy an important issue. Modification of health service delivery to men could potentially enhance appropriate utilisation of health services in rural areas.

  4. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-09-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with 29 young people from three age groups (9-10, 13-14 and 16-18 years). An inductive thematic analysis identified three key factors as influencing food choices. These factors included intra-individual factors: the link between food preferences and awareness of healthy eating; intra-familial factors: the role of the home food environment; and extra-familial factors: eating away from the home. Findings indicate that there were developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing food choice. Among adolescents, parental control began to diminish and adolescents exercised increased autonomy over their food choices compared with children. To develop effective nutrition interventions, it is important to gather child and adolescent input regarding factors perceived as influencing their food choices. PMID:20382978

  5. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  6. Factors influencing elastic stresses in double cantilever beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    An elastic stress analysis was conducted for a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen using finite-element methods. The purpose of this study was to identify the important parameters that influence stresses ahead of the delamination front. The study focused on an aluminum DCB specimen, typical of adhesively-bonded joints, and on a graphite/epoxy specimen representing a cocured composite. Opening mode sigma sub y stresses ahead of the crack tip were calculated and compared with those for a monolithic reference specimen. Beyond the singularity-dominated region very near the crack tip, the sigma sub y distribution was elevated compared to the monolithic case. Both the adhesive thickness and the adherend transverse (thickness-direction) stiffness were found to influence the elevation of sigma sub y. In contrast, adherend thickness and longitudinal stiffness has very little effect on this stress distribution. Estimates for adhesive yielding beyond the aluminum DCB crack tip showed that both the area and height of the plastic zone increased to a peak value for increasing adhesive thicknesses. Results from this study would provide insight for comparing data from different DCB specimens and for designing new DCB specimens.

  7. Factors influencing elastic stresses in double cantilever beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    An elastic stress analysis was conducted for a double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen using finite-element methods. The purpose of this study was to identify the important parameters that influence stresses ahead of the delamination front. The study focused on an aluminum DCB specimen, typical of adhesively-bonded joints, and on a graphite/epoxy specimen representing a cocured composite. Opening mode sigma sub y stresses ahead of the crack tip were calculated and compared with those for a monolithic reference specimen. Beyond the singularity-dominated region very near the crack tip, the sigma sub y distribution was elevated compared to the monolithic case. Both the adhesive thickness and the adherend transverse (thickness-direction) stiffness were found to influence the elevation of sigma sub y. In contrast, adherend thickness and longitudinal stiffness has very little effect on this stress distribution. Estimates for adhesive yielding beyond the aluminum DCB crack tip showed that both the area and height of the plastic zone increased to a peak value for increasing adhesive thicknesses. Results from this study would provide insight for comparing data from different DCB specimens and for designing new DCB specimens.

  8. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. PMID:26647016

  9. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  10. Examining extrinsic factors that influence product acceptance: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance.

  11. KIR Gene Content in Amerindians Indicates Influence of Demographic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Danillo Gardenal; Piovezan, Bruno Zagonel; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza

    2013-01-01

    Although the KIR gene content polymorphism has been studied worldwide, only a few isolated or Amerindian populations have been analyzed. This extremely diverse gene family codifies receptors that are expressed mainly in NK cells and bind HLA class I molecules. KIR-HLA combinations have been associated to several diseases and population studies are important to comprehend their evolution and their role in immunity. Here we analyzed, by PCR-SSP (specific sequencing priming), 327 individuals from four isolated groups of two of the most important Brazilian Amerindian populations: Kaingang and Guarani. The pattern of KIR diversity among these and other ten Amerindian populations disclosed a wide range of variation for both KIR haplotypes and gene frequencies, indicating that demographic factors, such as bottleneck and founder effects, were the most important evolutionary factors in shaping the KIR polymorphism in these populations. PMID:23451080

  12. Factors influencing sexual activity after prostatectomy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zohar, J; Meiraz, D; Maoz, B; Durst, N

    1976-09-01

    Between 16 and 30 per cent of all prostatectomy patients become impotent after an operation for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Since the surgical technique does not seem to be the factor responsible for such a serious problem, more accentuated by the fact that this operation is becoming increasingly frequent with the increase in life expectancy, an assessment of 15 patients before and after prostatectomy is presented. With a statistical analysis of a structured interview (including a mini-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test before and after the operation) 3 main differentiating factors emerged between the potent and the impotent group: 1) the level of anxiety exhibited by the patient, 2) whether the patients received an explanation about the surgery and its outcome prior to the operation and 3) the patient's general satisfaction with life. PMID:957502

  13. Factors Influencing the Onset of Chronic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holland, W. W.; Hall, T.; Bennett, A. E.; Elliott, A.

    1969-01-01

    To investigate the effect of different environmental and personal factors on ventilatory function 10,971 children resident and going to school in four areas of Kent were examined. Details of past respiratory illnesses were obtained by a questionary completed by the parents; the examination included measurement of height, weight, and peak expiratory flow. Area of residence, social class, family size, and a past history of pneumonia, bronchitis, or asthma were found to be associated with differing levels of peak expiratory flow. These four factors acted independently, and the effects were additive. It is suggested that environment in the early years of life can produce adverse changes which may exist throughout life and contribute to the development of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:5780426

  14. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behavior in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political, and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy. PMID:20301020

  15. Patients’ Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

    2011-01-01

    Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

  16. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  17. Quantification of hydrodynamic factors influencing cell lateral migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Stephanie; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-11-01

    The study of the migration of blood cells perpendicular to the direction of blood flow, or lateral migration, is motivated by the differing behavior of the various types of blood cells. In vivo, red blood cells are observed to flow in the central region of the blood vessel, particularly in the microcirculation, while other types of cells in the blood, including white blood cells and platelets, are observed to flow disproportionately near the vessel wall. However, the specifics regarding the effect of hydrodynamic and biological factors are still unknown. Thus, in this study, we aim to quantify the effect of hydrodynamic factors on a cell model numerically using the boundary integral method. By using the boundary integral method, we can isolate the effect of a single hydrodynamic factor, such as a wall or given flow distribution, in an otherwise infinite flow. Then, we can use the obtained numerical results to develop a semi-analytical model describing the cell lateral migration dependent on only the flow geometry and the viscosity ratio between the cell and external fluid.

  18. Influences on mercury bioaccumulation factors for the Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Bowers, J A; Littrell, J W; Guanlao, A V

    2004-02-01

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118-km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species-specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat, and season-related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10(6) for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10(6) for sunfishes, and 2.5 X 10(6) for white catfish. Determination of representative BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  19. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce. PMID:27373063

  20. Mothers' perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools.

    PubMed

    Kandakai, T L; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Wilson, C A

    1999-05-01

    This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and 120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income, family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school violence than were higher-income, married, and White mothers. These mothers also were more likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their counterparts.