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Sample records for factors influencing imaging

  1. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  2. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Context Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients’ physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. Data Collection A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Results Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. Conclusions The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients’ inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life’s issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer. PMID:28184329

  3. What do you think of my picture? Investigating factors of influence in profile images context perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, F.; Da Silva, M. P.; Le Callet, P.; Heynderickx, I. E. J.

    2015-03-01

    Multimedia quality assessment has been an important research topic during the last decades. The original focus on artifact visibility has been extended during the years to aspects as image aesthetics, interestingness and memorability. More recently, Fedorovskaya proposed the concept of 'image psychology': this concept focuses on additional quality dimensions related to human content processing. While these additional dimensions are very valuable in understanding preferences, it is very hard to define, isolate and measure their effect on quality. In this paper we continue our research on face pictures investigating which image factors influence context perception. We collected perceived fit of a set of images to various content categories. These categories were selected based on current typologies in social networks. Logistic regression was adopted to model category fit based on images features. In this model we used both low level and high level features, the latter focusing on complex features related to image content. In order to extract these high level features, we relied on crowdsourcing, since computer vision algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate for the features we needed. Our results underline the importance of some high level content features, e.g. the dress of the portrayed person and scene setting, in categorizing image.

  4. Image analysis in immunohistochemistry. Factors with a possible influence on the performance of VIDAS version 2.0, a commercially available true color image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Willemse, F; Nap, M; de Kok, L B; Eggink, H F

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of several factors with a possible influence on the performance of a commercially available image analysis system capable of true color image analysis. The software used by this system is VIDAS Version 2.0. The following factors were evaluated: illumination, power supply, warming up, shading correction, averaging of image intake, hue luminance and saturation images and relation of illumination to quantification of area percentage (area %) of positively staining structures. The first six factors were evaluated by using a macro, with which it is possible to obtain information on variations over the image and over time. The last factor was evaluated by repeated measurement of area % of positive staining in a routinely processed tissue section. In our setting, stability of illumination and warmup time of the camera appeared to be the most important factors with influence on the performance of the image analysis system.

  5. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  6. Influence of various factors on the accuracy of gallium-67 imaging for occult infection

    SciTech Connect

    Maderazo, E.G.; Hickingbotham, N.B.; Woronick, C.L.; Sziklas, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    To examine whether the results and interpretation of gallium-67 citrate imaging may be adversely influenced by factors present in compromised patients, we reviewed our 1-year experience in 69 patients in intensive care units, renal transplants, and those on hemodialysis. Our results indicate that it is an inappropriate diagnostic procedure for acute pancreatitis since seven of nine had false-negative results. Using loglinear modeling and chi-square analysis we found that treatment with antiinflammatory steroids, severe liver disease, end-stage renal disease, and renal transplantation with immunosuppressive therapy did not interfere with gallium-67 uptake. Increased rate of true-negative results in patients with end-stage renal disease was due to a greater and earlier use of the test in the febrile transplant patient and in hemodialysis patients with infections not amenable to diagnosis with gallium-67 scan (transient bacteremia and bacteriuria). We conclude that gallium-67 imaging is a useful diagnostic tool that, with the exception of acute pancreatitis, has very few false-negative results.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Image Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Osteophytes: Influence of Clinical Factors and Artrogenics Changes.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Eduardo; Remedi, Marcelo Pereira; Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2016-03-01

    This research aims to examine the presence of osteophyte in patients with arthrogenic temporomandibular disorders through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); to investigate the influence of sex and clinical symptoms in its prevalence; and the position of the osteophytes in the condyle. The study was based on 100 MRI and on reports of patients, which corresponded to the evaluation of 200 joints. Patients of both sexes were aged from 18 to 82 years (average = 49.48) and were subjected to the aforementioned examination from January 2006 to March 2009. The assessment considered the type of disc displacement, the presence of effusion, bone marrow edema, condyle changes, joint noise and pain. The MRI machine used was the GE Signa HDX (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI), with T1 and T2-weighted, 1.5 T magnetic field, sagittal oblique (mouth closed, mouth open) and coronal (mouth closed) imaging, with spherical surface coil and an asymmetric matrix. All images were interpreted by an experienced radiologist. A total of 28% (n = 56) of the temporomandibular joints showed osteophytes on the anterior surface of the mandible. No relationship was found between sex and osteophytes. The authors found a statistically significant difference between osteophytes and disc displacement without reduction (P < 0.001). The presence of osteophytes suggested a possible cause and effect relationship between osteoarthritis and disc displacement without reduction; the osteophyte was always located in the anterior surface of condyle, regardless of the sex variable; no significant difference was found between osteophytes and the main complaints of the patient.

  8. Body image, risk factors for eating disorders and sociocultural influences in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toro, J; Gila, A; Castro, J; Pombo, C; Guete, O

    2005-06-01

    The aim was to study differences between male and female adolescents as regards body dissatisfaction, some risk factors for eating disorders, and exposure to social influences that create ideal body figures among these populations. A questionnaire comprising 40 items was administered to 240 male adolescents at 12 public and private schools in Barcelona. Twenty-nine of the questions were the same as those in another study administered to a sample of 675 female adolescents attending similar schools in the same geographical area. The other 11 questions were specifically for males. The differences between boys and girls were highly significant on almost all the items. Girls' scores were significantly higher (p = 0.000) in the following areas: dieting and exercising in order to be thin; feelings of anxiety on seeing or showing the body in public; tendency to focus on the bodies of others and on the amount of food they eat; the belief that thin people are more popular. In addition, the girls were significantly more vulnerable to potentially dangerous social influences. For the most part, males sought a heavier, more muscular body. Though a minority of males also feared being overweight, one out of four ate more than normal to gain weight and two out of three exercised to develop their muscles. The same proportion reported envying the build of certain actors. In adolescence, the ideal body figures of the sexes vary widely. This divergence reflects a greater risk of eating disorders in girls, who are also far more exposed to social situations that cause body dissatisfaction and shape risk attitudes and behaviors.

  9. Megavoltage Computed Tomography Image Guidance With Helical Tomotherapy in Patients With Vertebral Tumors: Analysis of Factors Influencing Interobserver Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Levegruen, Sabine; Poettgen, Christoph; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Berkovic, Katharina; Hepp, Rodrigo; Stuschke, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT)-based image guidance with helical tomotherapy in patients with vertebral tumors by analyzing factors influencing interobserver variability, considered as quality criterion of image guidance. Methods and Materials: Five radiation oncologists retrospectively registered 103 MVCTs in 10 patients to planning kilovoltage CTs by rigid transformations in 4 df. Interobserver variabilities were quantified using the standard deviations (SDs) of the distributions of the correction vector components about the observers' fraction mean. To assess intraobserver variabilities, registrations were repeated after {>=}4 weeks. Residual deviations after setup correction due to uncorrectable rotational errors and elastic deformations were determined at 3 craniocaudal target positions. To differentiate observer-related variations in minimizing these residual deviations across the 3-dimensional MVCT from image resolution effects, 2-dimensional registrations were performed in 30 single transverse and sagittal MVCT slices. Axial and longitudinal MVCT image resolutions were quantified. For comparison, image resolution of kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) and interobserver variability in registrations of 43 CBCTs were determined. Results: Axial MVCT image resolution is 3.9 lp/cm. Longitudinal MVCT resolution amounts to 6.3 mm, assessed as full-width at half-maximum of thin objects in MVCTs with finest pitch. Longitudinal CBCT resolution is better (full-width at half-maximum, 2.5 mm for CBCTs with 1-mm slices). In MVCT registrations, interobserver variability in the craniocaudal direction (SD 1.23 mm) is significantly larger than in the lateral and ventrodorsal directions (SD 0.84 and 0.91 mm, respectively) and significantly larger compared with CBCT alignments (SD 1.04 mm). Intraobserver variabilities are significantly smaller than corresponding interobserver variabilities (variance ratio [VR] 1.8-3.1). Compared with 3-dimensional

  10. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  11. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  12. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  13. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures.

  14. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  15. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  16. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  17. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort, and realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Raluca; Ladret, Patricia; Guérin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In today's context, where 3D content is more abundant than ever and its acceptance by the public is probably de_nitive, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent precisely? How can it be formalized and standardized? How can it be correctly evaluated? A great number of studies have investigated these matters and many interesting approaches have been proposed. Despite this, no universal 3D quality model has been accepted so far that would allow a uniform across studies assessment of the overall quality of 3D content, as it is perceived by the human observers. In this paper, we are making a step forward in the development of a 3D quality model, by presenting the results of an exploratory study in which we started from the premise that the overall 3D perceived quality is a multidimensional concept that can be explained by the physical characteristics of the 3D content. We investigated the spontaneous impressions of the participants while watching varied 3D content, we analyzed the key notions that appeared in their discourse and identi_ed correlations between their judgments and the characteristics of our database. The test proved to be rich in results. Among its conclusions, we consider of highest importance the fact that we could thus determine three di_erent perceptual attributes ( image quality, comfort and realism ( that could constitute a _rst simplistic model for assessing the perceived 3D quality.

  18. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  19. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  20. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge). Conclusions Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies. PMID:22938135

  1. Multispectral imaging of the olfactory bulb activation: influence of realistic differential pathlength correction factors on the derivation of oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, R.; Gurden, H.; Chery, R.; Bendhamane, M.; Martin, C.; Pain, F.

    2011-02-01

    In vivo multispectral reflectance imaging has been extensively used in the somatosensory cortex (SsC) in anesthetized rodents to collect intrinsic signal during activation and derive hemodynamics signals time courses. So far it has never been applied to the Olfactory Bulb (OB), although this structure is particularly well suited to the optical study of brain activation due to the its well defined organization, the ability to physiologically activate it with odorants, and the low depth of the activated layers. To obtain hemodynamics parameters from reflectance variations data, it is necessary to take into account a corrective factor called Differential Pathlength (DP). It is routinely estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, modeling photons propagation in simplified infinite geometry tissue models. The first goal of our study was to evaluate the influence of more realistic layered geometries and optical properties on the calculation of DP and ultimately on the estimation of the hemodynamics parameters. Since many valuable results have been obtained previously by others in the SSc, for the purpose of validation and comparison we performed Monte Carlo simulations in both the SSC and the OB. We verified the assumption of constant DP during activation by varying the hemoglobin oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin concentration and we also studied the effect of a superficial bone layer on DP estimation for OB. The simulations show the importance of defining a finite multilayer model instead of the coarse infinite monolayer model, especially for the SSc, and demonstrate the need to perform DP calculation for each structure taking into account their anatomofunctional properties. The second goal of the study was to validate in vivo multispectral imaging for the study of hemodynamics in the OB during activation. First results are presented and discussed.

  2. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  3. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  4. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  5. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  6. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  7. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  8. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake.

  9. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  10. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  11. Factors controlling discrimination in imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    The discrimination of scene elements in polarimetric and in non-polarimetric images is governed by both environmental and instrumental factors. These factors consist of systematic elements, which are dealt with by means of appropriate calibration, and random errors. In the case of imaging polarimetry, the Stokes parameter images are calculated from images obtained with orthogonal orientations of the linear polarizer about the optic axis. For the stokes images to contain significant information, the orthogonal, registered image pair from which the Stokes images S1 and S2 are calculated must be significantly different. Misregistration of the orthrogonal input images also impacts the correlation of the resulting Stokes image to scene elements. The system MTF, sampling patter and geometry further impact the discrimination of features in the scene. These factors are discussed. The effects of systematic and random error sources on resolved target discriminability from clutter background is considered in depth. While the issue of spatially unresolved target detection is considered, it does not form a major component of this discussion. The intent of these considerations of the physics and phenomenology of imaging polarimetry is to progress towards the predictive modeling of target discriminability. This will aid in sensor design and mission parameter optimization.

  12. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  13. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M.; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M. L.; Hallin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed. PMID:26183486

  14. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M L; Hallin, Emil

    2015-07-17

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  15. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M.; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M. L.; Hallin, Emil

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  16. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  17. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  18. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    or 20 MAY 1976 STUDY ’ PROJECT FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ARMY CHAPLAINS BY CHAPLAIN(COLONEL) KERMIT D. JOHNSON US ARMY WAR...job •atUfaction among US kxmy chaplain« it b«aad CO • mail aurvay raaponao of 998 chap Ulna out of 1411 in tha Army chaplaincy. Factors which...chaplaincy, and cosseand. Certain professional Irritants were singled out. By means of demographic information, comparisons were made as to how

  19. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  20. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  1. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  2. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  3. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

  4. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  6. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  7. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes.

  8. Factors Influencing the Eicosanoids Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials. PMID:25861641

  9. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations.

  10. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  11. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  12. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  13. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P < 0.01) and satisfaction on the payment mode (P = 0.006). Higher self-assessment on the medical professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The

  14. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains.

  15. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  16. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  17. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  18. Study on the influence factors of camouflage target polarization detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhua; Chen, Lei; Li, Xia; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-10-01

    The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) expressions at any polarizer direction (PD) was deduced based on the Stokes vector and Mueller matrix. The outdoors experiments were carried out to demonstrate the expressions. This paper mainly explored the DOLP-image-Contrast (DOLPC) between the target image and the background image, and the PD and RGB waveband that be considered two important influence factors were studied for camouflage target polarization detection. It was found that the DOLPC of target and background was obviously higher than intensity image. When setting the reference direction that polarizer was perpendicular to the incident face, the DOLP image of interval angle 60 degree between PD and reference direction had relatively high DOLPC, the interval angle 45 degree was the second, and the interval angle 35 degree was the third. The outdoors polarization detection experiment of controlling waveband showed that the DOLPC results was significantly different to use 650nm, 550nm and 450nm waveband, and the polarization detection performance by using 650nm band was an optimization method.

  19. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular dementia is diagnosed, place the pathophysiological consequences of cerebrovascular disease on cognition in the context of clinical and pathological Alzheimer’s disease, and then to consider the evidence for the role of major vascular risk factors in late-life cognitive impairment, changes in brain imaging and neuropathological changes. Midlife diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity are established risk factors for clinically defined Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia. The basis for these relationships could either be that the risk factors lead to microvascular brain disease, promote Alzheimer pathology or both. The associations of late-life onset diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment are either attenuated or reversed. The role of vascular risk factors in midlife should be the focus of public health efforts to reduce the burden of late-life cognitive impairment. PMID:20182020

  20. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole. PMID:27942134

  1. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  2. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  3. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  4. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  5. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  6. The Influence of University Image on Student Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of image on student satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: In order to accomplish the objectives proposed, a model reflecting the influence of image on student satisfaction and loyalty is applied. The model is tested through use of structural equations and the final…

  7. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  8. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  9. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  10. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  11. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  12. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  13. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  14. The Modeling of Factors That Influence Coast Guard Manpower Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS by Kara M. Lavin December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Ronald E. Giachetti Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE MODELING OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS 5. FUNDING...200 words) This research, conducted at the request of the United States Coast Guard Manpower Requirements Determination Division, determines the

  15. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  16. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  17. Family influence on disordered eating: the role of body image dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kluck, Annette S

    2010-01-01

    Research has linked an appearance-focused family culture (including parental commentary about weight/size) with increased disordered eating and body image dissatisfaction in daughters. Since body image dissatisfaction is also a risk factor for disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction may contribute to the link between family focus on appearance and disordered eating. This correlational study included a sample of 268 college women who completed the Family Influence Scale, Bulimia Test - Revised, Body Shape Questionnaire, and a series of items about their parents' comments about their weight/size. Both family appearance focus and daughters' body image dissatisfaction predicted increased disordered eating in daughters. Additionally, body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the influence of family appearance focus on daughters' disordered eating. No specific type of parental comments regarding weight/size emerged as a superior predictor of eating disturbance, but encouragement to control weight/size was a stronger predictor of body dissatisfaction than other types of parental comments.

  18. Factors Influencing Ultrasound Echoes From Arterial Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Jim; Maciel, Mario; Zalesky, Paul

    1988-04-01

    Significant progress in methods for the treatment of arterial disease has been made during the past several years. The trend towards least invasive therapies has led to an increasing need for instruments which quantify arterial disease status before, during, and after an intervention or treatment. Such instruments should provide safer and more effective disease treatment by providing the physician with a procedure guidance tool. The use of miniature ultrasound transducers, mounted at the distal end of a vascular catheter or probe, offers a promising method for producing images and quantitative measure-ment of arterial lumen and wall thickness. Several approaches have been suggested for placing the transducers in a probe configuration which is then mounted in a catheter and advanced to the vascular site of interest for image generation. The "best" probe configuration is defined by the specific questions of interest to the physician. It also depends upon transducer characteristics and how the sound beam "interacts" with the arterial wall. Imaging the small diameter coronary arteries, in particular, requires careful consideration of various transducer-tissue parameters. Transducer signal-to-noise ratio will likely be a critical parameter for systems designed to image healthy and diseased coronary arteries. The reported study shows how arterial wall echo amplitude changes as the angle between sound beam and wall varies. Changes are measured under carefully defined laboratory conditions.

  19. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  1. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis.

  2. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  3. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  4. Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors Influencing Interagency Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (from... to) June 2008 - November 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors...examined factors influencing interagency information sharing. Findings suggest that organizational culture , attitudes toward information sharing, perceived

  5. Secondary factors influencing cascade damage formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, Roger E.; Guiriec, Sylvain G.

    2004-08-01

    Primary cascade damage production in iron has been extensively investigated by molecular dynamics, and the average defect production as a function of cascade energy and temperature is well characterized. However, preliminary results indicate several factors alter `normal' cascade evolution, leading to quite different defect production behavior. Further investigation of three such factors has been carried out: (1) primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction, (2) nearby free surfaces, and (3) pre-existing effects. Results of the investigation confirm these factors significantly impact damage production. Effects include: enhanced defect survival for PKA directions lying in close-packed {1 1 0} planes, increased point defect clustering and larger defect clusters in cascades initiated near a surface, and reduced defect survival in material containing defects. The origin and implications of these effects are discussed relative to the interpretation of certain experimental observations and parameters used in other modeling studies.

  6. Factors Influencing Young People's Conceptions of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Reid, Anna; Walker, Kim; Petocz, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains the importance of environmental education in schools for achieving environmental protection and improvement. Statistically examines factors that incline students to a 'relation' rather than an 'object' conception of the environment. Concludes that development of the former would seem to be an important aim of environmental education and…

  7. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  8. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  9. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p < .05) and positively correlated with the importance of research factor (r = .501, p < .01). Importance of research was negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.435, p < .01) and positively correlated with value of CBI (r = .439, p < .01) and participation in study (r = .501, p < .01). Findings from the study will contribute to the body of knowledge about factors that

  10. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C.; Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  11. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  12. Factors Influencing Haptic Perception of Complex Shapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of an object by arm movement and somatosensation is a serial process that relies on memories and expectations. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that this process involves breaking the object into component shapes (primitives). This was tested by having human subjects explore shapes composed of semicircular arcs, as well as quarter circles or quarter ellipses. The subjects' perception was reported using a visual display. In the first experiment, in which a series of semicircular arcs was presented, with offsets that differed from trial to trial, performance was consistent with the perception of two (left and right) semicircles. In the second experiment, subjects often failed to detect the quarter circles or quarter ellipses and again behaved as if the object was composed of two (top and bottom) semicircles. The results suggest that the synthesis of haptically sensed shapes is biased toward simple geometric objects and that it can be strongly influenced by expectations.

  13. Estimation of Image Sensor Fill Factor Using a Single Arbitrary Image

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wei; Khatibi, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a high fill factor is a bottleneck problem for capturing high-quality images. There are hardware and software solutions to overcome this problem. In the solutions, the fill factor is known. However, this is an industrial secrecy by most image sensor manufacturers due to its direct effect on the assessment of the sensor quality. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the fill factor of a camera sensor from an arbitrary single image. The virtual response function of the imaging process and sensor irradiance are estimated from the generation of virtual images. Then the global intensity values of the virtual images are obtained, which are the result of fusing the virtual images into a single, high dynamic range radiance map. A non-linear function is inferred from the original and global intensity values of the virtual images. The fill factor is estimated by the conditional minimum of the inferred function. The method is verified using images of two datasets. The results show that our method estimates the fill factor correctly with significant stability and accuracy from one single arbitrary image according to the low standard deviation of the estimated fill factors from each of images and for each camera. PMID:28335459

  14. Image resolution influence on determination of resin injection rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste repositories, an important approach to understanding brittle rock mass behavior to integrate new and powerful observational and numerical methods with multi-functional 3-D imaging and visualization techniques. Since 1994, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, we used different optical focuses to obtain the images from the same samples; we found that Image resolution influences on porosity determination of resin injected rock mass. This paper presents and discusses the six issues based on our research results: (1) Fracture porosity increases as camera focus distance decreases; (2) Porosity increases as illumination increases in resin injected fracture images; (3) To roughly estimate the porosity, the low resolution image can be used; (4) To collect more details of fracture information, the high resolution image is needed; (5) The resolution of image should be determined based on the aim of fracture analysis; (6) To acquire high resolution image, constructing a special illumination (standard) box maybe helpful to avoid light reflection and diffusion.

  15. Hierarchical Factoring Based On Image Analysis And Orthoblique Rotations.

    PubMed

    Stankov, L

    1979-07-01

    The procedure for hierarchical factoring suggested by Schmid and Leiman (1957) is applied within the framework of image analysis and orthoblique rotational procedures. It is shown that this approach necessarily leads to correlated higher order factors. Also, one can obtain a smaller number of factors than produced by typical hierarchical procedures.

  16. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  17. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  18. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  19. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  20. Evaluation of image quality and factor for international telepathology through the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yukako; Azumi, Norio; Elsayed, Alaa M.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    In the telepathology, rendering devices significantly influence the perceived image quality. If the resolution and color depth are reduced beyond a certain point, however, it is not possible to obtain images which can be used in telepathology even in an ideal situation. With this in mind, we evaluated image quality, compression, size and rates of data exchange with several histological cases on several kinds of systems for our International Consortium for Internet Telepathology (ICIT) project. The ICIT network uses widely available nonpropriety hardware and software with the Internet as a means of communication.In this study, we discuss the effective image acquisition methods for telepathology. To evaluate microscopic images, various resolution size were used. The images were also evaluated at different JPEG compression ratio, including zero compression, and different format. To evaluate an entire glass slide image, a scanner in transparency mode and an NTSC camera were used. Every case showed similar results. For he microscopic image, although the high resolution images, such as 2k X 1.5k or higher, contain more diagnostic information than lower resolution images; sufficient data was retained in the latter that it does not appear to negatively effect diagnosis. The circumstance and condition for image acquisition, such as specimen thickness or dast of glass slide, are most influenced on the highest image resolution. Usually, we use 5-10 images/case for a telepathology conference. To see all images of a case at a glance before detailed observation, or to switch to the other images immediately, a lower resolution,such as 1k X 0.7k is useful. For the entire glass slide, the reviewer could select the desired area by scanner; however, selecting it by the NTSC camera, was not easy to do. On the monitor, the scanned image has almost the same information as the microscopic image captured by the NTSC camera with 2x objective lens. To ge ta high enough quality image, the

  1. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits. PMID:27830152

  2. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  3. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  4. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  5. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  6. Colorectal anastomosis: factors influencing success1

    PubMed Central

    Tagart, R E B

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of the anal sphincters is now consistent with adequate extirpation of the majority of rectal neoplasms. However, there is still a troublesome incidence of leakage through colorectal anastomoses. A number of different factors, working in combination, are responsible for this. Although most problems have been solved, and the mortality is low, the anastomotic leak rate described in the present series, and in the hands of most surgeons, remains high. Efficient suturing without tension, adequate filling and drainage of the presacral space, and antimicrobial prophylaxis effective enough to abolish abdominal wound sepsis, have been applied. The large vessel arterial blood supply to the suture line is good but the microcirculation of the left colon and rectum, upon which suture line healing ultimately depends, is suspect. Reduction of blood viscosity by deliberate lowering of the haemoglobin level before operation has been practised in the hope of improving the microcirculatory flow. The results so far are encouraging and suggest that the method is worth a continued trial. PMID:7009860

  7. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  8. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss of spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.

  9. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; ...

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  10. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  11. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  12. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  13. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  14. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  15. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  16. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  17. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  18. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  19. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  20. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  1. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  2. Influence analysis of the scroll on the image quality of the satellite camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chao; Yi, Hong-wei; Liang, Yi-tao

    2009-07-01

    The object distance of the high-resolution satellite camera will be changed when the camera is scroll imaging, which will cause not only the alteration of the image scale, but also the variation of the velocity-height ratio (V/H) of the satellite. The change of the V/H of the camera will induce the asynchronization between the image motion and the traveling of the charge packet on the focal plane, which will deteriorate the image quality of camera seriously. Thus, the variable regulation of the relative velocity and the height of the scroll imaging of the satellite were researched, and the expression the V/H was deduced. Based on this, the influence of the V/H on the image quality was studied from two variable factors: the latitude and the scroll angle. To illustrate this effect quantitatively, using a given round polar orbit, the deterioration of the image quality caused by the scroll imaging was calculated for different integral number of the camera, and regulation interval of the row integration time and the range of the scroll angle were computed. The results showed that, when the integral number of the camera is equal to 32 and 64, the permitted scroll angle are equal to 29.5° and 16° respectively for MTFimage motion >0.95, which will give some helpful engineering reference to learn how the image quality changes during scroll imaging of the satellite camera.

  3. Indexing natural images for retrieval based on Kansei factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John A., Jr.; Kahol, Kanav; Tripathi, Priyamvada; Kuchi, Prem; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2004-06-01

    Current image indexing methods are based on measures of visual content. However, this approach provides only a partial solution to the image retrieval problem. For example, an artist might want to retrieve an image (for use in an advertising campaign) that evokes a particular "feeling" in the viewer. One technique for measuring evoked feelings, which originated in Japan, indexes images based on the inner impression (i.e. the kansei) experienced by a person while viewing an image or object-impressions such as busy, elegant, romantic, or lavish. The aspects of the image that evoke this inner impression in the viewer are called kansei factors. The challenge in kansei research is to enumerate those factors, with the ultimate goal of indexing images with the "inner impression" that viewers experience. Thus, the focus is on the viewer, rather than on the image, and similarity measures derived from kansei indexing represent similarities in inner experience, rather than visual similarity. This paper presents the results of research that indexes images based on a set of kansei impressions, and then looks for correlations between that indexing and traditional content-based indexing. The goal is to allow the indexing of images based on the inner impressions they evoke, using visual content.

  4. Assessment of the influence of a carbon fiber tabletop on portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiarz, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Paweł; Swat, Kaja; Andrasiak, Michał

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate beam attenuation caused by a carbon-fiber tabletop and its influence on portal image quality. The dose was measured by a Farmer type jonization chamber. The measurements of the portal image quality were performed with an EPID QC phantom for 6 MV beam for a specified field size (covering all test elements of the phantom completely -26×26 cm2 in the isocenter, SSD 96.2 cm) and various portal—isocenter distances. The beam attenuation factor was measured for Polkam 16 treatment table with a carbon fiber tabletop. Carbon fiber tabletop induces beam attenuation in vertical direction by a factor of 3.39%. The lowest maximum deviation to the regression line for linearity was measured for 40 cm portal—phantom distance. The lowest signal to noise ratio was observed for the portal—phantom distance of 30 cm. This factor dropped by 9% for images with a tabletop. The difference in high contrast: horizontal is 3.64; 0.32; 3.25 for 50 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm respectively and vertical—3.64%; 0.32%; 4.01% for 50 cm, 40 cm and 30 cm respectively. The visibility of the holes with the smallest diameters (1 mm) is the same for 50 and 40 cm while it is better for 30 cm, as can be expected due to the lower SNR. Carbon-fiber inserts, tabletops play a vital role in modern radiotherapy. One of the most important advantages of carbon-fiber tabletops is the lack of the gantry direction limitations. In this paper the attenuation of a carbon-fiber tabletop and its influence on a portal image quality were investigated. Dose attenuation effects, comparable to other measurements, were found. That effect influences dose distribution delivered to the target volume and can increase the time of irradiation needed to take a portal image. It has been found that the best conditions for taking portal image occur when the distance from the phantom (patient) to the portal is 40 cm and the portal is parallel to the tabletop. In such conditions one observes the

  5. Influence of Digital Camera Errors on the Photogrammetric Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė; Bručas, Domantas

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the calibration of digital camera Canon EOS 350D, often used for the photogrammetric 3D digitalisation and measurements of industrial and construction site objects. During the calibration data on the optical and electronic parameters, influencing the distortion of images, such as correction of the principal point, focal length of the objective, radial symmetrical and non-symmetrical distortions were obtained. The calibration was performed by means of the Tcc software implementing the polynomial of Chebichev and using a special test-field with the marks, coordinates of which are precisely known. The main task of the research - to determine how parameters of the camera calibration influence the processing of images, i. e. the creation of geometric model, the results of triangulation calculations and stereo-digitalisation. Two photogrammetric projects were created for this task. In first project the non-corrected and in the second the corrected ones, considering the optical errors of the camera obtained during the calibration, images were used. The results of analysis of the images processing is shown in the images and tables. The conclusions are given.

  6. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  7. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  8. Factors controlling the manual and automated extraction of image information using imaging polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    The factors governing the extraction of useful information from polarimetric images depend upon the image acquisition and analytical methodologies being used, and upon systematic and environmental variations present during the acquisition process. The acquisition process generally occurs with foreknowledge of the analysis to be used. Broadly, interactive image analysis and automated image analysis are two different procedures: in each case, there are technical challenges. Imaging polarimetry is more complex than other imaging methodologies, and produces an increased dimensionality. However, there are several potential broad areas of interactive (manual) and automated remote sensing in which imaging polarimetry can provide useful additional information. A review is presented of the factors controlling feature discrimination, of metrics that are used, and of some proposed directions for future research.

  9. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions. PMID:22701416

  10. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  11. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  12. Image denoising based on wavelet cone of influence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Wei; Li, Yufeng

    2009-11-01

    Donoho et al have proposed a method for denoising by thresholding based on wavelet transform, and indeed, the application of their method to image denoising has been extremely successful. But this method is based on the assumption that the type of noise is only additive Gaussian white noise, which is not efficient to impulse noise. In this paper, a new image denoising algorithm based on wavelet cone of influence (COI) analyzing is proposed, and which can effectively remove the impulse noise and preserve the image edges via undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT). Furthermore, combining with the traditional wavelet thresholding denoising method, it can be also used to restrain more widely type of noise such as Gaussian noise, impulse noise, poisson noise and other mixed noise. Experiment results illustrate the advantages of this method.

  13. Nonnegative matrix factorization for efficient hyperspectral image projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacchetta, Alexander S.; Fienup, James R.; Leisawitz, David T.; Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2015-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging for remote sensing has prompted development of hyperspectral image projectors that can be used to characterize hyperspectral imaging cameras and techniques in the lab. One such emerging astronomical hyperspectral imaging technique is wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. NASA's current, state-of-the-art, Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) uses a Calibrated Hyperspectral Image Projector (CHIP) to generate test scenes and provide a more complete understanding of wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. Given enough time, the CHIP is capable of projecting scenes with astronomically realistic spatial and spectral complexity. However, this would require a very lengthy data collection process. For accurate but time-efficient projection of complicated hyperspectral images with the CHIP, the field must be decomposed both spectrally and spatially in a way that provides a favorable trade-off between accurately projecting the hyperspectral image and the time required for data collection. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to decompose hyperspectral astronomical datacubes into eigenspectra and eigenimages that allow time-efficient projection with the CHIP. Included is a brief analysis of NMF parameters that affect accuracy, including the number of eigenspectra and eigenimages used to approximate the hyperspectral image to be projected. For the chosen field, the normalized mean squared synthesis error is under 0.01 with just 8 eigenspectra. NMF of hyperspectral astronomical fields better utilizes the CHIP's capabilities, providing time-efficient and accurate representations of astronomical scenes to be imaged with the WIIT.

  14. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Efficient Hyperspectral Image Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacchetta, Alexander S.; Fienup, James R.; Leisawitz, David T.; Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging for remote sensing has prompted development of hyperspectral image projectors that can be used to characterize hyperspectral imaging cameras and techniques in the lab. One such emerging astronomical hyperspectral imaging technique is wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. NASA's current, state-of-the-art, Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) uses a Calibrated Hyperspectral Image Projector (CHIP) to generate test scenes and provide a more complete understanding of wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. Given enough time, the CHIP is capable of projecting scenes with astronomically realistic spatial and spectral complexity. However, this would require a very lengthy data collection process. For accurate but time-efficient projection of complicated hyperspectral images with the CHIP, the field must be decomposed both spectrally and spatially in a way that provides a favorable trade-off between accurately projecting the hyperspectral image and the time required for data collection. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to decompose hyperspectral astronomical datacubes into eigenspectra and eigenimages that allow time-efficient projection with the CHIP. Included is a brief analysis of NMF parameters that affect accuracy, including the number of eigenspectra and eigenimages used to approximate the hyperspectral image to be projected. For the chosen field, the normalized mean squared synthesis error is under 0.01 with just 8 eigenspectra. NMF of hyperspectral astronomical fields better utilizes the CHIP's capabilities, providing time-efficient and accurate representations of astronomical scenes to be imaged with the WIIT.

  15. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  16. Learning Strategies and Other Factors Influencing Achievement via Web Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Ingebritsen, Tom; Pleasants, John; Flickinger, Kathleen; Brown, George

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to examine how students with different learning styles functioned in World Wide Web-based courses offered by Project BIO at Iowa State University in the Fall of 1997, and to determine what factors influenced their learning. The objectives of the study were to identify: (1) the demographic…

  17. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  18. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  19. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  20. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  1. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  2. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  3. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  4. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  6. Factors Influencing Medical School Faculty Disposition Toward Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas G.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that faculties perceive the protection or enhancement of collegiality as the single most important factor influencing their attitudes toward unionization. Faculties see collective bargaining as a means of strengthening their position in the decisionmaking process of the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  7. Factors Influencing Females' Access to the High School Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Rae Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing females' access to the Oklahoma secondary school principalship. Although in the United States federal laws and policies are in place to promote equity, research indicates females are underrepresented in secondary school administration. Regardless of equity…

  8. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  9. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  10. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  11. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  12. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  13. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  14. Organizational, Financial, and Environmental Factors Influencing Deans' Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Rebecca; Bhak, Karyn; Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Griner, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of factors influencing tenure of 382 medical school deans from 1985-1994 found that, at the schools that were less healthy financially, were under the same ownership as the primary teaching hospital, and had small faculties, deans tended to have shorter tenures and higher turnover. Possible reasons for these findings and implications for…

  15. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  16. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  17. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  18. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  19. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  20. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  1. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  2. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  3. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  4. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  5. An Investigation of Classroom Factors That Influence Proof Construction Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Sharon Soucy; Martin, Tami S.; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Wallace, Michelle L.

    This paper on classroom factors influencing students' proof construction ability reports findings from the data collected in the first two years of a three-year National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project. Four different classrooms, two from each participating school, were involved in the project. Data sources included videotaped classroom…

  6. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  7. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  8. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  9. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  10. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  11. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  12. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  13. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  14. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  15. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  16. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  17. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  18. Pantomime Production by People with Aphasia: What Are Influencing Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present article aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to participants without brain damage (PWBD) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 PWBD in their use of 6 representation techniques ("handling,"…

  19. Shape and motion from image streams: a factorization method.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, C; Kanade, T

    1993-01-01

    Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but it is an ill-conditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2F x P measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. Under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Using this observation, the factorization method uses the singular value decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices, which represent object shape and camera motion, respectively. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filled-in measurement matrix, which occurs when features appear and disappear in the image sequence due to occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:11607434

  20. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  1. [Nursing images and representations concerning stress and influence on work activity].

    PubMed

    Hanzelmann, Renata da Silva; Passos, Joanir Pereira

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this study were: to identify the representations related to working stress factors attributed by nursing professionals and to discuss the influence of those factors on their work activities. The investigation was developed through a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, using the premises of social representations. The performed studies were used as the framework for the analyses. Data collection was performed using individual semi-structured interviews. The content analysis technique was used to understand the images as representations of nursing workers, the meaning of the stressing factors and their influence on occupational activity. The studied population regularly faces the lack of appropriate working conditions, the scarcity of human and material resources and untrained personnel; Nursing workers feel dissatisfied and present mental and physical fatigue, which are situations that may cause stress when performing occupational activities.

  2. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  3. Factors influencing trust and mistrust in health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2016-07-27

    Partnerships between sectors can achieve better outcomes than can be achieved by individual partners working alone. Trust is necessary for partnerships to function effectively. Mistrust makes partnership working difficult, if not impossible. There has been little research into partnership functioning factors that influence trust and mistrust. This study aimed to identify these factors in health promotion partnerships. Data were collected from 337 partners in 40 health promotion partnerships using a postal survey. The questionnaire incorporated multi-dimensional scales designed to assess the contribution of factors that influence partnership trust and mistrust. Newly validated scales were developed for trust, mistrust and power. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the significance of each factor to partnership trust and mistrust. Power was found to be the only predictor of partnership trust. Power, leadership, and efficiency were the most important factors influencing partnership mistrust. Power in partnerships must be shared or partners will not trust each other. Power-sharing and trust-building mechanisms need to be built into partnerships from the beginning and sustained throughout the collaborative process.

  4. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  5. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  6. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  7. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  8. Factors influencing validation of ambulatory blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Atkins, N; Staessen, J

    1995-11-01

    With the introduction of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring into clinical practice a vast market for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices has been created. To satisfy this market manufacturers are producing an array of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices. There is no obligation on manufacturers to have such devices validated independently, even though two national protocols, one from the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the other from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), call for independent validation and state the means of doing so. However, many factors can influence the validation procedure. They include compliance to the protocol being employed; the accuracy of the standard; establishing precisely the model being validated; the influences of blood pressure level, age and exercise on device accuracy; the provisions necessary for special populations, such as pregnant women, the elderly and children; the influence of oscillometric versus Korotkoff sound detection and electrocardiographic gating on comparative measurements; the assessment of performance as distinct from accuracy; and the relevance of general factors, such as the algorithm being employed and computer compatibility. Forty-three ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices have been marketed for ambulatory blood pressure measurement and of those only 18 have been validated according to either the BHS or the AAMI protocol. The influence of the factors listed above on the validation studies of those devices will be considered and the relevance of validation procedures to the clinical use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices will be discussed.

  9. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  10. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development.

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, R L

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure. The latter analysis indicates that for children less than 24 months of age, lead-containing dust in the home and on the children's hands are important determinates of their blood lead levels. This relationship is influenced by the amount of maternal involvement with their child and other indices of interaction between the child and primary caregiver. PMID:2417831

  11. Influence of yoga on body image satisfaction in men.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Mary

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of yoga practice on body image satisfaction in men. Male Figure Drawings were used to explore body image satisfaction in yoga beginners (n = 26, M age = 40.3 yr., SD = 11.6), experienced yoga practitioners (n = 22, M age = 46.4 yr., SD = 11.6), and non-yoga practicing aerobic and weight training exercisers (n = 34, M age = 41.2 yr., SD = 11.9). Satisfaction was significantly higher among the yoga groups than the exercisers. There was no statistical difference between the body satisfaction scores of the experienced yoga group and the beginner yoga students. This may suggest that individuals drawn to yoga have greater body satisfaction than exercisers, and that regular yoga practice possibly further increases body satisfaction.

  12. Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing substance use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liepman, Michael R; Calles, Joseph L; Kizilbash, Leena; Nazeer, Ahsan; Sheikh, Suhail

    2002-06-01

    Substance use by adolescents can lead to mortality, physical and social morbidity, and a brain disorder called substance dependence if allowed to progress to chronic, repetitive self-administration. Substance abuse and dependence can begin in adolescence or adulthood, but many of the attitudes and behaviors that affect risk become established during adolescence. Genetic risk factors have been identified for at least two distinct disorders and more are under active study to determine the cause and pathophysiology of addictive disorders. Although much remains to be done, a complex interplay of numerous genetic and environmental risk factors clearly is involved. An understanding of the most important environmental risk factors has led to effective primary prevention approaches; knowledge of the genetic risk factors and neuropharmacology of drugs of abuse in the brain is beginning to influence secondary prevention efforts and treatment, including better medications for addictive disorders. A large proportion of adolescents carry a genetic vulnerability that can be expressed when they accept peer and societal influences that promote experimentation with substances of abuse. At that point, the genetic factors take over, maintaining the drug self-administration pattern. Decay of social status results from association with drug-using peers and shifts in priorities supportive of drug use rather than education and productivity. More research into the genetic risk factors and applications of current knowledge to treatment is needed.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

  15. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  16. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  17. QoS test traffic influence factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fei; Cao, Yang

    2004-04-01

    This paper described certain problems when performing QoS active measurement. The term Test Traffic Influence Factor (TTIF), describing quantitatively influence which the test traffic compared to actual traffic on Qos parameters is defined. A kind of ideal model based on the queue theory to study TTIF is build up and a TTIF for delay is discussed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using network simulation tool-OPNET modeler. Then certain important conclusions and advice about IP network QoS measurement are given and further research direction is directed.

  18. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Woehl, Taylor J.; Parent, Lucas R.; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke

    2014-04-15

    One of the experimental challenges in the study of nanomaterials in liquids in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) is gaining quantitative information. A successful experiment in the fluid stage will depend upon the ability to plan for sensitive factors such as the electron dose applied, imaging mode, acceleration voltage, beam-induced solution chemistry changes, and the specifics of solution reactivity. In this paper, we make use of a visual approach to show the extent of damage of different instrumental and experimental factors in liquid samples imaged in the (S)TEM. Previous results as well as new insights are presented to create an overview of beam-sample interactions identified for changing imaging and experimental conditions. This work establishes procedures to understand the effect of the electron beam on a solution, provides information to allow for a deliberate choice of the optimal experimental conditions to enable quantification, and identifies the experimental factors that require further analysis for achieving fully quantitative results in the liquid (S)TEM.

  19. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors.

  20. Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hinh

    2009-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of serious and fatal forms of human blood disorder (acquired aplastic anemia, AA) and lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF). We and other researchers have recently shown that naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding the telomere maintenance complex (telomerase) may predispose patients to the development of AA or IPF. Epidemiological data have shown that environmental factors can also cause and/or exacerbate the pathogenesis of these diseases. The exact mechanisms that these germ-line mutations in telomere maintenance genes coupled with environmental insults lead to ineffective hematopoiesis in AA and lung scarring in IPF are not well understood, however. In this article, we provide a summary of evidence for environmental and genetic factors influencing the diseases. These studies provide important insights into the interplay between environmental and genetic factors leading to human diseases with telomere dysfunction. PMID:19684885

  1. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  2. Influence of imaging geometry on noise texture in quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A

    2009-08-17

    Quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods seek to reconstruct separate images that depict an object's projected absorption and refractive properties. An understanding of the statistical properties of the reconstructed images can facilitate the identification of optimal imaging parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. However, the statistical properties of quantitative X-ray phase-contrast imaging remain largely unexplored. In this work, we derive analytic expressions that describe the second-order statistics of the reconstructed absorption and phase images. Concepts from statistical decision theory are applied to demonstrate how the statistical properties of images corresponding to distinct imaging geometries can influence signal detectability.

  3. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelberg, Irmgard M.J.G.; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed. PMID:16896415

  4. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  5. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  6. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  7. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  8. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  9. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    PubMed

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  10. Influence of geophysical factors on oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranets, A.N.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.F.; Borisova, T.D.; Bubnov, V.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of geophysical factors, including magnetoionospheric disturbances, on decameter wave propagation over extended paths using oblique sounding (OS) data, and also to compare experimental and calculated OS ionograms for various conditions of radio waver propagation (season, time of day). Variations of oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics along a 9000 km long subauroral path for various geophysical conditions are considered. A comparison is made of experimental and calculated ionograms of oblique sounding.

  11. Foundation doctors career choice and factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Begg, Drummond; Dixon, Guy

    2015-11-01

    This study is seeking to establish the factors influencing foundation doctors' decision-making when applying for speciality training. A questionnaire was sent to all foundation doctors in Scotland (n = 1602, response rate 34%) asking them about their career intention in relation to General Practice, whether they received career advice and the extent to which certain factors influenced their career choice. For the majority of trainees, General Practice was not their first choice but just under half were considering it as a career. There were significant differences in career choices between the four Scottish regions and between the medical schools, with a greater proportion of those who studied in Aberdeen and Dundee Medical Schools opting for a career in General Practice. Undergraduate GP placement was reported as the strongest influence in favour of a career in General Practice followed by discussion with family and friends and discussion with speciality trainees. There were differences between medical schools in the way hospital placements, General Practice placements and role models influenced career choices. Career advice on General Practice was reported to be less available and more difficult to find.

  12. Factors influencing veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animals.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animal welfare/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific areas of animal welfare and/or rights. A significant male gender bias toward food-animal practice was found, and prior experience with particular types of animals--companion animals, equines, food animals--tended to predict career preferences. Female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. Seventy-two percent of students also reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values. Animals ranked second in importance after parents in this respect. The present findings illustrate the importance to issues of animal welfare of the cultural context of past experience and influences on attitude development. The results also suggest that previous interactions with animals play a critical role in guiding veterinary students into their chosen career, as well as in helping to determine their specific employment preferences within the veterinary profession. From an animal welfare perspective, the dearth of women choosing careers in food-animal practice is a source of concern.

  13. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  14. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  15. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    PubMed

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  16. The influence of image reconstruction algorithms on linear thorax EIT image analysis of ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Frerichs, Inéz; Pulletz, Sven; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Analysis methods of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on different reconstruction algorithms were examined. EIT measurements were performed on eight mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A maneuver with step increase of airway pressure was performed. EIT raw data were reconstructed offline with (1) filtered back-projection (BP); (2) the Dräger algorithm based on linearized Newton-Raphson (DR); (3) the GREIT (Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT) reconstruction algorithm with a circular forward model (GR(C)) and (4) GREIT with individual thorax geometry (GR(T)). Individual thorax contours were automatically determined from the routine computed tomography images. Five indices were calculated on the resulting EIT images respectively: (a) the ratio between tidal and deep inflation impedance changes; (b) tidal impedance changes in the right and left lungs; (c) center of gravity; (d) the global inhomogeneity index and (e) ventilation delay at mid-dorsal regions. No significant differences were found in all examined indices among the four reconstruction algorithms (p > 0.2, Kruskal-Wallis test). The examined algorithms used for EIT image reconstruction do not influence the selected indices derived from the EIT image analysis. Indices that validated for images with one reconstruction algorithm are also valid for other reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  18. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stacie E; Evason, Kimberley; Xiong, Chengjie; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2007-02-16

    Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  19. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  20. Personal and situational factors influencing coaches' perceptions of stress.

    PubMed

    Knight, Camilla J; Reade, Ian L; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    Coaching has been recognised as a demanding occupation, associated with a range of stressors. The extent to which coaches perceive stress is likely to be influenced by various personal and situational factors. The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' levels of perceived stress and examine the personal and situational factors that may influence coaches' perceptions of stress. In total, 502 coaches working with university, college, Canada Games, and/or nationally identified athletes completed this study. Coaches completed an online survey, which included questions regarding demographics, work/job-related considerations, and aspects relating to their contract. Coaches also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983). Overall coaches indicated slightly below average levels of perceived stress (M = 15.13 out of 40) compared with norm-values (Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2012). Demographic factors, job-related characteristics, and certain aspects of their contract were associated with coaches' perceptions of stress. In particular, unclear expectations, long-working hours (>40), lack of agreed evaluation criteria, higher salaries, and a lack of social support were related to higher perceptions of stress. As such, the findings of the current study indicate that a reduction in perceived stress is likely to be achieved through a multifaceted approach that addresses multiple factors associated with coaching.

  1. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  2. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college.

  3. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  4. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Chinedum Peace; Morse, Gene D.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity. PMID:27777797

  5. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  6. Influence of slice overlap on positron emission tomography image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Clare; Gillen, Gerry; Dempsey, Mary Frances; Findlay, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    PET scans use overlapping acquisition beds to correct for reduced sensitivity at bed edges. The optimum overlap size for the General Electric (GE) Discovery 690 has not been established. This study assesses how image quality is affected by slice overlap. Efficacy of 23% overlaps (recommended by GE) and 49% overlaps (maximum possible overlap) were specifically assessed. European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for calculating minimum injected activities based on overlap size were also reviewed. A uniform flood phantom was used to assess noise (coefficient of variation, (COV)) and voxel accuracy (activity concentrations, Bq ml-1). A NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) body phantom with hot/cold spheres in a background activity was used to assess contrast recovery coefficients (CRCs) and signal to noise ratios (SNR). Different overlap sizes and sphere-to-background ratios were assessed. COVs for 49% and 23% overlaps were 9% and 13% respectively. This increased noise was difficult to visualise on the 23% overlap images. Mean voxel activity concentrations were not affected by overlap size. No clinically significant differences in CRCs were observed. However, visibility and SNR of small, low contrast spheres (⩽13 mm diameter, 2:1 sphere to background ratio) may be affected by overlap size in low count studies if they are located in the overlap area. There was minimal detectable influence on image quality in terms of noise, mean activity concentrations or mean CRCs when comparing 23% overlap with 49% overlap. Detectability of small, low contrast lesions may be affected in low count studies—however, this is a worst-case scenario. The marginal benefits of increasing overlap from 23% to 49% are likely to be offset by increased patient scan times. A 23% overlap is therefore appropriate for clinical use. An amendment to EANM guidelines for calculating injected activities is also proposed which better reflects the effect overlap size has

  7. Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Kharoune, Mourad; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. PMID:27877925

  8. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  9. Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

  10. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  11. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  12. Ultrasound harmonic enhanced imaging using eigenspace-based coherence factor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis. Few efforts have been made to pursue the THI with high resolution and good small target visibility at the same time. In this paper, we proposed a new eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF) beamformer to solve this problem. A new kind of coherence factor (CF), named as ESBCF, is firstly proposed to detect the point targets. The detected region-of-interest (ROI) is then enhanced adaptively by using a newly developed beamforming method. The ESBCF combines the information from signal eigenspace and coherence factor by expanding the CF to the covariance matrix of signal. Analogous to the image processing but in the radio frequency (RF) data domain, the proposed method fully utilizes the information from the fundamental and harmonic components. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and phantom experiments. The improvement of the point contrast ratio (PCR) is 7.6dB in the simulated data, and 6.0dB in the phantom experiment. Thanks to the improved small point detection ability of the ESBCF, the proposed beamforming algorithm can enhance the PCR considerably and maintain the high resolution of the THI at the same time.

  13. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed.

  14. Evaluation of the factors influencing brain language laterality in presurgical planning.

    PubMed

    Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Hasani, Nafiseh; Gheisari, Sara; Behzad, Ebrahim; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-01

    Brain lesions cause functional deficits, and one treatment for this condition is lesion resection. In most cases, presurgical planning (PSP) and the information from laterality indices are necessary for maximum preservation of the critical functions after surgery. Language laterality index (LI) is reliably estimated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); however, this measure is under the influence of some external factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of a number of factors on language LI, using data from 120 patients (mean age=35.65 (±13.4) years) who underwent fMRI for PSP. Using two proposed language tasks from our previous works, brain left hemisphere was showed to be dominant for the language function, although a higher LI was obtained using the "Word Generation" task, compared to the "Reverse Word Reading". In addition, decline of LIs with age, and lower LI when the lesion invaded brain language area were observed. Meanwhile, gender, lesion side (affected hemisphere), LI calculation strategy, and fMRI analysis Z-values did not statistically show any influences on the LIs. Although fMRI is widely used to estimate language LI, it is shown here that in order to present a reliable language LI and to correctly select the dominant hemisphere of the brain, the influence of external factors should be carefully considered.

  15. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  16. Autofluorescence imaging of macular pigment: influence and correction of ocular media opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Obana, Akira; Gohto, Yuko; Seto, Takahiko; Gellermann, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The healthy adult human retina contains in its macular region a high concentration of blue-light absorbing carotenoid compounds, known as macular pigment (MP). Consisting of the carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, the MP is thought to shield the vulnerable tissue layers in the retina from light-induced damage through its function as an optical attenuator and to protect the tissue cells within its immediate vicinity through its function as a potent antioxidant. Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) is emerging as a viable optical method for MP screening of large subject populations, for tracking of MP changes over time, and for monitoring MP uptake in response to dietary supplementation. To investigate the influence of ocular media opacities on AFI-based MP measurements, in particular, the influence of lens cataracts, we conducted a clinical trial with a large subject population (93 subjects) measured before and after cataract surgery. General AFI image contrast, retinal blood vessel contrast, and presurgery lens opacity scores [Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III)] were investigated as potential predictors for image degradation. These clinical results show that lens cataracts can severely degrade the achievable pixel contrasts in the AFI images, which results in nominal MP optical density levels that are artifactually reduced. While LOCS III scores and blood vessel contrast are found to be only a weak predictor for this effect, a strong correlation exists between the reduction factor and the image contrast, which can be quantified via pixel intensity histogram parameters. Choosing the base width of the histogram, the presence or absence of ocular media opacities can be determined and, if needed, the nominal MP levels can be corrected with factors depending on the strength of the opacity.

  17. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  18. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  19. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  20. Factors influencing choice of dental treatment by private general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2002-01-01

    Service rate variations have focused attention on treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to examine factors considered in choosing treatments, to classify dentists in terms of clinical decision making, and to investigate the association of decision making with services provided. From a random sample of dentists (response rate 60.3%) treatment constraints (15.0%), periodontal status (12.1%), tooth status (11.3%), mouth status (10.1%), and patient factors (9.8%) were considered important factors across six alternative treatment pair choice scenarios. Cluster analysis of the treatment choice scenarios produced one cluster that reflected patient preferences, another that reflected treatment constraints such as cost, and a third that reflected oral health factors. Compared with the oral health cluster, dentists in the constraints cluster had higher rates (p < .05) of extractions (rate ratio [RR] = 1.49), bridge work (RR = 1.77), and dentures (RR = 1.32), whereas dentists in the patient cluster had higher restoration rates for two-surface ionomers (RR = 2.45) and resins on three or more surfaces (RR = 1.50) and other preventive services (RR = 1.78) such as oral hygiene instruction. Although a range of factors influenced treatment choice, a limited set accounted for the majority of responses, with cost a major determinant, ahead of oral health status and patient preference. Decision-making style was associated with service provision.

  1. Neutralising fair credit: factors that influence unethical authorship practices.

    PubMed

    Trinkle, Brad S; Phillips, Trisha; Hall, Alicia; Moffatt, Barton

    2017-01-31

    This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor. In addition, four techniques of neutralisation, 'diffusion of responsibility', 'defence of necessity', 'advantageous comparison' and 'euphemistic labelling', are associated with student willingness to act unethically. Participants who had received responsible conduct of research training were no less likely to commit the violation than those who had not. Knowledge of these influencing factors for QRPs will provide for opportunities to improve research ethics education strategies and materials.

  2. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  3. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    PubMed

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  4. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  5. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  6. Cadmium in rice: Transport mechanisms, influencing factors, and minimizing measures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Li, Hui Yuan; Mo, Ce Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding of Cd transport processes and its management aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in rice may help to improve rice growth and grain quality. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the factors influencing Cd accumulation will be helpful to derive efficient strategies to minimize Cd in rice. In this article, we reviewed Cd transport mechanisms in rice, the factors affecting Cd uptake (including physicochemical characters of soil and ecophysiological features of rice) and discussed efficient measures to immobilize Cd in soil and reduce Cd uptake by rice (including agronomic practices, bioremediation and molecular biology techniques). These findings will contribute to ensuring food safety, and reducing Cd risk on human beings.

  7. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  8. Matrix Factorization Techniques for Analysis of Imaging Mass Spectrometry Data

    PubMed Central

    Siy, Peter W.; Moffitt, Richard A.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Chen, Yanfeng; Liu, Ying; Sullards, M. Cameron; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is a method for understanding the molecular distribution in a two-dimensional sample. This method is effective for a wide range of molecules, but generates a large amount of data. It is difficult to extract important information from these large datasets manually and automated methods for discovering important spatial and spectral features are needed. Independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization are explained and explored as tools for identifying underlying factors in the data. These techniques are compared and contrasted with principle component analysis, the more standard analysis tool. Independent component analysis and non-negative matrix factorization are found to be more effective analysis methods. A mouse cerebellum dataset is used for testing.

  9. [Position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel imaging].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koichi; Yoshida, Koji; Yanagimoto, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gave the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of parallel imaging (PI). Sensitivity correction processing that referred to the sensitivity distribution of the body coil improved regional uniformity more than the sensitivity uniformity correction filter with a fixed correction factor. In addition, the position dependent influence to give the SNR measurement in PI was different from the sensitivity correction processing. Therefore, if we divide SNR of the sensitivity correction processing image by SNR of the original image in each pixel and calculate SNR ratio, we can show the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the SNR measurement in PI. It is with an index of the sensitivity correction processing precision.

  10. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  11. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  12. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  13. Factors influencing quality of chest compression depth in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Lim, Eun Ju

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing quality of chest compression depth in nursing students. A convenience sample of 102 female nursing students enrolled in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills training session. Each student performed 3 min of chest compression skills on a Resusci Anne SkillReporter manikin for measurements of both depth and rate. Nursing students with correct compression depth (50-60 mm) had higher body weight (t = -2.02, P = 0.046) and body mass index (t = -2.19, P = 0.031) compared with students in the incorrect depth group. Mean chest compression depth was shallower in underweight nursing students compared with normal weight or overweight students (F = 8.89, P < 0.001). Body weight was a significant factor influencing quality of chest compression depth (F = 4.25, P = 0.003). Educational intervention targeting underweight nursing students might need to enhance the quality of chest compression skills.

  14. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  15. Local and global regularized concept factorization for image clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Bin; Tang, Zhenmin; Shen, Xiaobo; Shu, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Concept factorization (CF), as a popular matrix factorization technique, has recently attracted increasing attention in image clustering, due to the strong ability of dimension reduction and data representation. Existing CF variants only consider the local structure of data, but ignore the global structure information embedded in data, which is very crucial for data representation. To address the above issue, we propose an improved CF method, namely local and global regularized concept factorization (LGCF), by considering the local and global structures simultaneously. Specifically, the local geometric structure is depicted in LGCF via a hypergraph, which is capable of precisely capturing high-order geometrical information. In addition, to discover the global structure, we establish an unsupervised discriminant criterion, which characterizes the between-class scatter and the total scatter of the data with the help of latent features in LGCF. For the formulated LGCF, a multiplicative update rule is developed, and the convergence is rigorously proved. Extensive experiments on several real image datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in terms of clustering accuracy and mutual information.

  16. Diverse influences of dietary factors on cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia.

  17. The influence of neuroticism and psychological symptoms on the assessment of images in three-dimensional emotion space

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Steffen; Kessler, Henrik; Gruss, Sascha; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Scheck, Andreas; Ströbel, Jochen; Hoffmann, Holger; Traue, Harald C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the influence of neuroticism (NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)) and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)) on pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) ratings of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Methods: The subjects (N=131) were presented with images from the IAPS (30 images) and new images (30 images). The influence of neuroticism and BSI (median split: high vs. low) on the assessment of pleasure, arousal and dominance of the images was examined. Correlations of pleasure, arousal and dominance were presented in a 3-D video animation. Results: Subjects with high scores (compared to subjects with low scores by median split) of neuroticism and psychological symptoms of the BSI rated the presented emotional images more negative in the valence dimension (pleasure), higher in arousal and less dominant. Conclusion: Neuroticism and psychological symptoms influence the subjective emotional evaluation of emotional images. Therefore the location in the three-dimensional emotion space depends on individual differences. Such differences must be kept in mind, if correlations between emotion ratings and other variables like psychobiological measures are analyzed. PMID:21698089

  18. The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale: confirmatory factor structure and relationship with body dissatisfaction among African American and Anglo American children.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen

    2009-06-01

    The Multidimensional Media Influence Scale (MMIS; Cusumano & Thompson, 2001). Media influence and body image in 8-11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 37-44) is a child-appropriate, 3-factor scale designed to assess perceived media influence on body image. It has been used in studies exploring the relationship between the entire scale as well as its subscales (awareness, internalization, and pressure) and variables related to body image. However, the 3-factor structure of the scale has never been confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nor has the scale been evaluated with a racially diverse sample of children. This paper reports the results of CFAs establishing the multidimensionality of the scale and the unidimensionality of its subscales among a sample of 661 girls and boys aged 7-12 years, primarily African American and Anglo American. The pressure factor of the MMIS predicted the idealization of a thinner current (child) and future (adult) body both cross-sectionally and one year later for girls and for Anglo American children.

  19. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  20. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  1. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  2. Factors influencing computer literacy of Taiwan and South Korea nurses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, I-Chiu; Yen, David C

    2009-04-01

    Healthcare is experiencing a major transformation in its information technology base. Hospitals are adopting information technology (IT) to reduce costs and increase competitiveness. IT applications in healthcare are trending towards electronic patient records and even health records. Therefore, practices in nursing are also affected by IT. Many researchers have studied what computer literacy a nurse should possess, but have focused less on factors that actually impact computer literacy. The purposes of this study are to examine current computer literacy levels of nurses, and to indicate what variables influence their computer literacy. Taiwan and South Korea both implemented a national health insurance system, and used state-of-the art IT to provide higher volume and better quality of services. The data were collected from two case hospitals which are located in Taiwan and South Korea, respectively. By using a structured questionnaire, a total of 203 nurses responded; 104 from Taiwan and 99 from South Korea. The results revealed that personal innovativeness in IT, computer education, and age are significant factors that affected computer literacy levels. These factors serve as reference for administrators and executives in hospitals, or nursing educators seeking the data necessary to make decisions on curriculum.

  3. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  4. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  5. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods.

  6. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  7. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. Aims To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Results Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Conclusions Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work–life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. PMID:27810889

  8. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  9. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  10. Which histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas influence the quality of optical coherence tomography imaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, M.; Thrane, L.; Joergensen, T. M.; Nürnberg, B. M.; Jemec, G. B. E.

    2009-07-01

    We explore how histopathology parameters influence OCT imaging of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and address whether such parameters correlate with the quality of the recorded OCT images. Our results indicate that inflammation impairs OCT imaging and that sun-damaged skin can sometimes provide more clear-cut images of skin cancer lesions using OCT imaging when compared to skin cancer surrounded by skin without sun-damage.

  11. In-Depth Analysis on Influencing Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration After Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chaojie; Mu, Xiaoping; Wei, Jianxun; Chu, Ye; Liang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the related influencing factors of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 263 patients who underwent ACDF was carried out. Cervical x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were required before operation, after operation, and at the last follow-up. General information and some radiographic parameters of all patients were measured and recorded. According to the imaging data, patients were put into one of two groups: non-ASD group and ASD group. The differences between the two groups were compared by t-test and χ2-test, and the related influencing factors of ASD were analyzed by logistic regression. Results In all, 138 patients had imaging ASD. Comparing the age, the postoperative cervical arc chord distance (po-CACD), and the plate to disc distance (PDD) of the two groups, differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The gender, the fusion segment number, the pre-CACD, the pre-and-po CACD, the preoperative cervical spinal canal ratio, and the upper and lower disc height (DH) showed no statistical difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant correlations in the following characteristics: age, postoperative po-CACD, and the PDD (p<0.05). Of all these characteristics, the correlation of age was the highest (R=1.820). Conclusions Age, po-CACD, and PDD were risk factors for ASD after ACDF. The older the operation age, the worse the recovery was of postoperative physiological curvature of cervical spine, and a PDD < 5 mm was more likely to lead to ASD. PMID:27965512

  12. In-Depth Analysis on Influencing Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration After Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaojie; Mu, Xiaoping; Wei, Jianxun; Chu, Ye; Liang, Bin

    2016-12-14

    BACKGROUND To explore the related influencing factors of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 263 patients who underwent ACDF was carried out. Cervical x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were required before operation, after operation, and at the last follow-up. General information and some radiographic parameters of all patients were measured and recorded. According to the imaging data, patients were put into one of two groups: non-ASD group and ASD group. The differences between the two groups were compared by t-test and χ²-test, and the related influencing factors of ASD were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS In all, 138 patients had imaging ASD. Comparing the age, the postoperative cervical arc chord distance (po-CACD), and the plate to disc distance (PDD) of the two groups, differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The gender, the fusion segment number, the pre-CACD, the pre-and-po CACD, the preoperative cervical spinal canal ratio, and the upper and lower disc height (DH) showed no statistical difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant correlations in the following characteristics: age, postoperative po-CACD, and the PDD (p<0.05). Of all these characteristics, the correlation of age was the highest (R=1.820). CONCLUSIONS Age, po-CACD, and PDD were risk factors for ASD after ACDF. The older the operation age, the worse the recovery was of postoperative physiological curvature of cervical spine, and a PDD < 5 mm was more likely to lead to ASD.

  13. Factors influencing mortality in acute pancreatitis: can we alter them?

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Patel, Nayan M; Shah, Prasanna

    2005-10-01

    Severe acture pancreatitis (SAP), a multisystem disease, is characterized by multiple organ system failure and additionally by local pancreatic complications such as necrosis, abscess, or pseudocyst. The rate of mortality in SAP, which is about 20% of all cases of acute pancreatitis (AP), may be as high as 25%, as in infected pancreatic necrosis. The factors that influence mortality in different degrees are various. Etiology for the episode, age, sex, race, ethnicity, genetic makeup, severity on admission, and the extent and nature of pancreatic necrosis (sterile vs. infected) influence the mortality. Other factors include treatment modalities such as administration of prophylactic antibiotics, the mode of feeding (TPN vs. enteral), ERCP with sphincterotomy, and surgery in selected cases. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of AP is increasing along with an increase in obesity, a bad prognostic factor. Many studies have indicated a worse prognosis in idiopathic AP compared to pancreatitis induced by alcoholism or biliary stone. The risk for SAP after ERCP is the subject of extensive study. AP after trauma, organ transplant, or coronary artery bypass surgery is rare but may be serious. Since Ranson reported early prognostic criteria, a number of attempts have been made to simplify or add new clinical or laboratory studies in the early assessment of severity. Obesity, hemoconcentration on admission, presence of pleural effusion, increased fasting blood sugar, as well as creatinine, elevated CRP in serum, and urinary trypsinogen levels are some of the well-documented factors in the literature. The role of appropriate prophylactic antibiotic therapy although still is highly controversial, in properly chosen cases appears to be beneficial and well accepted in clinical practice. Early enteral nutrition has gained much support and jejunal feeding bypassing the pancreatic stimulatory effect of it in the duodenum is desirable in selected cases. The limited

  14. Factors influencing experience in crowds - The participant perspective.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Victoria; Eason, Ken; Waterson, Patrick; Haslam, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Humans encounter crowd situations on a daily basis, resulting in both negative and positive experiences. Understanding how to optimise the participant experience of crowds is important. In the study presented in this paper, 5 focus groups were conducted (35 participants, age range: 21-71 years) and 55 crowd situations observed (e.g. transport hubs, sport events, retail situations). Influences on participant experience in crowds identified by the focus groups and observations included: physical design of crowd space and facilities (layout, queuing strategies), crowd movement (monitoring capacity, pedestrian flow), communication and information (signage, wayfinding), comfort and welfare (provision of facilities, environmental comfort), and public order. It was found that important aspects affecting participant experience are often not considered systematically in the planning of events or crowd situations. The findings point to human factors aspects of crowds being overlooked, with the experiences of participants often poor.

  15. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  16. Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content.

  17. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink.

  18. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers.

  19. Factors that influence the performance of experienced speech recognition users.

    PubMed

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann

    2006-01-01

    Performance on automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems for users with physical disabilities varies widely between individuals. The goal of this study was to discover some key factors that account for that variation. Using data from 23 experienced ASR users with physical disabilities, the effect of 20 different independent variables on recognition accuracy and text entry rate with ASR was measured using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The results show that use of appropriate correction strategies had the strongest influence on user performance with ASR. The amount of time the user spent on his or her computer, the user's manual typing speed, and the speed with which the ASR system recognized speech were all positively associated with better performance. The amount or perceived adequacy of ASR training did not have a significant impact on performance for this user group.

  20. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  1. Judging the Difference between Attractiveness and Health: Does Exposure to Model Images Influence the Judgments Made by Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Perera, A. Treshi-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown facial adiposity (apparent weight in the face) to be a significant predictor of both attractiveness and health, thus making it an important determinant of mate selection. Studies looking at the relationship between attractiveness and health have shown that individuals differentiate between the two by preferring a lower weight for attractiveness than for health in female faces. However, these studies have either been correlational studies, or have investigated weight perceived from only the face. These differences have been discussed with regard to sociocultural factors such as pressure from parents, peers and also media, which has been seen to have the highest influence. While exposure to media images has been shown to influence women’s own-body image, no study has yet directly tested the influence of these factors on people’s preferred weight in other women’s bodies. Here we examine how a short exposure to images of models influences men’s and women’s judgments of the most healthy looking and attractive BMI in Malaysian Chinese women’s bodies by comparing differences in preferences (for attractiveness and health) between groups exposed to images of models of varying attractiveness and body weight. Results indicated that participants preferred a lower weight for attractiveness than for health. Further, women’s but not men’s preferred BMI for attractiveness, but not health, was influenced by the type of media images to which they were exposed, suggesting that short term exposure to model images affect women’s perceptions of attractiveness but not health. PMID:24466014

  2. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  3. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  4. Factors influencing yield of plateletpheresis using intermittent flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    DAS, S S; Chaudhary, R K; Shukla, J S

    2005-10-01

    Platelet recovery in the recipient is influenced by the transfused dose of platelets, which in turn is dependent on the quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of platelet yield. Various donor factors such as predonation platelet count and Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. A total of 61 plateletpheresis procedures performed on intermittent flow cell separator (MCS3p, Hemonetics) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between predonation platelet count and Hb concentration with yield of platelets was studied using Pearson Correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.9 +/- 0.64 x 10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between predonation platelet count and yield (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r = -0.05, P > 0.005). The yield was > or =3 x 10(11) in >80% of procedures when the predonation platelet count was > or =250 x 10(3)/mm. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by predonation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. However, further studies in this regard are needed using more advanced cell separators.

  5. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity.

  6. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  7. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis.

  8. Factors influencing post-exercise plasma protein carbonyl concentration.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Alex J; Turner, James E; Aldred, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration can cause acute oxidative stress. Plasma protein carbonyl (PC) moieties are abundant, chemically stable, and easily detectable markers of oxidative stress that are widely used for the interpretation of exercise-induced changes in redox balance. Despite many studies reporting acute increases in plasma PC concentration in response to exercise, some studies, including those from our own laboratory have shown decreases. This review will discuss the differences between studies reporting increases, decreases, and no change in plasma PC concentration following exercise in humans; highlighting participant physiology (i.e. training status) and study design (i.e. intensity, duration, and novelty of the exercise bout) as the main factors driving the direction of the PC response to exercise. The role of the 20S proteasome system is proposed as a possible mechanism mediating the clearance of plasma PC following exercise. Resting and exercise-induced differences in plasma protein composition and balance between tissues are also discussed. We suggest that exercise may stimulate the clearance of plasma PC present at baseline, whereas simultaneously increasing reactive oxygen species production that facilitates the formation of new PC groups. The balance between these two processes likely explains why some studies have reported no change or even decreases in plasma PC level post-exercise when other biomarkers of oxidative stress (e.g. markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated. Future studies should determine factors that influence the balance between PC clearance and formation following acute exercise.

  9. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals.

    PubMed

    Wegulo, Stephen N

    2012-11-06

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  10. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future.

  11. Factors influencing habitat selection by arboreal pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Nitin S; Jadhav, Trupti D

    2013-01-01

    We studied factors influencing habitat selection by two arboreal species of pit viper, namely Trimeresurus malabaricus (Malabar pit viper) and T. gramineus (Bamboo pit viper). The macrohabitat of these species was classified as forest, forest edge, or open habitat. To determine microhabitat selection, a variety of features at every other snake location were measured. Whether or not the animal was found in a tree, the tree species, its height of perch, position on the branch (distal/ apical/middle), diameter of the branch, the tree canopy (thick/sparse) and vegetation of the area (thick/sparse) were recorded. Assessment of habitat was done to determine how patterns of habitat use vary seasonally. Shaded ambient (air) temperatures and humidity were recorded. Data pertaining to 90 individuals of T. malabaricus and 100 individuals of T. gramineus were recorded. Trimeresurus malabaricus selected home ranges that included areas with thick vegetation and were encountered at regions of higher altitude. Neither of the species was found in open habitats. Both of the species preferred diverse habitats and were spread over the entire available space during the monsoon; they did not show any preference for the perch height during different seasons. Males had a positive correlation between body mass and preferred perch diameter. The present study suggests that several factors play an important role in habitat selection by these arboreal pit vipers, thus making them highly habitat-specific.

  12. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality.

  13. IMMUNOGENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL COURSE OF HCV INFECTION (REVIEW).

    PubMed

    Kamkamidze, G; Butsashvili, M; Gendzekhadze, K

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical course and the outcome of the HCV infection is determined by the complex interplay between the viral replication and the host defense mechanisms. Several recent studies have shown that MHC class I and class II as well as natural killer (NK) cell's immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) loci can be associated with the HCV protection and clearance as well as with disease progression and responsiveness to antiviral treatment. Current status of our knowledge about the influence of immunogenetic factors on the clinical course of HCV infection is presented in the paper. Plans to investigate these factors among HCV infected patients enrolled in the HCV Elimination Program (launched in April 2015 in Georgia) are discussed.

  14. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways.

  15. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed.

  16. Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Branicki, Wojciech; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Stachura, Krystyna; Funk, Stephan M

    2006-12-01

    Although the mechanisms controlling gene flow among populations are particularly important for evolutionary processes, they are still poorly understood, especially in the case of large carnivoran mammals with extensive continuous distributions. We studied the question of factors affecting population genetic structure in the grey wolf, Canis lupus, one of the most mobile terrestrial carnivores. We analysed variability in mitochondrial DNA and 14 microsatellite loci for a sample of 643 individuals from 59 localities representing most of the continuous wolf range in Eastern Europe. We tested an array of geographical, historical and ecological factors to check whether they may explain genetic differentiation among local wolf populations. We showed that wolf populations in Eastern Europe displayed nonrandom spatial genetic structure in the absence of obvious physical barriers to movement. Neither topographic barriers nor past fragmentation could explain spatial genetic structure. However, we found that the genetic differentiation among local populations was correlated with climate, habitat types, and wolf diet composition. This result shows that ecological processes may strongly influence the amount of gene flow among populations. We suggest natal-habitat-biased dispersal as an underlying mechanism linking population ecology with population genetic structure.

  17. Adolescents’ perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi

    PubMed Central

    Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. Design This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. Setting The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Participants Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Main outcome measures Adolescents’ awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Results Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents’ awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants’ age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent–adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent–adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers’ ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and

  18. The influence of turbid medium properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Pingping; Si, Jinhai; Tan, Wenjiang; Liu, Xin; Wu, Bin; Xu, Shichao; Chen, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate femtosecond optical Kerr gated imaging of an object hidden behind a highly turbid medium. The influence of turbid medium properties on image contrast has been investigated. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulation results show that for a given optical density, the image contrast of direct imaging without an optical Kerr gate decreases with the increase of the scattering particle size or the decrease of the thickness of the turbid medium. Compared with direct imaging, optical Kerr gated imaging has a better image contrast as it eliminates more scattered photons effectively. Qualitative comparisons between experiments and simulations show good agreement.

  19. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  20. Factors influencing wood mobilization 1 in Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  1. Factors influencing reproduction and genetic toxic effects on male gonads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. P.; Dixon, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of toxicological study of a target organ, such as the testis, is to elucidate the qualitative and quantitative toxic effects of a chemical on that organ. The ultimate objective is to assess the toxic effects of a chemical in laboratory animals and extrapolate the pertinent experimental data to man. To accomplish these objectives, one must consider the main factors which may influence and modulate the toxic effects of chemicals in the organ. In the male gonads, such modifying factors are the pharmacokinetic parameters governing the absorption, distribution, activation and detoxification of indirect carcinogens, covalent bindings to macromolecules, and DNA damage as well as DNA repair of damaged germ cells. All of these factors have been presently studied in our laboratory and are discussed in this paper with the exception of covalent bindings to macromolecules. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the functional blood–testis barrier (BTB) closely resembles the blood-brain barrier in transport characteristics: the permeability of nonelectrolytes and the acidic drugs with pKa values depend upon their molecular size and their partition coefficients, respectively. Thus, the functional BTB, restricts the permeability of many foreign compounds to male germ cells. Studies of mixed function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 system in male gonads demonstrated that the presence of AHH, EH, and GSH-ST implicate activation and detoxification of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Thus, active electrophiles may exert significant toxic effects locally within both interstitial and germ cell compartments. The presence of an efficient DNA repair system in premeiotic spermatogenic cells (and not in spermiogenic cells) can further modify both toxic and mutagenic events in the subsequent differentiation of germ cells to mature spermatozoa. PMID:17539139

  2. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  3. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  4. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  5. What is the Main Potential Factor Influencing Ocular Protrusion?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinwei; Su, Yun; Song, Xuefei; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Xianqun

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to establish the normal-range orbital parameters and to explore the relationships between ocular protrusion and various orbital morphological factors. Material/Methods A retrospective, non-comparative case series was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. We recruited 56 subjects (112 orbits), including 27 males (21 to 87 years of age) and 29 females (22 to 88 years of age) in this study. Nine length measurements, 2 angle measurements, and 2 volume measurements of various aspects of the orbit were obtained using Mimics v18.0 software. The data were collected manually using a 3D measurement technique. Statistical analyses using t tests and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the differences and relationships between the parameters, respectively. Results Ocular protrusion in both sexes was closely related to the following values: orbital soft tissue volume (OSTV) (males: r=0.61, p<0.001; females: r=0.39, p=0.003), orbital soft tissue volume/bony orbital volume (OSTV/BOV) (males: r=0.90, p<0.001; females: r=0.87, p<0.001), orbital width (males: r=0.40, p=0.003; females: r=0.53, p<0.001), orbital height (males: r=0.29, p=0.038; females: r=0.45, p<0.001), and globe diameter (males: r=0.52, p<0.001; females: r=0.48, p<0.001). No differences were found between the right and left orbits. Conclusions The study provides insight into the potential factors that influence ocular protrusion, which include the OSTV/BOV ratio, the shape of the orbital aperture, and the ocular axial length. The results of orbital surgery can be made more predictable by accounting for these 3 factors. The database and regression formula might provide support for surgical planning in the future. PMID:28053301

  6. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  7. A Phenomenological Study: The Influence of Noncognitive Factors on Academically Unprepared College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Danny Moire

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the influence of noncognitive factors in four areas: early educational factors, personal factors, affective factors, and noncognitive skill factors to understand the phenomenon of college students' academic underpreparedness. Findings related to textual categories indicated personal factors such as a…

  8. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  9. Factors influencing occupancy of nest cavities in recently burned forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saab, V.A.; Dudley, J.; Thompson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Recently burned forests in western North America provide nesting habitat for many species of cavity-nesting birds. However, little is understood about the time frame and the variables affecting occupancy of postfire habitats by these birds. We studied factors influencing the occupancy and reuse of nest cavities from 1-7 years after fire in two burned sites of western Idaho during 1994-1999. Tree cavities were used for nesting by 12 species of cavity nesters that were classified by the original occupant (strong excavator, weak excavator, or nonexcavator) of 385 nest cavities. We used logistic regression to model cavity occupancy by strong excavators (n = 575 trials) and weak excavators (n = 206 trials). Year after fire had the greatest influence on occupancy of nest cavities for both groups, while site of the burn was secondarily important in predicting occupancy by strong excavators and less important for weak excavators. Predicted probability of cavity occupancy was highest during the early years (1-4) after fire, declined over time (5-7 years after fire), and varied by site, with a faster decline in the smaller burned site with a greater mosaic of unburned forest. Closer proximity and greater interspersion of unburned forest (15% unburned) may have allowed a quicker recolonization by nest predators into the smaller burn compared to the larger burn with few patches of unburned forest (4% unburned). In combination with time and space effects, the predicted probability of cavity occupancy was positively affected by tree and nest heights for strong and weak excavators, respectively.

  10. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. The Transcription Factor p53 Influences Microglial Activation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nesser, Nicole K.; Hopkins, Stephanie; Myers, Scott J.; Case, Amanda; Lee, Rona J.; Seaburg, Luke A.; Uo, Takuma; Murphy, Sean P.; Morrison, Richard S.; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, have pro-inflammatory and subsequently neurotoxic actions as well as anti-inflammatory functions that promote recovery and repair. Very little is known about the transcriptional control of these specific microglial behaviors. We have previously shown that in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the transcription factor p53 accumulates in microglia and that microglial p53 expression is required for the in vitro neurotoxicity of the HIV coat glycoprotein gp120. These findings suggested a novel function for p53 in regulating microglial activation. Here we report that in the absence of p53, microglia demonstrate a blunted response to interferon-γ, failing to increase expression of genes associated with classical macrophage activation or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory functions, phagocytosis and tissue repair in p53 knockout (p53−/−) microglia compared with those cultured from strain matched p53 expressing (p53+/+) mice. We further observed that p53−/− microglia demonstrate increased phagocytic activity in vitro and expression of markers for alternative macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In HAND brain tissue, the alternative activation marker CD163 was expressed in a separate subset of microglia than those demonstrating p53 accumulation. These data suggest that p53 influences microglial behavior, supporting the adoption of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, while p53 deficiency promotes phagocytosis and gene expression associated with alternative activation and anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:21598312

  12. Imageability, age of acquisition, and frequency factors in acronym comprehension.

    PubMed

    Playfoot, David; Izura, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    In spite of their unusual orthographic and phonological form, acronyms (e.g., BBC, HIV, NATO) can become familiar to the reader, and their meaning can be accessed well enough that they are understood. The factors in semantic access for acronym stimuli were assessed using a word association task. Two analyses examined the time taken to generate a word association response to acronym cues. Responses were recorded more quickly to cues that elicited a large proportion of semantic responses, and those that were high in associative strength. Participants were shown to be faster to respond to cues which were imageable or early acquired. Frequency was not a significant predictor of word association responses. Implications for theories of lexical organisation are discussed.

  13. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  14. Denitrification in upland of China: Magnitude and influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyang; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    A better understanding of influencing factors and accurate estimate of soil denitrification is a global concern. Here we present a synthesis of 300 observations of denitrification in Chinese upland soils from 39 field and laboratory studies using the acetylene inhibition technique. The results of a linear mixed model analysis showed that the rates of soil denitrification were significantly affected by crop type, soil organic carbon, soil pH, the measurement period, and the rate of N application. The emission factor (EF) and N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio for soil denitrification were on average 2.11 ± 0.17% and 0.508 ± 0.020, respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that N fertilization increased soil denitrification by 311% (95% CI: 279-346%) and 112% (95% CI: 66-171%) in the field and laboratory studies, respectively. Substantial interactive effects between soil properties and N fertilization on soil denitrification were found. Although the highest values of both the rate of denitrification and the EF were found in vegetable fields, the size of the stimulating effect of N fertilization on soil denitrification was lower in vegetable fields than in maize and wheat fields. These results suggest that the crop-specific effect is important and that vegetable fields are potential hot spots of denitrification in Chinese uplands. Based on either the EF or the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio obtained, the estimated amount of total denitrification from the upland soils was an order of magnitude lower than that from budget calculations, suggesting that the acetylene inhibition technique may significantly underestimate denitrification in Chinese upland soils.

  15. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  16. Factors influencing lunchtime food choices among working Americans.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L; Atienza, Audie A; Yi, Sarah L; Zhang, Jian; Mâsse, Louise C

    2009-04-01

    There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch > or = 2 times/week, with higher percentages for males, Blacks, younger (age 18-34 years) versus older adults (age 55 years or older), and obese versus normal-weight persons. The most important lunch food choice value was convenience (34.3%), followed by taste (27.8%), cost (20.8%), and health (17.1%). The typical source for purchasing lunch was a fast-food restaurant (43.4%), followed by on-site cafeteria/snack shop (25.3%), full-service restaurant (16.9%), supermarket (5.2%), vending machine (4.4%), and convenience store (4.0%); younger adults and those less educated relied more on fast-food places. This study identifies individual factors and values that may influence future dietary health initiatives in the work site.

  17. Factors influencing university students' explicit and implicit sexual double standards.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John K; Milhausen, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative research has resulted in inconsistent evidence for the existence of a sexual double standard, leading Crawford and Popp ( 2003 ) to issue a call for methodological innovation. The implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ) is a measure that may provide a means to examine the double standard without the contamination of the demand characteristics and social desirability biases that plague self-report research (Marks & Fraley, 2005 ). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing explicit and implicit double standards, and to examine the relationship between these explicit and implicit double standards, and levels of socially desirable responding. One hundred and three university students completed a sexual double standard IAT, an explicit measure of the double standard, and measures of socially desirable responding. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that levels of socially desirable responding were not related to implicit or explicit double standards. Men endorsed a stronger explicit traditional double standard than women, whereas for implicit sexual standards, men demonstrated a relatively gender-neutral evaluation and women demonstrated a strong reverse double standard. These results suggest the existence of a complex double standard, and indicate that more research of sexual attitudes should include implicit measures.

  18. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs. PMID:26389106

  19. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  20. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  1. Phenotypes and enviromental factors: their influence in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Christakou, Charikleia; Marinakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by heterogeneity in phenotypic manifestations. The clinical phenotype of PCOS includes reproductive and hormonal aberrations, namely anovulation and hyperandrogenism, which coexist with metabolic disturbances. Reflecting the crosstalk between the reproductive system and metabolic tissues, obesity not only deteriorates the metabolic profile but also aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Although the pathogenesis of PCOS remains unclear, the syndrome appears to involve environmental and genetic components. Starting from early life and extending throughout lifecycle, environmental insults may affect susceptible women who finally demonstrate the clinical phenotype of PCOS. Diet emerges as the major environmental determinant of PCOS. Overnutrition leading to obesity is widely recognized to have an aggravating impact, while another detrimental dietary factor may be the high content of food in advanced glycated end products (AGEs). Environmental exposure to industrial products, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may also exacerbate the clinical course of PCOS. AGEs and BPA may act as endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. PCOS appears to mirror the harmful influence of the modern environment on the reproductive and metabolic balance of inherently predisposed individuals.

  2. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Kleerebezem, R; Strous, M; Chandran, K; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation staining. The volume fraction occupied by precipitates was determined by computed tomography scanning. PHREEQC was used to estimate potential formation of precipitates to determine a density of the inorganic fraction. Densities of bacteria were investigated by Percoll density centrifugation. The volume fractions were then coupled with the corresponding densities and the total density of a granule was calculated. The sensitivity of the density of the entire granule on the corresponding settling velocity was evaluated by changing the volume fractions of precipitates or bacteria in a settling model. Results from granules originating from a Nereda reactor for simultaneous phosphate COD and nitrogen removal revealed that phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) had a higher density than glycogen-accumulating organisms leading to significantly higher settling velocities for PAO-dominated granules explaining earlier observations of the segregation of the granular sludge bed inside reactors. The model showed that a small increase in the volume fraction of precipitates (1-5 %) strongly increased the granular density and thereby the settling velocity. For nitritation-anammox granular sludge, mainly granular diameter and not density differences are causing a segregation of the biomass in the bed.

  3. Some factors influencing salivary function when treating with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mira, J.G.; Wescott, W.B.; Starcke, E.N.; Shannon, I.L.

    1981-04-01

    Salivary flow rate was studied in 29 patients treated with external irradiation to head and neck areas. Resting saliva samples were collected before, during the radiotherapy course and follow-up. Several parameters were investigated: field arrangement, amount of salivary glands irradiated, dose to these glands, initial FR, its recovery during and after irradiation, and influence of therapy interruption in FR. It was found that the level of the upper border of the field is a critical factor when using parallel-opposed lateral fields to the upper neck area and lateral face. More than 50% of the parotids have to be outside the fields to prevent severe dryness. Neck fields which do not encompass salivary glands do not decrease salivary secretion. There is some relation between the initial FR and the dose necessary to produce dryness: patients with high initial salivary FR require higher doses. FR recovery occurs during weekend interruptions before xerostomia develops. Interruptions of therapy for more than two weeks during the radiotherapy course prior to development of dryness might decrease late xerostomia, at least in patients with high initial FR. Objective recovery of the FR has not been observed after treatment in spite of the subjective improvement in the sensation of dryness of some patients.

  4. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  5. Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Study of Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Anupama; Taranjit

    2011-12-01

    Chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, offers great advantages for ionic interactions with negatively charged species such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) leading to the formation of biocompatible crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically study the following factors influencing the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with STPP to produce CS nanoparticles: effect of pH of solution, CS concentration, STPP concentration and CS/STPP ratio. The results show that with the increase in CS concentration, the yield of the nanoparticle decreases whereas size increases. The mean size of the prepared nanoparticles varied between 120 to 720 nm and zeta potential between +14 mV to +53 mV . Nanoparticle size and yield was found to be strongly dependent on solution pH. Nanoparticle size decreased with increase in solution pH from 4 to 5 and yield was found to be maximum at pH = 5. With increase in STPP concentration, the size and yield of the nanoparticle increased. The potential of CS nanoparticles to trap amoxicillin trihydrate, taken as the model drug, was also studied. The maximum drug loading capacity was found to be 35% at a solution pH = 5 for 0.2% CS and 0.086% STPP.

  6. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  7. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  8. Influence of the scattering phase function in numerical modeling of hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2016-03-01

    In simulations of light transport in biological tissues and organs knowledge of tissue optical properties is imperative for realism of the predicted effects. One factor which is commonly overlooked is the choice of appropriate scattering phase function. Henyey-Greenstein phase function (PF) is often applied due to its suitability for analytical derivations and availability of the corresponding tissue anisotropy factors. At the same time it is known that it doesn't match the angular distribution of scattering in many tissues. In here, we study the influence of the PF in 3D Monte Carlo simulations of hyperspectral imaging (HSI). For a simple geometrical (three-layered) model of skin and a discrete blood vessel, hyperspectral images in the 400-1000 nm spectral range were simulated using Henyey-Greenstein, modified Henyey-Greenstein, and Mie PF, respectively. The results are compared in the spatial and spectral domains. In addition, the effective tissue properties as determined from the simulated HSI using 1D inverse MC are compared with the input parameter values. The results show that the choice of PF assumed in light transport models has a substantial impact on simulated HSI. Using an inappropriate PF can result in significantly altered HSI and considerable artifacts in extracted values of the skin parameters.

  9. An analysis on effecting factors of ultra-violet imaging appliance in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Yang, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Bi, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the operating principle of daylight UV imagers was introduced first, emphasizing the SBUV(solar blind UV) technology, which utilizes the fact that ultra violet between 240nm~280nm is being absorbed by the ozone so that signals detected on earth in this spectral range originate on earth. And then several influencing factors were explained, including observation distance, observing angle, imager gain settings and environmental conditions. Experimental data measured in the UHV(ultra high-voltage) DC converter station in Changzhi, Shanxi, China were analyzed using SRA(single regression analysis) method, and mathematical equations with acceptable deviation were calculated, with simulating curves plotted. The results show that environmental conditions including humidity and temperature, observation distance and imager gain settings all contribute to the measuring result, exhibiting as exponential function and convex function respectively. Concluded from the above analysis and calculation, observing conditions of a clear observing angle at the same observation distance with mediate gain settings on days of low humidity were recommended. This conclusion may guide further ultra-violet imaging appliance in high-voltage electrical devices corona discharge sensing.

  10. A Survey of the Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Chun; Zhu, Chang; Meng, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to understand the factors influencing international academic mobility within the Chinese higher education context. The inventory of University Students' Perceptions of Influencing Factors for International Academic Mobility was developed and tested to enquire about Chinese university students' perceptions of factors influencing…

  11. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  12. [Body image perception and associated factors among elderly residents in a city in northeast Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Brito, Kyonayra Quezia Duarte; Oliveira, Elaine Cristina Tôrres; Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    The article aims to verify body image perception and associated factors among elderly individuals in Campina Grande, State of Paraiba. It involves a cross-sectional, population and home-based study, with individuals 60 years or older of both sexes. Body image perception was considered the dependent variable for purposes of analysis and study of possible associations. The independent variables were: age group, nutritional status, number of diseases, health perception and regular practice of physical activities. To identify associated factors, univariate and multivariate regression analyses were carried out using SPSS 17.0 software. Overall, 806 elderly individuals were interviewed. Men showed greater satisfaction with body image when compared to women and older participants were more satisfied than younger participants. Among the factors related to dissatisfaction in women, underweight and overweight/obesity were associated with an increased risk of dissatisfaction. Among men, older age constituted a protective factor for dissatisfaction, while underweight and overweight/obesity were risk factors for dissatisfaction. The results of this study suggest a possible influence of nutritional status on body image perception among the elderly, negatively affecting their perception of body image.

  13. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  14. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  15. Mini mental state examination: influence of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral factors and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Freidl, W; Schmidt, R; Stronegger, W J; Irmler, A; Reinhart, B; Koch, M

    1996-01-01

    Age and education have been found to affect the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of elderly normals, but there have been no studies assessing the influence of environmental and behavioral factors on this test. We therefore administered the MMSE to 1437 normal elderly subjects in the setting of a stroke prevention study and correlated their results to 16 sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioral factors, and vascular risk factors. Study statistics composed of a multiple logistic regression analysis and graphical models revealed the relations between variables in greater detail. Logistic regression yielded education level, occupational status, living as a single, general life stress, physical strain, and physical inactivity to be independent predictors of the MMSE score. Age was not included in this model. Graphical models demonstrated similar results, but did not include living as a single and physical inactivity. As shown in our independence graph, general life stress is the crucial predictor and links other environmental and sociodemographic variables with the test performance of elderly normals.

  16. Factors influencing self-perception of health status.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Hanke, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate subjective health status of Łódź adult population and to determine the factors affecting their self-perception of health. The study population consisted of randomly selected 1,056 adults aged 20-74 years from L6di district. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the factors influencing the self-perception of health. More than 30% of study subjects described their health as poor or very poor. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women regarding self-perception of health (p>0.05). Older people more frequently reported their health as poor and very poor compared to those younger than 25 years of age. Four percent of men and 10% of women younger than 25 years of age described their health as poor or very poor whereas in age category 45-54 years that percentage increased to more than 40% (men RR=16.3; p<0.001, women RR=7.5; p<0.001), in 55-64 to 60% (men RR=18.6; p<0.001, women RR=10.0; p<0.001) and for people older than 64 years of age to 60% for men (RR=12.6; p<0.01) and 72% for women (RR=13.4; p<0.001). People with lower educational degree perceived their health as worse compared to those with university diploma (men RR=5.3; p<0.001; women 4.6; p<0.001). The risk of indicating the health as poor or very poor was 3.4 times higher for unemployed men comparing to employed (p<0.001) and 1.5 for unemployed women compared to employed (p>0.05). Men indicating no leisure-time physical activity significantly more frequently described their health as poor or very poor than men with satisfactory level of recreational physical activity (RR=2.2; p<0.01). Current and former smoker men described their health as worse compared to non-smokers (current smokers RR=1.5; p>0.05; former smokers RR=1.8; p>0.05). Preventive programs aimed at improving self-perceived health should concentrate on increasing recreational physical activity and elimination of smoking. Those actions should in particular target people

  17. Influence of space-time speckle effect on the image quality in a synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Zhou, Yu; Sun, Jianfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Ma, Xiaoping; Liu, Liren

    2014-12-01

    Temporally and spatially varying speckle effect arises as a consequence of the frequency modulation chirped laser signal employed in synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL).A variety of reconstructed images degraded by laser speckle effect have been reported. In this paper, space-time speckle effects and their influence on imaging based on the SAIL system in a far-field diffraction region are systematically studied. The first half of this paper provides the theoretical analyses of the 2D data acquisition with speckle effect in SAIL. Numerical simulations of the temporally varying speckle pattern, the integrated speckle field over a receiving antenna and their influence to the image quality for SAIL are obtained in the remaining of the paper. Our results will be valuable for further studies on the suppression of speckle effect in SAILs.

  18. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.

  19. Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor influences specific histone modifications

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Rocío; Andreassen, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the nuclear envelope or nuclear ‘lamina’ networks cause disease and can perturb histone posttranslational (epigenetic) regulation. Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor (BAF) is an essential but enigmatic lamina component that binds lamins, LEM-domain proteins, DNA and histone H3 directly. We report that BAF copurified with nuclease-digested mononucleosomes and associated with modified histones in vivo. BAF overexpression significantly reduced global histone H3 acetylation by 18%. In cells that stably overexpressed BAF 3-fold, silencing mark H3-K27-Me1/3 and active marks H4-K16-Ac and H4-Ac5 decreased significantly. Significant increases were also seen for silencing mark H3-K9-Me3, active marks H3-K4-Me2, H3-K9/K14-Ac and H4-K5-Ac and a mark (H3-K79-Me2) associated with both active and silent chromatin. Other increases (H3-S10-P, H3-S28-P and silencing mark H3-K9-Me2) did not reach statistical significance. BAF overexpression also significantly influenced cell cycle distribution. Moreover, BAF associated in vivo with SET/I2PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor; blocks H3 dephosphorylation) and G9a (H3-K9 methyltransferase), but showed no detectable association with HDAC1 or HATs. These findings reveal BAF as a novel epigenetic regulator and are discussed in relation to BAF deficiency phenotypes, which include a hereditary progeria syndrome and loss of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. PMID:22127260

  20. Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor influences specific histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Rocío; Andreassen, Paul R; Wilson, Katherine L

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the nuclear envelope or nuclear 'lamina' networks cause disease and can perturb histone posttranslational (epigenetic) regulation. Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor (BAF) is an essential but enigmatic lamina component that binds lamins, LEM-domain proteins, DNA and histone H3 directly. We report that BAF copurified with nuclease-digested mononucleosomes and associated with modified histones in vivo. BAF overexpression significantly reduced global histone H3 acetylation by 18%. In cells that stably overexpressed BAF 3-fold, silencing mark H3-K27-Me1/3 and active marks H4-K16-Ac and H4-Ac5 decreased significantly. Significant increases were also seen for silencing mark H3-K9-Me3, active marks H3-K4-Me2, H3-K9/K14-Ac and H4-K5-Ac and a mark (H3-K79-Me2) associated with both active and silent chromatin. Other increases (H3-S10-P, H3-S28-P and silencing mark H3-K9-Me2) did not reach statistical significance. BAF overexpression also significantly influenced cell cycle distribution. Moreover, BAF associated in vivo with SET/I2PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor; blocks H3 dephosphorylation) and G9a (H3-K9 methyltransferase), but showed no detectable association with HDAC1 or HATs. These findings reveal BAF as a novel epigenetic regulator and are discussed in relation to BAF deficiency phenotypes, which include a hereditary progeria syndrome and loss of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells.

  1. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  2. Factors influencing immunologic response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shigui; Tian, Guo; Cui, Yuanxia; Ding, Cheng; Deng, Min; Yu, Chengbo; Xu, Kaijin; Ren, Jingjing; Yao, Jun; Li, Yiping; Cao, Qing; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Jiang, Tian'an; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-06-21

    Hepatitis B was still a worldwide health problem. This study aimed to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess a more precise estimation of factors that influence the response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults. Our included studies examined seroprotection rates close to the end of vaccination schedules in healthy adult populations. This meta-analysis including 21053 adults in 37 articles showed that a significantly decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 40) (RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.55-2.23), male adults (RR:1.40, 95% CI:1.22-1.61), BMI ≥ 25 adults (RR:1.56, 95% CI:1.12-2.17), smoker (RR:1.53, 95% CI:1.21-1.93), and adults with concomitant disease (RR:1.39, 95% CI:1.04-1.86). Meanwhile, we further found a decreased response to hepatitis B vaccine appeared in adults (age ≥ 30) (RR:1.77, 95% CI:1.48-2.10), and adults (age ≥ 60) (RR:1.30, 95% CI:1.01-1.68). However, there were no difference in response to hepatitis B vaccine both in alcoholic (RR:0.90, 95% CI:0.64-1.26) and 0-1-12 vs. 0-1-6 vaccination schedule (RR:1.39, 95% CI:0.41-4.67). Pooling of these studies recommended the sooner the better for adult hepatitis B vaccine strategy. More vaccine doses, supplemental/additional strengthening immunity should be emphasized on the susceptible population of increasing aged, male, BMI ≥ 25, smoking and concomitant disease. The conventional 0-1-6 vaccination schedule could be still worth to be recommended.

  3. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  4. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  5. Thinning factors influence on custom-made mouthguards thermoforming.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ichiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Narimatsu, Keishiro; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify and quantify factors influencing thinning during a thermoforming using a special simulation model that has three different flat surfaces such as 0 degree, 45 degree and 90 degree against a pressurizing force. Air pressure type samples were made by EVA and acrylic resin blank. Vacuum type samples were also made by EVA. Thickness gauge was employed to measure the thickness. As results, pressure forming showed significantly larger thinning at 45 and 90 degree surfaces and smaller thinning at 0 degree surface, 36% in thinning rate by vacuum forming and 66% by the pressure forming at 90 degree surface, and 17% and 20% at 45 degree surface, and 11% and 2% at 0 degree surfaces. Thinning was increased with the increase in distance from the centre in 0 degree surface and increased with the decrease in height in the vertical surface significantly. The air pressure, the material thickness in EVA (Drufosoft) and difference in material colour did not affect thinning rate. An acrylic resin material showed approximately 10% smaller thinning than EVA (Drufosoft). To retain enough thickness of 3 mm on 90 degree surface corresponding to an incisal labial aspect for pressure laminate type, over 55% reduction is taken into consideration and at least two 3-mm-thickness materials should be laminated. 0 degree surface showed at most 2 % reduction in pressure lamination; post thermoforming occlusal thickness became almost 6 mm with a usual 3 mm plus 3 mm lamination. Therefore, careful occlusal adjustment in an actual mouthguard fabrication to achieve an appropriate 2 mm thickness on this surface should be requested.

  6. Factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of numerical competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-04-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression analyses, revealed that undergraduates exhibiting greater confidence in their mathematical and numeracy skills, as evidenced by their higher self-evaluation scores and their higher scores on the confidence sub-scale contributing to the measurement of attitude, possess more cohesive, rather than fragmented, conceptions of mathematics, and display more positive attitudes towards mathematics/numeracy. They also exhibit lower levels of mathematics anxiety. Students exhibiting greater confidence also tended to be those who were relatively young (i.e. 18-29 years), whose degree programmes provided them with opportunities to practise and further develop their numeracy skills, and who possessed higher pre-university mathematics qualifications. The multiple regression analysis revealed two positive predictors (overall attitude towards mathematics/numeracy and possession of a higher pre-university mathematics qualification) and five negative predictors (mathematics anxiety, lack of opportunity to practise/develop numeracy skills, being a more mature student, being enrolled in Health and Social Care compared with Science and Technology, and possessing no formal mathematics/numeracy qualification compared with a General Certificate of Secondary Education or equivalent qualification) accounted for approximately 64% of the variation in students' perceptions of their numerical competence. Although the results initially suggested that male students were significantly more confident than females, one compounding variable was almost certainly the students' highest pre-university mathematics or numeracy qualification, since a higher

  7. Local Variability of Macular Thickness Measurements With SD-OCT and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Amini, Navid; Gornbein, Jeff; Henry, Sharon; Romero, Pablo; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the intrasession variability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-derived local macular thickness measures and explore influencing factors. Methods One hundred two glaucomatous eyes (102 patients) and 21 healthy eyes (21 subjects) with three good quality macular images during the same session were enrolled. Thickness measurements were calculated for 3° superpixels for the inner plexiform (IPL), ganglion cell (GCL), or retinal nerve fiber layers (mRNFL), GC/IPL, ganglion cell complex, and full macular thickness. Spatial distribution and magnitude of measurement errors (ME; differences between the 3 individual superpixel values and their mean) and association between MEs and thickness, age, axial length, and image quality were explored. Results MEs had a normal distribution with mostly random noise along with a small fraction of outliers (1.2%–6.6%; highest variability in mRNFL and on the nasal border) based on M-estimation. Boundaries of 95% prediction intervals for variability reached a maximum of 3 μm for all layers and diagnostic groups after exclusion of outliers. Correlation between proportion of outliers and thickness measures varied among various parameters. Age, axial length, or image quality did not influence MEs (P > 0.05 for both groups). Conclusions Local variability of macular SD-OCT measurements is low and uniform across the macula. The relationship between superpixel thickness and outlier proportion varied as a function of the parameter of interest. Translational Relevance Given the low and uniform variability within and across eyes, definition of an individualized ‘variability space' seems unnecessary. The variability measurements from this study could be used for designing algorithms for detection of glaucoma progression. PMID:27486555

  8. Influence of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms on PET Image Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpetas, G. E.; Michail, C. M.; Fountos, G. P.; Valais, I. G.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Panayiotakis, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction. The simulated PET scanner was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL, the ordered subsets separable paraboloidal surrogate (OSSPS), the median root prior (MRP) and OSMAPOSL with quadratic prior, algorithms. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using fixed subsets and various iterations, as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase with increasing iterations. MTF also improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method, based on the TLC plane source, can be useful in the resolution assessment of PET scanners.

  9. Media influence on the body image of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Z; Sullivan, E A; Davies, P S W; Hill, R J

    2006-01-01

    To study the media messages portrayed to children, 925 students, from 9 to up to 14 years of age, completed "The Sociocultural Influences Questionnaire." The media section is the focus of this paper, and the responses from three questions were selected to examine the media's influence to be slimmer, increase weight, or increase muscle size. While the girls and boys exhibited different levels of agreement with each media influence, both genders disagreed that media messages were implying they should gain weight. This is in agreement with the belief that the media perpetuates the ideal of thinness and there is a negative stigma associated with being overweight.

  10. On the Relations among Regular, Equal Unique Variances, and Image Factor Analysis Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Bentler, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the conditions under which the matrix of factor loadings from the factor analysis model with equal unique variances will give a good approximation to the matrix of factor loadings from the regular factor analysis model. Extends the results to the image factor analysis model. Discusses implications for practice. (SLD)

  11. Factors Influencing the Interstate Distribution of Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu'min, Ridgely A.

    The interstate distribution of defense contract awards may both influence and be influenced by regional differences in educational attainment levels. Data from the 1980 census indicate that the level of educational attainment of adult workers was lowest in Kentucky and highest in Alaska. Statistical analysis of the relationships between this…

  12. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging.

    PubMed

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-21

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in (124)I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the (124)I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR(+)) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 x 32

  13. Experimental investigation of factors affecting the absolute recovery coefficients in iodine-124 PET lesion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzen, Walter

    2010-04-01

    The use of recovery coefficients (RCs) in 124I PET lesion imaging is a simple method to correct the imaged activity concentration (AC) primarily for the partial-volume effect and, to a minor extent, for the prompt gamma coincidence effect. The aim of this phantom study was to experimentally investigate a number of various factors affecting the 124I RCs. Three RC-based correction approaches were considered. These approaches differ with respect to the volume of interest (VOI) drawn, which determines the imaged AC and the RCs: a single voxel VOI containing the maximum value (maximum RC), a spherical VOI with a diameter of the scanner resolution (resolution RC) and a VOI equaling the physical object volume (isovolume RC). Measurements were performed using mainly a stand-alone PET scanner (EXACT HR+) and a latest-generation PET/CT scanner (BIOGRAPH mCT). The RCs were determined using a cylindrical phantom containing spheres or rotational ellipsoids and were derived from images acquired with a reference acquisition protocol. For each type of RC, the influence of the following factors on the RC was assessed: object shape, background activity spill in and iterative image reconstruction parameters. To evaluate the robustness of the RC-based correction approaches, the percentage deviation between RC-corrected and true ACs was determined from images acquired with a clinical acquisition protocol of different AC regimes. The observed results of the shape and spill-in effects were compared with simulation data derived from a convolution-based model. The study demonstrated that the shape effect was negligible and, therefore, was in agreement with theoretical expectations. In contradiction to the simulation results, the observed spill-in effect was unexpectedly small. To avoid variations in the determination of RCs due to reconstruction parameter changes, image reconstruction with a pixel length of about one-third or less of the scanner resolution and an OSEM 1 × 32 algorithm or

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...

  15. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  16. Using Visual Literacy to Help Adolescents Understand How Images Influence Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2009-01-01

    Students with physical disabilities face challenges because of the way they look, communicate, or behave. What children see--the visual--is often central to what they think, and in today's world the thinking of adolescents is being influenced by images more than ever before. Both still and moving images are capturing the attention of adolescents…

  17. Understanding the Influence of Turbulence in Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometry of Smokestack Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    with coal -burning power fa- cility to assess the influence of turbulence on spectral retrieval of temperature (T) and pollutant concentrations (Ci). A...52 vii List of Figures Figure Page 1. Images of a coal -burning smokestack plume changing with time...15 4. Images of a coal -burning smokestack plume changing

  18. Factors influencing exemplary science teachers' levels of computer use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakverdi, Meral

    This study examines exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their students' use of computer applications/tools in or for their science class. After a relevant review of the literature certain variables were selected for analysis. These variables included personal self-efficacy in teaching with computers, outcome expectancy, pupil-control ideology, level of computer use, age, gender, teaching experience, personal computer use, professional computer use and science teachers' level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction. The sample for this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award (sponsored by the White House and the National Science Foundation) between the years 1997 and 2003 from all 50 states and U.S. territories. Award-winning science teachers were contacted about the survey via e-mail or letter with an enclosed return envelope. Of the 334 award-winning science teachers, usable responses were received from 92 science teachers, which made a response rate of 27.5%. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students' use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers' use of computer applications/tools. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that personal self-efficacy related to

  19. Factors influencing the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lengi, A J; Corl, B A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to isolate bovine stromal-vascular cells using explants and to determine media components that promote differentiation into mature adipocytes for studies of lipogenic enzyme regulation. Stromal-vascular cells were grown from explants and treated with differentiation media for 8 d after reaching confluence. Differentiation was assessed by measuring radiolabeled acetate incorporation into lipids, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and the mRNA expression of fatty acid binding protein-4, PPAR-gamma, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACCalpha). After 8 d of differentiation, medium containing 10 microg/mL of insulin, 0.25 microM dexamethasone, 0.5 mM isobutylmethylxanthine, 1 mM octanoate, and 2% Intralipid (Fisher Scientific, Suwanee, GA) produced greater acetate incorporation (P < 0.001) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.001) compared with other media tested. This differentiation medium also increased mRNA expression of fatty acid binding protein-4, PPARgamma, and ACCalpha by 180-, 7-, and 3-fold, respectively, compared with undifferentiated control cells (P < 0.05). To further improve the differentiation protocol, the effects of Intralipid, rosiglitazone, and troglitazone were examined. Removal of 2% Intralipid did not improve any differentiation measures. Addition of rosiglitazone (1 microM), a PPAR-gamma agonist, increased acetate incorporation and ACCalpha mRNA (P < 0.01). Addition of troglitazone (5 microM), another PPAR-gamma agonist, increased acetate incorporation to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and produced the greatest expression of ACCalpha mRNA (P < 0.01), but was not superior to medium that included rosiglitazone for any other differentiation measures. Cell-seeding density influences the cell divisions required to reach confluence, and increased plating density (2 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) vs. 6.7 x 10(3) cells/cm(2)) increased acetate incorporation by 100% (P < 0.001). Differentiating stromal

  20. Factors That Influence the Size of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Toumi, Ralf; Czaja, Arnaud; Van Kan, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) size is an important feature setting the extent of coastal flooding, the size of storm surge and area threatened by landfall. The importance of TC size is demonstrated comparing Hurricanes Sandy in 2012 and Bret in 1999. As a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale category-3 hurricane, the radius of gale-force wind of Hurricane Sandy exceeded 800 km prior to landfall, and the storm caused catastrophic storm surge into the New Jersey and New York coastlines, and damage up to an estimated total of 50 billion. Hurricane Bret, on the other hand, was a more intense category-4 hurricane with a radius of gale-force wind of only 140 km. Although Bret's intensity is considerable, damage was reported to be relatively light, totalling an estimated 60 million. The difference impacts are mainly caused by the difference in size. Despite the fact that a wide range of observed TC sizes has been recognised, the underlying factors that control both individual storm size and the climatological size variation remain mysterious. Here an idealized full-physics numerical cyclone model and a modified hurricane steady-state model (λ model) for TC wind profile are used to investigate the influence of environmental temperature and initial vortex properties on TC size. In the simulation we find that a sea surface temperature increase, a temperature decrease in the upper troposphere, a large or strong initial vortex can lead to the extension of TC size. The numerical model simulations show a Gaussian distribution with width, λ, of the moist entropy in the boundary layer. The width, λ, has good linear relationship with the size changes caused by different factors. With regards to TC size and intensity, we find that, unlike the intensity prediction based on the maximum potential intensity theory, it seems that there is no upper limit for TC size providing there is sufficient latent heat flux. The increase of TC size at the steady stage also causes a slight drop in intensity. In

  1. An investigation of the early factors which influence women's career choices in physical science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Anneliese

    The composition of the workforce has begun to undergo a change. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that women, minorities, and immigrants will constitute 80 percent of the additions to the labor force between 1987 and the year 2000 (Oakes, 1990). The National Science Foundation projects that the United States may have a shortfall of 400,000 scientists and over 250,000 engineers by the year 2006 (Argonne, 1990). Since women are among those who are significantly underrepresented among individuals preparing for a career in science, thirty women who are currently pursuing a successful career in physical science and technology were interviewed. This study determined participants' perceptions of the factors that first influenced an early interest in physical science and technology. The investigation included perceptions regarding: (1) whether certain identifiable events or experiences influenced the decision to pursue science as a career and what those events and experiences were; (2) at what age these events occurred; (3) whether an adult(s) was influential and which adult(s) it was; and (4) identification of where these events and experiences occurred. The interview technique was selected as the best research method for collecting the qualitative and demographic data needed for this study. The results represent the participants' recollections of out-of-school and in-school activities, family, friends and teacher support, self-image during the formative years, parents as the most important factor which influenced an interest in physical science, and major obstacles that had to be overcome by the participants in order to pursue successful careers in physical science and technology. Also included is participants' advice to parents and teachers who want to encourage females to pursue a career in physical science and technology.

  2. Cultural factors influencing safety need to be addressed in design and operation of technology.

    PubMed

    Meshkati, N

    1996-10-01

    Cultural factors which influence aviation safety in aircraft design, air traffic control, and human factors training are examined. Analysis of the Avianca Flight 052 crash in New York in January, 1990, demonstrates the catastrosphic effects cultural factors can play. Cultural factors include attitude toward work and technology, organizational hierarchy, religion, and population stereotyping.

  3. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  4. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society.

  5. 21 CFR 1404.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? 1404.880 Section 1404.880 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.880 What factors may influence...

  6. An Investigation of the Factors Influencing Student Performance in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Gayle; Francisco, Joseph S.

    2001-01-01

    Studies students in two physical chemistry classes to determine what factors influenced their performance, what their perceptions were of their own abilities, and what factors they believe influence student performance. Concludes that achievement in a physical chemistry course designed for chemistry fields is significantly related to students'…

  7. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  8. Alteration of Influencing Factors of E-Learning Continued Intention for Different Degrees of Online Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the variation of influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention for different degrees of participation and to examine moderating effects of degrees of participation on influencing factors of e-learning continuance intention. Participants included 670 learners from an adult professional…

  9. Stakeholder Perceptions of Governance: Factors Influencing Presidential Perceptions of Board Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proper, Eve; Willmer, Wesley K.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the factors that influence presidents' perceptions of board effectiveness in relation to their boards' fundraising role. Data from a survey of small college presidents are used to see what factors influence each of four areas of satisfaction: deciding policy, making financial contributions, referring donor prospects and…

  10. Factors Influencing New Entrant Dairy Farmer's Decision-Making Process around Technology Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roberta; Heanue, Kevin; Pierce, Karina; Horan, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to (1) evaluate the main factors influencing grazing system technology adoption among new entrant (NE) dairy farmers within Europe and the Irish pasture-based dairy industry, and (2) to determine the extent to which economic factors influence decision-making around technology adoption and use among NEs to the…

  11. 21 CFR 1404.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? 1404.880 Section 1404.880 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.880 What factors may influence...

  12. Factors Influencing the ABT Phenomenon among Graduate Students in a Master Program in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Vicente; Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study examining the factors that influence the ABT phenomenon (all but thesis) among graduate students of a Master in Education program in the Southeast of Mexico. Findings of the study identified individual and organizational factors influencing ABT. The study allowed for a better understanding about how…

  13. Influence of voxel S factors on three-dimensional internal dosimetry calculations.

    PubMed

    Berenato, Salvatore; Amato, Ernesto; Fischer, Alexander; Baldari, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Internal dosimetry is a fundamental instrument for the personalization of nuclear medicine therapies, to maximize the therapeutic effect while minimizing the radiation burden to other organs. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry can quantify the impact of heterogeneous radiopharmaceutical distributions in organs, lesions and tissues. We analysed the influence of radionuclide voxel S factors in 3D dosimetry of (111)In, (177)Lu and (90)Y, the most used radionuclides in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT). Calculations were carried out for kidneys on a workstation equipped with a software for 3D dosimetry (Imalytics STRATOS, Philips AG), adopting a computational anthropomorphic phantom and, retrospectively, the SPECT-CT image series of a clinical case of PRRT. Two sets of voxel S factors were adopted: the pre-loaded Philips kernels, calculated by direct Monte Carlo simulation, and the ones calculated through a previously proposed analytical approach. Philips (111)In kernel did not account for mono-energetic Auger or Conversion electrons. Results indicate a difference of about -32% in voxel S factors for (111)In in 4.42mm voxel size and around -35% in 4.80mm voxel size, particularly self-dose values; this lead to significant shift in dose histograms and average doses. For (177)Lu and (90)Y, differences are about 2% and 12% for 4.42mm voxels and about -8% and 9% for 4.80mm voxels, respectively, attributable to the different calculation methods of the voxel S factors; this does not lead to significant discrepancies between the two dose histograms. Consequently, voxel S factors must account accurately for all radiations emitted by the nuclide.

  14. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  15. The Tripartite Influence model of body image and eating disturbance: a covariance structure modeling investigation testing the mediational role of appearance comparison.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin; Obremski-Brandon, Karen; Coovert, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to the etiology of eating disorders and body image disturbances have begun to focus on multifactorial models. In the current study, the Tripartite Influence model was examined in a large sample of college females (ages 18-22). This model proposes that three primary core sources of influence--parents, peers and media--contribute to the development of body image and eating disturbances. Additionally, the model suggests that at least two factors mediate the relationship between influences and disturbance-appearance comparison and internalization of media information. In this study, appearance comparison was examined as a mediational link between peer, family and media influence variables and the outcome disturbance measures of eating dysfunction and body image dissatisfaction. Covariance structure modeling (CSM) was used to test the proposed pathways. The results indicated that appearance comparison mediated the effects of family and media influences on body dissatisfaction, which in turn influenced restrictive and bulimic behaviors. In addition, peer influences had a direct influence on restriction. Perfectionism was hypothesized to relate to body dissatisfaction, but was in fact found to influence appearance comparison. The findings were limited by the necessity of several modifications to the originally proposed models, yet offer replication and extension of previous work with appearance comparison and support for further testing of the Tripartite Influence model.

  16. Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, Estelle; Sarrut, David; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichiţa

    2016-04-21

    In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo simulation of the proton irradiation, through the Compton imaging of the PG distribution, up to the image reconstruction with a statistical MLEM method. We identify specific PG energy windows that are more relevant to detect discrepancies with the treatment plan. We find that for the simulated Compton device, the incomplete absorption of the photons with energy above about 2 MeV prevents the observation of the PG distributions at specific energies. It also leads to blurred images and smooths the distal slope of the 1D PG profiles obtained as projections on the central beam axis. We show that a selection of the events produced by γ photons having deposited almost all their energy in the camera allows to largely improve the images, a result that emphasizes the importance of the choice of the detector. However, this initial-energy-based selection is not accessible in practice. We then propose a method to estimate the range of the PG profile both for specific deposited-energy windows and for the full spectrum emission. The method relies on two parameters. We use a learning approach for their estimation and we show that it allows to detect few millimeter shifts of the PG profiles.

  17. Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilaire, Estelle; Sarrut, David; Peyrin, Françoise; Maxim, Voichiţa

    2016-04-01

    In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo simulation of the proton irradiation, through the Compton imaging of the PG distribution, up to the image reconstruction with a statistical MLEM method. We identify specific PG energy windows that are more relevant to detect discrepancies with the treatment plan. We find that for the simulated Compton device, the incomplete absorption of the photons with energy above about 2 MeV prevents the observation of the PG distributions at specific energies. It also leads to blurred images and smooths the distal slope of the 1D PG profiles obtained as projections on the central beam axis. We show that a selection of the events produced by γ photons having deposited almost all their energy in the camera allows to largely improve the images, a result that emphasizes the importance of the choice of the detector. However, this initial-energy-based selection is not accessible in practice. We then propose a method to estimate the range of the PG profile both for specific deposited-energy windows and for the full spectrum emission. The method relies on two parameters. We use a learning approach for their estimation and we show that it allows to detect few millimeter shifts of the PG profiles.

  18. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population.

  19. Factors Contributing to University Image: The Postgraduate Students' Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaz, Asal; Hashemi, Amin; Atashgah, Maryam S. Sharifi

    2015-01-01

    Despite several studies having been conducted to examine organizational image from a business perspective, there has not been adequate research in the area of perceived image in nonprofit organizations such as universities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the factors contributing to university image, from the postgraduate students'…

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING TOTAL DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model i...

  1. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  2. Digital Reference Triage: Factors Influencing Question Routing and Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Scott; Lankes, R. David

    2003-01-01

    Describes a Delphi study conducted to determine factors that affect the process of routing and assigning reference questions received electronically by digital reference services, both to experts within the service and between services. Fifteen factors were determined, by expert consensus, to be important at the conclusion of this study.…

  3. Detectability of radiological images: the influence of anatomical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.; Hessler, Christian; Valley, Jean-Francois

    1995-04-01

    Radiological image quality can be objectively quantified by the statistical decision theory. This theory is commonly applied with the noise of the imaging system alone (quantum, screen and film noises) whereas the actual noise present on the image is the 'anatomical noise' (sum of the system noise and the anatomical texture). This anatomical texture should play a role in the detection task. This paper compares these two kinds of noises by performing 2AFC experiments and computing the area under the ROC-curve. It is shown that the 'anatomical noise' cannot be considered as a noise in the sense of Wiener spectrum approach and that the detectability performance is the same as the one obtained with the system noise alone in the case of a small object to be detected. Furthermore, the statistical decision theory and the non- prewhitening observer does not match the experimental results. This is especially the case in the low contrast values for which the theory predicts an increase of the detectability as soon as the contrast is different from zero whereas the experimental result demonstrates an offset of the contrast value below which the detectability is purely random. The theory therefore needs to be improved in order to take this result into account.

  4. The influence of respiratory motion on CT image volume definition

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Romero, Ruth Castro-Tejero, Pablo

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy treatments are based on geometric and density information acquired from patient CT scans. It is well established that breathing motion during scan acquisition induces motion artifacts in CT images, which can alter the size, shape, and density of a patient's anatomy. The aim of this work is to examine and evaluate the impact of breathing motion on multislice CT imaging with respiratory synchronization (4DCT) and without it (3DCT). Methods: A specific phantom with a movable insert was used. Static and dynamic phantom acquisitions were obtained with a multislice CT. Four sinusoidal breath patterns were simulated to move known geometric structures longitudinally. Respiratory synchronized acquisitions (4DCT) were performed to generate images during inhale, intermediate, and exhale phases using prospective and retrospective techniques. Static phantom data were acquired in helical and sequential mode to define a baseline for each type of respiratory 4DCT technique. Taking into account the fact that respiratory 4DCT is not always available, 3DCT helical image studies were also acquired for several CT rotation periods. To study breath and acquisition coupling when respiratory 4DCT was not performed, the beginning of the CT image acquisition was matched with inhale, intermediate, or exhale respiratory phases, for each breath pattern. Other coupling scenarios were evaluated by simulating different phantom and CT acquisition parameters. Motion induced variations in shape and density were quantified by automatic threshold volume generation and Dice similarity coefficient calculation. The structure mass center positions were also determined to make a comparison with their theoretical expected position. Results: 4DCT acquisitions provided volume and position accuracies within ±3% and ±2 mm for structure dimensions >2 cm, breath amplitude ≤15 mm, and breath period ≥3 s. The smallest object (1 cm diameter) exceeded 5% volume variation for the breath

  5. Digital mammography, cancer screening: Factors important for image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.; Blaine, G. James; Doi, Kunio; Yaffe, Martin J.; Shtern, Faina; Brown, G. Stephen; Winfield, Daniel L.; Kallergi, Maria

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital mammography for breast cancer screening poses several novel problems such as development of digital sensors, computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) methods for image noise suppression, enhancement, and pattern recognition, compression algorithms for image storage, transmission, and remote diagnosis. X-ray digital mammography using novel direct digital detection schemes or film digitizers results in large data sets and, therefore, image compression methods will play a significant role in the image processing and analysis by CAD techniques. In view of the extensive compression required, the relative merit of 'virtually lossless' versus lossy methods should be determined. A brief overview is presented here of the developments of digital sensors, CAD, and compression methods currently proposed and tested for mammography. The objective of the NCI/NASA Working Group on Digital Mammography is to stimulate the interest of the image processing and compression scientific community for this medical application and identify possible dual use technologies within the NASA centers.

  6. The role of x-ray Swank factor in energy-resolving photon-counting imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved x-ray imaging has the potential to improve contrast-to-noise ratio by measuring the energy of each interacting photon and applying optimal weighting factors. The success of energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors relies on the ability of an x-ray detector to accurately measure the energy of each interacting photon. However, the escape of characteristic emissions and Compton scatter degrades spectral information. This article makes the theoretical connection between accuracy and imprecision in energy measurements with the x-ray Swank factor for a-Se, Si, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}-based detectors. Methods: For a detector that implements adaptive binning to sum all elements in which x-ray energy is deposited for a single interaction, energy imprecision is shown to depend on the Swank factor for a large element with x rays incident at the center. The response function for each converter material is determined using Monte Carlo methods and used to determine energy accuracy, Swank factor, and relative energy imprecision in photon-energy measurements. Results: For each material, at energies below the respective K edges, accuracy is close to unity and imprecision is only a few percent. Above the K-edge energies, characteristic emission results in a drop in accuracy and precision that depends on escape probability. In Si, and to some extent a-Se, Compton-scatter escape also degrades energy precision with increasing energy. The influence of converter thickness on energy accuracy and imprecision is modest for low-Z materials but becomes important when using high-Z materials at energies greater than the K-edge energies. Conclusions: Accuracy and precision in energy measurements by EPC detectors are determined largely by the energy-dependent x-ray Swank factor. Modest decreases in the Swank factor (5%-15%) result in large increases in relative imprecision (30%-40%).

  7. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  8. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kelly S.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the impact of diversity in higher education, it is important to consider the critical role that diversity plays in the educational process. This requires a broader understanding of the influence diversity can have on the curricular, co-curricular, and interpersonal experience of a developing college student (Denson & Chang,…

  9. Assessing factors influencing the postharvest quality of California mandarins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mandarins are becoming increasingly popular with consumers but sometimes suffer from the development of off-flavor during storage. To investigate this problem the influence of fruit maturity, storage time and holding temperature on flavor quality were investigated. Mandarins were obtained once in Fe...

  10. Factors in Exercise Adherence: Influence of Spouse Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raglin, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of spouse participation on adults' adherence to a 12-month fitness program. Comparisons of mood state and self-motivation among married participants enrolled alone versus those enrolled with spouses indicated that at the end of the study, 6.3 percent of the pairs had dropped out versus 43 percent of the singles.…

  11. Factors Influencing the Career Decision Status of Chinese American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how intergenerational family conflict and relational-interdependent self-construal influence the career decision status of Chinese American youths. Participants were 129 Chinese American youths, with ages ranging from 14 to 21 years. Results from regression analysis indicated that high intergenerational…

  12. Factors Influencing the Serological Response in Hepatic Echinococcus granulosus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lissandrin, Raffaella; Tamarozzi, Francesca; Piccoli, Luca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Mariconti, Mara; Meroni, Valeria; Genco, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variables influencing serology is crucial to evaluate serology results for the diagnosis and clinical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE). We analyzed retrospectively a cohort of patients with hepatic CE followed in our clinic in 2000–2012 to evaluate the influence of several variables on the results of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Sera from 171 patients with ≥ 1 hepatic CE cyst, and 90 patients with nonparasitic cysts were analyzed. CE cysts were staged according to the WHO-IWGE classification and grouped by activity. A significant difference in ELISA optical density (OD) values and percentage of positivity was found among CE activity groups and with controls (P < 0.001). The serological response was also influenced by age (P < 0.001) and cyst number (P = 0.003). OD values and cyst size were positively correlated in active cysts (P = 0.001). IHA test showed comparable results. When we analyzed the results of 151 patients followed over time, we found that serology results were significantly influenced by cyst activity, size, number, and treatment ≤ 12 months before serum collection. In conclusion, serological responses as assessed by commercial tests depend on CE cyst activity, size and number, and time from treatment. Clinical studies and clinicians in their practice should take this into account. PMID:26503271

  13. Factors Influencing Mathematical Competencies in Two-Year College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Ivan D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study conducted to assess the influence of sex, size of high school graduating class, high school mathematics background, and attitudes toward mathematics on mathematical competency. Presents study findings based on the characteristics and Beckmann-Beal Mathematical Competency Test scores of 338 precalculus students at 6 community…

  14. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  15. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction and Perceived Learning in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Elena; Clara, Marc; Linder-Vanberschot, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Online education, with its genuine characteristics, has changed the way students experience learning processes. This fact led research to study the aspects of online learning settings that influence the way students experience their learning, and several aspects were identified from this effort. However, usually each study focuses on only one or a…

  16. Application of multi-class SVM for Kansei landscape image retrieval using colour and Kansei factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bin; Yao, Min; Zhang, Yan-Gu; Yi, Wen-Sheng

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a Kansei landscape image retrieval system named KIRCK is proposed, which is based on color feature and Kansei factors. Color feature is extracted in HSV color space and the similarity of color feature is estimated by color accumulation histogram intersection method. Multi-class Support Vector Machine is applied for the mapping between high-level Kansei labels and low-level image characteristics. After the multi-class SVM is trained, Kansei factors of images can be labeled automatically, and the similarity of images in Kansei space also can be estimated. Thus integrated retrieval results using color and Kansei factors can be obtained, and the experiment shows that these retrieval results are more satisfied than only using color feature or Kansei factors. Correlative feedback is also introduced to improve the performance of our color feature and Kansei factors image retrieval.

  17. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  18. The influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Jawien, Arkadiusz

    2003-01-01

    The present article focuses on the prevalence and risk factors for varicose veins and the severe stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The evaluation was made by reviewing the results of specific well-designed studies performed on the general population (case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and large case series). Data from the literature were compared with the results of a recent multicenter cross-sectional study in Poland, in which 40,095 individuals from 803 registers of primary care physicians were clinically examined and assigned a clinical CEAP class. Analysis of the associations between varicose veins or severe CVI prevalence and factors that are usually considered as representing a risk for the development of CVI was performed. In Poland, a prevalence of varicose veins and severe CVI (skin changes, leg ulcer) similar to that observed in the other developed countries was reported. It was more common in women, but female sex was not found to be a strong risk factor. Among the risk factors most closely associated with CVI were age, family history of varicose veins, and constipation, whatever the sex. This is in keeping with findings from recent epidemiologic studies. Obesity and lack of physical activity were strongly associated with CVI in women, more so than in men. The number of pregnancies (more than 2 pregnancies) significantly distinguished between women with and without CVI. Regarding these latter risk factors, the Polish results do not contradict the commonly held beliefs that are found in the literature. A modest association was found with female sex, previous injury in legs (DVT), and remaining in the standing position for a long time, although these parameters are usually among those mostly agreed as being risk factors. The role of the prolonged sitting position was not established. The Polish epidemiologic survey provided updated figures on the prevalence of and risk factors for varicose veins and severe CVI, using clear and

  19. How does the pathophysiological context influence delivery of bone growth factors?☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Suárez-González, Darilis; Khalil, Andrew S.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    “Orthobiologics” represents an important category of therapeutics for the regeneration of bone defects caused by injuries or diseases, and bone growth factors are a particularly rapidly growing sub-category. Clinical application of bone growth factors has accelerated in the last two decades with the introduction of BMPs into clinical bone repair. Optimal use of growth factor-mediated treatments heavily relies on controlled delivery, which can substantially influence the local growth factor dose, release kinetics, and biological activity. The characteristics of the surrounding environment, or “context”, during delivery can dictate growth factor loading efficiency, release and biological activity. This review discusses the influence of the surrounding environment on therapeutic delivery of bone growth factors. We specifically focus on pathophysiological components, including soluble components and cells, and how they can actively influence the therapeutic delivery and perhaps efficacy of bone growth factors. PMID:25453269

  20. Colloid's influences on microalgae growth as a potential environmental factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xinhuai; Zhang, Zhengbin; Liu, Liansheng

    2003-09-01

    The role of colloid as “colloid pump” in the ocean is well known. The important influence of colloid in seawater on the growth of microalga was found in our 1999 2000 study. Colloid concentrates were obtained by employing a cross-flow filtration system to ultrafilter seawater (which had been pre-filtrated by 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane) successively with different membranes. Ultrafiltration retentions (we called them colloid concentrates) together with control sample (seawater without colloid) were then inoculated with two species of microalgae and cultivated in selected conditions. Monitoring of microalgae growth during cultivation showed that all colloid concentrates had obvious influence on the growth of the microalgae studied. Addition of Fe(OH)3 colloid or organic colloid (protein or carbohydrate) to the control sample enhanced the microalgae’s growth.

  1. A study of some factors influencing military parachute landing injuries.

    PubMed

    Pirson, J; Verbiest, E

    1985-06-01

    In a retrospective study of 201,977 jumps, carried out by male military parachutists, over a 10-year period, landing injury rates were calculated according to the time of jump (day or night), the type of parachute, and meteorological data. Also, the wind speed, temperature, and the relative humidity at ground level were taken into account. The two types of parachutes used were both static line deployed, non-steerable canopies. The landing injury rate was found to be influenced by the darkness, surface area of the parachute, wind speed, and possibly temperature when higher than 25 degrees C. The influence of surface wind was best described by two segments of line with a cut-off point. The wind speed at the cut-off point is 12.75 k (6.56 m X s-1) for day jumps and 6.75 k (3.47 m X s-1) for night jumps.

  2. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  3. [Sociodemographic factors and body image among high school students].

    PubMed

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Claumann, Gaia Salvador; Sacomori, Cinara; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate associations between body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators among adolescents. Participants included 1126 high school students in the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Aspects regarding body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators were analyzed. Association analyses were performed using crude Poisson regression duly adjusted for sex and age. Boys were found to be dissatisfied due to slimness and girls due to excess weight. Adolescents where the parents had less schooling, as well as those from lower socioeconomic classes and with lower income were found to be more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to slimness. However, those where the parents had completed higher education and those living in the downtown area were more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to excess weight. Sociodemographic indicators are closely associated with body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction due to slimness can be explained by the lower level of schooling of the parents, lower socioeconomic class and lower income. Dissatisfaction due to excess weight can be explained by the higher schooling of the parents and the fact of living in the downtown area.

  4. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  5. Factors influencing vaccination uptake. Workshop report. Current Australian research on the behavioural, social and demographic factors influencing immunisation, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, March 1998.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J M; Burgess, M A; McIntyre, P B

    2000-03-16

    Current Australian research on factors influencing vaccination was discussed at a workshop held at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, in March 1998, sponsored by the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases (NCIRS). The application of decision making theory to vaccination behaviour, the expectations and experiences of mothers, and reasons why parents fail to vaccinate their children were considered. Mothers' perceptions of the risks of vaccines, preferences of parents and providers for the mode of vaccine delivery, and community and social factors were all found to be part of the framework within which vaccination is accepted in Australia. Consumer considerations, media influences and overseas comparisons were discussed.

  6. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F

    2015-10-01

    Abstract. Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10  μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  7. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  8. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10  μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications. PMID:26502233

  9. Factors Affecting University Image Formation among Prospective Higher Education Students: The Case of International Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now attempt to construct images of these institutions when deciding where to study. The aim of this…

  10. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  11. The Influence of Chance and Contingency Factors on Career Patterns of College-Educated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Judith; Hatalla, Josie

    1990-01-01

    Examined perceptions of women college graduates (n=94) regarding influence of chance and contingency factors upon career patterns 25 years after graduation. Findings indicated significant proportion perceived eight contingency factors and chance factor "Unexpected Personal Events" as influential in career patterns. Found Low…

  12. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  13. Exploring the Factors that Influence Nurse Practitioner Role Transition

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The transition from registered nurse (RN) to nurse practitioner (NP) is often a stressful career change. Data are lacking on the factors affecting NP role transition. This study examined the relationships between NP role transition, prior RN experience, and a formal orientation. From a sample of 352 NPs, only a formal orientation contributed significantly to the regression model indicating a positive relationship with NP role transition (b = 6.24, p < .001). Knowledge of the factors that explain NP role transition is important to inform the discipline how best to support NPs during entry into practice. PMID:25685113

  14. Understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction with ambulance services.

    PubMed

    Bogomolova, Svetlana; Tan, P J; Dunn, S P; Bizjak-Mikic, M

    2016-01-01

    The quality of ambulance services has an immense impact on patients' future well-being and quality of life. Patient satisfaction is one of the key metrics for evaluating the quality of this service. Yet, the patient satisfaction measurement may be limited in its ability to accurately reflect this service quality, and even reflect factors beyond the patient experiences. We analyze 10 years of survey data to reveal a number of factors that systematically bias ambulance satisfaction ratings. Taking into account these biases provides more robust comparison of ambulance performance over time or across different jurisdictions.

  15. Exploring the Factors that Influence Nurse Practitioner Role Transition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hilary

    2015-02-01

    The transition from registered nurse (RN) to nurse practitioner (NP) is often a stressful career change. Data are lacking on the factors affecting NP role transition. This study examined the relationships between NP role transition, prior RN experience, and a formal orientation. From a sample of 352 NPs, only a formal orientation contributed significantly to the regression model indicating a positive relationship with NP role transition (b = 6.24, p < .001). Knowledge of the factors that explain NP role transition is important to inform the discipline how best to support NPs during entry into practice.

  16. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are −0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area. PMID:27905483

  17. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are ‑0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  18. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are -0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  19. Teachers' Grading Decision Making: Multiple Influencing Factors and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese secondary school English language teachers' grading decision making, focusing on the factors they considered and types of assessment they used for grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 secondary school English language teachers in China. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire data showed that these teachers…

  20. Socioeconomic Factors Influence Physical Activity and Sport in Quebec Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Lebel, Alexandre; Robitaille, Éric; Bisset, Sherri

    2016-01-01

    Background: School environments providing a wide selection of physical activities and sufficient facilities are both essential and formative to ensure young people adopt active lifestyles. We describe the association between school opportunities for physical activity and socioeconomic factors measured by low-income cutoff index, school size…

  1. Factors Influencing Primary Students' Learning Achievement in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Using "Education Watch" database of 2008, this article explores the factors associated with learning achievement of primary school students in Bangladesh. The sample consists of 7,093 fifth graders (final year of compulsory primary education) from 440 primary schools. Based on nationally adopted competencies for primary education, a…

  2. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  3. Personal Factors that Influence Deaf College Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertini, John A.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the "Noel-Levitz College…

  4. Social Promotion or Retention? Factors That Influence Committee Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Ileetha Brooks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to identify which factors school level practitioners consider in deciding whether to retain or promote a student and to ascertain their knowledge of and training in retention research. This research illuminates the process of determining which students are promoted and which are retained, and the…

  5. Factors influencing hospital employee motivation: a diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Alpander, G G

    1985-01-01

    This article presents a diagnostic instrument which identifies the most salient elements of employee motivation in hospitals. Application of this instrument in medium-sized U.S. hospitals indicates that recognition is the primary motivating factor. The results are greatly different in other countries.

  6. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  7. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Attitudes Toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gerry R.

    This article assesses the affects of several factors; sex, age, occupation, size of residence, anomie, marital status, class, and world view, on attitudes towards death. The author's attitudes model is based upon the four-part basic Durkheimian typology, varying in degree and nature of an individual's integration in societal groups. Included in…

  8. ADHD and Emergent Literacy: Influence of Language Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Jemison, Sandra J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews theoretical frameworks for understanding the relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities, particularly reading disability (RD). Discusses the co-occurrence of ADHD and RD. Suggests a comprehensive assessment must include linguistic factors, particularly phonological processing. Discusses…

  9. Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived…

  10. Factors That Influence Attrition of New Professionals in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Jenine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to identify factors that contribute to the attrition of new professionals in the field of student affairs. Student affairs professionals report low levels of commitment to the field and depart from the field at rates ranging from 32% to 61% (Holmes, Verrier, & Chrisholm, 1983; Rosen et al., 1980; Rosser…

  11. Organisational and Task Factors Influencing Teachers' Professional Development at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Van der Heijden, Béatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers' professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has become a permanent issue on the agenda of schools…

  12. Factors Influencing Hispanic Student Retention within the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Audrey C.

    1984-01-01

    Presents the methods and findings of a study of factors affecting Hispanic students' ability to achieve their educational objectives within the community college. Examines sociographic, involvement, satisfaction, and commitment variables; positive or negative reasons for withdrawal; and variables related to students' employment and attainment of…

  13. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factors such as ...

  14. Assessing Factors Influencing Student Academic Success in Law School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detwiler, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on student academic success of law students is limited to mostly single institution studies, and as such, a nationwide, multi-institutional empirical study of the factors that predict student academic success is greatly needed by higher education scholars, law school admission officers, faculty, and administrators. This dissertation…

  15. Factors Influencing College Persistence for First-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sheilynda; Lim, Doo Hun; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Using Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of institutional departure, this study examined demographic variables, family characteristics, precollege and college academic performance factors, and extent to which mandatory placement in remedial courses predict persistence at a public research institution. This study also examined the relationship…

  16. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  17. Maternal, neonatal and community factors influencing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Child mortality (the mortality of children less than five years old) declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but infant mortality declined less. The reductions in neonatal mortality were not impressive and, as a consequence, there is an increasing percentage of infant deaths in the neonatal period. Any further reduction in child mortality, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of neonatal mortality. 209,628 birth and 2581 neonatal death records for the 1998 birth cohort from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were probabilistically matched. Data were from SINASC and SIM, Information Systems on Live Births and Deaths of Brazil. Logistic regression was used to find the association between neonatal mortality and the following risk factors: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Caesarean delivery was not found to be associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight, pre-term birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death. Having a mother who lives in the highest developed community decreased the odds of neonatal death, suggesting that factors not measured in this study are behind such association. This result may also indicate that other factors over and above biological and more proximate factors could affect neonatal death.

  18. Personal factors that influence deaf college students' academic success.

    PubMed

    Albertini, John A; Kelly, Ronald R; Matchett, Mary Karol

    2012-01-01

    Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the Noel-Levitz College Student Inventory Form B and the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, second edition (LASSI). Entering students in 3 successive cohorts (total n =437) participated in this study. Results show that in addition to entry measurements of reading and mathematic skills, personal factors contributed to the academic performance of students in their first quarter in college. The Noel-Levitz provided the comparatively better predictive value of academic performance: Motivation for Academic Study Scale (e.g., desire to finish college). The LASSI also showed statistically significant predictors, the Self-Regulation Component (e.g., time management) and Will Component (e.g., self-discipline), but accounted for relatively less variability in the students' initial grade point averages. For this group of underprepared students, results show that personal factors can play a significant role in academic success. Deaf students' personal factors are discussed as they relate to other first-year college students and to their subsequent academic performance and persistence.

  19. Personality and Situational Factors Influencing the Advertising Sales Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarfo, Lauranell; Rogus, Mary T.

    Focusing on situational and personality factors as predictors of two common types of sales behavior (the customer-oriented/marketing approach, and the adversarial/bottom-line approach), a study conducted a national survey of advertising sales people and media buyers in the summer and fall of 1987. A total of 3669 questionnaires were sent to…

  20. Strategies and Factors Influencing Public School District Referendums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffacher, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are in need of a successful plan of action for school district referendums. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceived effectiveness between factors and strategies surrounding referendums and the passage of those measures meant to improve school funding and facilities. The findings from Johnson and…

  1. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation.

  2. Exploring Factors that Influence Students' Behaviors in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Cheolho; Hwang, Jae-Won; Kim, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing use of the Internet, information security has become a critical issue in society. This is especially the case for young adults who have different attitudes towards information security practices. In this research, we examine factors that motivate college students' information security behaviors. Based on the concept of…

  3. Factors that influence tractive performance of wheels, tracks, and vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traction of agricultural vehicles and other off-road vehicles is important in allowing these vehicles to perform their desired tasks. This book chapter describes factors affecting the off-road tractive performance of tires and rubber tracks. Tractive performance is affected by soil type, soil cond...

  4. Research on Influencing Factors of Salespeople's Empowerment Readiness in Green Energy Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    As market competition in green energy enterprises continues to intensify, marketing activities are enlarging and customer demand is increasingly growing and diversifying. More and more green energy enterprises have empowered their own salespeople. And managers in green energy enterprises are more concerned with the issues which employees suit to be empowered and which factors will influence employee empowerment readiness. This paper proposes the definition of salespeople's empowerment readiness, analyzes influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, discusses the effect mechanism of influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, finally, and puts forward some suggestions to enhance salespeople's empowerment readiness from the perspective of human resource management practice.

  5. Influences of the pickup process on the depth of field of integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shenwu; Sang, Xinzhu; Gao, Xin; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru

    2017-03-01

    A typical integral imaging (InIm) display consists of the pickup process and the display process. In the InIm display process, the facet braiding phenomenon influences on the depth of field (DOF). Actually, the DOF of the InIm system not only depends on the the facet braiding in the display process, but also seriously depends on the pickup process. Only the pickuped object within the certain region can capture clear elemental images, and blurry elemental images could be attained outside the region. The region that can be recorded clear elemental images is called the pickup DOF of InIm, which influences on the total DOF of the InIm display. The pickup DOF calculation formula of InIm is presented, which is compared with the DOF caused by facet braiding. Experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis, which is benificial for designing the InIm display system.

  6. Image multiplexing and encryption using the nonnegative matrix factorization method adopting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsuan T; Shui, J-W; Lin, K-P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a joint multiple-image encryption and multiplexing system, which utilizes both the nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) scheme and digital holography, is proposed. A number of images are transformed into noise-like digital holograms, which are then decomposed into a defined number of basis images and a corresponding weighting matrix using the NMF scheme. The determined basis images are similar to the digital holograms and appear as noise-like patterns, which are then stored as encrypted data and serve as the lock in an encryption system. On the other hand, the column vectors in the weighting matrix serve as the keys for the corresponding plain images or the addresses of the multiplexed images. Both the increased uniformity of the column weighting factors and the parameters used in the digital holography enhance the security of the distributed keys. The experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully perform multiple-image encryption with high-level security.

  7. [Influence Factors on Monomer Conversion of Dental Composite Resin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yuntao; Wang, Fanghui; Wang, Qingshan

    2015-04-01

    Dental composite resin is a kind of material which has been widely used in dental restoration. Research has found that the influence of residual monomer on the material mechanical, chemical and biological properties cannot be ignored. This paper elaborates these harms of residual monomers. The effects of resin matrix, inorganic filler and initiating system, illumination, secondarily treatment on the degree of conversion were also analyzed. The paper also discusses the effective measures to increase the conversion, and offers theoretical basis for the clinical application and development of composite resin.

  8. Factors influencing the food choices of Irish children and adolescents: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette

    2010-09-01

    Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with 29 young people from three age groups (9-10, 13-14 and 16-18 years). An inductive thematic analysis identified three key factors as influencing food choices. These factors included intra-individual factors: the link between food preferences and awareness of healthy eating; intra-familial factors: the role of the home food environment; and extra-familial factors: eating away from the home. Findings indicate that there were developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing food choice. Among adolescents, parental control began to diminish and adolescents exercised increased autonomy over their food choices compared with children. To develop effective nutrition interventions, it is important to gather child and adolescent input regarding factors perceived as influencing their food choices.

  9. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  10. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  11. [Influence of image process on fractal morphology characterization of NAPLs vertical fingering flow].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Ying; Du, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Bin; Wu, Bin; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Yi; Fang, Ji-Dun; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Dyes are frequently used to visualize fingering flow pathways, where the image process has an important role in the result analysis. The theory of fractal geometry is applied to give quantitative description of the stain patterns via image analysis, which is helpful for finger characterization and prediction. This description typically involves two parameters, a mass fractal dimension (D(m)) relative to the area, and a surface fractal dimension (D(s)) relative to the perimeter. This work detailed analyzes the influence of various choices during the thresholding step that transformed the origin color images to binary ones which are needed in the fractal analysis. One hundred and thirty images were obtained from laboratory two-dimension sand box infiltration experiments of four dyed non-aqueous phase liquids. Detailed comparisons of D(m) and D(s) were made respectively, considering a set of threshold algorithms and the filling of lakes. Results indicate that adjustments of the saturation threshold influence are less on both D(m) and D(s) in the laboratory experiments. The brightness threshold adjustments decrease the D(m) by 0.02 and increase the D(s) by 0.05. Filling lakes influence the D(m) less while the D(s) decrease by 0.10. Therefore the D(m) was recommended for further analysis to avoid subjective choices' influence in the image process.

  12. Evaluation of influences of frequency and amplitude on image degradation caused by satellite vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Yi-Bing; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zheng, Cheng; Wang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Satellite vibrations during exposure will lead to pixel aliasing of remote sensors, resulting in the deterioration of image quality. In this paper, we expose the problem and discuss the characteristics of satellite vibrations, and then present a pixel mixing model. The idea of mean mixing ratio (MMR) is proposed. MMR computations for different frequencies are implemented. In the mixing model, a coefficient matrix is introduced to estimate each mixed pixel. Thus, the simulation of degraded image can be performed when the vibration attitudes are known. The computation of MMR takes into consideration the influences of various frequencies and amplitudes. Therefore, the roles of these parameters played in the degradation progress are identified. Computations show that under the same vibration amplitude, the influence of vibrations fluctuates with the variation of frequency. The fluctuation becomes smaller as the frequency rises. Two kinds of vibration imaging experiments are performed: different amplitudes with the same frequency and different frequencies with the same amplitude. Results are found to be in very good agreement with the theoretical results. MMR has a better description of image quality than modulation transfer function (MTF). The influence of vibrations is determined mainly by the amplitude rather than the frequency. The influence of vibrations on image quality becomes gradually stable with the increase of frequency. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329202) and the Basic Industrial Technology Project of China (Grant No. J312012B002).

  13. Factors influencing innate immunity and vaccine responses in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kampmann, Beate; Jones, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in reducing the burden of mortality in children under the age of five, reducing mortality in newborns remains a major challenge. Infection plays a significant role in infant deaths and interventions such as early vaccination or antenatal immunization could make a significant contribution to prevention of such deaths. In the last few years, we have gained new insights into immune ontogeny and are now beginning to understand the impact of vaccines, nutrition and environmental factors on ‘training′ of the immune response in early life. This review article sets out to explain why vaccine responses can be heterogeneous between populations and individuals by providing examples chosen to illustrate the impact of host, pathogen and environmental factors on shaping the immune ‘interactome′ in young children. PMID:25964459

  14. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behaviour in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy.

  15. Influences on Group Productivity. 2. Factors Inherent in the Person

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    Tuckman , 1967 36 M 3 Navy, enlisted men Hornsby, 1974 72 F 8 undergraduates Hovey, 1974 96 ? 4 college students Petzel, Johnson, Johnson...Problem 11 B Factor analysis of 23 measures of liberalism. Church Problem (B) Fame Problem Tuckman , 1967 Interpersonal Topical Inventory (ITI) of...partners than those working on the Church Problem first. Therefore, hypothesis three was not supported. Tuckman , B.W. Group composition and group

  16. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    substitution together with nonneutral technical progress" (p.179) Solow (1957) in a landmark study developed a method for estimating * technological change... Solow approach to measuring total factor productivity is the impli- 30 cit assumption of neutral technological change. In the case of the forest products...Three Mississippi Counties. Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 713. Solow , R. M. 1959. Investment and Economic Growth: Some

  17. Patients’ Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

    2011-01-01

    Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

  18. Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.

    2003-05-06

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  19. Influences on mercury bioaccumulation factors for the Savannah River.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Bowers, J A; Littrell, J W; Guanlao, A V

    2004-02-01

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118-km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species-specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat, and season-related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10(6) for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10(6) for sunfishes, and 2.5 X 10(6) for white catfish. Determination of representative BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  20. Factors that influence treatment delay in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zarcos-Pedrinaci, Irene; Fernández-López, Alberto; Téllez, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Rueda A, Antonio; Suarez-Varela, María Manuela Morales; Briones, Eduardo; Baré, Marisa; Escobar, Antonio; Sarasqueta, Cristina; de Larrea, Nerea Fernández; Aguirre, Urko; Quintana, José María; Redondo, Maximino; Study Group, On Behalf Of The Caress-Ccr

    2016-11-24

    A prospective study was performed of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), distinguishing between colonic and rectal location, to determine the factors that may provoke a delay in the first treatment (DFT) provided.2749 patients diagnosed with CRC were studied. The study population was recruited between June 2010 and December 2012. DFT is defined as time elapsed between diagnosis and first treatment exceeding 30 days.Excessive treatment delay was recorded in 65.5% of the cases, and was more prevalent among rectal cancer patients. Independent predictor variables of DFT in colon cancer patients were a low level of education, small tumour, ex-smoker, asymptomatic at diagnosis and following the application of screening. Among rectal cancer patients, the corresponding factors were primary school education and being asymptomatic.We conclude that treatment delay in CRC patients is affected not only by clinicopathological factors, but also by sociocultural ones. Greater attention should be paid by the healthcare provider to social groups with less formal education, in order to optimise treatment attention.

  1. Mothers' perceptions of factors influencing violence in schools.

    PubMed

    Kandakai, T L; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Wilson, C A

    1999-05-01

    This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and 120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income, family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school violence than were higher-income, married, and White mothers. These mothers also were more likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their counterparts.

  2. Quantification of hydrodynamic factors influencing cell lateral migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Stephanie; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-11-01

    The study of the migration of blood cells perpendicular to the direction of blood flow, or lateral migration, is motivated by the differing behavior of the various types of blood cells. In vivo, red blood cells are observed to flow in the central region of the blood vessel, particularly in the microcirculation, while other types of cells in the blood, including white blood cells and platelets, are observed to flow disproportionately near the vessel wall. However, the specifics regarding the effect of hydrodynamic and biological factors are still unknown. Thus, in this study, we aim to quantify the effect of hydrodynamic factors on a cell model numerically using the boundary integral method. By using the boundary integral method, we can isolate the effect of a single hydrodynamic factor, such as a wall or given flow distribution, in an otherwise infinite flow. Then, we can use the obtained numerical results to develop a semi-analytical model describing the cell lateral migration dependent on only the flow geometry and the viscosity ratio between the cell and external fluid.

  3. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce.

  4. Influence of range-gated intensifiers on underwater imaging system SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Hu, Ling; Zhi, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-yue; Jin, Wei-qi

    2013-08-01

    Range-gated technology has been a hot research field in recent years due to its high effective back scattering eliminating. As a result, it can enhance the contrast between a target and its background and extent the working distance of the imaging system. The underwater imaging system is required to have the ability to image in low light level conditions, as well as the ability to eliminate the back scattering effect, which means that the receiver has to be high-speed external trigger function, high resolution, high sensitivity, low noise, higher gain dynamic range. When it comes to an intensifier, the noise characteristics directly restrict the observation effect and range of the imaging system. The background noise may decrease the image contrast and sharpness, even covering the signal making it impossible to recognize the target. So it is quite important to investigate the noise characteristics of intensifiers. SNR is an important parameter reflecting the noise features of a system. Through the use of underwater laser range-gated imaging prediction model, and according to the linear SNR system theory, the gated imaging noise performance of the present market adopted super second generation and generation Ⅲ intensifiers were theoretically analyzed. Based on the active laser underwater range-gated imaging model, the effect to the system by gated intensifiers and the relationship between the system SNR and MTF were studied. Through theoretical and simulation analysis to the image intensifier background noise and SNR, the different influence on system SNR by super second generation and generation Ⅲ ICCD was obtained. Range-gated system SNR formula was put forward, and compared the different effect influence on the system by using two kind of ICCDs was compared. According to the matlab simulation, a detailed analysis was carried out theoretically. All the work in this paper lays a theoretical foundation to further eliminating back scattering effect, improving

  5. Factors That Influence Students Not To Enroll at the Vanguard Joint Vocational School. Factors That Influence Students Not To Enroll at the Lawrence County Joint Vocational School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Rosemarie

    Two research reports provide results of two Ohio studies to investigate factors that influence a student not to enter a high school vocational curriculum. The studies focus on the Vanguard Joint Vocational School (JVS) and five feeder comprehensive high schools and the Lawrence County JVS and seven feeder comprehensive high schools. Both reports…

  6. Limiting Factors on Image Quality in Imaging through Turbid Media under Single-photon and Two-photon Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilders, S. P.; Gu, M.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of multiple scattering in a turbid medium on single-photon and two-photon fluorescence microscopy is experimentally investigated for different scattering characteristics including scattering anisotrophy and optical thickness of a turbid medium. It is demonstrated that two-photon excitation can provide significant improvement in penetration depth through turbid media, due to reduced scattering experienced by the excitation beam. It is also shown that the limiting factor in obtaining high-quality images under singlephoton excitation is the fast degradation of image resolution caused by multiple scattering, while for twophoton excitation it is limited by the degradation of image contrast due to the reduction in fluorescence strength.

  7. Influence of imaging on the negative appendectomy rate in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Carmelita A; Petrov, Maxim S; Soybel, David I; Ferzoco, Stephen J; Ashley, Stanley W; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Appendectomy is the most common non-gynecologic surgery performed during pregnancy. Little data exist on the accuracy of imaging studies in the diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the probability of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing appendicitis in pregnancy, as reflected in the negative appendectomy rate. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 86 pregnant women who underwent an appendectomy between January 1, 1997 and January 1, 2006. Patients were divided into three groups: clinical evaluation, ultrasound, and ultrasound followed by a CT scan. The clinical evaluation group had 13 patients, with a negative appendectomy rate of 54% (7/13). Fifty-five patients underwent an ultrasound alone, with a negative appendectomy rate 36% (20/55). In the ultrasound/CT group (n=13), the negative appendectomy rate was 8% (1/13). There was a significant reduction in the negative appendectomy rate in the ultrasound/CT scan group compared to clinical evaluation group (54 vs 8%, p<0.05). This reduction was not achieved in the ultrasound group when compared to the clinical evaluation group or the ultrasound/CT group (p=0.05). A significant reduction was achieved when the ultrasound/CT group was compared to the patients in the ultrasound only group who had a normal or inconclusive ultrasound (p<0.05). Our data documents a very high negative appendectomy rate in the pregnant patient. We recommend an ultrasound followed by a CT scan in patients with a normal or inconclusive ultrasound.

  8. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines.

  9. Factors Influencing Progressive Failure Analysis Predictions for Laminated Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Progressive failure material modeling methods used for structural analysis including failure initiation and material degradation are presented. Different failure initiation criteria and material degradation models are described that define progressive failure formulations. These progressive failure formulations are implemented in a user-defined material model for use with a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. The failure initiation criteria include the maximum stress criteria, maximum strain criteria, the Tsai-Wu failure polynomial, and the Hashin criteria. The material degradation model is based on the ply-discounting approach where the local material constitutive coefficients are degraded. Applications and extensions of the progressive failure analysis material model address two-dimensional plate and shell finite elements and three-dimensional solid finite elements. Implementation details are described in the present paper. Parametric studies for laminated composite structures are discussed to illustrate the features of the progressive failure modeling methods that have been implemented and to demonstrate their influence on progressive failure analysis predictions.

  10. Factors that influence career decisions in Canada's nurses.

    PubMed

    Price, Sheri; Hall, Linda McGillis; Lalonde, Michelle; Andrews, Gavin; Harris, Alexandra; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the experiences of nurses who have moved between the provinces and territories (P/T) in Canada for work provides insight into the role of professional socialization in career decision-making. This paper analyzes some of the qualitative data arising from a survey of nurses from across Canada. The findings provide insight into nurses' professional socialization and demonstrate that early perceptions and expectations of nursing practice can influence future career decisions such as mobility and intent to remain. Participants described how "caring" and direct patient contact were central to their choice of nursing and career satisfaction. As the data reveal, nursing is also regarded as a career that enables mobility to accommodate both family considerations and professional development opportunities. The findings highlight the need for professional socialization strategies and supports that motivate Canadian nurses to continue practising within the profession and the country.

  11. Factors influencing thiocyanate toxicity in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Heming, T.A.; Blumhagen, K.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The toxicity of thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}) to fish is influenced by the level of fish activity. This is evidenced most dramatically when fish are forced to perform short bouts of strenuous swimming, such as occurs during capture avoidance. Strenuous exercise of SCN{sup {minus}}-exposed fish results in sudden death syndrome, characterized by the immediate onset of convulsions, loss of equilibrium and buoyancy, flaring of the operculum, darkening of the skin epithelium and, within minutes, cessation of ventilation and extreme rigor. The present study was undertaken to examine the accumulation and toxicity of SCN{sup {minus}} in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), in relation to exercise stress and ambient water quality. The effect of a single bout of exercise on blood SCN{sup {minus}} concentration was measured. In addition, effects of water hardness and Cl{sup {minus}} concentration on the accumulation of SCN{sup {minus}} in blood were determined.

  12. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  13. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction

  14. The influence of sensor and flight parameters on texture in radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It was previously shown that texture features derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. The influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  15. The influence of sensor and flight parameters on texture in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It has previously been shown that texture features derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. Here the influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  16. The Influence of Sensor and Flight Parameters on Texture in Radar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It was previously shown that texture features derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. The influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  17. The influence of sensor and flight parameters on texture in radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It has previously been shown that texture features derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. Here the influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  18. Multispectral imaging of pigmented and vascular cutaneous malformations: the influence of laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Ilona; Diebele, Ilze; Asare, Lasma; Kempele, Anna; Abelite, Anita; Jakovels, Dainis; Spigulis, Janis

    2010-11-01

    The paper investigates influence and efficacy of laser therapy on pigmented and vascular cutaneous malformations by multispectral imaging technique. Parameter mapping of skin pigmented and vascular lesions and monitoring of the laser therapy efficacy are performed by multispectral imaging in wavelength range 450-700nm by scanning step - 10nm. Parameter maps of the oxyhemoglobin deoxyhemoglobin and melanin derived from the images are presented. Possibility of laser therapy efficacy monitoring by comparison of the parameter maps before and after laser treatment has been demonstrated. As both cutaneous pigmented and vascular malformations are commonly found lesions, the parameter mapping would be a valuable method to use routinely.

  19. The influence of the positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xue; Bai, Yanfeng; Shi, Xiaohui; Gao, Yang; Fu, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Lensless ghost imaging with fully spatially incoherent source is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The effects of positive and negative defocusing on lensless ghost imaging are studied by using classical optical theory and a fully spatially incoherent source. Based on the numerical calculation and experimental results, we find that the negative defocusing has a stronger influence on imaging resolution when compared with that from the positive defocusing. To explain this phenomenon, the analytical expression of point spread function with the positive and negative defocusing is presented.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEPOSITION OF A COMPOUND THAT PARTITIONS BETWEEN GAS AND PARTICULATE PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    How will atmospheric deposition behave for a compound when it reversibly sorbs between gas and atmospheric particulate phases? Two factors influence the answer. What physical mechanisms occur in the sorption process? What are the concentration and composition of atmospheric par...

  1. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  2. Compassion in nursing. 2: Factors that influence compassionate care in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Davison, Neil; Williams, Katherine

    This second in a two-part unit on compassion examines the factors that influence the use of this quality in daily clinical practice. Part 1 examined the concept of compassion and how to identify and measure it.

  3. Factors Influencing Surface Runoff and Hydrologic Connectivity on an Agricultural Hillslope in Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved understanding of surface hydrologic processes is central to the targeted application of agricultural management practices for water quality protection. Factors influencing surface runoff production and hydrologic connectivity were explored at three landscape positions on a single hillslope...

  4. Semantic Feature Extraction for Brain CT Image Clustering Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weixiang; Peng, Fei; Feng, Shu; You, Jiangsheng; Chen, Ziqiang; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Kehong; Ye, Datian

    Brain computed tomography (CT) image based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment. However it is challenging to extract significant features for analysis because CT images come from different people and CT operator. In this study, we apply nonnegative matrix factorization to extract both appearance and histogram based semantic features of images for clustering analysis as test. Our experimental results on normal and tumor CT images demonstrate that NMF can discover local features for both visual content and histogram based semantics, and the clustering results show that the semantic image features are superior to low level visual features.

  5. Persuasion factors influencing the decision to use sustainable household water treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Silvie M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a sustainable water treatment method. With the help of the sun and plastic bottles, water is treated and illnesses prevented. This paper aims to identify the factors influencing SODIS uptake, that is, why someone may become a SODIS user. This uptake decision can be influenced by persuasion. From behaviour theory, variables are recognised which have been proven to influence intention and behaviour and simultaneously can be influenced by persuasion. A total of (n = 878) structured interviews were conducted in a field study in Zimbabwe. Linear and binary logistic regressions showed that several of the initially proposed persuasion variables have significant influence. Persuasion factors have a stronger influence on the uptake of SODIS use and on intention to use SODIS in the future than on the amount of SODIS water consumed. Ideas are presented for using the effective variables in future SODIS campaigns and campaigns in other fields.

  6. Outbreaks and factors influencing microbiological contamination of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik A

    2017-03-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognised as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contamination and measures that could be adopted to reduce the foodborne illnesses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Factors influencing the incidence and prevalence of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, S; Beyer, K; Clausen, M; Wjst, M; Hiller, R; Nicoletti, C; Szepfalusi, Z; Savelkoul, H; Breiteneder, H; Manios, Y; Crittenden, R; Burney, P

    2009-09-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem in Europe and elsewhere and severe reactions to food are also becoming more common. As food allergy is usually associated with other forms of allergic sensitisation it is likely that many risk factors are common to all forms of allergy. However the potential severity of the disease and the specific public heath measures required for food allergy make it important to identify the specific risk factors for this condition. Food allergy is unusual in that it often manifests itself very early in life and commonly remits with the development of tolerance. Hypotheses that explain the distribution of food allergy include specific genetic polymorphisms, the nature of the allergens involved and the unique exposure to large quantities of allergen through the gut. Progress has been made in developing more specific and testable hypotheses but the evidence for any of these is still only preliminary. Further collaborative research is required to develop an appropriate public health response to this growing problem.

  8. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  9. Factors influencing the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher G.; Gould, Billie A.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of effect sizes of adaptive substitutions has been central to evolutionary biology since the modern synthesis. Early theory proposed that because large-effect mutations have negative pleiotropic consequences, only small-effect mutations contribute to adaptation. More recent theory suggested instead that large-effect mutations could be favoured when populations are far from their adaptive peak. Here we suggest that the distributions of effect sizes are expected to differ among study systems, reflecting the wide variation in evolutionary forces and ecological conditions experienced in nature. These include selection, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and other factors such as the degree of pleiotropy, the distance to the phenotypic optimum, whether the optimum is stable or moving, and whether new mutation or standing genetic variation provides the source of adaptive alleles. Our goal is to review how these factors might affect the distribution of effect sizes and to identify new research directions. Until more theory and empirical work is available, we feel that it is premature to make broad generalizations about the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions important in nature. PMID:27053750

  10. High tibial osteotomy: factors influencing the duration of satisfactory function.

    PubMed

    Giagounidis, E M; Sell, S

    1999-01-01

    In 94 patients 112 knees were examined after high tibial osteotomy for varus and valgus gonarthrosis. Preoperatively, there were 71 varus and 23 valgus deformities. The mean follow-up period was 9.0 years (range 2-21 years). Concerning the pain on walking and the pain at rest, we noted good and excellent results in 73% and 65%, respectively. The radiological evaluation showed an improvement or a persistence of the stage of arthrosis in 69.5% of the reviewed cases. The results according to the HSS score as an objective parameter showed in over 50% an improvement of the patients' situation. The data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in which three of four evaluated risk factors were found to be associated with the duration of pain-free survival: certain preoperative injuries, preoperative meniscopathies and a deterioration of the stage of arthrosis (P < 0.05). There was no significance for weight in excess of 10% above the normal body mass index (BMI) limits. However, in a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis this parameter could be determined as a significant factor for a reduced pain-free survival interval (P < 0.05): patients with a BMI of more than 10% above normal limits had a pain-free period of 5.07 years, whereas those with a BMI of less than 10% had a pain-free period of 7.80 years.

  11. Factors influencing use of hearing protection by trumpet players.

    PubMed

    Killion, Mead C

    2012-09-01

    Although a great many brass players, and trumpet players in particular, successfully use high-fidelity earplugs, others report problems with their use. This article discusses factors that may discourage a brass player from using hearing protection: These include (a) a lack of acclimatization time; (b) a loss of "fortissimo blare" from the aural distortion generated by the 110- to 120-dB SPL produced at the open ear with fortissimo playing; (c) a shallow earmold seal, leading to a large occlusion effect; (d) a poor seal combined with incorrect acoustic mass in the sound channel; and (e) hearing loss where many harmonic overtones of even moderately loud playing may become inaudible with earplugs to a lifelong trumpet player with high-frequency hearing loss. The limitations imposed by each of these can usually be overcome with modifications of the hearing protection device (HPD) or with acclimatization time, allowing a lifetime of playing without the all-too-common "musicians' hearing loss" and/or tinnitus. A review of these factors helps to delineate some of the perceptual issues that musicians may have with any change in the spectrum of their instrument-whether it is related to attenuation or amplification.

  12. Factors Influencing Advancement of Women Senior Leaders in Aerospace Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett-Howard, Camille Elaine

    The problem researched in this study was the limited number of women in senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to interview women senior leaders in the aerospace industry to explore the factors they perceived as beneficial to their advancement to senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. The research study was guided by a central research question relating to what professional and personal factors might have led to promotional opportunities into senior leadership roles. Transformational leadership was the conceptual framework used to inform the study. The qualitative, phenomenological approach was selected to gain insights of the lived experiences and perceptions relating to career advancement of women to senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. Data were collected using a modified Van Kaam method, coded, and analyzed to discern themes or patterns. Findings were that the attributes participants contributed to their success, included a focus on leadership, personal development, and the importance of mentoring relationships. This study presented a positive direction in addressing the gaps in the body of knowledge related to women and leadership development by exploring the experiences of women in senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. Implications for social change include informing organizations and women about specific leadership development practices as one way to promote more women into leadership positions thus reducing the gap between the number of men and women leaders.

  13. Factors influencing acute thrombus formation on carotid artery vascular grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Torem, S.; Schneider, P.A.; Paxton, L.D.; Yasuda, H.; Hanson, S.R.

    1988-10-01

    Scintillation camera imaging of 111Indium-labeled platelets has been used to measure acute thrombus formation on modified expanded Teflon (ePTFE) vascular grafts placed in the carotid arteries of normal baboons. Platelet deposition plateaued over 2 hr postoperatively and occurred primarily at the graft-vessel anastomoses. A positive correlation was found between the circulating platelet count in individual animals and the extent of early platelet thrombus deposition. Unmodified ePTFE grafts accumulated 4.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(9) platelets per graft, or 2.3 +/- 0.71 x 10(9) platelets per anastomosis. Acutely, platelet accumulation was reduced versus control graft results by coating the graft lumenal surfaces with a smooth layer of silicone rubber polymer (0.60 +/- 0.19 x 10(9) platelets per anastomosis; P less than 0.02) but not by coating the grafts using a plasma polymer based on methane, which did not modify graft texture (8.2 +/- 1.7 x 10(9) platelets per graft; P greater than 0.10). The benefit of the silicone rubber coating persisted for at least 48 hr. However, longer term patency was not preserved because 10 of 12 grafts placed had failed within 1 to 2 months.

  14. Influence of partial k-space filling on the quality of magnetic resonance images*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; Murata, Camila Hitomi; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the influence that the scan percentage tool used in partial k-space acquisition has on the quality of images obtained with magnetic resonance imaging equipment. Materials and Methods A Philips 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in order to obtain phantom images for quality control tests and images of the knee of an adult male. Results There were no significant variations in the uniformity and signal-to-noise ratios with the phantom images. However, analysis of the high-contrast spatial resolution revealed significant degradation when scan percentages of 70% and 85% were used in the acquisition of T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. There was significant degradation when a scan percentage of 25% was used in T1- and T2-weighted in vivo images (p ≤ 0.01 for both). Conclusion The use of tools that limit the k-space is not recommended without knowledge of their effect on image quality. PMID:27403015

  15. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  16. Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process t...

  17. Perspectives of Elementary General Music Teachers on Factors Influencing Student Participation in Secondary Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Gabrielle; Mizener, Charlotte P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider characteristics of elementary general music teachers and their views of factors influencing students to take part in secondary music programs, including their own influence and characteristics of their music programs. The following research questions concerning selected characteristics of elementary…

  18. Factors That Influence Self-Disclosure for Job Seekers Using Social Networking: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influence the extent and type of information job seekers reveal about themselves when using social networking to search for employment opportunities and advance their careers. It examined how user concerns regarding privacy influence the level of content they provide and their interactions with fellow community…

  19. Factors influencing enrollment of African Americans in the Look AHEAD trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have been identified that influence the recruitment of African Americans into clinical trials; however, the influence of eligibility criteria may not be widely appreciated. We used the experience from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial screening process to examine the ...

  20. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…