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Sample records for factors influencing milk

  1. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  2. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  3. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robin; Hinde, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2. Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2. Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, TGF-β2) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting the

  4. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Human Breast Milk: Influence of Antibiotherapy and Other Host and Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana; Martín, Virginia; Jiménez, Esther; Mader, Isabelle; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leonides

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this work was to study the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria population in human milk of healthy women, and to investigate the influence that several factors (including antibioteraphy during pregnancy and lactation, country and date of birth, delivery mode, or infant age) may exert on such population. Methods: A total of 160 women living in Germany or Austria provided the breast milk samples. Initially, 66 samples were randomly selected and cultured on MRS-Cys agar plates. Then, the presence of DNA from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and from most of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species that were isolated, was assessed by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers. Results: Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be isolated from the milk of 27 (40.91%) and 7 (10.61%), respectively, of the 66 cultured samples. On the contrary, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium sequences were detected by PCR in 108 (67.50%) and 41 (25.62%), respectively, of the 160 samples analyzed. The Lactobacillus species most frequently isolated and detected was L salivarius (35.00%), followed by L fermentum (25.00%) and L gasseri (21.88%), whereas B breve (13.75%) was the bifidobacterial species most commonly recovered and whose DNA was most regularly found. The number of lactobacilli- or bifidobacteria-positive samples was significantly lower in women who had received antibiotherapy during pregnancy or lactation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that either the presence of lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria or their DNA may constitute good markers of a healthy human milk microbiota that has not been altered by the use of antibiotics. PMID:24590211

  5. Major factors influencing breastfeeding rates: Mother's perception of father's attitude and milk supply.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; McJunkin, C; Wehrer, J; Kuhn, P

    2000-11-01

    To determine factors influencing feeding decisions, breastfeeding and/or bottle initiation rates, as well as breastfeeding duration. A family medicine practice of a 530-bed community-based hospital in northwestern Pennsylvania. All mothers whose infants received well-child care from birth to 1 year of age. A survey of 28 simple questions was developed and mailed to 245 mothers. The survey assessed: 1) demographics, 2) prenatal and postnatal care, 3) sources of breastfeeding information, 4) timing of decision, 5) preference, 6) type of feeding selected, 7) duration of breastfeeding, 8) factors influencing decisions to breastfeed and/or to bottle-feed, and 9) factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 44.3%. By the time the infant was 6 months old, only 13% of these were still breastfeeding. The decision to breastfeed or to bottle-feed was most often made before pregnancy or during the first trimester. The most common reasons mothers chose breastfeeding included: 1) benefits the infant's health, 2) naturalness, and 3) emotional bonding with the infant. The most common reasons bottle-feeding was chosen included: 1) mother's perception of father's attitude, 2) uncertainty regarding the quantity of breast milk, and 3) return to work. By self-report, factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed included: 1) more information in prenatal class; 2) more information from TV, magazines, and books; and 3) family support. To overcome obstacles, issues surrounding perceived barriers, such as father's attitude, quantity of milk, and time constraints, need to be discussed with each parent. To achieve the goal of 75% of breastfeeding mothers, extensive education regarding the benefits must be provided for both parents and optimally the grandmother by physicians, nurses, and the media before pregnancy or within the first trimester.

  6. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Veldman, E; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2015-04-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dairy cows were sampled monthly and MAP milk ELISA status and milk yield and composition were determined. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis. Milk yield was found to significantly influence ELISA results expressed as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios. For each 5-kg increase in milk, the S/P ratio has to be multiplied by 0.89; therefore, high milk yield can change the MAP milk ELISA outcome of a cow in early infection from positive to negative. Parity influenced ELISA outcome significantly, indicating that cows with a parity >1 are more likely to be identified by milk testing. Also, herd was an important predictor, showing that herd prevalence influences the milk ELISA strongly. Other factors influencing the S/P ratios were protein concentration, somatic cell count, and days in milk. The IgG concentration and mass excreted per day were determined longitudinally in a subset of 41 cows of which samples and data of a complete lactation were available. Again, the IgG concentration in milk was mainly influenced by milk yield. The total IgG mass secreted per day in milk was found to be relatively constant, with a mean of 8.70 ± 5.38 g despite an increasing IgG concentration in serum at the same time. The variation of IgG concentration in milk can be mainly attributed to dilution through changes in milk yield. This supports the assumption that concentrations of MAP-specific antibodies are influenced by changes in milk yield similarly. In conclusion, we confirmed that antibody concentrations, and therefore MAP ELISA outcome, were influenced by milk yield, herd, and parity. To enhance performance, milk ELISA tests should either be performed in early or late lactation, when

  7. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time.

  8. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length.

  9. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A

    2010-05-01

    A meta-analysis of published studies was used to investigate the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) added to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on dry matter intake, milk production, true milk protein (TMP) production, and milk fat yield. Differences in responses between 2 commonly used RPM products, Mepron (Evonik Industries, Hanau, Germany) and Smartamine (Adisseo, Antony, France), were investigated as well as dietary and animal factors that could influence responses. Diets were coded with respect to the amino acid (AA) deficiency of the control diet as predicted by the AminoCow model (version 3.5.2, http://www.makemilknotmanure.com/aminocow.php; 0=no AA deficiency, 1=Met deficiency, 2=Met and Lys deficiency, 3=Met and Lys plus at least 1 other AA deficiency) to test the effect of AA deficiencies on RPM response. Thirty-five studies were identified, 17 studies evaluating Mepron, 18 studies evaluating Smartamine, and 1 study evaluating both. This permitted 75 dietary comparisons between control and RPM-added diets. Diets were entered into the AminoCow and the 2001 National Research Council models to compare predictions of Met, Lys, and metabolizable protein (MP) flow. Mean Met and Lys in diets where RPM was fed were estimated to be 2.35 and 6.33% of MP, respectively. Predictions of flows between models were similar. Overall, RPM addition to diets increased production of TMP, both as percentage (0.07%) and yield (27 g/d). Dry matter intake and milk fat percentage were slightly decreased, whereas milk production was slightly increased. Differences between products were detected for all production variables, with Mepron-fed cows producing less TMP percentage but greater milk production, resulting in twice as much TMP yield. Milk protein response to RPM was not related to predicted AA deficiency, calculated Met deficiency, or Met as a percentage of MP. Other dietary factors, including Lys flow (g/d), Lys as percentage of MP, neutral detergent fiber percentage

  10. Factors Influencing Parent Reports of Facilitators and Barriers to Human Milk Supply in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Alves, Elisabete; Magano, Raquel; Amorim, Mariana; Nogueira, Conceição; Silva, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Successful human milk supply in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) requires the development of family-centered services. This study aimed to assess parent perceptions of factors that help or hinder providing human milk to very preterm infants (VPI) in the NICU according to sociodemographic, reproductive, and obstetric characteristics. This cross-sectional quantitative study included 120 mothers and 91 fathers of VPI hospitalized in a level 3 NICU located in the Northern Health Region of Portugal (July 2013-June 2014). Interviewers administered structured questionnaires regarding parent characteristics and the provision and perception of factors that help or hinder human milk supply in the NICU, 15 to 22 days after birth. The main facilitators of human milk supply were its contribution to infant growth and well-being (51.4%) and parents' knowledge of breastfeeding benefits (27.6%). The main barriers were worries related to inadequate milk supply (35.7%), difficulties with expressing breast milk (24.8%), and physical separation from infants (24.3%). Fathers referred less frequently to the contribution of human milk to infant growth and well-being (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-1.00) but more frequently to knowledge of breastfeeding benefits as facilitators (OR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.23-4.32). Participants with > 12 years of education (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.05-3.47) and those with an extremely low birth weight infant (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-3.54) highlighted worries related to inadequate milk supply. Fathers (OR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.19) and participants with ≤ 12 years of education (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.57) more frequently reported difficulties with expressing as the main barrier. The parent's gender and education and the infant's birth weight are crucial considerations for establishing optimal practices for supporting breastfeeding.

  11. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  12. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E; Carmolli, Marya P; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2017-02-15

    The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low-income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6- and ω3-PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6-PUFA or ω3-PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6- and ω3-PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  13. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in breast milk from Korea: Time-course trends, influencing factors, and infant exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2017-08-30

    Breastfeeding is an important exposure pathway to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for newborn infants. Nevertheless, reports are limited on the occurrence and time-course of PFASs in breast milk, and most studies have focused on the analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, 16 PFASs were analyzed in breast milk samples (n=293) collected from 128 mothers in Korea during various lactation periods to assess maternal exposure levels, contamination profiles, time-course variations, and infant health risks. The total concentrations of PFASs (ΣPFAS) ranged from 31.7 to 1004 (median: 188) ng/L, which was within the ranges recently reported for Asian and European populations. After a month of nursing, the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and ΣPFAS significantly increased. This could be due to changes in the dietary and behavior patterns of the mothers after the first month of lactation. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were significantly correlated with maternal age, body mass index, and parity. Certain types of diet (e.g. consuming snacks and milk) and eating-out frequency were significantly associated with increasing levels of PFAS. Significant correlations and similar time-course trends were found between PFASs and PCBs/DDTs, implying similar exposure sources and biokinetics for these contaminants. The estimated daily intakes of PFOS and PFOA via the consumption of breast milk were below the tolerable daily intakes for infants suggested by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Host resistance factors in human milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A S; Smith, C W

    1973-06-01

    This paper discusses the nature of host resistance factors in human milk and epidemiologic studies regarding infections and mortality rates in breastfed and nonbreastfed babies. The defense factors and their proposed modes of action are: 1) a growth enhancer of lactobacilli, which interferes with intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens; 2) antistaphylococcal factors, which inhibit staphylococci; 3) secretory IgA and other immunoglobulins, which protect the gut and respiratory tract; 4) C4 and C3 (complement components; C3 fragments have opsonic, chemotactic, and anaphylatoxic activities); 5) lysozome, lysis of bacterial cell wall; 6) lactoperoxidase, killing of streptococci; 7) lactoferrin, kills microorganism by chelating iron, and 8) macrophages and lymphocytes, phagocytosis and cell-mediated immunity. Although it can be postulated that the breastfed infant's resistance to infection would be superior on account of the greater presence of these factors in human milk compared to cow's milk, little is known about the effects of these defense factors on the infant. Epidemiologic studies have reported on the lower morbidity and mortality rates of breastfed infants as compared to bottlefed infants. Other studies have focused on the protective effects of human milk upon the infant, but these have been inconclusive. In countries with poor sanitation and high infection rates, the incidence of bacterial infections is lowest in breastfed infants. The advantages of human milk however are difficult to demonstrate in societies with high standards of sanitation and low infection rates. Infection and mortality rates in infants have in fact declined in developed countries as the practice of breastfeeding declined. Until it is established that immunity to common pathogens is transmitted to the infant by human milk, it will not be known whether human milk does have protective effects.

  17. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss.

  18. Influence of variable milk quality premiums on observed milk quality.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, C; Dhuyvetter, K; Mitchell, R; Schukken, Y

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a premium program for very high quality milk in a US cooperative. Data were available on a monthly basis from a large US milk cooperative from April 1998 through December 2005. The data set consisted of 36,930 observations representing producer-months. The actual amount of the low bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) premium varied from $0.15 per hundred pounds (cwt.) of milk to $1.00/cwt. with steps in between of $0.50 and $0.60 per cwt. of milk during the data collection period. Data analysis was done to evaluate the impact of the premium program on average BTSCC and on the probability of a producer to ship milk with <100,000 cells/mL in a given month. The results showed a strong effect of the premium program on both the average BTSCC and the probability of producing milk with very low BTSCC. On average, the BTSCC of all the milk in the cooperative was reduced by 22,000 cells during the high premium period. The probability of producing milk with BTSCC <100,000 doubled during some months of the high premium period from 4 to 8%, and an associated 10% increase in probability to produce milk below 200,000 cells/mL was observed. The data clearly indicate that premium offerings for very high quality milk affect the overall milk quality in the population affected by the premium. Producers responded to the high premiums and the overall impact on milk quality was substantial. We argue that the combination of a penalty program for high BTSCC milk with a premium program for very high quality milk (low BTSCC) provides a strong incentive for improvement of milk quality.

  19. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The importance of colostrum for the growth and health of newborn offspring is well known. In bovine colostrum, the antibody (immunoglobulin) complement system provides a major antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microbes and confers passive immunity until the calf's own immune system has matured. Bovine serum and lacteal secretions contain three major classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM and IgA. The immunoglobulins are selectively transported from the serum into the mammary gland, as a result of which the first colostrum contains very high concentrations of immunoglobulins (40-200 mg/ml). IgG1 accounts for over 75 % of the immunoglobulins in colostral whey, followed by IgM, IgA and IgG2. All these immunoglobulins decrease within a few days to a total immunoglobulin concentration of 0.7-1.0 mg/ml, with IgG1 representing the major Ig class in milk throughout the lactation period. Together with the antibodies absorbed from colostrum after birth, the complement system plays a crucial role in the passive immunisation of the newborn calf. The occurrence of haemolytic or bactericidal complement activity in bovine colostrum and milk has been demonstrated in several studies. This review deals with the characteristics of bovine Igs and the complement system to be exploited as potential ingredients for health-promoting functional foods.

  20. Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

    1986-03-01

    The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

  1. Review-Factors involving in fluctuation of trace metals concentrations in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perween, Rubina

    2015-05-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to human diet through provision of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies with species among domestic animals according to their neonatal needs. It is recognized that imbalance in the quantity of minerals and trace elements is a serious health hazard especially for infants. Many studies reported the fluctuation in the level of metals in milk due to the influence of several factors such as geographical and exposure to environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activity. Amongst all sources, industries take lion's share to alter the metal content in milk. The importance of different nutritional and toxic metals in milk from different geographical areas is discussed.

  2. Do milking practices influence the bacterial diversity of raw milk?

    PubMed

    Verdier-Metz, Isabelle; Michel, Valérie; Delbès, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-05-01

    The link between milk production practices and bacterial diversity of 67 raw milks from dairy farms in the Savoie and Haute-Savoie regions of France was studied by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The milking practices and the cleanliness of different parts of the cow housing were evaluated. The SSCP bacterial profiles allow to classify the 67 milks into three groups: group A was characterised by a majority of Gram-positive non-lactic acid bacteria (Corynebacterineae and Micrococcaceae) and a high level of hygiene in milking practices. The SSCP profiles of groups B and C were close but different from those of group A: they were both dominated by lactic acid bacteria and by a less intensive hygiene practices. The group B milks were characterised by the dominance of Gram-negative bacteria and Lactococcus lactis species while those of group C were dominated by Brevibacterium linens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The variation of balance between bacterial populations can be associated with differences in hygienic milking production practices.

  3. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

    PubMed

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    PubMed

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems.

  6. Diurnal differences in milk composition and its influence on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in bovine quarter milk.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Boerhout, E M; Ravesloot, L; Daemen, A J J M; Benedictus, L; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2016-07-01

    In experimental intramammary inoculation studies, it has been observed that mastitis susceptibility is influenced, among others, by cow factors. To identify milk characteristics leading to these differences, quarter milk samples of morning and evening milk were collected and analyzed for their composition (protein, fat, lactose, urea, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and β-lactoglobulin concentrations), somatic cell count, and antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in vitro growth of S. aureus and Escherichia coli in fresh quarter milk samples was determined. All measured parameters differed significantly between quarters and also between morning and evening milk with the exception of lactose levels. In addition, quantitative growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly different in morning milk compared with evening milk. Mixed model analysis revealed that replication of S. aureus was negatively associated with the presence of fat, S. aureus-specific IgG1 antibodies, contamination of the milk sample and morning milk. Replication of E. coli was negatively associated with fat concentrations, and positively associated with morning milk. The significant difference between morning and evening milk supports the theory that changes in milk composition influence bacterial growth. Although all determined milk components differed significantly between quarters and in time no significant association with bacterial growth could be identified with the exception of fat for both studied species and IgG1 titers for S. aureus. The negative association of fat with bacterial growth was assumed to occur due to activation of lipolysis by milk handling and can most likely be neglected for in vivo relevance. The fact that S. aureus-specific IgG1 titers were negatively associated with S. aureus growth in vitro encourages the ongoing effort to develop a vaccine against S. aureus-induced mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  7. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  8. Life cycle assessment of milk production from commercial dairy farms: the influence of management tactics.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-07-01

    Little consideration has been given to how farm management, specifically tactics used to implement the management strategy, may influence the carbon footprint (CF) and land use for milk produced on commercial farms. In this study, the CF and land use of milk production from 18 Irish commercial dairy farms were analyzed based on foreground data from a 12-mo survey capturing management tactics and background data from the literature. Large variation was found in farm attributes and management tactics; for example, up to a 1.5-fold difference in fertilizer nitrogen input was used to support the same stocking density, and up to a 3.5-fold difference in concentrate fed for similar milk output per cow. However, the coefficient of variation for milk CF between farms only varied by 13% and for land use by 18%. The overall CF and overall land use of the milk production from the 18 dairy farms was 1.23±0.04kg of CO2 Eq and 1.22±0.05 m(2) per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Milk output per cow, economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight, and on-farm diesel use per ha were found to be influential factors on milk CF, whereas the fertilizer N rate, milk output per cow, and economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight were influential on land use. Effective sward management of white clover within a few farms appeared to lower the CF but increased on-farm land use. It was concluded that a combination of multiple tactics determines CF and land use for milk production on commercial dairy farms and, although these 2 measures of environmental impact are correlated, a farm with a low CF did not always have low land use and vice versa. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Some Factors Influencing Dairy Practice Adoption by Grade A Milk Producers in Selected Tennessee Counties. A Research Summary of a Graduate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Anthony C.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the relationships between Grade A dairy producers' milk production levels and size of herd and their use of 21 milk production practices recommended by the University of Tennessee. The population consisted of 405 Grade A dairymen in 42 Tennessee counties. The extension agent in each county interviewed 10 or more…

  10. Human milk and formulae: neurotrophic and new biological factors.

    PubMed

    Serpero, Laura D; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gazzolo, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Mother milk is widely accepted to be a unique product believed to contain biological factors involved in the regulation of newborn optimal growth including brain when compared to milk-formula milks. In this setting, there is growing evidence that in milk-formula neuro-oxidative stress biomarkers, neurotrophic proteins and calcium binding proteins, known to be involved in a cascade of events leading to brain, cardiac and vascular development/damage, are to date lacking or at a lower concentration than breast milk. Therefore, this review is aimed at offering additional insights to the role in human milk of some selected biomarkers such as: i) neurotrophic factors such as Activin A; ii) Calcium binding protein such as S100B and, iii) heat shock protein known to be involved in oxidative stress response (namely hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1 or Heat shock Protein 32, HSP32). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the antilisterial effects of nisin in milk.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Meena; Veeramachaneni, Aparna; Shelef, Leora A

    2004-12-15

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in milk and the antilisterial activities of nisin are well documented. Although milk fat was reported to reduce the antimicrobial activities of nisin, there is little information on the influence of milk fat on the antilisterial activities of nisin in refrigerated milk, and whether pasteurization and homogenization influence these activities. Fresh, pasteurized, and homogenized milk samples (0.1%, 2.0%, and 3.5% fat) were treated with nisin (0-500 IU/ml) and challenged with 10(4) CFU/ml L. monocytogenes strain Scott A. The organism was most sensitive to nisin in skim milk, showing rapid decline in cell numbers to <10 CFU/ml after 12 days at 5 degrees C following treatment with 250 IU/ml. An initial decline in cell numbers in 2% and whole milk was followed by regrowth of the organism. Loss of the antilisterial effects of nisin was confirmed in homogenized whole milk, whether raw or pasteurized, but not in raw or pasteurized whole milk that was not homogenized. Tween 80, a nonionic emulsifier, partially counteracted the loss of the antilisterial activity of nisin, whereas lecithin, an anionic emulsifier, had no effect. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition and treatment of foods may play an important role in the antilisterial effects of nisin.

  12. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  13. Maternal country of origin, breast milk characteristics and potential influences on immunity in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Holmlund, U; Amoudruz, P; Johansson, M A; Haileselassie, Y; Ongoiba, A; Kayentao, K; Traoré, B; Doumbo, S; Schollin, J; Doumbo, O; Montgomery, S M; Sverremark-Ekström, E

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk contains pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines with potential to influence immunological maturation in the child. We have shown previously that country of birth is associated with the cytokine/chemokine profile of breast milk. In this study we have investigated how these differences in breast milk affect the cellular response of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, cell line HT-29) to microbial challenge. Ninety-five women were included: 30 from Mali in West Africa, 32 Swedish immigrants and 33 native Swedish women. CBMCs or IECs were stimulated in vitro with breast milk, alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN). Breast milk in general abrogated the LPS-induced down-regulation of surface CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression on CB monocytes, while inhibiting the PGN-induced TLR-2 up-regulation. However, breast milk from immigrant women together with LPS induced a lower CBMC release of interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0·034) and CXCL-8/IL-8 (P = 0·037) compared with breast milk from Swedish women, while breast milk from Swedish women and Mali women tended to increase the response. The same pattern of CXCL-8/IL-8 release could be seen after stimulation of IECs (HT-29). The lower CBMC and IEC (HT-29) responses to microbial compounds by breast milk from immigrant women could be explained by the fact that breast milk from the immigrant group showed a divergent pro- and anti-inflammatory content for CXCL-8/IL-8, transforming growth factor-β1 and soluble CD14, compared to the other two groups of women. This may have implications for maturation of their children's immune responses. PMID:20942805

  14. Reisolation of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine milk following experimental inoculation is influenced by fat percentage and specific immunoglobulin G1 titer in milk.

    PubMed

    Boerhout, E M; Koets, A P; Vernooij, J C M; Mols-Vorstermans, T G T; Nuijten, P J M; Rutten, V P M G; Bijlsma, J J E; Eisenberg, S W F

    2016-06-01

    The associations of management parameters, herd characteristics, and individual cow factors with bovine mastitis have been subject of many studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between milk composition parameters, including fat, protein, lactose, urea, and specific immunoglobulin levels, at the time of experimental bacterial inoculation of the mammary gland and subsequent shedding dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus. Sixty-eight cows were experimentally infected with S. aureus and closely monitored for 3 wk. Mixed model analyses were used to determine the influence of management and herd characteristics (farm and experimental group), individual cow factors (days in milk, milk yield, and quarter position), and a challenge-related parameter (inoculation dose) in combination with either the milk components fat, protein, lactose and urea, or the S. aureus-specific antibody isotype titers at the time of bacterial inoculation, on the number of S. aureus reisolated from milk after inoculation. A positive association was observed between the milk fat percentage and the number of S. aureus reisolated from quarter milk, and a negative relationship between the S. aureus-specific IgG1 titer in milk and the number of S. aureus. These findings should be considered in the development of a vaccine against S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in mature milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk of Korea in 2011: current contamination, time course variation, influencing factors and health risks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Eunkyo; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Hai-Joong; Park, Jeongim; Jae Lee, Jeong; Choi, Sooran; Young Kim, Su; Kim, Suungjoo; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-10-01

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, 208 breast milk samples were collected from 89 participants during lactation period, at <7, 15, 30, and 90 days postpartum, in four cities in Korea, and were determined for 19 PBDE congeners. The total PBDE concentrations (ΣPBDE) ranged from 0.23 to 68.4 (mean: 2.73) ng/g lipid weight, and were within the ranges reported for European and Asian countries. Within a month of lactation after delivery, no significant changes were found in the PBDE concentrations. The predominance of BDE 153 rather than BDE 47 was found in the most samples that BDE 153 was detected, and was likely to be associated with stepwise debromination of BDE 209. No associations were found between PBDE concentrations in breast milk and demographic parameters, except for ΣPBDE with maternal age and delivery mode. Certain types of diet such as corn, seafood and nut correlated significantly with PBDE levels in breast milk. The estimated daily intakes of ΣPBDE for breast-feeding infants were lower than the guidelines proposed by the US EPA, indicating limited health risk from PBDEs through breast feeding. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The long-term impact of epigenetics and maternal influence on the neonate through milk-borne factors and nutrient status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goals of the symposium were to explore potential means by which colostrum and milk may affect growth and development of offspring immediately after birth, into adulthood, and in subsequent generations. The symposium was exceptional in that it brought together scientists that work in the broad ar...

  18. Retail lighting and packaging influence consumer acceptance of fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Potts, H L; Amin, K N; Duncan, S E

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of retail light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on consumer acceptance of milk. The study objective was to determine effects of fluorescent and LED lighting under retail storage conditions on consumer acceptance of milk. Consumer acceptance of milk stored under retail conditions was determined through sensory evaluation (2 studies; n=150+ each) and analytical measures (dissolved oxygen, secondary oxidation products, riboflavin retention). Study 1 evaluated milk stored in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packages for 4h under LED light (960 lx). Commercially available HDPE package treatments included translucent HDPE (most commonly used), white HDPE [low concentration (1.3%) TiO2], and yellow HDPE; in addition, HDPE with a higher TiO2 concentration (high white; 4.9% TiO2) and a foil-wrapped translucent HDPE (control) were tested. Translucent and control packages also were tested under fluorescent light. Study 2 evaluated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packages for 4h under fluorescent and LED light (1,460 lx). The PET packaging included 2 treatments (medium, 4.0% TiO2; high, 6.6% TiO2) as well as translucent HDPE (exposed to fluorescent), clear PET (fluorescent and LED), and light-protected control. Overall mean acceptability of milk ranged from "like slightly" to "like moderately" with significantly lower acceptability for milk exposed to fluorescent light. Milk in HDPE and PET packages had comparable overall acceptability scores when exposed to LED light. Only the fluorescent light condition (both PET and HDPE) diminished overall acceptability. Fluorescent light exposure negatively influenced flavor with significant penalty (2.0-2.5 integers) to overall acceptability of milk in translucent HDPE and clear PET. The LED also diminished aftertaste of milk packaged in translucent HDPE. Changes in dissolved oxygen content, as an indication of oxidation, supported the observed differences in consumer acceptance of milk stored under

  19. Genetic and nongenetic factors associated with milk color in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Scarso, S; McParland, S; Visentin, G; Berry, D P; McDermott, A; De Marchi, M

    2017-09-01

    Milk color is one of the sensory properties that can influence consumer choice of one product over another and it influences the quality of processed dairy products. This study aims to quantify the cow-level genetic and nongenetic factors associated with bovine milk color traits. A total of 136,807 spectra from Irish commercial and research herds (with multiple breeds and crosses) were used. Milk lightness (Lˆ*), red-green index (aˆ*) and yellow-blue index (bˆ*) were predicted for individual milk samples using only the mid-infrared spectrum of the milk sample. Factors associated with milk color were breed, stage of lactation, parity, milking-time, udder health status, pasture grazing, and seasonal calving. (Co)variance components for Lˆ*,aˆ*, and bˆ* were estimated using random regressions on the additive genetic and within-lactation permanent environmental effects. Greater bˆ* value (i.e., more yellow color) was evident in milk from Jersey cows. Milk Lˆ* increased consistently with stage of lactation, whereas aˆ* increased until mid lactation to subsequently plateau. Milk bˆ* deteriorated until 31 to 60 DIM, but then improved thereafter until the end of lactation. Relative to multiparous cows, milk yielded by primiparae was, on average, lighter (i.e., greater Lˆ*), more red (i.e., greater aˆ*), and less yellow (i.e., lower bˆ*). Milk from the morning milk session had lower Lˆ*,aˆ*, and bˆ* Heritability estimates (±SE) for milk color varied between 0.15 ± 0.02 (30 DIM) and 0.46 ± 0.02 (210 DIM) for Lˆ*, between 0.09 ± 0.01 (30 DIM) and 0.15 ± 0.02 (305 DIM) for aˆ*, and between 0.18 ± 0.02 (21 DIM) and 0.56 ± 0.03 (305 DIM) for bˆ* For all the 3 milk color features, the within-trait genetic correlations approached unity as the time intervals compared shortened and were generally <0.40 between the peripheries of the lactation. Strong positive genetic correlations existed between bˆ* value and milk fat concentration, ranging from 0.82 ± 0

  20. Influence of milk quality and production protocol on proteolysis and lipolysis in Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Caroprese, Mariangela; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of milk source and of cheese production protocol on proteolytic and lipolytic pattern of cheese during ripening. The study involved six dairy factories located in Monti Dauni Meridionali area of Southern Italy; three dairy factories processed the milk produced by their own cow herds, while the other three dairy factories processed the milk collected in other dairy farms located in the neighbouring area. Cow milk processed to cheese had different nutritional parameters and hygienic quality. Caciocavallo cheese showed differences in the evolution of proteolysis during ripening and in the intensity of the lipolytic process detected at the end of ripening. The main factors influencing Caciocavallo cheese features were the quality of the starting milk, differences in technological steps such as milk heating, type of starter cultures and coagulant used.

  1. Environmental and genetic factors affecting milk yield and quality in three Italian sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Dario, Cataldo

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the study described in the Research Communication were to determine the level of influence of some environmental factors on milk yield and quality traits, including lactose, and lactation length in ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds and to estimate the heritability for the same traits. A total of 2138 lactation records obtained from 535 ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds (Comisana, Leccese, and Sarda) were used. Breed significantly affected all of the considered traits. Moreover, year of lambing affected milk yield and lactation length without influence on milk quality traits. Parity affected significantly only the milk yield, whereas type of birth showed its effect on milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose yield. On the whole, the presently reported heritability estimates are within the range of those already obtained in other dairy breeds by other authors, with values for lactation length being very low in all the investigated populations. Considering the heritability estimates for lactose content and yield, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of information on these parameters in ovine species and this is the first report on heritability of lactose content and yield in dairy sheep breeds. Our results suggest that genetic variability for milk traits other than lactation length is adequate for selection indicating a good response to selection in these breeds.

  2. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers.

  3. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  4. Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Katherine E; Samuel, Buck S; Houghteling, Pearl; Shan, Guru; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Walker, W Allan

    2016-12-30

    The initial acquisition and early development of the intestinal microbiome during infancy are important to human health across the lifespan. Mode of birth, antibiotic administration, environment of care, and nutrition have all been shown to play a role in the assembly of the intestinal microbiome during early life. For preterm infants, who are disproportionately at risk of inflammatory intestinal disease (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis), a unique set of clinical factors influence the establishment of the microbiome. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of nutritional exposures on the intestinal microbiome in a cohort of preterm infants early in life. Principal component analysis of 199 samples from 30 preterm infants (<32 weeks) over the first 60 days following birth showed that the intestinal microbiome was influenced by postnatal time (p < 0.001, R (2) = 0.13), birth weight (p < 0.001, R (2) = 0.08), and nutrition (p < 0.001, R (2) = 0.21). Infants who were fed breast milk had a greater initial bacterial diversity and a more gradual acquisition of diversity compared to infants who were fed infant formula. The microbiome of infants fed breast milk were more similar regardless of birth weight (p = 0.049), in contrast to the microbiome of infants fed infant formula, which clustered differently based on birth weight (p < 0.001). By adjusting for differences in gut maturity, an ordered succession of microbial phylotypes was observed in breast milk-fed infants, which appeared to be disrupted in those fed infant formula. Supplementation with pasteurized donor human milk was partially successful in promoting a microbiome more similar to breast milk-fed infants and moderating rapid increases in bacterial diversity. The preterm infant intestinal microbiome is influenced by postnatal time, birth weight, gestational age, and nutrition. Feeding with breast milk appears to mask the influence of birth weight, suggesting a

  5. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  6. Factors Which Increase Acid Production in Milk by Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Huhtanen, C. N.; Williams, W. L.

    1963-01-01

    The stimulation by yeast extract of acid production in milk by various lactobacilli was studied. It was found that supplementing milk with purine and pyrimidine bases and amino acids allowed nearly maximal acid production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain 7994, L. acidophilus 4796, 4356, and 4357, and L. leichmannii 326 and 327. Further supplementation with deoxyribotides allowed maximal acid production by L. acidophilus 204, but L. acidophilus 207 required adenosine or adenylic acid. L. casei strain 7469 showed no appreciable response to the amino acids or purine and pyrimidine bases, and is presumed to require an unidentified factor in corn steep liquor. PMID:13955610

  7. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  8. Recombinant human factor IX produced from transgenic porcine milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  9. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    PubMed

    Pirilä, Satu; Taskinen, Mervi; Viljakainen, Heli; Kajosaari, Merja; Turanlahti, Maila; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M; Mäkitie, Outi

    2011-04-27

    Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. A cohort of 158 adults (76 males) born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF): Short (≤3 months), Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months) BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively), favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  10. Pregnant women's diet composition and transitional milk fatty acids: factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bobiński, Rafał; Mikulska, Monika; Mojska, Hanna; Ulman-Włodarz, Izabela; Sodowska, Patrycja

    2015-02-01

    The variation in the nutrients contained in the milk is the result of changes to the breast metabolism, placenta metabolism and the diet of pregnant women. Various factors influence fatty acid composition which are one of the major components of woman's breast milk. In our research, we wanted to determine the relationship between the components of the diet of and the transitional milk fatty acid composition mothers who delivered healthy full-term babies, preterm and small for gestational age neonates. The study group comprised of 95 healthy women who were divided into three sub-groups: mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates (group A); mothers of preterm neonates (group B); and mothers who gave birth to small for gestational age (SGA) babies (Group C). The women's elements diet and the content of biochemical components were estimated based on the dietary questionnaire. The FAs in the mother's milk were analyzed using GCMS chromatography. The results of the studies of the dietary components and fatty acids of the milk underwent factor analysis. In group A, 10 correlations (5 positive and 5 negative) were found between the components of the mother's diet and the FAs in the milk (correlation varying from 0.285-0.366). In group B, only negative correlations were observed and these had higher absolute correlation values (0.354-0.500). The most correlations between dietary components and FAs in the milk were found in group C (0.537-0.800). Nature of the correlations between the variables examined in groups A, B and C are different.

  11. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  12. Interactions of climatic factors affecting milk yield and composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Collider, R.J.; Bachman, K.C.; Martin, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of interactions of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and solar radiation on milk yield and constituent traits. Effects of climate variables and their interactions were significant but small in most cases. Second order regression models were developed for several variables. Six were examined in detail: Holstein and Jersey milk yields, Holstein fat and Feulgen-DNA reflectance percent, and Jersey protein percent and yield. Maximum temperature had greatest influence on each response, followed by minimum relative humidity and solar radiation. Optimum conditions for milk production were at maximum temperatures below 19. 4/degree/C, increasing solar radiation, and minimum relative humidity between 33.4 and 78.2% (cool sunny days, moderate humidity). Maximum Holstein fat percent of 3.5% was predicted for maximum temperatures below 30.8/degree/C, minimum relative humidity below 89%, and solar radiation below 109 Langleys; actual mean Holstein fat percent was 3. 35%. Optimum climatic conditions for Jersey protein percent were at maximum temperature of 10.6/degree/C with solar radiation at 300 Langleys and relative humidity at 16% (cool sunny days, low humidity). Because noteworthy interactions existed between climate effects, response surface methodology was suitable for determining optimum climatic conditions for milk production.

  13. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    meaning and able to represent groups of fatty acids with a common origin and function. Multivariate factor analysis would therefore be a valuable tool for studying the influence of different production environments and individual animal factors on milk fatty acid composition, and for developing nutritional strategies able to manipulate the milk fatty acid profile according to consumer demand.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seo-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk.

  16. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  17. [The influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted milk quality parameters in cows].

    PubMed

    Michalski, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    The investigations of the influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted parameters of milk quality were performed in cows. Mean protein content in the milk from infected animals ammounted 3.60% and was higher than in the milk from uninfected cows (3.30%). Similar tendency was observed in the case of the fat (5.08% and 3.91%) and lactose (4.36% and 4.34%). The count of somatic cells in milk from infected cows was lower than in milk from uninfected animals (356.07 and 1776.92). It can indicate immunosupressive activity of Fasciola hepatica on the host.

  18. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time.

  19. On the supposed influence of milk homogenization on the risk of CVD, diabetes and allergy.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2007-04-01

    Commercial milk is homogenized for the purpose of physical stability, thereby reducing fat droplet size and including caseins and some whey proteins at the droplet interface. This seems to result in a better digestibility than untreated milk. Various casein peptides and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are reported to present either harmful (e.g. atherogenic) or beneficial bioactivity (e.g. hypotensive, anticarcinogenic and others). Homogenization might enhance either of these effects, but this remains controversial. The effect of homogenization has not been studied regarding the link between early cow's milk consumption and occurrence of type I diabetes in children prone to the disease and no link appears in the general population. Homogenization does not influence milk allergy and intolerance in allergic children and lactose-intolerant or milk-hypersensitive adults. The impact of homogenization, as well as heating and other treatments such as cheesemaking processes, on the health properties of milk and dairy products remains to be fully elucidated.

  20. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  1. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  2. Influence of attitudes and behavior of milkers on the hygienic and sanitary quality of milk

    PubMed Central

    Cassoli, Laerte D.; Machado, Paulo F.; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing how human behaviors affect the milk process can be useful to understand variations in hygienic and sanitary parameters in bulk tank milk. Furthermore, this knowledge could be used to design management programs that guarantee milk quality, favoring the optimization of such processes. Forty-six milkers from the same number of dairy farms in Antioquia province (Colombia) were interviewed to establish the main factors associated to milk quality. Technical knowledge, motivations, and behavior of the personnel and its effect on hygienic and sanitary quality of milk were evaluated. Quality was assessed in terms of colony-forming units (CFU) and somatic cell count (SCC) in bulk tank milk. Two factors from a multivariate mixed data analysis were evaluated. One of those factors explained 9.51% of the total variability, related with in-farm availability and use of tools and the relationships between milker and manager. The other factor, associated with work environment and recognition, explained 6.97% of the total variability. The variables that best explained CFU levels were Knowledge of the udder condition at milking, and Milking type (parlor or pasture). The SCC was associated to knowledge of animal handling, schooling of milkers, milking site, and the groups derived from the cluster analysis by farm. In conclusion, milker attitudes and behaviors can affect CFU and SCC in bulk tank milk. PMID:28926583

  3. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  4. Influence of nutrition on somatotropic axis: Milk consumption in adult individuals with moderate-severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Orio, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition is the major environmental factor that influences the risk of developing pathologies, such as obesity. Although a number of recent reviews pinpoint a protective effects of milk on body weight and obesity related co-morbidities, an inaccurate estimate of milk might contribute to hamper its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Seven-day food records provide prospective food intake data, reducing recall bias and providing extra details about specific food items. Milk intake stimulates the somatotropic axis at multiple levels by increasing both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. On the other hand, obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion and basal IGF-1 levels. Aim of this study was to evaluate the milk consumption by using the 7-days food record in obese individuals and to investigate the association between milk intake and GH secretory status in these subjects. Cross-sectional observational study carried out on 281 adult individuals (200 women and 81 men, aged 18-74 years) with moderate-severe obesity (BMI 35.2-69.4 kg/m(2)). Baseline milk intake data were collected using a 7 day food record. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical profile were determined. The GH/IGF-1 axis was evaluated by peak GH response after GHRH + ARGININE and IGF-1 standard deviation score (SDS). The majority of individuals (72.2%) reported consuming milk; 250 mL low-fat milk was the most frequently serving of milk consumed, while no subjects reported to consume whole milk. Milk consumers vs no milk consumers presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile. At the bivariate proportional odds ratio model, after adjusting for BMI, age and gender, milk consumption was associated the better GH status (OR = 0.60; p < 0.001). Among milk consumers, subjects consuming 250 mL reduced-fat milk vs 250 mL low-fat milk presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile

  5. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L; Blanco, Cynthia L; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula P; Garzon, Steven A; Desai, Umesh R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-08-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20-40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk.

  6. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo ); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi ); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  7. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    PubMed

    van Neerven, R J Joost; Knol, Edward F; Heck, Jeroen M L; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to formally demonstrate this effect, several factors in bovine milk have been described that might explain how raw cow's milk consumption can decrease the risk of allergies. In addition, increasing knowledge on the immunologically active factors in breast milk have also contributed to our understanding of the effects of bovine milk in infants because many of the factors in bovine milk are expected to have functional effects in human subjects as well. Here we review these factors and their mechanisms of action and compare their presence in bovine milk and breast milk. A better understanding of these factors, as well as how to retain them, might ultimately lead to the development of mildly processed milk and infant nutrition products that could become a part of preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of allergic disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A1 beta-casein milk protein and other environmental pre-disposing factors for type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S J; McRae, J L; Kukuljan, S; Woodford, K; Elliott, R B; Swinburn, B; Dwyer, K M

    2017-01-01

    Globally type 1 diabetes incidence is increasing. It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is influenced by environmental factors in people with specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. We propose that a complex interplay between dietary triggers, permissive gut factors and potentially other influencing factors underpins disease progression. We present evidence that A1 β-casein cows’ milk protein is a primary causal trigger of type 1 diabetes in individuals with genetic risk factors. Permissive gut factors (for example, aberrant mucosal immunity), intervene by impacting the gut’s environment and the mucosal barrier. Various influencing factors (for example, breastfeeding duration, exposure to other dietary triggers and vitamin D) modify the impact of triggers and permissive gut factors on disease. The power of the dominant trigger and permissive gut factors on disease is influenced by timing, magnitude and/or duration of exposure. Within this framework, removal of a dominant dietary trigger may profoundly affect type 1 diabetes incidence. We present epidemiological, animal-based, in vitro and theoretical evidence for A1 β-casein and its β-casomorphin-7 derivative as dominant causal triggers of type 1 diabetes. The effects of ordinary milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein and milk containing only the A2 β-casein warrant comparison in prospective trials. PMID:28504710

  9. Cytokines, Chemokines, and Growth Factors in Banked Human Donor Milk for Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Groer, Maureen; Duffy, Allyson; Morse, Shannon; Kane, Bradley; Zaritt, Judy; Roberts, Shari; Ashmeade, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent increase in availability of banked donor milk for feeding of preterm infants. This milk is pooled from donations to milk banks from carefully screened lactating women. The milk is then pasteurized by the Holder method to remove all microbes. The processed milk is frozen, banked, and sold to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The nutrient bioavailability of banked donor milk has been described, but little is known about preservation of immune components such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (CCGF). Objective The objective was to compare CCGF in banked donor milk with mother's own milk (MOM). Methods Aliquots (0.5 mL) were collected daily from MOM pumped by 45 mothers of NICU-admitted infants weighing < 1500 grams at birth. All daily aliquots of each mother's milk were pooled each week during 6 weeks of an infant's NICU stay or for as long as the mother provided MOM. The weekly pooled milk was measured for a panel of CCGF through multiplexing using magnetic beads and a MAGPIX instrument. Banked donor milk samples (n = 25) were handled and measured in the same way as MOM. Results Multiplex analysis revealed that there were levels of CCGF in banked donor milk samples comparable to values obtained from MOM after 6 weeks of lactation. Conclusion These data suggest that many important CCGF are not destroyed by Holder pasteurization. PMID:24663954

  10. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  11. Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk influences gastrointestinal morphology in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Brundige, Dottie R; Maga, Elizabeth A; Klasing, Kirk C; Murray, James D

    2008-05-01

    Transgenesis provides a method of expressing novel proteins in milk to increase the functional benefits of milk consumption. Transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) at 67% of the concentration in human breast milk were produced, thereby enhancing the antimicrobial properties of goats' milk. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pasteurized milk containing hLZ on growth, the intestinal epithelium, and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in young weaned pigs. Pigs were placed into 4 groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (nontransgenic) goats' milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats. Growth was assessed by weight gain. Nonchallenged pigs were necropsied after 6 wk, whereas the remaining pigs were necropsied at 7 wk following bacterial challenge. We determined the numbers of total coliforms and E. coli and examined small intestinal histology for all pigs. Complete blood counts were also determined pre- and postchallenge. Challenged pigs receiving hLZ milk had fewer total coliforms (P = 0.029) and E. coli (P = 0.030) in the ileum than controls. hLZ-fed pigs also had a greater duodenal villi width (P = 0.029) than controls. Additionally, nonchallenged hLZ-fed pigs had fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes per micron of villi height (P = 0.020) than nonchallenged controls. These results indicate that the consumption of pasteurized hLZ goats' milk has the potential to improve gastrointestinal health and is protective against an EPEC in young weaned pigs. These same benefits may occur in young children if they were to consume milk from hLZ-transgenic goats.

  12. Milk and other dietary influences on coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    While dietary links to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality have been studied for many years, the correlation has not clearly been resolved, especially for older populations. In this paper, a multi-country statistical approach involving 32 countries is used to find dietary links to IHD and CHD for various age groups aged 35+. For IHD, milk carbohydrates were found to have the highest statistical association for males aged 35+ and females aged 65+, while for females aged 35-64, sugar was found to have the highest association. In the case of CHD, non-fat milk was found to have the highest association for males aged 45+ and females aged 75+, while for females 65-74, milk carbohydrates and sugar had the highest associations, and for females aged 45-64, sugar had the highest association. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that might explain the milk carbohydrate or non-fat milk association. One of the most prominent theories is that animal proteins contribute to homocysteine (Hcy) production; however, milk more than meat lacks adequate B vitamins to convert Hcy to useful products. Lactose and calcium in conjunction with Hcy from consumption of non-fat milk may also contribute to calcification of the arteries.

  13. Milk and other dietary influences on coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    While dietary links to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality have been studied for many years, the correlation has not clearly been resolved, especially for older populations. In this paper, a multi-country statistical approach involving 32 countries is used to find dietary links to IHD and CHD for various age groups aged 35+. For IHD, milk carbohydrates were found to have the highest statistical association for males aged 35+ and females aged 65+, while for females aged 35-64, sugar was found to have the highest association. In the case of CHD, non-fat milk was found to have the highest association for males aged 45+ and females aged 75+, while for females 65-74, milk carbohydrates and sugar had the highest associations, and for females aged 45-64, sugar had the highest association. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that might explain the milk carbohydrate or non-fat milk association. One of the most prominent theories is that animal proteins contribute to homocysteine (Hcy) production; however, milk more than meat lacks adequate B vitamins to convert Hcy to useful products. Lactose and calcium in conjunction with Hcy from consumption of non-fat milk may also contribute to calcification of the arteries.

  14. Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, J; Ehrnebo, M

    1979-09-01

    The effect of milk products on the gastrointestinal absorption of fluoride from sodium fluoride tablets was studied in five healthy subjects. Two different diets were tested: (1) 250 ml standardized milk (3% fat) and (2) 500 ml of milk, 3 pieces of white bread with cheese and 150 ml of yoghurt. The 100% bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets during fasting was greatly decreased by coadministration of milk products: with Diet 1 the absolute bioavailability calculated from combined plasma and urine data was in the range 50--79% and with Diet 2 it ranged from 50--71%. It is suggested that the decreased bioavailability produced by dairy products should be taken into account when establishing flouride dosage regimens for prophylaxis of caries.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  16. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  17. Addition of pasture plant essential oil in milk: influence on chemical and sensory properties of milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Tornambé, G; Cornu, A; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Kondjoyan, N; Figueredo, G; Hulin, S; Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the addition, to milk, of an essential oil (EO) obtained from the hydrodistillation of plants collected from a mountain natural pasture on the milk and cheese sensory properties. The EO was mainly composed of terpenoid compounds (67 of the 95 compounds identified) as well as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and benzenic compounds. In milk, the addition of this EO at the concentration of 0.1 microL/L did not influence its sensory properties, whereas at 1.0 microL/L, sensory properties were modified. In cheeses, the effect of adding EO into milk was studied in an experimental dairy plant allowing the production of small Cantal-type cheeses (10 kg) in 3 vats processed in parallel. The control (C) vat contained 110 L of raw milk; in the other 2 vats, 0.1 microL/L (EO1) or 3.0 microL/L (EO30) of EO were added to 110 L of the same milk. Six replicates were performed. After 5 mo of ripening, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out on the cheeses, including determination of the volatile compounds by dynamic headspace combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The EO did not influence the sensory properties of the cheeses at the lower concentration (EO1). However, the EO30 cheeses had a more intense odor and aroma, both characterized as "mint/chlorophyll" and "thyme/oregano." These unusual odors and aromas originated directly from the EO added. In total, 152 compounds desorbing from cheese were found, of which 41 had been added with the EO; in contrast, 54 compounds of the EO were not recovered in the cheese. Few volatile compounds desorbing from cheeses, other than the added compounds, were affected by EO addition. Among them, 2-butanol, propanol, and 3-heptanone suggested a slight effect of the EO on lipid catabolism. The antimicrobial activity of terpenes is not or is only marginally involved in the explanation of the influence of the botanical composition of the meadows on the pressed

  18. Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrer, Andrea; Sprenger, Norbert; Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Borsig, Lubor; Chassard, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development of the intestinal environment by acting as decoy receptors for pathogens and as prebiotics, which promote the colonization of commensal bacteria. Here, using α2,3- and α2,6-sialyltransferase-deficient mice, we investigated the role of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides sialyl(α2,3)lactose and sialyl(α2,6)lactose on mucosal immunity. The exposure of newborn mice to milk containing or deficient in sialyllactose had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. However, when challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, adult mice that had been fostered on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to colitis compared with mice fostered on normal milk or sialyl(α2,6)lactose-deficient milk. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed different colonization patterns depending on the presence or absence of sialyl(α2,3)lactose in the milk. Germ-free mice reconstituted with intestinal microbiota isolated from mice fed on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than germ-free mice reconstituted with standard intestinal microbiota. Thus, exposure to sialyllactose during infancy affects bacterial colonization of the intestine, which influences the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in adult mice. PMID:21098096

  19. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P.; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L.; Blanco, Cynthia L.; Patel, Aloka L.; Meier, Paula P.; Garzon, Steven A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20–40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk. PMID:26045614

  20. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Materials and Methods: Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. Results: The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. Conclusions: The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time. PMID:26322289

  1. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.

  2. Influence of micellar calcium and phosphorus on rennet coagulation properties of cows milk.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Sandri, Sandro; Mariani, Primo; Summer, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The main requirement for milk processed in most cheese typologies is its rennet coagulation ability. Despite the increasing number of studies, the causes for abnormal coagulation of milk are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationships between milk characteristics and its rennet coagulation ability, focusing on the influence of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Ca and P are essential constituents of the micelles. Micellar P can be present as part of colloidal calcium phosphate (inorganic-P) or covalently bound to caseins as phosphate groups (casein-P). Eighty one herd milk samples (SCC<400 000 cell/ml) were classified as Optimal (8), Suboptimal (39) Poor (29) and Non-coagulating milk (5), according to their rennet coagulation parameters as assessed by lactodynamographic test. Samples were analysed for their chemical composition (basic composition, protein fractions, minerals and salt equilibria), physicochemical parameters (pH and titratable acidity) and rheological properties. Optimal milk was characterised by the highest contents of major constituents, protein fractions and minerals, lowest content of chloride and highest values of titratable acidity. Non-coagulating milk was characterised by the highest values of pH and the lowest of titratable acidity. At micellar level, Optimal milk showed the highest values of colloidal Ca, casein-P and colloidal Mg (g/100 g casein), while Non-coagulating milk showed the lowest values. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference regarding the content of colloidal inorganic-P (g/100 g casein) between Optimal and Non-coagulating milks. Overall, high mineralisation of the micelle (expressed as g inorganic-P/100 g casein) positively affect its rennetability. However, excessive mineralisation could lead to a reduction of the phosphate groups (g casein-P/100 g casein) available for curd formation.

  3. Evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Turbes, Gregory; Linscott, Tyler D; Tomasino, Elizabeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy; Lim, Juyun; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    The concept of local food is rapidly gaining importance within the United States. The foundation of local food is terroir, which links a food to its production environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese flavor. Specifically, the study was designed to assess if consumers could differentiate between Cheddar cheeses made with milk from different dairy farms. Milk from 5 locations, including single dairy farms and commingled sites, was collected from around the state of Oregon. Using raw and pasteurized counterparts of the milk, Cheddar cheese was made and aged. At 5 and 9mo into aging, Cheddar cheese consumers were asked to group the samples based on perceived similarity/dissimilarity of cheese flavor. Grouping data were subjected to multidimensional scaling and subsequent cluster analysis. Results at 5mo into aging revealed that cheeses made by milk originating from different farms (80km apart) within the same region were perceived as different, whereas cheeses made with milk from neighboring farms (5km apart) were grouped together, irrespective of heat treatment (i.e., raw vs. pasteurized). Cheeses made with commingled milk from different regions grouped together. At 9mo of aging, in contrast, a clear separation of perceived flavor was present between the pasteurized and raw cheese samples, whereas the effect of milk sourcing was less pronounced. These data suggest that the geographical location of the milk source has an effect on the flavor of Cheddar cheese, but that the practices of milk commingling and heat treatment likely reduce the effect of geographical location, particularly as cheese ages.

  4. Influence of conjugated linoleic acids and vitamin E on milk fatty acid composition and concentrations of vitamin A and α-tocopherol in blood and milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schäfers, S; Meyer, U; von Soosten, D; Hüther, L; Drong, C; Eder, K; Most, E; Tröscher, A; Pelletier, W; Zeyner, A; Dänicke, S

    2017-08-16

    The objective of this trial was to investigate the influences of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and their interactions on fatty acid composition and vitamins in milk (α-tocopherol, retinol and β-carotene) as well as on α-tocopherol in blood of pluriparous cows from week 6 ante partum until week 10 post-partum (p.p.). We assigned 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows to four treatment groups with the treatment factors CLA and Vit. E at two levels in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Milk fatty acid composition and milk vitamins were analysed on lactation days 7 and 28. α-tocopherol in blood serum was analysed on days -42, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28 and 70 relative to parturition. Milk concentration of α-tocopherol was influenced by Vit. E (p < .001) and CLA (p = .034). Percentage of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in total milk fat was influenced by treatment with CLA (p < .001), while for percentage of trans-10, cis-12 CLA an interaction between treatment and day (p = .019), driven by an increase in both CLA groups from day 7 to day 28, was found. Serum ratios of α-tocopherol to cholesterol were influenced by Vit. E (p < .001). Results suggest that treatment with CLA during late pregnancy and early lactation is suitable to enhance the proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk and thereby influencing nutritional properties. As treatment with Vit. E did not have an impact on milk fatty acid composition, it might be possible to increase the antioxidative capacity of the dairy cow without affecting milk properties. Consequently, combined treatment with CLA and Vit. E might elicit synergistic effects on the cow and milk quality by increasing the proportion of CLA in milk fat as well as the excretion of Vit. E and the Vit. E levels in serum. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Vitamin E concentration in human milk and associated factors: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mayara S R; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla D S

    2014-01-01

    To systematize information about vitamin E concentration in human milk and the variables associated with this composition in order to find possible causes of deficiency, supporting strategies to prevent it in postpartum women and infants. Studies published between 2004 and 2014 that assayed alpha-tocopherol in human milk of healthy women by high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated. The keywords used were "vitamin E", "alpha-tocopherol", "milk, human", "lactation", and equivalents in Portuguese, in the BIREME, CAPES, PubMed, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, HighWire Press, Ingenta, and Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations databases. Of the 41 publications found on the subject, 25 whose full text was available and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The alpha-tocopherol concentrations found in milk were similar in most populations studied. The variable phase of lactation was shown to influence vitamin E content in milk, which is reduced until the mature milk appears. Maternal variables parity, anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status, and habitual dietary intake did not appear to affect the alpha-tocopherol levels in milk. However, the influence of the variables maternal age, gestational age, biochemical nutritional status in alpha-tocopherol, and maternal supplementation with vitamin E had conflicting results in the literature. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in milk decreases during lactation, until the mature milk appears. To confirm the influence of some maternal and child variables on milk vitamin E content, further studies with adequate design are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    PubMed

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  7. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Treesearch

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  8. Influence of thermal processing conditions on flavor stability in fluid milk: benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Potineni, R V; Peterson, D G

    2005-01-01

    Flavor loss in dairy products has been associated with enzymatic degradation by xanthine oxidase. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of milk thermal processing conditions (or xanthine oxidase inactivation) on benzaldehyde stability. Benzaldehyde was added to whole milk which had been thermally processed at 4 levels: (1) none or raw, (2) high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, (3) HTST pasteurization, additionally heated to 100 degrees C (PAH), and (4) UHT sterilized. Additionally, PAH and UHT milk samples containing benzaldehyde (with and without ferrous sulfate) were spiked with xanthine oxidase. Azide was added as an antimicrobial agent (one additional pasteurized sample without) and the microbial load (total plate count) was determined on d 0, 2, and 6. The concentration of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid in all milk samples were determined at d 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 (stored at 5 degrees C) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective ion monitory mode. Over the 6-d storage period, more than 80% of the benzaldehyde content was converted (oxidized) to benzoic acid in raw and pasteurized milk, whereas no change in the benzaldehyde concentration was found in PAH or UHT milk samples. Furthermore, the addition of xanthine oxidase or xanthine oxidase plus ferrous sulfate to PAH or UHT milk samples did not result in benzaldehyde degradation over the storage period.

  9. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    influence on the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk than that of cow milk, probably due to a shorter and less severe period of negative energy balance. Parity affected the profiles of a few traits and had the most significant effects on branched-chain fatty acids. This work provided a detailed overview of the fatty acid profile in buffalo milk including also those fatty acids present in small concentrations, which may have beneficial effects for human health. Our results contributed also to increase the knowledge about the effects of some of the major factors affecting buffalo production traits and fatty acid concentrations in milk, and consequently its technological and nutritional properties.

  10. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  11. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  12. Influence of processing on functionality of milk and dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2007-01-01

    The inherent physical functionality of dairy ingredients makes them useful in a range of food applications. These functionalities include their solubility, water binding, viscosity, gelation, heat stability, renneting, foaming, and emulsifying properties. The suitability of dairy ingredients for an application can be further tailored by altering the structure of the proteins using appropriate processes. The processes discussed include physical modification (heat treatment, acidification, addition of mineral slats, homogenization, and shear), enzymatic modification (renneting, hydrolysis, and transglutamination), and chemical modification (use of chemical agents and the Maillard reaction). Emerging food processes (high pressure and ultrasound) are also discussed. The challenges for using dairy ingredients for the delivery of nutrients and bioactive components, while maintaining physical functionality, are also highlighted. There is a need for continued research into the fundamental aspects of milk proteins and their responses to various stresses for further differentiation of milk products and for the delivery of ingredients with consistent quality for target applications.

  13. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II. Lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Palmero, M; Koletzko, B; Kunz, C; Jensen, R

    1999-06-01

    Human milk lipids contain preformed LCPUFA in considerable amounts, which serve as precursors for the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and other lipid mediators, as well as essential components in membrane-rich tissues (such as the brain and the retina), thus affecting functional outcomes. Besides a balanced nutrient composition and a number of conditionally essential nutrients, human milk provides different types and classes of bioactive factors, such as enzymes, hormones, and growth factors, many of which appear to have a role in supporting infantile growth and development. The bioactive agents include antimicrobial factors (e.g., secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, FA); anti-inflammatory agents; transporters (e.g., lactoferrin); and digestive enzymes (e.g., BSSL). Several nonpeptide hormones (thyroid hormones, cortisol, progesterone, pregnanediol, estrogens, and artificial contraceptive) and peptide hormones and growth factors (erythropoietin, hHG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, epidermal growth factor insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and thyroid-parathyroid hormones) have been isolated and quantitated in human milk. Some of these components are also involved in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract of the infant. In addition to the passive benefits provided by human milk, several data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding promotes the development of the infant's own immune system, which might confer long-term benefits for the newborn infant. The risk of IDDM, Crohn's disease, and atopic disease is lower in individuals who had been breastfed during infancy. Areas of major interest in human milk research include the study of human milk synthesis and the contributions of dietary composition and maternal metabolism to human milk composition, infantile utilization of human milk components, and the study of bioactive components, such as

  14. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  15. The influence of maternal ethnic group and diet on breast milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin Lin; S K, Thamarai Chelvi; Lim, Su Lin; Chen, Yuming; Tan, Elizabeth A T; Pai, Namratha Narayan; Gong, Yin Han; Foo, Janie; Rauff, Mary; Chong, Yap Seng

    2010-09-01

    Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition. This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Healthy pregnant women with the intention to breastfeed were recruited. Diet profile was studied using a standard validated 3-day food diary. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 1 to 2 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks postnatally. Agilent gas chromatograph (6870N) equipped with a mass spectrometer (5975) and an automatic liquid sampler (ALS) system with a split mode was used for analysis. Seventy-two breast milk samples were obtained from 52 subjects. Analysis showed that breast milk ETA (Eicosatetraenoic acid) and ETA:EA (Eicosatrienoic acid) ratio were significantly different among the races (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020), with ETA being the highest among Indians and the lowest among Malays. Docosahexaenoic acid was significantly higher among Chinese compared to Indians and Malays. No difference was demonstrated in n3 and n6 levels in the food diet analysis among the 3 ethnic groups. Differences exist in breast milk fatty acid composition in different ethnic groups in the same region, although no difference was demonstrated in the diet analysis. Factors other than maternal diet may play a role in breast milk fatty acid composition.

  16. Factors associated with breast milk intake among 9-10-month-old Malawian infants.

    PubMed

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Arimond, Mary; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first 6 months of life; thereafter, continued breastfeeding along with nutritious complementary foods is recommended. Continued breastfeeding contributes a substantial proportion of nutrient needs and promotes healthy growth and development, but the quantity of breast milk consumed may be highly variable and little is known about the factors associated with breast milk intake after 6 months of age. The present study was conducted to assess factors associated with breast milk intake of Malawian infants at 9-10 months of age. Breast milk intake was measured using the dose-to-mother deuterium oxide dilution method in a subsample of 358 Malawian infants who were participating in a randomized controlled trial of lipid-based nutrient supplements. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between breast milk intake and several maternal and infant variables. Mean (standard deviation) breast milk intake was 752 (244) g day(-1) . In multiple regression, breast milk intake was positively associated with infant weight (+62 g per kg body weight, P < 0.01) and maternal height (P < 0.01) and negatively associated with maternal education and age (P < 0.01). There was a non-significant (P = 0.063) inverse association between energy from non-breast milk sources and breast milk intake. In this rural Malawian population, infant weight is the main predictor of breast milk intake, even after the first 6 months of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of storage conditions on the growth of Pseudomonas species in refrigerated raw milk.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis.

  18. Mastitis and Immunological Factors in Breast Milk of Lactating Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Kumwenda, Newton; Taha, Taha E.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lan, Yin; Eisinger, Ward; Mtimavalye, Laban; Broadhead, Robin; Miotti, Paolo G.; Van Der Hoeven, Len; Chiphangwi, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Although an elevated sodium concentration in human milk is suggested to be an indicator of mastitis, it is unclear whether elevated sodium concentrations are associated with immunological and inflammatory mediators in human milk. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationships between elevated breast milk sodium concentrations and levels of lactoferrin, lysozyme, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human milk at 6 weeks postpartum in 96 lactating women in Blantyre, Malawi. Mastitis, as indicated by an elevated breast milk sodium concentration, was present in 15.6% of the women. Women with and without mastitis had respective median levels of other factors as follows: lactoferrin, 1,230 versus 565 mg/liter (P < 0.0007); lysozyme, 266 versus 274 mg/liter (P = 0.55); SLPI, 76 versus 15 μg/liter, (P < 0.0002); IL-8, 339 versus 25 ng/liter (P < 0.0001); and RANTES, 82 versus 3 ng/liter (P < 0.0001). Elevated sodium concentrations in breast milk are associated with an increase in levels of some immunological and inflammatory factors in breast milk. PMID:10473515

  19. Does exercise intensity or diet influence lactic acid accumulation in breast milk?

    PubMed

    Quinn, T J; Carey, G B

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among diet, exercise intensity, and breast milk composition in lactating women. Twelve lactating women were randomly assigned to either a high (N = 6; 5.03 g carbohydrate (CHO) x kg body mass (BM)(-1)) or moderate (N = 6; 3.89 g CHO x kg BM(-1)) carbohydrate diet. Milk and blood samples were collected before and after a nonexercise session (control) and maximal, lactic acid-threshold (LAT), and 20% below the LAT (LAT-20) intensities. The 30-min exercise LAT bout was more stressful than the 30-min LAT-20 bout (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) = 15 vs 12, respectively, P < 0.05). Milk LA was significantly higher at 0 min following maximal exercise in the high and moderate CHO groups (1.27+/-0.56 and 1.52+/-0.49 mM, respectively) and following LAT exercise (0.19+/-0.16 and 0.25+/-0.12 mM, respectively), when compared with the control session (0.08+/-0.03 and 0.09+/-0.05 mM, respectively). This was not observed following the LAT-20 exercise in the high and moderate CHO groups (0.11+/-0.04 and 0.12+/-0.08 mM, respectively). Elevated milk LA persisted in the 30-min collection point after maximal exercise only. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on milk or blood LA at any of the collection points. In lactating women whose caloric needs are being met: 1) dietary CHO intake, within a practical range, does not influence LA levels in breast milk at rest or after exercise; 2) LA appearance in the milk is a function of exercise intensity; and 3) moderate intensity exercise (RPE = 12) will not increase breast milk LA levels.

  20. The age of cows as a factor shaping the antioxidant level during a nutritional experiment with fish oil and linseed supplementation for increasing the antioxidant value of milk.

    PubMed

    Puppel, Kamila; Nałecz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Kuczyńska, Beata; Gołebiewski, Marcin; Kordyasz, Marta; Grodzki, Henryk

    2012-09-01

    So far, in research studies, the age of cows has not been considered as a factor that may influence the changes in the content of milk ingredients with antioxidant properties modified by the feed supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation on the content of ingredients having antioxidant properties and to determine the influence of the age of cows taking part in the experiment on these changes. The experiment was conducted using 20 Polish Holstein Friesian cows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous. The combined supplementation of fish oil and linseed constituted the experimental factor. The milk of primiparous cows after 21 days of supplementation was characterised by a higher content of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and β-lactoglobulin compared to the milk of multiparous cows, in which a higher level of lactoferrin, C20:5 and β-carotene was recorded. In both groups an increase in the total antioxidant status was noted (a higher level in the milk of primiparous cows). Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced antioxidant properties of their milk; however, the response of multiparous and primaparous cows was noticeably different to the supplement introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  2. Metagenomic analysis reveals the influences of milk containing antibiotics on the rumen microbes of calves.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Han, Yunsheng; Yuan, Xue; Wang, Guan; Wang, Zhibo; Pan, Qiqi; Gao, Yan; Qu, Yongli

    2017-04-01

    Milk containing antibiotics is used as cost-effective feed for calves, which may lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. This study aims to investigate the influence of antibiotics on rumen microbes. Through metagenomic sequencing, the rumen microbial communities of calves fed with pasteurized milk containing antibiotics (B1), milk containing antibiotics (B2) and fresh milk (B3) were explored. Each milk group included calves in 2 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months of age. Using FastQC software and SOAPdenovo 2, the filtered data, respectively, were performed with quality control and sequence splicing. Following KEGG annotation was conducted for the uploaded sequences using KAAS software. Using R software, both species abundance analysis and differential abundance analysis were performed. In the B1 samples, the species abundance of Bacteroidetes gradually decreased along with the extension of feeding time, while that of Fibrobacteres gradually increased. The species abundances of Proteobacteria (p value = 0.01) and Spirochaetes (p value = 0.03) had significant differences among T1, T2 and T3 samples. Meanwhile, only the species abundance of Spirochaetes (p value = 0.04) had significant difference among B1, B2 and B3 samples. Cell cycle involving GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 was significantly enriched for the differentially expressed genes in the T1 versus T2 and T1 versus T3 comparison groups. Milk containing antibiotics might have a great influence on these rumen microbes and lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. Furthermore, GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 in rumen bacteria might affect milk fat metabolism in early growth stages of calves.

  3. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran's national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit.

  4. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (p<0.001), with the maximum milk yield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (p<0.001) in Korean Holstein cows using AMS. Conclusion Detailed knowledge of these factors such as lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries. PMID:28423887

  5. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., <1/mL) can survive pasteurization and grow in milk and cheese products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in

  6. Higher levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor but similar nerve growth factor in human milk in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Dangat, Kamini; Kilari, Anitha; Mehendale, Savita; Lalwani, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    Children born to mothers with preeclampsia have consistently been suggested to be at risk for cognitive and behavioral disorders in later life. Breastfeeding is said to be associated with better neurodevelopment outcomes. Our earlier studies indicated higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human milk in women with preeclampsia. DHA is known to regulate the expression of neurotrophins and together they play a vital role in neurodevelopment and cognitive performance. The present study examines the levels of maternal plasma and milk neurotrophins [(nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in women with preeclampsia and compares them with normotensive women who served as controls. Singleton pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (n=72) and controls (n=102) were recruited for this study from Bharati Hospital, Pune. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed for NGF and BDNF levels using the Emax Immuno Assay System using promega kits. Maternal plasma NGF and BDNF levels were lower (p<0.01 for both) in women with preeclampsia as compared to the control women. Milk NGF levels were similar while milk BDNF levels were higher (p<0.05) in the preeclampsia group as compared to controls. Plasma NGF levels were positively correlated with milk NGF levels in the control group. Our results indicate the differential regulation of milk NGF and BDNF levels in women with preeclampsia. The present study suggests a role for both NGF and BDNF in human milk for postnatal brain development. Further studies need to examine the associations of DHA and BDNF in human milk with cognition at later ages.

  7. Premature delivery influences the immunological composition of colostrum and transitional and mature human milk.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Cristina; Casillas, Rosario; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida; Moretones, M Glòria; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Franch, Angels

    2011-06-01

    Human breast milk is the ideal nutrition for the newborn, and in addition to its nutritional contribution, necessary for infant growth and development, it contains various immune bioactive factors that confer some of the numerous beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The current study analyzed the concentrations of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2, cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and TNFα, and TNF-receptor I (TNF-RI) in colostrum and transitional and mature milk from mothers with mature, premature, and very premature infants. Human milk samples were collected from mothers delivering at term (T), preterm (PT), and very preterm (VPT). Milk from all the mothers was collected at 3 different time points after delivery corresponding to colostrum and transitional and mature milk. After obtaining milk whey, IgA, EGF, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 were determined by ELISA and IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNFα and TNF-RI by cytometric bead array immunoassay. The colostrum of the PT group was extremely rich in most of the factors studied, but higher concentrations than in the T group were only found for IL-6 (P = 0.051), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the colostrum of the VPT group had lower concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα than those in the T group (P < 0.05). Results suggest that maternal lactogenic compensatory mechanisms accelerating the development of immature breast-fed preterm infants may take effect only after wk 30 of gestation.

  8. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content.

  9. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.

  10. Influence of ethanol on the rennet-induced coagulation of milk.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, John E; Saracino, Pasquale; Huppertz, Thom; Uniake, Therese; de Kruif, Cornelis G; Kelly, Alan L; Fox, Patrick F

    2006-08-01

    The influence of ethanol on the rennet-induced coagulation of milk was studied to investigate potential synergistic effects of these two mechanisms of destabilisation on the casein micelles. Addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol reduced the rennet coagulation time (RCT) of milk, whereas higher levels of ethanol (10-20%, v/v) progressively increased RCT. The temperature at which milk was coagulable by rennet decreased with increasing ethanol content of the milk. The primary stage of rennet coagulation, i.e., the enzymatic hydrolysis of kappa-casein, was progressively slowed with increasing ethanol content (5-20%, v/v), possibly due to ethanol-induced conformational changes in the enzyme molecule. The secondary stage of rennet coagulation, i.e., the aggregation of kappa-casein-depleted micelles, was enhanced in the presence of 5-15% ethanol, the effect being largest at 5% ethanol. Enhanced aggregation of micelles is probably due to an ethanol-induced decrease in inter-micellar steric repulsion. These results indicate an interrelationship between the effects of ethanol and chymosin on the casein micelles in milk, which may have interesting implications for properties of dairy products.

  11. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality

    PubMed Central

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R., Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats’ milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:20229357

  12. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products.

  13. Virulence factors and ability of staphylococci from bovine milk and the cowshed environment to biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kot, B; Binek, T; Piechota, M; Wolska, K M; Zdunek, E; Platkowska, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine virulence factors and the ability of S. aureus and CNS species isolated from milk of cows with mastitis to form biofilm, and to compare them with virulence factors of staphylococci from milk of cows without mastitis and cowshed environment. Most of S. aureus strains from cows with mastitis showed haemolytic activity (93.9%), among them 72.7% and 21.2% produced alpha- and beta-haemolysin, respectively. S. aureus from cows with mastitis symptoms produced proteases (above 48%) and esterase (42.4%). The highly significant relationship between the number of S. xylosus strains producing haemolysins (62%) and the origin of these strains from milk of cows with mastitis was observed. The ability to produce proteases was significantly associated with S. sciuri from milk of cows with mastitis. The ability of biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains from milk of cows with mastitis was greater than in strains from milk of cows without mastitis and the difference was significant (p < or = 0.05). The highest percentage of strains from milk of cows with mastitis were weak biofilm formers (48.6%), while 40% and 11.4% of strains were moderate and strong biofilm producers, respectively. S. xylosus showed the highest ability to form biofilm, while the lowest ability to form biofilm was observed in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In conclusion, production of exotoxins and enzymes, and ability of biofilm formation shown by many CNS isolated from milk of cows with mastitis symptoms indicates that these features are important in pathogenesis of this disease.

  14. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  15. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  16. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  17. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  18. Genetic relatedness and virulence factors of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teat skin and milk.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Hoet, A; Seo, K S; Fogt, K; Moon, B S

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of teat skin colonization in Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) by evaluating genetic relatedness of Staph. aureus isolates from milk and teat skin of dairy cows using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and characterizing the isolates based on the carriage of virulence genes. Cows in 4 known Staph. aureus-positive herds were sampled and Staph. aureus was detected in 43 quarters of 20 cows, with 10 quarters positive in both milk and skin (20 isolates), 18 positive only in milk, and 15 only on teat skin. Quarters with teat skin colonized with Staph. aureus were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Staph. aureus IMI than quarters not colonized on teat skin. Three main clusters were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using a cutoff of 80% similarity. All 3 clusters included both milk and skin isolates. The majority of isolates (72%) belonged to one predominant cluster (B), with 60% of isolates in the cluster originating from milk and 40% from teat skin. Genotypic variability was observed within 10 pairs (formed by isolates originating from milk and teat skin of the same quarter), where isolates in 5 out of the 10 pairs belonged to the same cluster. Forty-two virulence factors were screened using PCR. Some virulence factors were carried more frequently by teat skin isolates than by milk isolates or isolates from quarters with high somatic cell counts. Isolates in the predominant cluster B carried virulence factors clfA and clfB significantly more often than isolates in the minor clusters, which may have assisted them in becoming predominant in the herds. The present findings suggest that teat skin colonization with Staph. aureus can be an important factor involved in Staph. aureus IMI.

  19. Acute effect of a supplemented milk drink on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women is influenced by the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sunethra D C; Morris, Howard A; Nordin, B E C

    2015-09-25

    Dietary factors acutely influence the rate of bone resorption, as demonstrated by changes in serum bone resorption markers. Dietary calcium exerts its effect by reducing parathyroid hormone levels while other components induce gut incretin hormones both of which reduce bone resorption markers. The impact of dietary calcium on bone turnover when energy metabolism is modulated such as in metabolic syndrome has not been explored. This study was designed investigate whether metabolic syndrome or a greater amount of visceral fat influences the impact of dietary calcium on bone turnover. The influence of the metabolic syndrome on effects of dietary calcium on bone turnover in community dwelling postmenopausal women was studied. Twenty five volunteers consumed 200 mL of low fat milk with additional 560 mg calcium (one serve of Milo®) in the evening on one occasion. Fasting morning serum biochemistry before and after the milk drink with lumber spine bone density, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and waist circumference were measured. The women were divided into 2 groups using the waist measurement of 88 cm, as a criterion of metabolic syndrome. Student's t tests were used to determine significant differences between the 2 groups. The lumbar spine mineral content was higher in women with metabolic syndrome. After consuming the milk drink, serum bone resorption marker C terminal telopeptide (CTX) was suppressed to a significant extent in women with metabolic syndrome compared to those without. The results suggests that dietary calcium may exert a greater suppression of bone resorption in post-menopausal women with metabolic syndrome than healthy women. Despite substantial evidence for close links between energy metabolism and bone metabolism this is the first report suggesting visceral fat or metabolic syndrome may influence the effects of dietary calcium on bone metabolism.

  20. Influence of milking method, disinfection and herd management practices on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts in tropical dairy herds in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J; Sanchez, J; Stryhn, H; Ortiz, T; Olivera, M; Keefe, G P

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of milking method, disinfection practices and other management factors on the bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BTSCC) in tropical dairy herds and to examine potential interactions with time. One hundred and thirty farms in the Northern region of Antioquia, Colombia, were visited once per month for 24 months. A two level linear mixed model for repeated measures was used to assess the impact on log transformed BTSCC (lnBTSCC). The geometric mean of the BTSCC for all herds was 262,330 cells/mL. The two-level linear mixed model showed that lnBTSCCs in hand milked herds were significantly higher than in machine milked herds. Fore-stripping corresponded with a 27% increase in lnBTSCC and failing to post-dip corresponded with a 45% increase in lnBTSCC. The two way interactions of sampling month with milking method, singeing udders and pre-dipping were significant. The lowest predicted lnBTSCC was observed in machine milked herds that practised both pre-dipping and singeing of udders. This study suggests that milking procedures and disinfection practices can interact with time and have substantial effects on lnBTSCC.

  1. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruisong; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Zhihong; Wu, Kun

    2011-01-01

    Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored. To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05). Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk. S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  2. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  3. Influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, X P; Yang, F; Luo, J Y; Wang, X R; Liu, L H; Li, H S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on bacterial intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows. A total of 2,106 mastitis pathogens in 12 species were isolated from 125 dairy farms distributed in 30 different cities in China, and the information about these factors was recorded at the same time. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 63.43% of the milk samples, whereas Streptococcus agalactiae accounted for 38.61% of all pathogens, followed by Str. dysgalactiae (28.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.10%), Escherichia coli (6.90%), and other pathogens (7.23%). According to our investigation, IMI was more common in spring with the isolation rate of pathogens at 81.04%, and lowest in winter (52.34%). Cows were more likely to be infected by environmental pathogens (E. coli or Str. uberis) in summer, in rear quarters and in cows with higher daily milk yield or lower somatic cell count. In addition, Str. dysgalactiae exhibited a higher prevalence with increased parity. Different clinical symptoms of quarters with bacterial IMI were seen in this study, and mastitis pathogens were isolated from healthy quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Kamata, H; Fukuda, Y; Murasugi, E; Sato, T; Uwatoko, K; Pan, I J

    2000-12-01

    We previously reported that body weight on day 14 after birth in male offspring of rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) was significantly heavier than that in offspring of rats given tap water (TPW), but no significant difference was noted in milk yield and in suckled milk volume between the two groups. Additionally, the offspring in the AKW group and TPW group were given AKW and TPW, respectively, at weaning, and unexpectedly, the necrotic foci in the cardiac muscle were observed at the 15-week-old age in the AKW group, but not in the TPW group. The present study was designed to clarify the factors which are involved in that unusual increase of body weight and occurrence of cardiac necrosis. Eight dams in each group were given AKW or TPW (control) from day 0 of gestation to day 14 of lactation. The milk samples were collected on day 14 of lactation and analyzed for concentrations of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chloride (Cl). The AKW and TPW were also analyzed. Ca, Na and K levels in milk were significantly higher in the AKW group compared to the TPW group. No significant difference was noted in the Mg and Cl levels between the two groups. These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW.

  5. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    PubMed

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy ewes: Vertical transmission and influence on milk production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Radavelli, Willian M; Custódio, Edimar; Bianchi, Anderson E; Camillo, Giovana; Cezar, Alfredo S; Vogel, Fernanda F; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ferreira, Rogério; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the transmission of toxoplasmosis (vertical and venereal) and its influence on milk production and reproductive problems of Lacaune sheep seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii. Males and females were serologically selected using indirect immunofluorescence method in three steps of the study. Step 1: In order to evaluate the influence of toxoplasmosis on milk production, the volume of milk produced by 40 sheep (22 seronegatives and 18 seropositives for T. gondii) was weekly measured throughout the lactation period. There were no significant differences between these two groups; in other words, toxoplasmosis did not affect milk production. Step 2: In order to assess T. gondii venereal transmission, five samples of semen from seropositive rams (n = 5) were tested by endpoint and real time PCR with two days of interval; however, these semen samples were PCR negatives for T. gondii. Step 3: To evaluate reproductive problems, 12 seropositive animals out of a flock of 68 pregnant ewes showed signs of reproductive problems, such as abortion or fetal resorption. T. gondii transplacental transmission was evaluated on blood drawn from newborn lambs (n = 41), and their respective seropositive mothers (n = 30) after single, double or triple births. Serological tests showed that 65.8% of the lambs had antibodies against this protozoan, indicating a high transmission from ewe to fetus during pregnancy. Therefore, it is concluded that toxoplasmosis in sheep may impair reproduction with a high percentage of vertical transmission.

  7. Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants: Absorption, Excretion and Influence on the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.; Gaerlan, Stephanie; De Leoz, M. Lorna A.; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the intestinal microbiota in term infants. In premature infants, alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis and the influence of HMOs on the microbiota is unclear. Methods Milk, urine, and stool specimens from 14 mother-premature infant dyads were investigated by mass spectrometry for HMO composition. The stools were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to complement a previous analysis. Results Percentages of fucosylated and sialylated HMOs were highly variable between individuals but similar in urine, feces and milk within dyads. Differences in urine and fecal HMO composition suggest variability in absorption. Secretor status of the mother correlated with the urine and fecal content of specific HMO structures. Trends toward higher levels of Proteobacteria and lower levels of Firmicutes, were noted in premature infants of non-secretor mothers. Specific HMO structures in the milk, urine and feces were associated with alterations in fecal Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Conclusion HMOs may influence the intestinal microbiota in premature infants. Specific HMOs, for example those associated with secretor mothers, may have a protective effect by decreasing pathogens associated with sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis while other HMOs may increase dysbiosis in this population. PMID:26322410

  8. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  9. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; Lira, Larissa Queiroz de; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S

    2013-12-01

    To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk.

  10. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  11. Milk Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yangbo; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C. Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy products consumption is increasingly common globally. Most of the evidence concerning dairy products comes from observational studies in western populations which are inevitably open to confounding. To triangulate the evidence concerning dairy products, we examined the associations of whole cow's milk consumption with cardiovascular risk factors in a non-Western setting with a different pattern of milk consumption and cardiovascular diseases from Western populations. Methods We used multivariable censored linear or logistic regression to examine cross-sectionally the adjusted associations of whole cow's milk consumption (none (n = 14892), 1–3/week (n = 2689) and 3+/week (n = 2754)) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese (≥50 years) in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Results Whole cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (3+/week compared to none −2.56 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) −3.63 to −1.49), diastolic blood pressure (−1.32 mmHg, 95% CI −1.87 to −0.77) and triglycerides (−0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI −0.11 to −0.002), but was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L,95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and fasting glucose (0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16) adjusted for age, sex, phase of study, socio-economic position, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity) and adiposity, but had no obvious association with LDL-cholesterol or the presence of diabetes. Conclusions Whole cow's milk consumption had heterogeneous associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Higher whole cow's milk consumption was associated with lower levels of specific cardiovascular risk factors which might suggest risk factor specific biological pathways with different relations to blood pressure and lipids than glucose. PMID:24416290

  12. Influence of repeated ochratoxin A ingestion on milk production and its carry-over into the milk, blood and tissues of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Katsunuma, Yu; Nunokawa, Masahiro; Minato, Hajime; Yonemochi, Chisato

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of repeated ingestion of ochratoxin A (OTA) on milk production of lactating Holstein cows over 28 days, and the carry-over of OTA from the diets into the milk and tissues of the cows. Nine cows were divided into three groups, labeled OTA5, OTA50 and OTA100, and fed a diet containing 5, 50 and 100 µg OTA/kg of dry matter, respectively. Body weight, feed intake and daily milk yield in cows were not different among the three groups during the OTA-intake period. OTA residues were neither detected in the tissues, such as liver, kidney, muscles, fat and jejunoileum, nor in the milk of any cows in the OTA intake groups. In contrast, a small amount of OTA (0.1 µg/kg) was detected in the blood plasma of one sample in the OTA50 group and multiple samples in the OTA100 group. The results of this study show that the ingestion of diets containing up to 100 µg/kg of OTA over 28 days does not affect feed intake or milk production of cows, and the dietary OTA is not carried over into milk and edible tissues such as the liver, muscles and fat. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  14. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  15. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  16. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  17. Epidermal growth factor-like proteins in breast fluid and human milk.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J M; Rose, D P

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) family of proteins, which also bind to the EGF receptor, have been associated with human breast cancer. The total EGF-like proteins were determined by a radioreceptor assay, and TGF-alpha by radioimmunoassay, in human milk and breast fluid samples. The breast fluids were collected by nipple aspiration from healthy premenopausal women. Both the 24 milks and 18 breast fluids assayed contained EGF-like proteins, at concentrations ranging from 32-600 ng/ml (median, 140 ng/ml), and 62-654 ng/ml (median, 205 ng/ml) respectively. Immunoreactive TGF-alpha proteins were detected at higher levels in 21 breast fluids (range, 0-50.0; median 5.1 ng/ml) than in 24 milk samples (range, 0-8.4; median, 0.8 ng/ml).

  18. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    1999-01-01

    Although food habits arc not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  19. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Koivisto Hursti, U K

    1999-04-01

    Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  20. Relationship between mozzarella yield and milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents.

    PubMed

    Sales, D C; Rangel, A H N; Urbano, S A; Freitas, Alfredo R; Tonhati, Humberto; Novaes, L P; Pereira, M I B; Borba, L H F

    2017-03-22

    Our aim was to identify the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents. A production of 30 batches of mozzarella cheese at a dairy industry in northeast Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte) was monitored between March and November, 2015. Mozzarella yield and 32 other variables were observed for each batch, and divided into 3 groups: milk composition variables (12); variables involved in the cheesemaking process (14); and variables for recovery of whey constituents (6). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and principal component analysis. Most of the correlations between milk composition variables and between the variables of the manufacturing processes were not significant. Significant correlations were mostly observed between variables for recovery of whey constituents. Yield only showed significant correlation with time elapsed between curd cuttings and age of the starter culture, and it showed greater association with age of the starter culture, time elapsed between curd cuttings, and during stretching, as well as with milk pH and density. Thus, processing factors and milk characteristics are closely related to dairy efficiency in mozzarella manufacturing.

  1. [Risk factors for persistent presence of salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk].

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Hofste, G T

    2011-12-01

    Given bulk milk serology, salmonellosis is present on a restricted number of Dutch dairy farms. The affected farms are clustered in some regions of the country. This study was designed to find risk factors for having persistent positive bulk milk serology for salmonella within the regions with the highest prevalence. With that knowledge, a reduction of persistent infected farms may be achieved. To this end, we performed a rather small matched case-control study with two groups of 24 farms each. Case herds were characterized by having a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella for all three samplings during one year, whereas control farms were located near the positive farms and were negative in all these three samplings. Several risk factors were found not significant, while the significant risk factors concerned general on farm hygiene practices. Significant risk factors in the multivariate analyses were less hygienic calf facilities (OR = 6.1, p = 0.04), lower cleaning frequency of alleys (OR = 5.7, p = 0.08), and a higher frequency of claw trimmers visiting the farm (OR = 5.9, p = 0.07). We concluded that these risk factors are similar to those found outside the regions with a high number of farms with a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella.

  2. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.

  3. Isolated milk fat globules as substrate for lipoprotein lipase: study of factors relevant to spontaneous lipolysis in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

    1987-03-01

    Fat globules isolated from normal and from spontaneous milk samples were compared as substrates for purified lipoprotein lipase. Only slight differences were observed. Fat globules isolated from fresh warm milk were almost resistant to lipolysis. This included globules from milk prone to spontaneous lipolysis. Cooling made the globules accessible to rapid lipolysis even if they were from normal milk. Rewarming the fat globules did not reverse the process. Maximum rate of lipolysis (after rewarming) required fat globules be stored at 10/sup 0/C or below for 5 to 10 h. Lipolysis at 4/sup 0/C usually started after a lag time of 3 to 5 h, but with fat globules from spontaneous milk the lag time was shorter. Fat globules isolated from cold milk were a poor substrate at 4/sup 0/C but were lipolyzed when warmed. When /sup 125/I-labeled lipase was added to fresh warm milk, some of the lipase bound to the milk fat globules but it caused little lipolysis. Binding increased after cooling, as did lipolysis. Both binding of lipase and lipolysis were impeded by the presence of skim milk. Another way to make fat globules isolated from fresh warm milk susceptible to lipolysis was to treat them with chemicals known to remove proteins.

  4. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  5. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples.

  6. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    PubMed

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  7. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-09-02

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine. PMID:26329882

  10. Fossomatic cell-counting on ewe milk: comparison with direct microscopy and study of variation factors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Martínez, J R; Carrledo, J A; San Primitivo, F

    2003-01-01

    Using the Fossomatic method (FSCC) a total of 23,003 analytical SCC observations were carried out on 6400 aliquots taken from 80 individual ewe milk samples with the objective of studying the influence of 4 preservation procedures (without preservation, potassium dichromate, azidiol, and bronopol), 2 storage temperatures (ambient and refrigeration), 10 milk ages (3,6,12, and 24h, and 2,3,4,5,7, and 9d postcollection), and two analytical temperatures (40 and 60 degrees C). In addition, each sample was analyzed with direct microscopic method (DMSCC), using 3 different stainings for each sample: methylene blue (MB), May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Pyronin Y-methyl green (PGM). This allowed DMSCC and FSCC (at 24 h of age) to be compared. The reference DMSCC from MB staining was a reliable method in ewe milk, though more specific stainings such as MGG and PMG slightly improve the residual standard deviation for repeated SCC. Between DMSCC and FSCC, the highest coefficients of correlation (0.972 to 0.996) corresponded to preserved and refrigerated milk, and the lowest (0.708 to 0.919) to unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots. Except for the unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots, SCC values were similar in all aliquots. Under FSCC, preservation, storage and analytical temperature, milk age, and most of the interactions showed a significant effect on SCC variation. In preserved samples, logSCC values ranged between 5.67 (bronopol) and 5.62 (azidiol). The higest values (5.72) were for unpreserved milk, which showed false overestimation of SCC due to bacterial proliferation. LogSCC was higher at 60 degrees C (5.68) than at 40 degrees C (5.65). The interaction between age, preservation and storage temperature showed no cell degeneration in properly handled samples over the 9 d of study.

  11. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  12. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  13. Influence of level of deoxynivalenol in the diet of dairy cows on feed intake, milk production, and its composition.

    PubMed

    Charmley, E; Trenholm, H L; Thompson, B K; Vudathala, D; Nicholson, J W; Prelusky, D B; Charmley, L L

    1993-11-01

    Eighteen primiparous Holstein cows were used in a 10-wk lactation study, preceded by a 2-wk covariate period, to determine the effect of concentration of deoxynivalenol in the diet on cow performance and transfer of deoxynivalenol and its metabolite, deepoxydeoxynivalenol, to milk. Diets were formulated to contain deoxynivalenol at 0, 6, and 12 mg/kg of concentrate DM, and daily intake of deoxynivalenol was .59, 42, and 104 mg, respectively. Increasing deoxynivalenol in the diet did not affect intake of concentrate or forage. Total milk output was not affected; however, milk fat responded quadratically; cows given deoxynivalenol at 6 mg/kg of concentrate DM had the lowest milk fat content and fat output. Overall energetic efficiency was not influenced because reduced energy output in milk was compensated by increased BW gains. No transfer of deoxynivalenol or deepoxydeoxynivalenol to milk was observed; concentrations were below detectable limits (1 microgram/ml) using HPLC-mass spectroscopy. We concluded that diets containing deoxynivalenol up to 6 mg/kg of dietary DM did not reduce feed intake of cows in this study and that deoxynivalenol or deepoxydeoxynivalenol was not transferred to milk. Further studies are required to confirm the apparent lack of effect of deoxynivalenol on milk production.

  14. Lysozyme in breast milk is a selection factor for bifidobacterial colonisation in the infant intestine.

    PubMed

    Minami, J; Odamaki, T; Hashikura, N; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to study the residential characteristics of bifidobacteria, which can be classified as either human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) or non-HRB. We investigated the growth of different strains of HRB and non-HRB in human breast milk with the aim of understanding the mechanisms involved in the unique habitation of each taxon. The growth of 37 strains of different bifidobacterial species or subspecies in breast milk was investigated by incubating each under anaerobic conditions at 37 (°)C. The tolerance of each strain to either egg white or human lysozyme was compared. Among the infant-type HRB strains, all strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium breve grew well in breast milk, but the growth characteristics of B. longum subsp. longum and B. bifidum were strain-dependent. In contrast, the tested strains of adult-type HRB and non-HRB generally failed to grow and died after incubation in breast milk. Most infant-type HRB strains were tolerant to high concentrations of lysozyme, while adult-type HRB strains possessed intermediate tolerance to lysozyme, and non-HRB strains were susceptible to lysozymes of egg white or human origin. These data suggest that breast milk lysozyme content plays a central role in the exclusion of non-HRB, while other factors, together with lysozyme content, are involved in the growth inhibition of adult-type strains in human milk. Our results suggest that infant-type HRB strains would be suitable candidates for use as infant probiotics.

  15. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  16. Casein polymorphism heterogeneity influences casein micelle size in milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A

    2015-06-01

    Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor.

  17. [Factors influencing vitality among nurses].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soon; Oh, Won-Oak

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to understand the degree of vitality, meaning in life and self-efficacy and to elucidate the factors influencing this vitality in the nurses of Korea. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from 4 hospitals was conducted by convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires which were constructed to include a Vitality Self Test, Purpose in Life Test and Self-efficacy Scale. The degree of vitality in nurses was in the middle range. The nurses of this study had few goals towards meaning in life, and an existential vacuum state. A positive relationship was found between vitality and the research variables. The significant predictors influencing vitality in nurses were meaning in life, self-efficacy, and clinical career, and these variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance in vitality. This results support that vitality is an important link with meaning in life and self-efficacy. There should be a comprehensive study in the future for in-depth understanding of the vitality of nurses.

  18. Influences of breast milk composition on gastric emptying in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Simmer, Karen N; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific biochemical and energy concentrations influence gastric emptying of unfortified and fortified mother's own milk (MOM) in stable preterm infants, and whether gastric emptying differs between feeds of unfortified MOM and feeds fortified with S-26 or FM 85 human milk fortifier (HMF) when infants are fed the same volume under similar conditions. Influences of infant gestation, age, and weight, and feed characteristics were also explored. Stomach volumes of 25 paired unfortified and fortified MOM feeds were monitored prefeed and postfeed delivery and at 30-minute intervals thereafter. For each feed, MOM samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of total protein, casein, whey, carbohydrate, lactose, fat, and energy. Fortified feed compositions were calculated by adding fortifier biochemical and energy concentrations to unfortified MOM concentrations. Ultrasound images were used to calculate infant stomach volumes. Statistical comparisons were made of paired stomach volume measurements. Higher feed concentrations of casein were associated with faster gastric emptying during feed delivery (P = 0.007). When compared with unfortified MOM, S-26 fortified feeds emptied similarly, whereas FM 85 fortified feeds emptied more slowly both during feed delivery and during the postprandial period (P = 0.002, <0.001, respectively). Gastric emptying was slower for 2-hourly feeds compared with that for 3-hourly feeds (P = 0.003) and in supine position compared with that in prone (P = 0.001). Breast milk composition influences gastric emptying in stable preterm infants, with feeds of higher casein concentration emptying faster during feeding than otherwise equivalent feeds, and FM 85 fortified MOM emptying more slowly than unfortified MOM.

  19. [Changes in epidermal growth factor concentrations in neonates with late-onset breast milk jaundice after stopping breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xin-Yu

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the changes in epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations in infants' serum and breast milk in neonates with late-onset breast milk jaundice after stopping breast feeding. Thirty full-term infants with late-onset breast milk jaundice were included in the study. Infants' serum and breast milk were collected before and 72 hours after stopping breast feeding, and the total bilirubin and EGF concentrations in infants' serum and EGF concentration in breast milk were measured respectively. At 72 hours after stopping breast feeding, the total bilirubin and EGF concentrations in infants' serum were significantly decreased (P<0.05), but the EGF concentration in breast milk did not show significant change (P>0.05). After stopping breast feeding, the neonates with late-onset breast milk jaundice show significant decreases in serum EGF concentration, but the EGF concentration in breast milk shows no significant change. The role and action mechanism of EGF in late-onset breast milk jaundice need further study.

  20. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  1. Mechanistic peptidomics: factors that dictate specificity in the formation of endogenous peptides in human milk.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Andres; Dallas, David C; Contreras, Stephanie; Chee, Sabrina; Parker, Evan A; Sun, Xin; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2014-12-01

    An extensive mass spectrometry analysis of the human milk peptidome has revealed almost 700 endogenous peptides from 30 different proteins. Two in-house computational tools were created and used to visualize and interpret the data through both alignment of the peptide quasi-molecular ion intensities and estimation of the differential enzyme participation. These results reveal that the endogenous proteolytic activity in the mammary gland is remarkably specific and well conserved. Certain proteins-not necessarily the most abundant ones-are digested by the proteases present in milk, yielding endogenous peptides from selected regions. Our results strongly suggest that factors such as the presence of specific proteases, the position and concentration of cleavage sites, and, more important, the intrinsic disorder of segments of the protein drive this proteolytic specificity in the mammary gland. As a consequence of this selective hydrolysis, proteins that typically need to be cleaved at specific positions in order to exert their activity are properly digested, and bioactive peptides encoded in certain protein sequences are released. Proteins that must remain intact in order to maintain their activity in the mammary gland or in the neonatal gastrointestinal tract are unaffected by the hydrolytic environment present in milk. These results provide insight into the intrinsic structural mechanisms that facilitate the selectivity of the endogenous milk protease activity and might be useful to those studying the peptidomes of other biofluids.

  2. Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

    2012-11-01

    Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships.

  3. Mechanistic Peptidomics: Factors That Dictate Specificity in the Formation of Endogenous Peptides in Human Milk*

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Andres; Dallas, David C.; Contreras, Stephanie; Chee, Sabrina; Parker, Evan A.; Sun, Xin; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Barile, Daniela; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive mass spectrometry analysis of the human milk peptidome has revealed almost 700 endogenous peptides from 30 different proteins. Two in-house computational tools were created and used to visualize and interpret the data through both alignment of the peptide quasi-molecular ion intensities and estimation of the differential enzyme participation. These results reveal that the endogenous proteolytic activity in the mammary gland is remarkably specific and well conserved. Certain proteins—not necessarily the most abundant ones—are digested by the proteases present in milk, yielding endogenous peptides from selected regions. Our results strongly suggest that factors such as the presence of specific proteases, the position and concentration of cleavage sites, and, more important, the intrinsic disorder of segments of the protein drive this proteolytic specificity in the mammary gland. As a consequence of this selective hydrolysis, proteins that typically need to be cleaved at specific positions in order to exert their activity are properly digested, and bioactive peptides encoded in certain protein sequences are released. Proteins that must remain intact in order to maintain their activity in the mammary gland or in the neonatal gastrointestinal tract are unaffected by the hydrolytic environment present in milk. These results provide insight into the intrinsic structural mechanisms that facilitate the selectivity of the endogenous milk protease activity and might be useful to those studying the peptidomes of other biofluids. PMID:25172956

  4. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  5. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    PubMed

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  6. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  7. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  8. Influence of grazing practices on cow milk quality: a case study on the Comarnic-Poieni bauxite quarry, Romania.

    PubMed

    Lorinţ, Csaba; Rădulescu, Monica; Buia, Grigore

    2012-04-01

    The current study represents a preliminary investigation made into the influence of cattle grazing in the area of a bauxite quarry (Comarnic-Poieni, Romania) on the cow milk chemistry. Weathering and surface runoff in the bauxite quarry contaminate the local chemistry of the soil, vegetation and water. During cattle transhumance, cyclic feeding patterns occur, with grazing alternating between clean pastures and the area of the quarry. Soil and water samples were collected from the contaminated area of the quarry. Raw milk samples were collected during two stages, corresponding to the periods of grazing on clean pasture and the quarry area, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the relationship between cattle grazing and the composition of milk was interpreted. Preliminary results indicated a direct correlation of increased concentration of Al in the milk, following grazing in the bauxite quarry.

  9. Study on the Influence of Tea Extract on Probiotics in Skim Milk: From Probiotics Propagation to Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids.  The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications.

  10. Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna S.; Forsum, Elisabet; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth measures and maternal milk consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth through a systematic review of studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. A literature search was run in June 2011. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 495 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. A complementary search in January 2012 revealed 64 additional abstracts published during the period June to December 2011, among them one study of interest previously identified. Of the 33 studies extracted, eight were relevant research papers. Five were prospective cohort studies (including a retrospective chart review), one was a case–control study, and two were retrospective cohort studies. For fetal length or infant birth length, three studies reported no association and two reported positive associations with milk or dairy consumption. For birthweight related outcomes, two studies reported no associations, and four studies reported positive associations with milk and/or dairy consumption. There was large heterogeneity in exposure range and effect size between studies. A beneficial fetal growth-increase was most pronounced for increasing maternal milk intake in the lower end of the consumption range. Evidence from prospective cohort studies is limited but suggestive that moderate milk consumption relative to none or very low intake, is positively associated with

  11. Relationship of mammary gland health status and other noninfectious factors with electrical conductivity of milk in Manchega ewes.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Roca, A; Alejandro, M; Muelas, R; Díaz, J R

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) of milk during milking has been extensively studied in cattle as a low-cost mastitis detection method that can be easily automated. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the health status of the glands and several noninfectious factors (lactation stage, milking session, and lactation number) that affect the use of EC measurement of milk to detect mastitis in dairy sheep livestock. Likewise, we studied the relation between EC and milk composition (macrocomposition and mineral content) and between EC and somatic cell count (SCC). Finally, we evaluated the use of EC thresholds as a mastitis detection method. To this end, we monitored the glandular milk EC throughout 2 consecutive lactations, during which 42 and 40 ewes were controlled, respectively. We carried out 7 biweekly checks, analyzing the EC, SCC, composition, and mineral content of glandular milk at morning and evening milkings. Before the morning milking, samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological analysis, and the results along with the SCC were used to classify the glands according to their sanitary status (healthy, latently infected, or infected). Lactation stage, parity, milking (morning or evening), health status, and the interactions of parity with health status, lactation stage with health status, and parity with lactation stage all had a significant effect on SCC and EC of the milk. The correlation between EC and SCC was only significant when all the data were analyzed jointly (r = 0.33) and for SCC ≥ 600.000 cells/mL (r = 0.25). The changes in milk composition, mainly in fat content, largely explained the variation in EC (R(2) = 0.69). For the same EC threshold, the specificity and sensitivity varied depending on the parity or the milking, with the negative predictive value obtained being higher than the positive predictive value at all times. We concluded that developing methods of detecting mastitis in sheep by milk EC readings

  12. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  13. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natsual Techuical Imfwmatmi Suuwie AD-A024 267 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY...PREPARED FOR AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OCTOBER 1975 138097 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG Final report - October, 1975...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN FIP.1 Scientific Report TlE DOG "Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  14. Influence of milk protein cross-linking by transglutaminase on the rennet coagulation time and the gel properties.

    PubMed

    Domagała, Jacek; Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Wieteska-Śliwa, Ilona; Sady, Marek; Wszołek, Monika; Bonczar, Genowefa; Filipczak-Fiutak, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Transglutaminase (TGase) modifies milk proteins by cross-linking of caseins, with increased cheese yield being the main technological benefit. In the present work the influence of TGase addition in different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 3 U g(-1) protein in the system) and under different incubation conditions (0 h, 40 °C/2 h, 25 °C/4 h and 5 °C/16 h) on the rennet coagulation time (RCT) and the comprehensive rennet gel properties were investigated. Modification of milk proteins by TGase in a concentration-dependent manner caused longer RCT and lower gel firmness. The highest TGase concentration and incubation at 40 °C for 2 h resulted in the longest RCT and the lowest gel firmness. Rennet gels obtained from TGase modified milk were characterised by significantly lower values of texture parameters, lower syneresis and were composed of smaller casein micelles, thinner chains and smaller clusters than those obtained from the control milk. The content of whey proteins in the gel from modified milk was higher and the content of individual casein fractions in the milk samples and rennet gels decreased upon TGase modification. Rennet cheese with modified textural and nutritional properties and improved yield can be obtained upon TGase modification but simultaneous addition of rennet and TGase is recommended. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai; Ning, Yibing; Zhang, Yumei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Junkuan; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development. However, data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce, and most were acquired before 1990. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze mineral concentrations in breast-milk of 444 healthy lactating women from three cities in China. A questionnaire was used to survey socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy history. Food intakes by lactating women were measured using both food frequency questionnaire and one cycle of 24-hour dietary recall. Mineral compositions of breast milk varied in different regions. Concentrations of most minerals were higher in the first one or two months of lactation, and then decreased with time, except for magnesium and iron. Inter-mineral correlations existed among several minerals. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was above 2:1 in each lactation stage. Women with caesarean section had higher concentration of iodine in the transitional milk (349.9 µg/kg) compared to women with natural delivery (237.5 µg/kg, P < 0.001). Dietary mineral intakes, supplements, food intake frequencies in the recent 6 months, maternal age and maternal BMI did not show significant correlations with concentrations of milk minerals (all P > 0.05). Milk minerals decreased with time, and changed most rapidly in the first one or two months of lactation. Caesarean section might affect the iodine level in transitional milk.

  16. How surface composition of high milk proteins powders is influenced by spray-drying temperature.

    PubMed

    Gaiani, C; Morand, M; Sanchez, C; Tehrany, E Arab; Jacquot, M; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R; Scher, J

    2010-01-01

    High milk proteins powders are common ingredients in many food products. The surface composition of these powders is expected to play an essential role during their storage, handling and/or final application. Therefore, an eventual control of the surface composition by modifying the spray-drying temperature could be very useful in the improvement of powder quality and the development of new applications. For this purpose, the influence of five spray-drying temperatures upon the surface composition of the powders was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The major milk proteins were studied: native micellar casein and native whey, both more or less enriched in lactose. The results show a surface enrichment in lipids for all the powders and in proteins for many powders. Whatever the drying temperature, lipids and proteins are preferentially located near the surface whereas lactose is found in the core. This surface enrichment is also highly affected by the spray-drying temperature. More lipids, more proteins and less lactose are systematically observed at the surface of powders spray-dried at lower outlet air temperatures. The nature of proteins is also found essential; surface enrichment in lipids being much stronger for whey proteins containing powders than for casein containing powders. Additionally, we found a direct correlation between the lipids surface concentration and the wetting ability for the 25 powders studied.

  17. Pilot production of recombinant human clotting factor IX from transgenic sow milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-ling; Chang, Yuo-sheng; Lin, Yin-shen; Yen, Chon-ho

    2012-06-01

    Valuable pharmaceutical proteins produced from the mammary glands of transgenic livestock have potential use in the biomedical industry. In this study, recombinant human clotting factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic sow milk for preclinical animal studies have been established. The transgenic sow milk was skimmed and treated with sodium phosphate buffer to remove abundant casein protein. Then, the γ-carboxylated rhFIX fraction was segregated through the Q Sepharose chromatography from uncarboxylated one. For safety issue, the process included virus inactivation by solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment. Subsequently, the S/D treated sample was loaded into the Heparin Sepharose column to recover the rhFIX fraction, which was then reapplied to the Heparin Sepharose column to enhance rhFIX purity and lower the ratio of activated form rhFIX (rhFIXa) easily. This was possible due to the higher affinity of the Heparin affinity sorbent for rhFIXa than for the rhFIX zymogen. Furthermore, an IgA removal column was used to eliminate porcine IgA in purified rhFIX. Finally, nanofiltration was performed for viral clearance. Consequently, a high-quality rhFIX product was produced (approximately 700 mg per batch). Other values for final rhFIX preparation were as follows: purity, >99%; average specific activity, 415.6±57.7 IU/mL and total milk impurity, <0.5 ng/mg. This is the first report that described the whole process and stable production of bioactive rhFIX from transgenic sow milk. The overall manufacturing process presented here has the potential for industrial production of rhFIX for treatment of hemophilia B patients.

  18. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  19. Influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1) casein hydrolysis during ripening of Reggianito Argentino cheese.

    PubMed

    Hynes, E R; Aparo, L; Candioti, M C

    2004-03-01

    Milk-clotting enzyme is considered largely denatured after the cooking step in hard cheeses. Nevertheless, typical hydrolysis products derived from rennet action on alpha(s1)-casein have been detected during the ripening of hard cheeses. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis in Reggianito cheeses. For that purpose, we studied the influence of cooking temperature (45, 52, and 60 degrees C) on milk-clotting enzyme residual activity and alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis during ripening. Milk-clotting enzyme residual activity in cheeses was assessed using a chromatographic method, and the hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was determined by electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. Milk-clotting enzyme activity was very low or undetectable in 60 degrees C- and 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses at the beginning of the ripening, but it increased afterwards, particularly in 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses. Cheese curds that were cooked at 45 degrees C had higher initial milk clotting activity, but also in this case, there was a later increase. Hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was detected early in cheeses made at 45 degrees C, and later in those made at higher temperatures. The peptide alpha(s1)-I was not detected in 60 degrees C-cooked cheeses. The results suggest that residual milk-clotting enzyme can contribute to proteolysis during ripening of hard cheeses, because it probably renatures partially after the cooking step. Consequently, the production of peptides derived from alpha(s1)-casein in hard cheeses may be at least, partially due to this proteolytic agent.

  20. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  1. Comparison of the levels of the growth factors in umbilical cord serum and human milk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Patki, Satish; Patki, Ujjwala; Patil, Rajendra; Indumathi, S; Kaingade, Pankaj; Bulbule, Akshata; Nikam, Amar; Pishte, Amit

    2012-08-01

    The process of the growth of the fetus begins in the uterus and gets further accelerated following the birth, especially during initial few months. The role of the growth factors in the physiology of the cellular growth is already well established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) seem to be imperative for angiogenesis, cell development and proliferation as well as maintenance of the tissues. The levels of these factors in the maternal serum during pregnancy as well as during postpartum period are insignificant. Consequently, we hypothesized that the fetus receives moderate supply of these growth factors from the placenta during its stay in the uterus. This supply gets further augmented during the postpartum period through the different source, i.e. mother's milk. To study this physiological transition of the source of the growth factors from the placenta to the breast milk, the concentrations of VEGF and HGF in the cord serum of full term neonates and that in the breast milk of the corresponding mothers were analyzed during ELISA. The human milk, especially the colostrum revealed significantly higher levels of VEGF and HGF (1541.759 ± 119.349 pg/ml and 7129.249 ± 273.472 pg/ml) than cord serum (16.632 ± 0.773 pg/ml and 2581.6 ± 108.275 pg/ml) respectively. The multifold higher levels of VEGF observed in colostrum probably correlates with its high neonatal requirement for the maturation of the gastrointestinal epithelium following birth. The higher levels of both the growth factors in the breast milk than those observed in the cord serum probably explain their higher needs by the neonates for immunological protection, protein synthesis and neurocognitive development. The observations of the present study strengthen the policy of the colostrum feeding, which is promoted by organizations like World Health Organization (WHO). This study further documents the fact that the commercial milk formulae cannot replace the human

  2. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in pregnancy increases cord blood interferon-gamma and breast milk transforming growth factor-beta and immunoglobin A detection.

    PubMed

    Prescott, S L; Wickens, K; Westcott, L; Jung, W; Currie, H; Black, P N; Stanley, T V; Mitchell, E A; Fitzharris, P; Siebers, R; Wu, L; Crane, J

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the effects of maternal probiotic supplementation on immune markers in cord blood (CB) and breast milk. CB plasma and breast milk samples were collected from a cohort of women who had received daily supplements of either 6 x 10(9) CFU/day Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (n=34), 9 x 10(9) CFU/day Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (n=35) or a placebo (n=36) beginning 2-5 weeks before delivery and continuing for 6 months in lactating women. CB plasma and breast milk (collected at 3-7 days, 3 months and 6 months postpartum) were assayed for cytokines (IL-13, IFN-gamma, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, TGF-beta1) and sCD14. Breast milk samples were also assayed for total IgA. Neonates of mothers who received a probiotic had higher CB IFN-gamma levels (P=0.026), and a higher proportion had detectable blood IFN-gamma levels, compared with the placebo group (P=0.034), although levels were undetectable in many infants. While this pattern was evident for both probiotics, when examined separately only the L. rhamnosus HN001 group showed statistically significant higher IFN-gamma levels (P=0.030) compared with the placebo group. TGF-beta1 levels were higher in early breast milk (week 1) from the probiotic groups (P=0.028). This was evident for the B. lactis HN019 group (P=0.041) with a parallel trend in the L. rhamnosus HN001 group (P=0.075). Similar patterns were seen for breast milk IgA, which was more readily detected in breast milk from both the B. lactis HN019 (P=0.008) and the L. rhamnosus HN001 group (P=0.011). Neonatal plasma sCD14 levels were lower in the B. lactis HN019 group compared with the placebo group (P=0.041). The findings suggest that supplementation with probiotics in pregnancy has the potential to influence fetal immune parameters as well as immunomodulatory factors in breast milk.

  3. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  4. Influence of fat replacement by inulin on rheological properties, kinetics of rennet milk coagulation, and syneresis of milk gels.

    PubMed

    Arango, O; Trujillo, A J; Castillo, M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inulin as a fat replacer on the rheological properties, coagulation kinetics, and syneresis of milk gels. A randomized factorial design, replicated 3 times, with 3 inulin concentrations (0, 3, and 6%), 2 levels of fat (<0.2 and 1.5%), and 3 coagulation temperatures (27, 32, and 37°C) was used. The coagulation process was monitored using near-infrared spectrometry, small amplitude oscillatory rheometry, and visual coagulation indexes. The syneresis was evaluated by volumetric methods. Inulin addition increased the rates of aggregation and curd firming reactions in the casein gels. The observed effect, which was more evident on the aggregation reaction, depended on the concentration of inulin and the coagulation temperature. Addition of 6% inulin reduced the clotting time by approximately 26% and the time at which the gel reached a storage modulus equal to 30 Pa by approximately 36%. The optical parameter R'max, defined as the maximum value of change in light backscatter profile/change in time (where R' = dR/dt), was used to calculate an approximation of the temperature coefficients (Q10) for milk coagulation. Increasing fat concentration induced a consistent increase in all the optical, rheological, and visual parameters studied, although the observed trend was not statistically significant. The addition of inulin at a level of 6% produced a reduction in syneresis and increased the curd yield by approximately 30%. It was concluded that the addition of inulin affects the kinetics of milk coagulation and the cutting time and, therefore, the use of inline sensors such as near-infrared spectrometry may be necessary for optimal process control. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  6. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L

    2016-08-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8.

  8. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  9. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  10. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk.

  11. Farm and socio-economic characteristics of smallholder milk producers and their influence on technology adoption in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos Galdino Martínez; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir

    2012-08-01

    In order to identify the factors influencing adoption of technologies promoted by government to small-scale dairy farmers in the highlands of central Mexico, a field survey was conducted. A total of 115 farmers were grouped through cluster analysis (CA) and divided into three wealth status categories (high, medium and low) using wealth ranking. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association of wealth status with technology adoption. Four groups of farms were differentiated in terms of farms' dimensions, farmers' education, sources of incomes, wealth status, management of herd, monetary support by government and technological availability. Statistical differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the milk yield per herd per year among groups. Government organizations (GO) participated little in the promotion of the 17 technologies identified, six of which focused on crop or forage production and 11 of which were related to animal husbandry. Relatives and other farmers played an important role in knowledge diffusion and technology adoption. Although wealth status had a significant association (p < 0.05) with adoption, other factors including importance of the technology to farmers, usefulness and productive benefits of innovations together with farmers' knowledge of them, were important. It is concluded that the analysis of the information per group and wealth status was useful to identify suitable crop or forage related and animal husbandry technologies per group and wealth status of farmers. Therefore the characterizations of farmers could provide a useful starting point for the design and delivery of more appropriate and effective extension.

  12. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  13. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disposition of toxic metals in the agricultural food chain. 1. Steady-state bovine milk biotransfer factors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted on published experimental data to estimate steady-state bovine milk biotransfer factors for six metals-arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Both long-term feeding studies and bolus oral dose date were evaluated. This analysis indicated that, of the metals studied, lead and arsenic transfer to milk to the greatest extent, followed by chromium, mercury, and cadmium. The lead biotransfer factor is approximately 50 times that calculated for cadmium. Insufficient information was available to calculate an accurate biotransfer factor for nickel. Metals, as components of sludge (particularly lead, arsenic, and cadmium), were not found to produce significant elevations in analyte concentrations in milk. These findings suggest that metals contained in sludge may not be as bioavailable to dairy cows as metal salts.

  15. Lactase non-persistent genotype influences milk consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms in Northern Russians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1) subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype (-13910C/C) have more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with milk 2) subjects with lactase non-persistence avoid using milk. Methods In total, 518 students aged 17 to 26 years were randomly selected from different departments in the Northern State Medical University (NSMU) for genotyping the lactase activity-defining -13910C/T variant. All subjects filled in a questionnaire covering their personal data, self-reported GI symptoms and milk consumption habits. Results Northern Russians consume very small amounts of milk daily. Among carriers of the lactase non-persistent (LNP) genotype there were 10 percentage units of milk-consumers fewer than among lactase-persistent (LP) subjects (p = 0.03). Complaints of GI disorders caused by milk were different between the genotypes (p = 0.02). Among all types of food analyzed only milk was associated with increased GI symptoms among subjects with the LNP genotype (OR = 1.95, CI 1.03-3.69) Conclusions Subjects with -13910C/C have more GI symptoms from milk. Subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype avoid using milk. In the case of increasing milk consumption symptoms may increase the need for medical consultation. It is thus important either for people themselves or for health care staff to be aware of lactase persistence/non-persistence. PMID:22078123

  16. Lactase non-persistent genotype influences milk consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms in Northern Russians.

    PubMed

    Khabarova, Yulia; Tornianen, Suvi; Tuomisto, Sari; Järvelä, Irma; Karhunen, Pekka; Isokoski, Mauri; Mattila, Kari

    2011-11-13

    Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1) subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype (-13910C/C) have more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with milk 2) subjects with lactase non-persistence avoid using milk. In total, 518 students aged 17 to 26 years were randomly selected from different departments in the Northern State Medical University (NSMU) for genotyping the lactase activity-defining -13910C/T variant. All subjects filled in a questionnaire covering their personal data, self-reported GI symptoms and milk consumption habits. Northern Russians consume very small amounts of milk daily. Among carriers of the lactase non-persistent (LNP) genotype there were 10 percentage units of milk-consumers fewer than among lactase-persistent (LP) subjects (p = 0.03). Complaints of GI disorders caused by milk were different between the genotypes (p = 0.02). Among all types of food analyzed only milk was associated with increased GI symptoms among subjects with the LNP genotype (OR = 1.95, CI 1.03-3.69) Subjects with -13910C/C have more GI symptoms from milk. Subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype avoid using milk. In the case of increasing milk consumption symptoms may increase the need for medical consultation. It is thus important either for people themselves or for health care staff to be aware of lactase persistence/non-persistence.

  17. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  18. Factors influencing perfect surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Lim, A S

    1997-03-01

    With affluence and education, the population of Asia will be demanding quality surgical care. The energetic, affluent and educated Asian professionals and business communities in the cities demand the best; and in surgery, they seek perfect results. Perfect results require a combination of 3 factors: the skill, knowledge and experience of the surgeon. He must be a skilled surgeon with good basic surgical techniques and also technical skills in the management of his discipline combined with meticulous attention to details. Furthermore, he must have a clear knowledge of the basic physiopathology of surgical principles of the condition he is to manage. Experience with difficult situations and intrasurgical problems are essential for success.

  19. Diet-induced pseudohypoparathyroidism: A hypocalcemia and milk fever risk factor.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Liesegang, A; Horst, R L

    2014-03-01

    Subclinical hypocalcemia may affect half of all multiparous cows, and clinical hypocalcemia or milk fever affects approximately 5% of dairy cows each year. This disorder of calcium homeostasis can be induced by several dietary factors. Recent studies implicate high dietary potassium and high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) with increased risk of milk fever. The hypothesis tested in this study was that high-DCAD diets fed to prepartum cows reduce tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone (PTH), inducing a pseudohypoparathyroid state that diminishes calcium homeostatic responses. Multiparous Jersey cows were fed low- or high-DCAD diets in late gestation, creating a compensated metabolic alkalosis in the high-DCAD cows and a compensated metabolic acidosis in the low-DCAD cows. They then received synthetic PTH injections at 3-h intervals for 48 h. Parathyroid hormone is expected to cause an increase in plasma calcium by increasing renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and increasing bone calcium resorption. Plasma calcium concentration increased at a significantly lower rate in cows fed the high-DCAD diet. Cows fed the high-DCAD diet also produced significantly less 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in response to the PTH injections than cows fed the low-DCAD diet. Serum concentrations of the bone resorption marker carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen were numerically lower in cows fed the high-DCAD diet but this difference was not statistically significant. These data provide direct evidence that high-DCAD diets reduce tissue sensitivity to PTH. The metabolic alkalosis associated with high-DCAD diets likely induces a state of pseudohypoparathyroidism in some dairy cows at the onset of lactation, resulting in hypocalcemia and milk fever. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-02-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry.

  1. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry. PMID:2536940

  2. Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Soolmaz; Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high importance of Helicobacter pylori, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly determined. According to controversial theories and results of previous studies, animal source foods - especially milk - play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors in H. pylori strains isolated from milk and dairy products and study their antimicrobial resistance properties. A total of 520 raw milk and 400 traditional dairy product samples were cultured and tested. Those that were H. pylori-positive were analyzed for the presence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. One hundred and three out of 520 milk samples (19.8%) and 77 out of 400 dairy products samples (19.2%) were contaminated with H. pylori. The most frequently contaminated samples were ovine milk (35%) and traditional cheese (30%). Total prevalence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA factors were 75%, 76.6%, 41.6% and 25%, respectively. H. pylori strains of milk and dairy products harbored high levels of resistance to ampicillin (84.4%), tetracycline (76.6%), erythromycin (70.5%) and metronidazole (70%). High presence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori suggest that milk and dairy samples may be the sources of bacteria that can cause severe infection. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in H. pylori strains in Iran.

  3. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  4. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of certification in the Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program and associated factors on the risk of having violative antibiotic residues in milk from dairy farms in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Gibbons-Burgener, S N; Kaneene, J B; Lloyd, J W; Erskine, R J

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether certification in a Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program (MDBQAP) was associated with a reduced risk of having antibiotic residues in milk and to define specific management factors that may have predisposed dairy farms to having violative antibiotic residues in milk. 124 dairy farms in Michigan that had > 1 violative residue in milk during 1993 and 248 randomly selected control farms in Michigan that did not have violative residues in milk during 1993. A pretested structured questionnaire was mailed to case and control farms. A conditional multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine risk factors associated with having a violative antibiotic residue in milk. Certification in the MDBQAP did not significantly reduce the risk of having a violative antibiotic residue. Annual treatment of > 10% of a herd for metritis was associated with a reduced risk of having a violative residue. Evidence suggested that a routine request for a milk processor to perform residue testing was associated with a decreased risk of having had a violative antibiotic residue, but routine on-farm residue testing was associated with an increased risk of having had a residue. MDBQAP certification was associated, although not significantly, with a reduced risk of having violative antibiotic residues in milk. Risk factors significantly associated with violative antibiotic residues are addressed by various critical control points in the MDBQAP and may be indicators for strengths and weaknesses of MDBQAP.

  6. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-derived growth factor levels in human milk of mothers with term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Ozgurtas, Taner; Aydin, Ibrahim; Turan, Ozden; Koc, Esin; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim Murat; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Akyol, Mesut; Erbil, M Kemal

    2010-05-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid. It contains many nutrients, anti-infectious and biologically active substance. Human milk also contains many angiogenic polypeptides. We have determined four of these: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of VEGF, b-FGF, IGF-I and PDGF in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term neonates. Human milk samples were collected from 29 mothers of preterm (<37 weeks) and from 29 mothers of term (38>weeks) infants at days 3, 7 and 28 postpartum. Milk samples were analyzed for VEGF, b-FGF and PDGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Human milk levels of VEGF, IGF-I and b-FGF were significantly higher (p<0.001). Furthermore, within-preterm group concentrations of VEGF, IGF-I and PDGF significantly differed during postpartum days 3-7-28 (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for b-FGF concentrations. In term groups, concentrations of IGF-I and VEGF significantly differed (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for concentrations of b-FGF and PDGF. This is the first report of simultaneous measurements of four major angiogenic factors in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term. Our results suggest that three of four angiogenic factors, VEGF, b-FGF and IGF-I, are higher concentration in human milk which collected from preterm mothers than those of terms.

  8. Perinatal factors associated with the development of cow's milk protein allergy.

    PubMed

    Toro Monjaraz, E M; Ramírez Mayans, J A; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Gómez Morales, E; Molina Rosales, A; Montijo Barrios, E; Zárate Mondragón, F; Cadena León, J; Cazares Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has increased in recent years, and is associated with antimicrobial use during the perinatal period, prematurity, the type of childbirth, and the decrease in breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is any association between these factors and the development of CMPA. A retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted by reviewing the case records of 101 children diagnosed with CMPA and seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 2012 and August 2013. The following variables were included: age, sex, weeks of gestation, history of maternal infection and antimicrobial use during the pregnancy, type of delivery, and feeding with human milk, and its duration. Likewise, the case records of 90 children were reviewed as a control group on not having CMPA or any other allergy. The chi-square test was used for proportions, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparing means in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with CMPA were the use of antimicrobials during gestation and breastfeeding duration in months. Both factors were statistically significant (P<.001). No association was found between CMPA and gestational age or type of delivery. The statistically significant associated factors were breastfeeding duration and the use of antimicrobials during the gestational stage. These results underline the necessity for prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent.

  10. Dietary fat type influences total milk fat content in lean women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole K; Beerman, Kathy A; McGuire, Mark A; Dasgupta, Nairanjana; Griinari, J Mikko; Williams, Janet; McGuire, Michelle K

    2005-03-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in some foods (e.g., dairy products) as well as many processed foods made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). Data from a growing literature suggest that some TFA decrease milk fat in lactating animals. Because the physiologic effects of TFA in lactating women are unknown, this study was designed to investigate the effects of TFA consumption on human milk fat. A randomized, crossover design (n = 12) was used to study the effect of 3 dietary treatments: high PHVO (regular margarine), low PHVO (low TFA margarine), or low PHVO but high in naturally occurring TFA (butter) on milk fat. Treatments were administered for 5 d, with 7-d washout periods. Maternal adiposity was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Milk and blood were collected on d 5 of each intervention period. In general, milk and serum fatty acid concentrations mirrored those of the dietary treatments. There were significant interactions between treatment and maternal adiposity on milk fat and infant milk consumption, as well as on serum glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, resulted in lower milk fat in leaner, but not in more obese women. Consumption of either regular or low TFA margarine, compared with butter, elevated serum NEFA concentrations in the more obese women. In summary, consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, decreased milk fat in lean women. Further studies are required to determine whether infant milk consumption might compensate for this potentially important change in milk composition.

  11. Effect of a milk-derived factor on the inflammatory response to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Owens, W E; Nickerson, S C; Washburn, P J

    1992-01-15

    Daily injections of an anti-inflammatory milk-derived factor (MDF) into mice increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus challenge, and reduced leukocyte infiltration. Intraperitoneal injection of MDF into lactating mice prior to S. aureus intramammary challenge resulted in greater milk secretory activity and less inflammation compared with untreated controls, but had little effect on the number of S. aureus recovered from mammary tissue. Infusion of MDF directly into mouse mammary glands prior to challenge reduced S. aureus recovered after challenge. Incubation of bovine mammary macrophages in medium supplemented with MDF enhanced phagocytosis of opsonized S. aureus. In addition, infusion of 5 mg MDF into uninfected bovine mammary glands 24 h prior to S. aureus challenge resulted in fewer infections (five of ten) than in control quarters (seven of nine). Repeated daily injections of 5 mg MDF into S. aureus-infected quarters increased the percent of mammary neutrophils and decreased the recovery of S. aureus, but did not eliminate infections. Intravenous injection of 8 g MDF into cows resulted in pronounced leukopenia while the accompanying effect on mammary leukocytes was less marked but followed a similar course. Results suggest that the use of MDF in mice enhanced resistance to experimental infection and was beneficial in maintaining mammary secretory activity and reducing inflammation after bacterial challenge. In the cow, MDF promoted phagocytosis in vitro and was effective against challenge when infused intramammarily.

  12. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r{sup 2} = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r{sup 2} = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r{sup 2} = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization.

  13. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  14. Influence of Milk-Feeding Type and Genetic Risk of Developing Coeliac Disease on Intestinal Microbiota of Infants: The PROFICEL Study

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giada; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Marcos, Ascensión; García-Novo, María Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder. PMID:22319588

  15. Case history: tracking the nutritional value of milk from a transitioning-to-organic dairy herd

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research is focusing on many of the factors that influence the amounts of biologically active compounds (BACs) in milk, such as the influence of on-farm and seasonal factors, to improve the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, our current s...

  16. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population.

  17. Influence of transglutaminase treatment on some physico-chemical properties of milk.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M M; Kelly, A L; Fox, P F

    2002-08-01

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme that cross-links many proteins, including milk proteins. In this study, the effects of TGase on some physico-chemical properties of milk were studied. TGase-treated milk was not coagulable by rennet, which was due to failure of the primary (enzymic) stage of rennet action rather than the non-enzymic secondary phase. Dissociation of TGase-treated casein micelles by urea or sodium citrate or removal of colloidal calcium phosphate by acidification and dialysis was reduced, presumably due to the formation of cross-links between the caseins. Casein micelles in TGase-treated milks were also resistant to high pressure treatment and to hydrolysis by plasmin. Results of the present study show that milk proteins are fundamentally modified by the action of TGase, which may have applications in the manufacture of functional proteins for use as novel food ingredients.

  18. Assessment of cadmium levels in human breast milk and the affecting factors: A systematic review, 1971-2014.

    PubMed

    Cherkani-Hassani, Abha; Ghanname, Imane; Mouane, Nezha

    2017-07-24

    This is a first systematic review summarizing 43 years of research from 36 countries for the assessment of cadmium in breast milk, a suitable matrix in human biomonitoring. To report from the published literature the levels of cadmium in breast milk, and the affecting factors causing increase in cadmium concentrations. In addition, to gather several quantitative data that might be useful to evaluate the international degrees of maternal and infant exposure. We reviewed the literature published between 1971 and 2014, available on Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, reporting quantitative data about cadmium levels in human breast milk. Information about the aim of the study, name of the country, period of collection of samples, size of samples, sampling method, time of lactation, mother's age, area of residence, cadmium concentration, and other data were extracted. Sixty-seven studies were selected and included in this systematic review. Some concentrations greatly exceed the limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, about 50% of the studies had less than 1 µg/L cadmium concentration (recommended by the WHO); as well as many factors have shown their implication in breast milk contamination. Breast milk is a pathway of maternal excretion of cadmium. It is also a biological indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and cadmium exposure of the lactating woman and the nourished infant. Therefore, preventive measures and continuous monitoring are necessary.

  19. Milk fermented with yogurt cultures and Lactobacillus casei compared with yogurt and gelled milk: influence on intestinal microflora in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Danan, C; Chabanet, C; Pedone, C; Popot, F; Vaissade, P; Bouley, C; Szylit, O; Andrieux, C

    1998-01-01

    Ingestion of fermented dairy products induces changes in the equilibrium and metabolism of the intestinal microflora and may thus exert a healthful influence on the host. We compared the effects of consumption of a traditional yogurt, a milk fermented with yogurt cultures and Lactobacillus casei (YC), and a nonfermented gelled milk on the fecal microflora of healthy infants. Thirty-nine infants aged 10-18 mo were randomly assigned to one of three groups in which they received 125 g/d of one of the three products for 1 mo. The following indexes were not modified during the supplementation period or for 1 wk after the end of supplementation: total number of anaerobes, bifidobacteria, bacteroides, and enterobacteria; pH; water content; concentrations of acetate, butyrate, propionate, and lactate; and bacterial enzyme activity of beta-galactosidase and alpha-glucosidase. In contrast, in the yogurt group the number of enterococci in fecal samples increased (P < 0.05), whereas the percentage of branched-chain and long-chain fatty acids, which are markers of proteolytic fermentation, decreased (P < 0.05). In the YC group, the percentage of children with > 6 log10 colony-forming units lactobacilli/g feces increased (P < 0.05), whereas the potentially harmful enzyme activity of beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase decreased (P < 0.05). These decreases were particularly marked in those infants in the YC group in whom activity of the enzymes was initially unusually high.

  20. Influence of diet and rennet on the composition of goats' milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto

    2011-05-01

    Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed.

  1. [Beverage consumption of community residents and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Fan, Lili; Teng, Chengang; Fu, Chunling; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Jian; Tang, Lingyan

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the beverage consumption and affective factors about residents of Suzhou and provide basic information for nutrition improvement. The study population included 600 residents selected from four communities using the method of stratified multistage cluster random sampling. The data on beverage consumption were collected through a questionnaire survey, and analyzed through SPSS, including statistic description and Logistic regression. The average water consumption of four age groups was 889 - 1450 ml. Excluding drinking water, the overall milk consumption was highest, reaching to 1372 ml per week. Apart from those, the highest consumption beverages of preschool children, children and youth, and adults were juice, carbonated beverage, and tea, respectively. Age and food preference were important factors affecting beverage consumption, other influencing factors including gender, BMI and income. The health consciousness on beverage consumption need to be further improved, and intervention measures could be carried out through changing food preference behavior, controlling weight and so on according to different age person, thus beverage consumption will be correctly conducted.

  2. A water availability intervention in New York City public schools: influence on youths' water and milk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-02-01

    We determined the influence of "water jets" on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n=2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011-2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P<.001) and a much smaller decline in milk taking (-6.73 events per 100 students; P=.012), relative to comparison schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement.

  3. A Water Availability Intervention in New York City Public Schools: Influence on Youths’ Water and Milk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the influence of “water jets” on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. Methods. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n = 2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011–2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Results. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P < .001) and a much smaller decline in milk taking (-6.73 events per 100 students; P = .012), relative to comparison schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. Conclusions. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement. PMID:25521867

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  5. Career Satisfaction as a Factor Influencing Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-14

    the influence of job satisfaction on first-term nt behavi ntent to reenlist as a criterion. Factors found to I related included not liking the work...benefits have been curtailed, largely due to the recent recession . When the economy brightens and civilian jobs become more plentiful, dissatisfactions...Satisfaction also his exchange power in the market place. Because economic value is influenced by consumer tastes and preferences, individual motivations

  6. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  7. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  8. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  9. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    or 20 MAY 1976 STUDY ’ PROJECT FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ARMY CHAPLAINS BY CHAPLAIN(COLONEL) KERMIT D. JOHNSON US ARMY WAR...job •atUfaction among US kxmy chaplain« it b«aad CO • mail aurvay raaponao of 998 chap Ulna out of 1411 in tha Army chaplaincy. Factors which...chaplaincy, and cosseand. Certain professional Irritants were singled out. By means of demographic information, comparisons were made as to how

  10. Electrolyte-free milk protein solution influences sodium and fluid retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kengo; Kato, Yoshiho; Usami, Ayako; Yamada, Mari; Yamamura, Asuka; Fushiki, Tohru; Seyama, Yousuke

    2013-01-01

    Milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration drink that maintains the net positive fluid balance. However, it is unclear which components are responsible for this effect. We assessed the effect of milk protein solution (MPS) obtained by dialysis on body fluid retention. Milk, MPS, milk electrolyte solution (MES), sports drink and water were administered to male Wistar rats at a dose of 6 ml/rat after treadmill exercise. Total body fluid retention was assessed by urine volume 4 h after administration of hydrating liquids. The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated by a tracer method using (13)C-labelled acetate. Plasma osmolality, Na and K levels, and urinary Na and K were measured by HPLC and osmometry, respectively. The gastric emptying rate was not delayed by MPS. During 4 h of rehydration, cumulative urine volumes differed significantly between treatment groups (P < 0·05) with 4·9, 2·2 and 3·4 ml from water-, milk- and MPS-fed rats, respectively. Thus, MPS elicited 50 % of the total body fluid retention of milk. Plasma aldosterone levels were significantly higher in MPS- and milk-fed rats compared with water-fed rats. Plasma osmolality was maintained at higher levels in MPS-fed rats than in water- and MES-fed rats (P < 0·05). Cumulative urine Na excretion was also suppressed in the milk- and MPS-fed groups compared with the MES-fed group. Our results demonstrate that MPS obtained by dialysis clearly affects net body water balance without affecting gastric emptying after exercise. This effect was attributed to retention of Na and water, and maintenance of plasma osmolality.

  11. Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic: Influence on color, apparent viscosity, and texture of goat milk yogurts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marion P; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Adriana Cristina O; Freitas, Mônica Q; Franco, Robson M; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Cupuassu is an acidic fruit that has a characteristic aroma, flavor, and texture; its fiber-rich pulp can provide a different consistency than other fruit pulps. Goat milk is an excellent source of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals, and is widely used for processing fermented milks, such as yogurt. However, compared with cow milk yogurts, it is difficult to make goat milk yogurts with a good consistency. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain technological strategies. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding cupuassu pulp, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5), and prebiotic (inulin) to improve the texture of goat milk yogurt. A total of 6 treatments were performed: natural (N), probiotic (Pro), prebiotic (Pre), synbiotic (S), cupuassu (C), and probiotic with cupuassu (PC). The viability of probiotic in yogurts (Pro, S, and PC) was evaluated. In addition, instrumental analyses (pH, color, apparent viscosity, and texture) were performed to evaluate the influence of these different ingredients on goat milk yogurts. The probiotic bacteria remained viable (≥7 log cfu·mL(-1)) throughout the 28d of refrigerated storage, which exceeded the minimum count required to confer probiotic physiological benefits. The pH levels of the yogurts inoculated with L. acidophilus (Pro, S, and PC) were lower than others yogurts (N, Pre, and C). However, all yogurt samples underwent gradual decreases in pH until 7 to 14d of storage. The lightness (L*) was affected initially by addition of all ingredients (cupuassu pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic). The addition of cupuassu pulp (C and PC) increased the L* during the period of storage. Apparent viscosity and firmness decreased in the PC yogurt. The consistency was highest in the yogurts with added prebiotic (Pre and S) than the other yogurts (N, Pro, C, and PC) at the end of the storage period (d 28). The cohesiveness remained constant in all yogurts (N, Pro, Pre, S, C, and PC). Based on the results

  12. Bovine milk inhibits proteolytic degradation of epidermal growth factor in human gastric and duodenal lumen.

    PubMed

    Rao, R K; Baker, R D; Baker, S S

    1998-01-01

    Degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human gastric and duodenal lumen was analyzed by incubating 125I-labeled or unlabeled human recombinant EGF with human gastric or duodenal luminal fluids in vitro. Degradation of EGF was assessed by measuring the generation of acid soluble radioactivity or by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Incubation with gastric luminal fluids resulted in a time- and dose-dependent degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF at pH 2.5 but not at pH 7.5. Duodenal luminal fluids, on the other hand, degraded EGF at pH 7.5 but not at pH 2.5. The rate of degradation of unlabeled EGF in gastric luminal fluids was nearly 12-fold higher than the rate of degradation of labeled EGF, whereas only a slight difference in rates of degradation of labeled and unlabeled EGF was observed in duodenal luminal fluids. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected three major degradation products that eluted with retention time of 17.5 min, 20.0 min, and 22.5 min that was associated with a reduction of intact EGF (retention time 23.5 min). Defatted and decaseinated supernatant of bovine milk effectively inhibited the degradation of EGF in both gastric and duodenal luminal fluids. Dietary derived protease inhibitors, such as soya bean trypsin inhibitor, lima bean trypsin inhibitor, egg white protease inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor prevented EGF degradation in duodenal luminal fluids but failed to inhibit EGF degradation in gastric luminal fluids. These results suggest that bovine milk may contain specific inhibitors that protect EGF from proteolytic degradation in human gastric lumen.

  13. [Contingent nurses' burnout and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ock; Moon, Sook Ja; Han, Sang Sook

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to identify burnout and factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted with a sample of 228 contingent nurses randomly selected from 25 general hospitals in Korea. The tools used for this study were scales measuring burnout (8 items), job stress (8 items), job satisfaction (9 items), self efficacy (9 items), organizational commitment (9 items), empowerment (9 items), autonomy (7 items) and social support (8 items). The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 employing Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The mean score for burnout in contingent nurses was 3.05 points. Factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses were identified as job stress (β=.40), satisfaction level with current ward (β=-.25), organizational commitment (β=-.21), job satisfaction (β=-.19) and empowerment (β=-.16). These factors explained 65.0% of burnout reported by contingent nurses. The results indicate which factors are major factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses in general hospitals. Therefore, these factors may serve as predictors of burnout in contingent nurses.

  14. Influence of milk components in establishing biofilm mediated bacterial mastitis infections in cattle: a fractional factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Atulya, M; Jesil Mathew, A; Venkata Rao, J; Mallikarjuna Rao, C

    2014-02-01

    Biofilm formation is one of the factors responsible for antibiotic resistance. The involvement of biofilm formation in bacterial mastitis is well known. Milk composition varies during the lactation period and certain pathogens are producing more number of mastitis cases during particular periods of lactation. The present study elucidates the effects of different milk components on biofilm formation and the persistence of infection. The Plackett Burman screening design has been chosen for assessing the significance. Biofilm production of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were assessed by crystal violet assay. Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate had a significant effect on biofilm formation by S. aureus (MTCC 1430) whereas it was pH in the case of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa (NCIM 5029). Other independent factors were found to be insignificant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Early Expressed Human Milk on Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Short-Term Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Francesca; Papacci, Patrizia; Costa, Simonetta; Giannantonio, Carmen; Cota, Francesco; Vento, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Aims Preterm breast milk contains high levels of bioactive components, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), that are reduced by Holder pasteurization. Animal studies have shown that milk-borne IGF-1 is likely absorbed intact in a bioactive form by the intestines. The aim of this study was to assess if early non-pasteurized expressed breast milk nutrition may affect IGF-1 plasma levels in premature infants. We also investigated the possible association between early expressed milk nutrition and short-term outcomes. Methods Fifty-two preterm infants with gestational age < 31 weeks were divided into two groups according to expressed breast milk intake (< or ≥ 50 mL/Kg/day) until 32 weeks of postmenstrual age when blood sampling for IGF-1 analysis was performed. Results In our population, early expressed breast milk does not affect IGF-1 plasma levels (p 0.48). An association was observed between early expressed milk nutrition and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, feeding intolerance, need for parenteral nutrition and length of hospitalization. Conclusions Contrary to the results in some animal studies, our results did not seem to show that early expressed breast milk can help to maintain postnatal IGF-1 near foetal levels in preterm infants. The observed protective effect of expressed breast milk on short-term outcomes can be the starting point for further study of the effects of non-pasteurized human milk in preterm infants. PMID:27973552

  16. Cultural Influences in Women-Friendly Labor-Saving Hand Tool Designs: The Milk Churner Case.

    PubMed

    Kisaalita, William S; Katimbo, Abia; Sempiira, Edison J; Mugisa, Dana J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of culture in sustainable, labor-saving solutions design for women in low-resource settings. One of the reasons behind the gender asset gap among Sub-Saharan African women is the higher labor burden these women face, making it difficult for them to produce for the home and markets. Hand tools are the simplest form and therefore the best first step to address this problem. But designing women-friendly (sustainable) hand tools calls for better understanding of the low-resource settings where these women reside. A milk churner was redesigned using a human-centered (participatory) approach with groups of women from two dominant ethnolinguistic groups of Bantu and Nilotic of Uganda, and its usability was tested. The churner reduced labor up to eightfold and has potential to expand the range of uses to include children and husbands due to its simplicity. Also, the churner significantly reduced undesirable health effects, like pain in knee joints. Based on the experience with the churner, a six-item "survival guide" is proposed to complement human-centered design guiding principles for facilitating the generation of solutions in low-resource settings. By paying great attention to culture in relation to human factors, a labor-reducing churner has been successfully introduced among Ugandan women. The ultimate goal is to make the churner available to female smallholder dairy-farming households throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. This study provides a survival guide for generating solutions to problems from low-resource settings. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  18. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Treesearch

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  19. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  20. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  1. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    Block 13 ARO Report Number Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics , Vol. Ed. 0 39, (3) (2014), (, (3...DOl : 10.1 002/prep .201300154 Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions Keerti...energetic formulations, in- cluding pyrotechnics , explosives, and propellants. One ap- proach was to add particulate media to conventional high explosives

  2. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  3. Factors Which Influence Community College Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Steven

    This report explores factors influencing the persistence and graduation of students at New York City Technical College. Part 1 presents an overview of an 8-semester study conducted of 307 freshmen from September 1989 through June 1994, while part 2 describes the research procedure utilized, indicating that the following types of data were…

  4. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  5. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  6. Glucose transporter expression differs between bovine monocyte and macrophage subsets and is influenced by milk production.

    PubMed

    Eger, M; Hussen, J; Koy, M; Dänicke, S; Schuberth, H-J; Breves, G

    2016-03-01

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is characterized by negative energy balance and higher incidences of infectious diseases such as mastitis or metritis. With the onset of lactation, milk production is prioritized and large amounts of glucose are transported into the mammary gland. Decreased overall energy availability might impair the function of monocytes acting as key innate immune cells, which give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells and link innate and adaptive immunity. Information on glucose requirements of bovine immune cells is rare. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate glucose transporter expression of the 3 bovine monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) and monocyte-derived macrophages and to identify influences of the peripartal period. Blood samples were either collected from nonpregnant healthy cows or from 16 peripartal German Holstein cows at d -14, +7, and +21 relative to parturition. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to determine mRNA expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) 1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 in monocyte subsets and monocyte-derived macrophages. The low GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in nonclassical monocytes was unaltered during differentiation into macrophages, whereas in classical and intermediate monocytes GLUT expression was downregulated. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages consumed more glucose compared with classically activated M1 macrophages. The GLUT4 mRNA was only detectable in unstimulated macrophages. Neither monocytes nor macrophages were insulin responsive. In the peripartum period, monocyte GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression and the GLUT3/GLUT1 ratio were negatively correlated with lactose production. The high-affinity GLUT3 transporter appears to be the predominant glucose transporter on bovine monocytes and macrophages, especially in the peripartal period when blood glucose levels decline. Glucose transporter expression in monocytes is downregulated as a function of lactose production, which

  7. Feruloyl esterase activity is influenced by bile, probiotic intestinal adhesion and milk fat.

    PubMed

    Mukdsi, M C Abeijón; Argañaraz Martínez, E; Chaia, A Perez; Medina, R B

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamoyl esterases (CE) are microbial and mammalian intestinal enzymes able to release antioxidant hydroxycinnamic acids from their non-digestible ester-linked forms naturally present in vegetable foods. Previous findings showed that oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 increased intestinal CE activity and improved oxidative status in mice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro CE activity of L. fermentum CRL1446 and the effect of bile on this activity, as well as strain resistance to simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and its ability to adhere to intestinal epithelium and influence its basal CE activity. L. fermentum CRL1446 and L. fermentum ATCC14932 (positive control for CE activity) were able to hydrolyse different synthetic hydroxycinnamates, with higher specificity toward methyl ferulate (3,853.73 and 899.19 U/g, respectively). Feruloyl esterase (FE) activity was mainly intracellular in L. fermentum CRL1446 and cell-surface associated in L. fermentum ATCC14932. Both strains tolerated simulated GIT conditions and were able to adhere ex vivo to intestinal epithelium. Pre-incubation of L. fermentum strains with bile increased FE activity in both whole cells and supernatants (~2-fold), compared to controls, suggesting that cells were permeabilised by bile, allowing more substrate to enter the cell and/or leakage of FE enzymes. Three-fold higher FE activities were detected in intestinal tissue fragments with adhered L. fermentum CRL1446 cells compared to control fragments (without bacteria), indicating that this strain provides exogenous FE activity and could stimulate esterase activity in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, we found that milk fat had a negative effect on FE activity of intestinal tissue, in absence or presence of adhered L. fermentum. These results help explaining the increase in intestinal FE activity previously observed in mice fed with L. fermentum CRL1446, and support the potential use of this strain

  8. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  9. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  10. Oligosaccharide Composition of Breast Milk Influences Survival of Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Lusaka, Zambia12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. Objective: In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. Methods: In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Results: Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2′-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non–2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. Conclusions: The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. PMID:25527660

  11. Oligosaccharide composition of breast milk influences survival of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2'-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non-2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    PubMed

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  13. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations. PMID:28660238

  14. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusing on developing generic calibrations for driver behavior, transmission gear selection and torque converter lockup. In addition, show the derivation of correction factors needed to estimate cold start emission results. To provide an overview of the ALPHA tool with additional focus on recent updates by presenting the approach for validating and calibrating ALPHA to match particular vehicles in a general sense, then by looking at the individual losses, and calibration factors likely to influence fuel economy.

  15. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not.

  16. Phenotypic features of first-generation transgenic goats for human granulocyte-colony stimulation factor production in milk.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Melo, Carlos H S; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Melo, Luciana M; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2014-11-01

    Human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor used in neutropenic patients. It is produced in transgenic bacteria or cultured mammalian cells. As an alternative, we now show that hG-CSF can be expressed in the mammary gland of first-generation (F1) transgenic goats during induced lactation. Despite lower milk production, transgenic females presented a similar milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) when compared to non-transgenic (p > 0.05) ones. The mean concentration (±SD) of recombinant hG-CSF in milk during lactation was 360 ± 178 µg ml(-1). All clinical parameters, as well as kidney and liver function, indicated that F1 transgenic goats were healthy. Additionally, no ectopic hG-CSF expression was detected in studied tissues of F1 transgenic males. Thus, F1 hG-CSF-transgenic goats can express the recombinant protein in milk at quantities compatible with their use as bioreactors in a commercial-scale protein-production program.

  17. Contextualizing online human milk sharing: structural factors and lactation disparity among middle income women in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Women in the U.S. face significant structural constraints in attempting to breastfeed as recommended in the first six months of their child's life. Internet-facilitated human milk sharing is an emergent response to breastfeeding challenges. Little is known about the demographic characteristics of milk sharing donors and recipients and the ways structural factors circumscribe the biocultural context of lactation in milk sharing practices. Data regarding demographic characteristics, reproductive history, lactation history, and levels of social support and health care provider support for breastfeeding were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Statistical tests were executed to ascertain whether significant differences exist between donors and recipients. A total of 867 respondents (661 donors, 206 recipients) met the eligibility criteria for the study. Respondents were U.S. residents and primarily White, middle-class, well educated, and employed women. Both donors and recipients reported higher than the national average for household income, maternal educational attainment, breastfeeding exclusivity 0-6 months, and breastfeeding duration. Differences in lactation sufficiency and breastfeeding outcomes between donors and recipients were associated with both structural and biocultural factors. Donors reported significantly higher income, education, and support for breastfeeding from spouse/partner, other family, employers, and pediatricians. Donors also reported significantly higher rates of full term birth for child of most recent lactation. This study provides a foundation for understanding how milk sharing reflects a broader political economy of breastfeeding in the U.S.

  18. Human Milk Feeding as a Protective Factor for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianguo; Shukla, Vivek V; John, Denny; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Studies have suggested that human milk feeding decreases the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); however, conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool currently available data on incidence of ROP in infants fed human milk versus formula. Medline, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched for articles published through February 2015. Longitudinal studies comparing the incidence of ROP in infants who were fed human milk and formula were selected. Studies involving donor milk were not included. Two independent reviewers conducted the searches and extracted data. Meta-analysis used odds ratios (ORs), and subgroup analyses were performed. Five studies with 2208 preterm infants were included. Searches including various proportions of human milk versus formula, any-stage ROP, and severe ROP were defined to pool data for analyses. For any-stage ROP, the ORs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: exclusive human milk versus any formula, 0.29 (0.12 to 0.72); mainly human milk versus mainly formula, 0.51 (0.26 to 1.03); any human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.54 (0.15 to 1.96); and exclusive human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.25 (0.13 to 0.49). For severe ROP, they were 0.11 (0.04 to 0.30), 0.16 (0.06 to 0.43), 0.42 (0.08 to 2.18), and 0.10 (0.04 to 0.29), respectively. Prospective randomized studies being impossible because of ethical issues, we chose observational studies for analysis. A few studies involving subgroup analyses presented high heterogeneity. Based on current limited evidence, in very preterm newborns, human milk feeding potentially plays a protective role in preventing any-stage ROP and severe ROP. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The influence of soil contamination on the concentrations of PCBs in milk in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Mamontova, E A; Tarasova, E N; Mamontov, A A; Kuzmin, M I; McLachlan, M S; Khomutova, M Iu

    2007-04-01

    Although atmospheric deposition is generally the dominant pathway of PCBs into agricultural food chains, soil ingestion by livestock can be important in some cases. The relationship between PCB levels in cow's milk and in pasture soil was studied in the Irkutsk region in Siberia where an historical atmospheric source(s) of PCBs has led to widespread contamination of soil. Milk samples were collected in spring and again in autumn from 18 different farms and analyzed for PCBs. Pasture soil samples were also collected and analyzed. The PCB concentrations in both milk and soil ranged over more than an order of magnitude between the farms. A good correlation was obtained between PCB levels in autumn milk and in soil. This together with a range of other evidence suggested that ingestion of pasture soil was the dominant source of the PCB contamination in the milk. The average soil ingestion rate was estimated to be 1700 g/d, which is at the upper end of values reported in the literature. This may be due to the arid summer climate or the animal husbandry practices in Siberia.

  1. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  2. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  3. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  4. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls.

  5. Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast milk contains all the nutrients infants need for their first 6 months of life. However, only a minority of Saudi Arabian mothers exclusively breastfeed, so the influencing factors must be examined to encourage more to do so. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and its associated factors in Tabuk, North West Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 589 mothers of healthy infants aged between 6 and 24 months were interviewed while attending Well-Baby Clinics within 5 primary health care centers. Interviews deployed a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic information and detailed data concerning breastfeeding practices. A logistic regression analysis was then performed on the data to identify the factors independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice for infants at 6 months. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 31.4% of mothers for the first 6 months of their infant’s life. The logistic regressions indicated that exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less likely to be practiced by working mothers, Saudi nationals, and for babies born via cesarean delivery or at low birth weights. Conversely, the mother’s awareness of the recommended exclusive breastfeeding duration was positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: Programs promoting 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding should target high-risk groups. Two factors identified by this study are modifiable: working mothers and mothers’ awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding duration recommendation. Strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates should therefore focus on workplace facilities and increasing awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding recommendation. PMID:28469519

  6. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and physiological factors on colostrum and milk composition of Pelibuey ewes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rafael Julio; Arredondo, Victalina; García, Fernando; Aguilar, Miguel; Prado, Omar; Rodríguez, Rosario

    2012-02-01

    The effects of supplemental yeast culture, litter size, stage and number of lactation on milk composition were studied in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Ten control ewes grazed on guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and were supplemented with concentrate. A further ten ewes received the same diet with 14 g/head/day of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Colostrum was collected within 24 h after parturition, and subsequently, milk samples were collected at fortnightly intervals (7, 21, 35, and 49 days). Total solids content averaged 32% in colostrum and 12.5% in milk. Colostrum of primiparous ewes had higher total solids content than that of ewes with more than five lactations. However, ewes with more than five lactations produced milk with higher net energy, total solids, protein, and casein than ewes with fewer lactations. Milk at 7 days had a significantly higher content of energy, total solids, and fat than milk at 21, 35, and 49 days. Total solids content was lower for ewes rearing one lamb than larger litter sizes. Supplementation with yeast culture did not affect the composition of colostrum and milk, which was mainly affected by the stage and number of lactation.

  7. Short communication: influence of dietary tallow and fish oil on milk fat composition.

    PubMed

    Jones, D F; Weiss, W P; Palmquist, D L

    2000-09-01

    Four midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed one of four diets that contained 3% added fat (dry matter basis) as 100:0, 67:33, 50:50, or 33:67 tallow:fish oil. Feed intake and yield and composition of milk were not affected by treatment. The proportion of fatty acids 18:0 and cis-18:1 decreased and trans-18:1, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3, 20:4, and 20:5 increased in milk fat with increasing fish oil. The efficiency of transferring dietary 20:5 and 22:6 to milk fat was < 7%.

  8. Influence of dairy by-product waste milk on the microbiomes of different gastrointestinal tract components in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Y. F.; Wang, Y. J.; Zou, Y.; Azarfar, A.; Wei, X. L.; Ji, S. K.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z. H.; Wang, S. X.; Dong, S. Z.; Xu, Y.; Shao, D. F.; Xiao, J. X.; Yang, K. L.; Cao, Z. J.; Li, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of colonised bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of pre-weaned calves is affected by extrinsic factors, such as the genetics and diet of the calves; however, the dietary impact is not fully understood and warrants further research. Our study revealed that a total of 6, 5, 2 and 10 bacterial genera showed biologically significant differences in the GITs of pre-weaned calves fed four waste-milk diets: acidified waste milk, pasteurised waste milk, untreated bulk milk, and untreated waste milk, respectively. Specifically, generic biomarkers were observed in the rumen (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Clostridium, etc.), caecum (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Oxalobacter, Odoribacter, etc.) and colon (e.g., Megamonas, Comamonas, Stenotrophomonas, etc.) but not in the faeces. In addition, the predicted metabolic pathways showed that the expression of genes related to metabolic diseases was increased in the calves fed untreated waste milk, which indicated that untreated waste milk is not a suitable liquid diet for pre-weaned calves. This is the first study to demonstrate how different types of waste milk fed to pre-weaned calves affect the community structure of colonised bacteria, and the results may provide insights for the intentional adjustment of diets and gastrointestinal bacterial communities. PMID:28281639

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance: Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmed, Saeed; Wang, Funan; Gu, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaonan; Chai, Ximan; Wu, Yalan; Cai, Jinxia; Cheng, Guyue

    2017-01-01

    Rational use of antibiotic is the key approach to improve the antibiotic performance and tackling of the antimicrobial resistance. The efficacy of antimicrobials are influenced by many factors: (1) bacterial status (susceptibility and resistance, tolerance, persistence, biofilm) and inoculum size; (2) antimicrobial concentrations [mutant selection window (MSW) and sub-inhibitory concentration]; (3) host factors (serum effect and impact on gut micro-biota). Additional understandings regarding the linkage between antimicrobial usages, bacterial status and host response offers us new insights and encourage the struggle for the designing of antimicrobial treatment regimens that reaching better clinical outcome and minimizing the emergence of resistance at the same time. PMID:28659799

  10. Characteristics of reduced fat milks as influenced by the incorporation of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Achanta, K; Boeneke, C A; Aryana, K J

    2007-01-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in the prevention of neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida and anencephaly), heart defects, facial clefts, urinary abnormalities, and limb deficiencies. Milk and milk products serve as a potential source for folic acid fortification because of the presence of folate-binding proteins that seem to be involved in folate bioavailability. Although milk is not a good source of folic acid, fortification could help in the prevention of the above-mentioned defects. The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical characteristics of reduced fat milks fortified with folic acid. Reduced fat milks were prepared using 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the recommended dietary allowance of 400 microg of folic acid. Treatments included addition of folic acid at these levels before and after pasteurization. Color, pH, fat, protein, viscosity, folic acid concentration, folate-binding protein concentration, folate-binding protein profile, standard plate count, and coliform counts were determined on d 1, 7, 14, and 21. A consumer acceptability test was conducted on d 7. Data from the consumer panel were analyzed using ANOVA (PROC GLM) with means separation to determine the differences among treatments. Data obtained from the color, pH, fat, protein, viscosity, folic acid concentration, folate-binding protein concentration, standard plate count, and coliform counts were analyzed using the GLM with a repeated measure in time. Significant differences were determined at P < 0.05 using Tukey's Studentized Range Test. There were no differences in the electrophoretic mobility of folate-binding protein in the samples. The concentration of folic acid was significantly higher in reduced fat milks fortified with folic acid after pasteurization compared with the treatments in which folic acid was added before pasteurization. The consumer panelists did not find any significant differences in flavor, appearance, or texture of folic acid fortified reduced fat

  11. Deficiency in milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 exacerbates organ injury and mortality in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura W; Khader, Adam; Yang, Weng-Lang; Jacob, Asha; Chen, Tracy; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Prince, Jose M; Wang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a systemic inflammation occurring in neonates because of a proven infection within the first 28days of birth. It is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborns. The mechanism(s) underlying the systemic inflammation in neonatal sepsis has not been completely understood. We hypothesize that the deficiency of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), a protein commonly found in human milk, could be responsible for the increased inflammatory response leading to morbidity and mortality in neonatal sepsis. Male and female newborn mice aged 5-7days were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9mg/g body weight cecal slurry (CS). At 10h after CS injection, they were euthanized, and blood, lungs and gut tissues were obtained for further analyses. Control newborn mice underwent similar procedures with the exception of the CS injection. In duplicate newborn mice after CS injection, they were returned to their respective cages with their mothers and were closely monitored for 7days and survival rate recorded. At 10h after CS injection, serum LDH in the MFG-E8 knockout (KO) newborn mice was significantly increased by 58% and serum IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in the MFG-E8KO newborn mice were also significantly increased by 56%, 65%, and 105%, respectively, from wild type (WT) newborn mice. There were no significant difference between WT control and MFG-E8 control newborn mice. The lung architecture was severely damaged and a significant 162% increase in injury score was observed in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. The MPO, TUNEL staining, and cytokine levels in the lungs and the intestine in CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice were significantly increased from CS WT newborn mice. Similarly, intestinal integrity was also compromised in the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice. In a survival study, while the mortality rate within 7days was only 29% in the CS WT newborn mice, 80% of the CS MFG-E8KO newborn mice died during the same time period with the

  12. Influence of feed intake and source of dietary carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, nitrogen balance, and plasma constituents of lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Schmidely, P; Lloret-Pujol, M; Bas, P; Rouzeau, A; Sauvant, D

    1999-04-01

    The influence of diet (synchronized or not synchronized for the degradation rate of the carbohydrate and N fractions) and amount of feed offered [2.40 +/- 0.10 or 2.00 +/- 0.10 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] on milk yield and composition, N balance, and some plasma constituents was studied using 32 multiparous dairy goats (100 +/- 16 d in milk) that were fed a mixed diet for 9 wk. Diets were 40% concentrate with rapidly degraded starch and rapidly degraded N or highly digestible fibers and slowly degraded N. Nitrogen balance was determined at wk 4 and 8. Goats that were fed greater amounts of DM had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, and protein, but lower milk fat concentrations during the whole trial. Raw milk yield was higher at wk 4 and from wk 6 to 7 for goats consuming the rapidly degraded diet than for goats fed the slowly degraded diet at a high feed intake. Concentrations of milk fat tended to be greater for goats fed the rapidly degraded diet at wk 5, 7, and 8. At wk 5 and 6, an interaction between feed intake and diet was observed for milk protein concentration. Nitrogen digestibility, milk N, and N balance were increased for goats fed at high intakes. The output of N in urine and the efficiency of N use for milk output was greater, and N balance was lower, for goats fed the rapidly degraded diet. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and urea (wk 2 to 6) were lower, and insulin concentrations were transiently increased, for goats fed at high intakes. Goats fed the rapidly degraded diet compared with goats fed the slowly degraded diet had higher plasma concentrations of urea, which may indicate inefficient use of ruminal N.

  13. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    AD-A008 942 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG D. G. Moulton Pennsylvania University Prepared for: Air Force Office of Scientific...developed Tor the quartitative analysis of the relation between odor detection and sniff parameters. Thirsty dogs are rewarded with water for identifying...winch of two ports is associated with an odor . Sniff flow rate, frequency and amplitude are recorded from the output of a pn.^u.Tiotachometer

  14. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes.

  15. Factors Influencing the Eicosanoids Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials. PMID:25861641

  16. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk - risk factors and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Sanchez, Javier; Stokstad, Maria; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-10-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are considered widespread among cattle in Norway and worldwide. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on antibody-ELISA of bulk tank milk (BTM) from 1347 herds in two neighboring counties in western Norway. The study aims were to determine the seroprevalence at herd level, to evaluate risk factors for BRSV and BCoV seropositivity, and to assess how these factors were associated with the spatial distribution of positive herds. The overall prevalence of BRSV and BCoV positive herds in the region was 46.2% and 72.2%, respectively. Isopleth maps of the prevalence risk distribution showed large differences in prevalence risk across the study area, with the highest prevalence in the northern region. Common risk factors of importance for both viruses were herd size, geographic location, and proximity to neighbors. Seropositivity for one virus was associated with increased odds of seropositivity for the other virus. Purchase of livestock was an additional risk factor for BCoV seropositivity, included in the model as in-degree, which was defined as the number of incoming movements from individual herds, through animal purchase, over a period of five years. Local dependence and the contribution of risk factors to this effect were assessed using the residuals from two logistic regression models for each virus. One model contained only the x- and y- coordinates as predictors, the other had all significant predictors included. Spatial clusters of high values of residuals were detected using the normal model of the spatial scan statistic and visualized on maps. Adjusting for the risk factors in the final models had different impact on the spatial clusters for the two viruses: For BRSV the number of clusters was reduced from six to four, for BCoV the number of clusters remained the same, however the log-likelihood ratios changed notably. This indicates that geographical differences in proximity to

  17. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-01-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8−/− mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

  18. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  19. Risk factors associated with high bulk milk antibody levels to common pathogens in UK dairies.

    PubMed

    Williams, D; Winden, S V

    2014-06-07

    Infectious diseases pose a severe economic burden on the UK dairy industry. This study used bulk milk antibody levels in 1088 UK dairy herds to estimate the current UK prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) and Leptospira hardjo. Questionnaires collected under the DairyCheck scheme (MSD Animal Health) were used concurrently to gather information on farm demographics and management practices. The prevalence of active BVDV infection was 58.6 per cent, of historic BVDV exposure was 88.6 per cent, of BHV-1 infection was 69.2 per cent and of L hardjo was 71.9 per cent. An increasing herd size and the purchasing of replacement cattle were risk factors for the presence of all three agents. Year-round calving was associated with a 1.9 times increased risk for having BVDV (P<0.005). The presence of a bull was associated with a 1.5 times increased risk for having BHV-1 (P<0.005). When compared with previous results, this study indicates a slight fall in the prevalence of BVDV within the UK dairy herd; however, BHV-1 and L hardjo levels appear to have remained constant. This study shows that herds purchasing cattle are at greater risk of infectious agents being present and therefore, if possible, a closed herd system should be implemented.

  20. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested variables did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF.

  1. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  2. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p < 0.05: 43.08; 380/882) in the total herd composition compared to that of she-camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p < 0.01) during rainy season followed by winter season, warm dry summer, and hot summer season. Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p < 0.01) on protein, lactose, and SNF. The present study will be helpful to design measures for the eradication of reproductive constraints and for the improvement of milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  3. Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Davis, Steven R; Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of gastrointestinal tract maturation is 1 of the many benefits of human milk. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and are reported to promote enterocyte differentiation in vitro. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 3 predominant HMOs on multiple aspects of enterocyte maturation in vitro. Ranging from crypt-like to differentiated enterocytes, we used the well-characterized intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe to model early and late stages of differentiation, respectively. With this model of the crypt-villus axis made up of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cultures, we characterized the impact of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), and 6'-sialyllactose on epithelial cell kinetics and function. All 3 HMOs dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in undifferentiated HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe cultures (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports, only treatment with 2'FL at concentrations similar to human milk increased alkaline phosphatase activity by 31% (P = 0.044) in HT-29 cultures and increased sucrase activity by 54% (P = 0.005) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cultures. LNnT at concentrations similar to that reported for human milk increased transepithelial resistance by 21% (P = 0.002) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cells. In summary, all 3 HMOs reduced cell proliferation in an epithelial cell model of the crypt-villus axis. However, effects on differentiation, digestive function, and epithelial barrier function differed between the HMOs tested. These results suggest differential roles for specific HMOs in maturation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Factors influencing severity of peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Saaby, Martin; Karring, Eva; Schou, Søren; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis. Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level. Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors. The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations.

  6. Parents' views on factors that help or hinder breast milk supply in neonatal care units: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alves, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Carina; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique; Silva, Susana

    2013-11-01

    To synthesise what is known about the parents' views on factors that help or hinder breast milk supply during their infants' hospitalisation in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). A systematic search of PubMed, ISI WoK, PsycINFO and SciELO, targeting studies presenting original empirical data that examined parents' perspectives regarding breast milk supply experiences in NICU, was performed. Based on content analysis, three independent researchers synthesised the findings of seven studies. Categories of facilitators and barriers were identified using quotations stated in the studies: parents' breast milk supply experience; parents-professionals relationships; characteristics of the NICU; and parents' social background and expectations. The studies, five qualitative and two mixed methods, were published between 1994 and 2011. With heterogeneous study designs, fathers' perspectives were analysed in one article. Only one study defined breastfeeding. According to parents' perspectives, successful breast milk supply in NICU depends on coherent and accurate knowledge about its techniques and benefits, reinforcement of mothers' motivation and alignment between NICU's routines and parents' needs. Parents perceived issues related to their own current breast milk supply experience, simultaneously, as main facilitators and barriers. Parents-professionals relationship constituted the second group of facilitators, but the fourth of barriers. The characteristics of the NICU were more relevant as a barrier than as a facilitator. Although parents' perspectives are grounded on individual child-focused experiences, their emphasis on learning and motivation guided by short-term goals opens room to the collective intervention of experts. This may facilitate the engagement of mothers, fathers and health professionals on family-centred care.

  7. Cow's milk and immune-mediated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, H E; Kolb, H

    2000-11-01

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas and cow's milk consumption in childhood have been suggested to promote the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus and other immune-mediated or neurological diseases. Epidemiological studies in man have led to the hypothesis that introduction of cow's milk-based infant formula within the first 3 months of life is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, in animal models of type 1 diabetes mellitus, cow's milk proteins have been proven to be 'diabetogenic'. However, the issue seems far from being resolved. Several epidemiological studies and, more importantly, the first prospective trials did not show an association between early exposure to cow's milk and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models, cow's milk proteins are modestly and variably diabetogenic, wheat or soybean proteins in the diet cause higher rates of autoimmune diabetes. In both man and rodents there is increasing evidence that the gut-associated immune system plays a major role in disease development, probably because of disturbed oral tolerance mechanisms. Oral tolerance depends on immunological homeostasis and normal maturation of the gut. These factors are influenced by growth factors and cytokines from breast milk, normal bacterial colonization, infections and diet. All these factors have been proposed as risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hence, cow's milk proteins may provide mimicry epitopes relevant in autoimmunity, as well as destabilizing oral tolerance mechanisms by biologically active peptides. The concept of dietary regulation of autoimmunity does not apply only to cow's milk protein, but also to other dietary proteins.

  8. [Mercury concentration in breast milk of women from northwest Mexico; possible association with diet, tobacco and other maternal factors].

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús; Acosta Vargas, Baudillo; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina

    2013-01-01

    To determine THg levels in milk of women from Northwest Mexico and its potential association with maternal factors such as diet and tobacco smoke. The study was performed in 108 milk samples donated by women in Baja California Sur. Data were stratified into three groups of 36 donors by number of pregnancies. General data, smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and seafood intake were explored. THg levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The difference between groups was evaluated with non-parametric statistics. To explain the possible association of the different variables with THg concentrations in milk, generalized linear models were performed. THg levels ranged from 1.23 μg/L in single-pregnancy women (GI) to 2.96 μg/L for women with 3 or more pregnancies (GIII) (p = 0.07). In the GI group THg concentration was 175% higher (p = 0.02) in women who do not eat fish, compared to those who eat fish. In the generalized linear model to adjust THg concentrations, the variables were: age, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding duration and exposure to tobacco smoke (p ≤ 0.05). Fish consumption was the factor that better adjusted models, relative to THg levels. The contribution associated to this factor was low; therefore, consumption of fish from the coast of Baja California Sur is safe. Tobacco increased Hg concentrations in breast milk; it is necessary to avoid the smoking habit during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gradual or abrupt cessation of milking at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score in the subsequent lactation.

    PubMed

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of milk cessation method (abrupt or gradual) at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) up to 120 d in milk during the subsequent lactation. Data from 428 cows from 8 dairy herds in Ohio were analyzed. Abrupt cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule (2 or 3 times) through dry off and gradual cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Milk yield and SCS were collected using Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records. Aseptic quarter milk samples were collected approximately 1 wk before dry off, at dry off, and within 1 wk after calving for bacterial culture to determine the presence of intramammary infections. Overall, milk cessation method was not significantly associated with either milk yield or SCS in early lactation; however, interaction between the milk cessation method and herd was highly significant. Cows producing greater amounts of milk around dry off had significantly higher SCS in the following lactation. Shorter dry periods were significantly associated with decreased milk yield in the following lactation, especially among abruptly dried off cows. Additionally, as expected, several other factors, such as parity of cows and stage of lactation, were significantly associated with both outcomes. No interactions between the milk cessation method and the other explanatory variables in the final models were significant. The results of the current study suggest that higher milk yield at dry off was associated with higher SCS in the following lactation, even though milk cessation method at the end of lactation had a varying effect on test-day milk yield and SCS in different herds during the first 120 d in milk in the following lactation. The specific herd characteristics influencing this could not be identified within this study, warranting further research.

  10. Factors influencing laboratory animal spontaneous tumor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, J F

    1985-01-01

    In chemical carcinogenicity and drug-safety testing, a carcinogen is defined as an agent that when administered by an appropriate route causes an increased incidence of tumors in experimental animals as compared to unexposed control animals. Although a carcinogen may cause the appearance of tumors in organs where tumors do not usually occur in a given strain, the usual response is to increase the types of tumors seen spontaneously and to shorten the period of latency. The use of carcinogenesis experiments for research and safety assessment requires properly designed and well-conducted experiments and a knowledge of background data and variations in tumor incidences of control animals. Many factors can influence the reported incidences of spontaneous tumors. These include species, strain, sex, age, and source of the experimental test animal; study duration; extent of the pathology examination; dietary and environmental conditions; qualifications and experience of the study pathologist; diagnostic criteria and nomenclature conventions; and quality assurance and review procedures. This paper discusses several factors which may influence the incidence of tumors in control and test animals, and provides examples to illustrate the potential for these factors to affect the data.

  11. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  12. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  13. Identification of sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the levels of human β-defensin-1 and human β-defensin-2 in the human milk of Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Cao, Rui-Ming; Li, Jing; Wu, Jing; Wu, Sheng-Mei; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2014-03-14

    Human milk provides infants with various immune molecules. The objective of the present study was to measure human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) levels in the colostrum and mature milk of healthy Han Chinese, to identify factors regulating milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression and to explore the potential protective effect of milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 on infants. A total of 100 mothers and their babies were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and other factors were obtained by a questionnaire. Babies were followed up for a period of 6 months. Colostrum samples (n 100) and mature milk samples (n 82) were collected by hand expression. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels differed in the colostrum and mature milk. In the colostrum, the concentration ranges of hBD-1 and hBD-2 were 1·04-12·81 μg/ml and 0·31-19·12 ng/ml, respectively. In mature milk, the hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels were 1·03-31·76 ng/ml and 52·65-182·29 pg/ml, respectively. Several independent factors influence their production. The multivariable analysis showed a strong association between pre-pregnancy BMI and hBD-1 levels in the colostrum (P=0·001), mode of delivery was significantly associated with hBD-2 levels in the colostrum (P=0·006) and gestational age was significantly associated with hBD-1 levels in mature milk (P= 0·010). During the first 6 months of life, the incidence rate of upper respiratory infection was found to be less in the high-colostrum hBD-1 group than in the low-colostrum hBD-1 group (χ²=4·995, P=0·025). The present study suggested that the abundance of hBD-1 in the colostrum may have a protective function against upper respiratory infection for infants younger than 6 months.

  14. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    PubMed

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  15. Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds at Hawassa milk shed, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Rahmeto; Hatiya, Hagere; Abera, Mesele; Megersa, Bekele; Asmare, Kassahun

    2016-12-03

    Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance in dairy industry worldwide. It is of particular concern in developing countries like Ethiopia, where milk and milk products are scarce. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of mastitis, identify the cow-and herd-level potential risk factors and isolate Staphylococcus aureus, one of etiological agents for contagious mastitis, from cows positive for mastitis. A total of 529 lactating cows selected randomly from 95 herds were screened by California mastitis test (CMT) for sub-clinical mastitis. Also 172 milk samples collected from CMT positive cows were cultured for isolation of S. aureus. Based on CMT result and clinical examination, the prevalence of mastitis at herd-level was 74.7% (95% CI: 64.5, 82.8). The corresponding cow-level prevalence was 62.6% (95% CI: 58.3, 66.7), of which 59.2 and 3.4% were sub-clinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 51.2% of the milk samples cultured and 73.2% of the herds affected with mastitis. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the herd-level factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the presence of mastitis were herd size, bedding material, and milking mastitic cows last, while at cow-level, breed, parity, stage of lactation, udder and leg hygiene, and teat end shape were noted to have a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. The very high prevalence of mastitis, more importantly the sub-clinical one, in the herds examined revealed the huge potential economic loss the sector suffers. Perhaps this was attributed to lack of implementation of the routine mastitis prevention and control practices by all of the herd owners. The findings of this study warrants the need for strategic approach including dairy extension that focus on enhancing dairy farmers' awareness and practice of hygienic milking, regular screening for sub-clinical mastitis, dry cow therapy and culling of chronically infected cows.

  16. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  17. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P < 0.01) and satisfaction on the payment mode (P = 0.006). Higher self-assessment on the medical professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The

  18. Factors associated with body temperature of healthy Holstein dairy cows during the first 10 days in milk.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Vishal; Burfeind, Onno; Bonk, Stephanie; Voigtsberger, Rainer; Keane, Caroline; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    In this prospective observational study rectal and vaginal temperature of 82 (26 primiparous, 56 multiparous) early post-partum healthy dairy cows that calved without intervention within 3 months and did not show clinical signs of infectious and metabolic diseases were continuously measured and evaluated for associations with plausible factors during the first 10 days in milk (DIM). During May, June and July mean (±SD) temperature humidity index (THI) was 60·1±5; 66·8±5·6 and 74·2±4·3, respectively. Environmental conditions had a negligible effect on body temperature (BT) during May (P<0·05). During June and July, however, the ambient temperature and THI influenced BT (P<0·05). Furthermore, plausible factors like parity, DIM, months and time of day had an effect on BT (P<0·05). Overall, primiparous cows demonstrated 0·2°C greater BT during the first 10 DIM than multiparous cows. The effect of parity, however, on BT varied between DIM according to month (P<0·001). During this 3-month study period all cows demonstrated BT rhythms; however, the amplitude of BT increased from May to July (0·3 to 0·7°C). A greater proportion of the vaginal temperature measurements exceeded a threshold tested (≥39·5°C) during July (46·8%) than in June (33·9%) and May (19·3%). Overall the percentage of BT values above a threshold of ≥39·5°C was lower during the period 6.00-10.00 compared with the remaining 20 h (P<0·05). Therefore this study concluded that the BT of healthy post-partum dairy cows during the period 1-10 DIM post partum is greater compared with the reference range of 38·6 to 39·5°C reported by others and is influenced by parity, DIM, time of day and THI. When the association between BT and THI increased the reliability of threshold levels of BT (≥39·5°C) decreased.

  19. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains.

  20. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P < 0.05). For sows with high backfat, the sows receiving the CONTROL diet had a higher total piglet mortality than those that received FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P < 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  1. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  2. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  3. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  4. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 produces dose-dependent benefits in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kavin G; Wu, Rongqian; Jacob, Asha; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Animal milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) has been shown to be beneficial in attenuating the inflammatory response in sepsis. In this study, we examined the effect of recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) in an animal model of sepsis in an effort to develop it as a potential therapy against sepsis in humans. Rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and at 5 h post-CLP, they were given different doses of rhMFG-E8 (20, 40, 80, 160 μg/kg BW) in normal saline. At 20 h post-CLP, samples were collected for further analysis. A 10-day survival study was also performed. At 20 h after CLP, organ injury indicators, serum IL-6 and TNF-α, and plasma HMGB-1 levels were significantly increased as compared to sham-operated animals. Treatment with 20 μg/kg rhMFG-E8 significantly reduced these levels. With higher doses, further reductions in AST and ALT (59-62%), creatinine (65-68%), and lactate (46-57%), and serum IL-6 and TNF-α were obtained. The 160 μg/kg dose produced the greatest reduction in serum TNF-α. With treatment with 20 μg/kg rhMFG-E8, HMGB-1 levels decreased by 80%, returning back to sham values. In a 10-day survival study, vehicle-treated animals produced a 36% survival rate, while rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival rate to 68-72%. Treatment with increasing doses of rhMFG-E8 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells detected and markedly attenuated the tissue damages observed in the lungs. These data suggest that recombinant human MFG-E8 is beneficial in ameliorating sepsis in an animal model of sepsis.

  6. Storage of milk powders under adverse conditions. 2. Influence on the content of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hurrell, R F; Finot, P A

    1983-05-01

    g water/kg, storage at 37 degrees in O2 and N2 gave much the same results as for the corresponding whole-milk powder. The presence of milk fat had no marked effect on the stability of the water-soluble vitamins. Destruction of vitamins was clearly linked to the progress of Maillard-type reactions and was strongly influenced by time and temperature of storage, moisture content and, in some instances, by the presence of O2.

  7. A low-molecular-weight factor in human milk whey promotes iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P

    2004-01-01

    The iron bioavailability of human milk (HM) is substantially greater than that of cow's milk (CM), but the factor responsible for this high bioavailability is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of various HM and CM fractions on iron bioavailability. Milk was separated into fat, casein and whey fractions by ultracentrifugation. Whey was further fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 10-kDa membrane to produce a 10-kDa retentate (10kR) and a 10-kDa filtrate (10kF). Samples were prepared by mixing various combinations of the fractions, bringing the samples to prefractionation weight with minimum essential medium (MEM), and adding iron (10 micro mol/L) as ferrous sulfate. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one was subjected to in vitro digestion, the other was not. Bioavailability was assessed by applying the samples to Caco-2 cell monolayers and incubating for 24 h. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron uptake. Removing the fat from undigested HM samples doubled the ferritin formation, but removing the whey or casein had no effect. Results with digested HM samples were similar, except that removing the whey decreased ferritin formation by 48%. Removing the fat from digested CM samples had no effect, but removing the casein doubled the ferritin formation. Removing the 10kF from HM reduced ferritin formation by 60%, but removing the 10kR had no effect. These data suggest that a low-molecular-weight factor (<10 kDa) in human milk enhances iron absorption.

  8. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  9. Human milk cortisol is associated with infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A; Glynn, Laura M

    2013-07-01

    The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the negative affectivity dimension of the IBQ (partial r=.37, p<.01). No correlation was found between elevated cortisol levels and the surgency/extraversion or the orienting/regulation dimensions. Further, the positive association between increased maternal milk cortisol and negative affectivity was present among girls (β=.59, p<.01), but not among boys. (Although, the sex by milk cortisol interaction term was not statistically significant, suggesting that these results require replication.) Environmental factors such as maternal demographics and negative maternal affect (depression and perceived stress) at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association. The findings support the proposal that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol in human milk influences infant temperament. The findings further suggest that mothers have the ability to shape offspring phenotype through the transmission of biologically active components in milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Milk Cortisol is Associated With Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Katherine R.; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.; Glynn, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the Negative Affectivity dimension of the IBQ (partial r =.37, p < .01). No correlation was found between elevated cortisol levels and the Surgency/Extraversion or the Orienting/Regulation dimensions. Further, the positive association between increased maternal milk cortisol and Negative Affectivity was present among girls (β = .59, p < .01), but not among boys. (Although, the sex by milk cortisol interaction term was not statistically significant, suggesting that these results require replication.) Environmental factors such as maternal demographics and negative maternal affect (depression and perceived stress) at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association. The findings support the proposal that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol in human milk influences infant temperament. The findings further suggest that mothers have the ability shape offspring phenotype through the transmission of biologically active components in milk. PMID:23265309

  11. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  12. Audit in general practice: factors influencing participation.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after initial agreement, and 23 refused to take part at the outset. Participants were more likely than those who refused to view the advisory group as useful or a threat and to have positive thoughts about audit but less likely to have previously undertaken audit entailing implementation of change. Participants were more likely than those who withdrew to have positive thoughts about audit and to have discussed whether to take part within the practice but were less likely to view the advisory group as useful. The most common reason given for withdrawal was lack of time. CONCLUSIONS--Participation was influenced by attitudes towards audit in general and the advisory group in particular and by aspects of behaviour such as communication within the practice. Practical support and resources may help some practices undertake audit, but advisory groups must also deal with attitudes and unsatisfactory communication in practice teams. PMID:7613323

  13. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  14. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  15. Human milk: a source of more life than we imagine.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, P V; van Bergenhenegouwen, J; Jiménez, E; Knippels, L M J; Fernández, L; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Rodríguez, J M; Martín, R

    2013-03-01

    The presence of bacteria in human milk has been acknowledged since the seventies. For a long time, microbiological analysis of human milk was only performed in case of infections and therefore the presence of non-pathogenic bacteria was yet unknown. During the last decades, the use of more sophisticated culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and the steady development of the -omic approaches are opening up the new concept of the 'milk microbiome', a complex ecosystem with a greater diversity than previously anticipated. In this review, possible mechanisms by which bacteria can reach the mammary gland (contamination versus active migration) are discussed. In addition, the potential roles of human milk for both infant and maternal health are summarised. A better understanding of the link between the milk microbiome and health benefit, the potential factors influencing this relationship and whether or not it can be influenced by nutrition is required to open new avenues in the field of pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Lead and mercury in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Gundacker, Claudia; Pietschnig, Beate; Wittmann, Karl J; Lischka, Andreas; Salzer, Hans; Hohenauer, Leonhard; Schuster, Ernst

    2002-11-01

    Heavy metals are potentially toxic substances, especially for the susceptible infant. Exposure to mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) may result in neurotoxic and nephrotoxic impairment and in anemia. Previous data on breast milk Pb and Hg contents are sparse or missing for the Austrian population. No evaluations of the influence of mothers' lifestyles on Pb and Hg levels in breast milk are available. Five- to 10-mL individual samples of breast milk were provided from healthy mothers in Vienna (urban; n = 59), Linz (industrial; n = 47), and Tulln (rural; n = 59). A questionnaire about area of residence, maternal nutrition, smoking habits, and dental fillings was filled out by the lactating mothers. Milk samples and infant formulas were lyophilized, wet-ashed with nitric acid (65%), and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Spiked skim milk powder was used as reference material. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple robust regression analysis. Breast milk showed low Hg and Pb concentrations (Hg: 1.59 +/- 1.21 1g/l, n = 116; Pb: 1.63 +/- 1.66 6g/l, n = 138). Eight percent of the breast milk samples marginally exceeded the screening level of 3.5 micro g/L for Hg. Austrian Pb values declined strongly during the last 20 years. Bivariate comparison revealed that the factors significantly related to metal levels in breast milk were area of residence (Hg, Pb), prematurity (Hg), consumption of fish (Pb) and cereals (Hg), vitamin supplementation (Hg), and smoking (Pb). The Hg and Pb contents of cow milk and infant formulas were far below respective guideline values. Neither Hg nor Pb concentrations exceeded critical levels. There are no reports on infants harmed by the intake of milk from unexposed mothers. We conclude that even theoretical risks from current Hg or Pb levels for the breastfed infant of a healthy mother can be ruled out.

  17. The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Collado, M Carmen; Laitinen, Kirsi; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika; Mira, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. We characterized the milk microbial community at 3 different time points by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in mothers (n = 18) who varied in BMI, weight gain, and mode of delivery. We found that the human milk microbiome changes over lactation. Weisella, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus were predominant in colostrum samples, whereas in 1- and 6-mo milk samples the typical inhabitants of the oral cavity (eg, Veillonella, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella) increased significantly. Milk from obese mothers tended to contain a different and less diverse bacterial community compared with milk from normal-weight mothers. Milk samples from elective but not from nonelective mothers who underwent cesarean delivery contained a different bacterial community than did milk samples from individuals giving birth by vaginal delivery, suggesting that it is not the operation per se but rather the absence of physiological stress or hormonal signals that could influence the microbial transmission process to milk. Our results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants and suggest that the milk microbiome is influenced by several factors that significantly skew its composition. Because bacteria present in breast milk are among the very first microbes entering the human body, our data emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.

  18. Influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink in Jamaican children.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, L; Walczyk, T; Morris, A; Hurrell, R F

    1998-05-01

    The influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink (6.3 mg total Fe per serving) was evaluated with a stable-isotope technique in 20 6-7-y-old Jamaican children. Each child received two test meals labeled with 5.6 mg 57Fe and 3.0 mg 58Fe as ferrous sulfate on 2 consecutive days. Three different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 25, and 50 mg per 25-g serving) were evaluated in two separate studies by using a crossover design. Iron isotope ratios were measured by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. In the first study, iron absorption was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) after the addition of 25 mg ascorbic acid: geometric mean iron absorption was 1.6% (range: 0.9-4.2%) and 5.1% (2.2-17.3%) for the test meals containing 0 and 25 mg ascorbic acid, respectively. In the second study, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in iron absorption was observed when the ascorbic acid content was increased from 25 to 50 mg: geometric mean iron absorption was 5.4% (range: 2.7-10.8%) compared with 7.7% (range: 4.7-16.5%), respectively. The chocolate drink contained relatively high amounts of polyphenolic compounds, phytic acid, and calcium, all well-known inhibitors of iron absorption. The low iron absorption without added ascorbic acid shows that chocolate milk is a poor vehicle for iron fortification unless sufficient amounts of an iron-absorption enhancer are added. Regular consumption of iron-fortified chocolate milk drinks containing added ascorbic acid could have a positive effect on iron nutrition in population groups vulnerable to iron deficiency.

  19. Interpersonal Factors That Influence Principals' Rating of Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, William, Jr.; Davis, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    A study to determine whether principals are influenced by attraction factors in teacher evaluations found that principals are affected by nonperformance factors when they evaluate teacher performance. (MD)

  20. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA) solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp) and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein) after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43), 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19). Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8), compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6). Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular lipid composition

  1. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

  2. Influence of Nrf2 activators on subcellular skeletal muscle protein and DNA synthesis rates after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Laurin, Jaime L; Musci, Robert V; Wolff, Christopher A; Reid, Justin J; Biela, Laurie M; Zhang, Qian; Peelor, Fredrick F; Melby, Christopher L; Hamilton, Karyn L; Miller, Benjamin F

    2017-04-01

    In older adults, chronic oxidative and inflammatory stresses are associated with an impaired increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis after acute anabolic stimuli. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Protandim have been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for the antioxidant response element and anti-inflammatory pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that compared to a placebo control (CON), CLA and Protandim would increase skeletal muscle subcellular protein (myofibrillar, mitochondrial, cytoplasmic) and DNA synthesis in older adults after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding. CLA decreased oxidative stress and skeletal muscle oxidative damage with a trend to increase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a Nrf2 target, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). However, CLA did not influence other Nrf2 targets (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1)) or protein or DNA synthesis. Conversely, Protandim increased HO-1 protein content but not the mRNA expression of downstream Nrf2 targets, oxidative stress, or skeletal muscle oxidative damage. Rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were maintained despite lower mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein syntheses after Protandim versus CON. Similarly, DNA synthesis was non-significantly lower after Protandim compared to CON. After Protandim, the ratio of protein to DNA synthesis tended to be greater in the myofibrillar fraction and maintained in the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions, emphasizing the importance of measuring both protein and DNA synthesis to gain insight into proteostasis. Overall, these data suggest that Protandim may enhance proteostatic mechanisms of skeletal muscle contractile proteins after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

  3. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole. PMID:27942134

  4. [Progress report. Factors influencing nutritional toxic effects].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, D W

    1989-01-01

    The basis of the requirement for nutrio-toxicological model investigations is the result of many years of international experience. They are, however, limited for pragmatic reasons to standardized one-dimensional test conditions and can only be partially compared with the variable exposure conditions of man. Therefore, we have tried to review the practical significance of factors influencing nutrio-toxic effects. It has been shown that due to physiological and genetic differences, different lifestyle, biogeochemical and nutritional factors, additional occupational exposure as well as spontaneous diseases individual sensitivity shows a great variation range in man and laboratory animals. The multiple exposure which is common practice makes it difficult to provide proven evidence. The safety factor used for the extrapolation of results obtained in animal experiments as compared with man is a suitable pragmatic safety measure, but in the case of 1:100 as to the order of magnitude it is not always in accordance with the range of response to xenobiotics in a human population. This fact raises the necessity of searching for so-called "risk-groups" in the population. Additionally, the possible acceleration of spontaneous diseases by exposure to xenobiotics has to be taken into consideration.

  5. Olecranon fractures: factors influencing re-operation.

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Mark Christopher; Lang, Maximilian Frank; An, Thomas J; Mitchell, Phillip Michael; Grantham, William Jeffrey; Hooe, Benjamin Scoot; Kay, Harrison Ford; Bhatia, Ritwik; Thakore, Rachel V; Evans, Jason Michael; Obremskey, William Todd; Sethi, Manish Kumar

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated factors influencing re-operation in tension band and plating of isolated olecranon fractures. Four hundred eighty-nine patients with isolated olecranon fractures who underwent tension band (TB) or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) from 2003 to 2013 were identified at an urban level 1 trauma centre. Medical records were reviewed for patient information and complications, including infection, nonunion, malunion, loss of function or hardware complication requiring an unplanned surgical intervention. Electronic radiographs of these patients were reviewed to identify Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) fracture classification and patients who underwent TB or ORIF. One hundred seventy-seven patients met inclusion criteria of isolated olecranon fractures. TB was used for fixation in 43 patients and ORIF in 134. No statistical significance was found when comparing complication rates in open versus closed olecranon fractures. In a multivariate analysis, the key factor in outcome was method of fixation. Overall, there were higher rates of infection and hardware removal in the TB compared with the ORIF group. Our results demonstrate that the dominant factor driving re-operation in isolated olecranon fractures is type of fixation. When controlling for all variables, there is an increased chance of re-operation in patients with TB fixation.

  6. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  7. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  8. Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

  9. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level.

  10. Influences of different thermal processings in milk, bovine meat and frog protein structure.

    PubMed

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Lopes Lima, Samuel; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have associated the digestibility of proteins to its imunogenic potential. Though, it was objectified to evaluate the impact of the thermal processing with high and low temperatures on the proteins structure of three types of foods, by means of the digestibility in vitro and electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. The pasteurize was observed in such a way, firing 95 ºC during 15 minutes, how much freeze dried causes qualitative and quantitative modifications of constituent proteins of the food. The most sensible proteins to the increasing thermal processing order were beef, frog meat, and the last, cow milk.

  11. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  12. [Factors influencing first-colostrum calcium concentration in Holstein-Friesian cows and the relationship to postpartum calcium concentration].

    PubMed

    Karl, Maria; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the factors that affect the calcium content of the first colostrum (milk exclusively of the first withdrawal) and the relationship to the blood calcium concentration. We tested the hypotheses that the lactation number is the main influence factor and that there is a relationship to the postpartum serum calcium concentration. An observational study was conducted from April 2012 to March 2013 at a commercial dairy farm (2278 Holstein-Friesian cows). The analysis comprised the following variables: blood serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, non-esterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate; back-fat thickness; daily milk production; calving data; lactation number; male parent of the cow; length of gestation; age at first calving; dry-period duration; fertility parameters of prelactation; diseases during the dry period and up to 3 days postpartum. A stepwise analysis of the data for correlations and influencing factors was conducted by means of variance, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The mean calcium concentration of the colostrum was 2386 mg/l (standard deviation 550 mg/l), with heifers having a higher value by 148.5 mg/l than pluriparous cows. Factors influencing the colostrum calcium content were the mean milk production during the first week of lactation and the back-fat thickness at drying off. The correlation to the milk production was negative, which may be a dilution effect. An increase in back-fat thickness caused an increase in the colostrum calcium concentration. Together, these two factors explained 25% of the colostrum calcium variation. The lactation number and the blood calcium concentration were not significant influence factors on the colostrum calcium content. The hypotheses could not be confirmed in that there was neither a relationship of to the blood calcium concentration nor of the lactation number with the colostrum calcium content. The colostrum calcium content displayed a wide individual

  13. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  14. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  15. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  16. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  17. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Meyrick C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of “being there” in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users’ attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds. PMID:24199058

  18. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  19. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  20. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    PubMed

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  1. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood lead levels during different trimesters of pregnancy and the possible influencing factors in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongmei; Wang, Haijuan; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Lan; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Hui; Shi, Hua

    2011-12-01

    Lead is a toxic element. It can damage multiple human organs and systems. In present study, we detected the blood lead levels (BLLs) during the whole pregnancy period and 6-12th weeks after delivery and analyzed their influencing factors by healthy pregnant women. We recruited 128 healthy pregnant women absent of pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group. The control group consisted of 120 healthy non-pregnant women. The lead concentrations of all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were: 5.95 ± 2.27, 5.51 ± 1.93, 5.57 ± 1.85, and 6.88 ± 1.90 μg/dl; and the mean lead concentration of control group was 6.87 ± 2.29 μg/dl. We found that the BLLs of the gravida group were lower than that of control group during all three trimesters and occupations, supplement nutrition elements, and time of house painted could affect blood lead levels of pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, using cosmetics, and living in a house painted <1 year are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors. These may help people especially pregnant women to reduce lead exposure via supplement of calcium, iron, zinc, and milk or avoiding contacting above risk factors.

  3. Antioxidative activity of organic versus conventional milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some dairy proteins have been found to exhibit antioxidative activity, a property used for marketing foods as nutritionally beneficial to the American consumer. However, the factors in milk production and processing that influence this activity are not fully understood. In this study, commercially...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.212 - Influencing governmental action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board § 1160.212 Influencing...

  5. Measurement of bovine somatotropin (bST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bovine milk using an electrochemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Michael F; Bogosian, Gregg; Fabellar, Anabella C; Staub, Robin L; Vicini, John L; Widger, Leslie A

    2008-08-27

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are peptide hormones that are involved in the regulation of milk production in dairy cows. Because these hormones are present at extremely low concentration in fresh and processed bovine milk, a highly sensitive and specific electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) has been developed to better estimate the concentration of these hormones in milk. The assay employs an imager, a capture antibody bound to a carbon electrode, and a detection antibody coupled to a ruthenium label. In the presence of tripropylamine and an electric pulse, ruthenium generates light proportional to the amount of antigen bound, and the light is captured as signal by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Using bovine milk as the starting matrix, 99.69% of bST and 104.79% of IGF-1 were recoverable. The limit of detection (LOD) was <5 pg/mL for bST and <1 pg/mL for IGF-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was <14 pg/mL for bST in milk and <2 pg/mL of IGF-1. The assay is highly specific and shows <0.2% cross-reactivity with other peptide hormones found in bovine milk such as insulin and IGF-2. These data indicate this new, ECLIA is highly sensitive and specific for estimating the concentration of bST or IGF-1 in milk.

  6. Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandarina, BJ. Istiti; Kusuma, Sari; Trisnasari, Yunita Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powder form. After 21 d, the rats continued to receive restricted feeding and supplemented with goat milk yoghurt for 7 d. Total splenocytes were counted by hemocytometer. Splenocytes proliferation was expressed as stimulation index, whereas the TNF-α and IL-10 of spleen lymphocyte culture were measured by ELISA technique. The total number of splenocytes and stimulation index of splenocytes in moderate malnourished and normal rats supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was not significantly different. The level of TNF-α in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was lower (p<0.05) than the control group, whereas the level of IL-10 in the rat supplemented with goat milk yoghurt was higher (p<0.05) than the control group. In conclusion, goat milk yoghurt supplementation in malnourished rats could decrease TNF-α as a representation of the proinflammatory cytokine, while it increases IL-10 as a representation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine. PMID:26760750

  7. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Investigating the sensitivity of initial-diagnosis with electro-diagnostic tests in 600 cases and associated risk factors especially manual milking.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Abdulkadir; Güngen, Belma Doğan

    2017-01-01

    Electro-diagnostic studies are the most reliable methods in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Although there are many risk factors associated with CTS, there are a limited number of studies in the literature indicating that manual milking, which is frequently seen in Turkey, is a risk factor for CTS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate demographic findings of cases referred due to initial diagnosis of CTS as well as aetiological data especially manual milking and to investigate the sensitivity of initial diagnosis of CTS. Six hundred patients, who were referred to our electromyography laboratory due to initial diagnosis of CTS, were included. Demographic findings, duration of complaints, existence of diabetes mellitus, and manual milking histories of all patients were recorded. Sensitivity of initial diagnosis was investigated based on electro-diagnostic test results. According to electro-diagnostic test results, 289 of the patients were diagnosed with CTS (48.17%). 110 (18.3%) of 600 patients had a history of manual milking. In 94 of this group (85.4%), CTS was detected. Statistically significant correlation was found between CTS and age, female gender, duration of complaints, obesity and manual milking. This study confirms that manual milking is an important risk factor for CTS in addition to female gender, age, symptom duration and obesity. The fact that sensitivity of initial diagnosis of CTS was found to be low according to electro-diagnostic test results indicates importance of detailed clinical evaluation.

  8. Probiotics in milk replacer influence lamb immune function and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Annicchiarico, G; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of milk replacer (MR) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mix of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum on lamb immune response and on lamb meat quality. A 6-week-trial was conducted on 40 male Comisana lambs, divided into four groups, fed maternal milk (MM), MR, MR with L. acidophilus supplementation (MRL) and MR with a mix (1 : 1) of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum supplementations (MRB). Lambs fed MR containing a mix of bifidobacteria showed the highest in vivo cellular immune response to phytohemagglutinin, whereas MM and MRB showed the highest antibody response to ovalbumin. At day 11 of the trial, MRL displayed the highest value of Interleukin-10; differences disappeared among groups subsequently. Blood cholesterol levels in lambs fed MR containing L. acidophilus was almost halved compared with that found in MM and MR groups. Meat from artificially reared lambs was characterized by trans-11 18:1 and total conjugated 18:2n-6, whereas meat from the dam-suckled lambs was characterized by 14:0, cis-9 14:1 and 16:0. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in meat of MR, MRL and MRB than in MM lambs. Meat from artificially reared lamb fed MR containing probiotics showed an improved fatty acid profile for human diet.

  9. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  10. The effects of cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C on milk lipid synthesis in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lin, Ye; Duan, Xiaoyu; Lv, He; Xing, Weinan; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Hou, Xiaoming

    2017-03-08

    Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33.9 ± 2.1 kg/d, milk fat >3.5%, n = 3) and low-fat milk (milk yield 33.7 ± 0.5 kg/d, milk fat <3.5%, n = 3) groups according to their milk fat content. Lactating cows were slaughtered at 90 d in milk and mammary tissues were collected to detect CIDEC localization. Immunofluorescence staining of sections of lactating mammary glands with high- and low-fat milk showed that CIDEC was expressed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and localized to lipid droplets. Lipid droplets and CIDEC protein were also detected in isolated lactating mammary epithelial cells of dairy cows. Immunostaining of CIDEC in isolated mammary epithelial cells also confirmed its presence in the nucleus. The knockdown of CIDEC in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells decreased milk lipid content and reduced expression of genes associated with mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis, short- and long-chain intracellular fatty acid activation, triacylglycerol synthesis, and transcription regulation. These genes included those for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, -60%), fatty acid synthase (FASN, -65%), acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2, -50%), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1, -30%), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, -60%), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1, -45%), and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP, -66%). Conversely, in cells overexpressing CIDEC, triacylglycerol content

  11. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  12. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO₂ Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C₂H₄ Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO₂ Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO₄(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N₂O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of

  13. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment.

  14. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-10-01

    It is the purpose of this viewpoint article to delineate the regulatory network of growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling during puberty, associated hormonal changes in adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism, and the impact of dietary factors and smoking involved in the pathogenesis of acne. The key regulator IGF-1 rises during puberty by the action of increased GH secretion and correlates well with the clinical course of acne. In acne patients, associations between serum levels of IGF-1, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, dihydrotestosterone, acne lesion counts and facial sebum secretion rate have been reported. IGF-1 stimulates 5alpha-reductase, adrenal and gonadal androgen synthesis, androgen receptor signal transduction, sebocyte proliferation and lipogenesis. Milk consumption results in a significant increase in insulin and IGF-1 serum levels comparable with high glycaemic food. Insulin induces hepatic IGF-1 secretion, and both hormones amplify the stimulatory effect of GH on sebocytes and augment mitogenic downstream signalling pathways of insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor-2b. Acne is proposed to be an IGF-1-mediated disease, modified by diets and smoking increasing insulin/IGF1-signalling. Metformin treatment, and diets low in milk protein content and glycaemic index reduce increased IGF-1 signalling. Persistent acne in adulthood with high IGF-1 levels may be considered as an indicator for increased risk of cancer, which may require appropriate dietary intervention as well as treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents.

  15. Factors affecting germination and growth of Bacillus cereus spores in milk.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Z A; Abd-El-Bakey, A; Mohamed, E I

    1984-01-01

    The effect of salt concentration, acidity, and storage temperature on the spore germination of Bacillus cereus and the growth rate of the organism was investigated. Increasing the amount of salt to more than 5% or acidifying the milk to pH 5.0 or 4.5 greatly affected the germination and growth of B. cereus spores. When a culture of Streptococcus lactis was used as an acidifying agent, B. cereus showed a normal growth rate during the first 12 h, followed by a sharpe reduction in numbers. When B. cereus spores were inoculated in reconstituted dry milk or baby food, a higher multiplication rate was obtained at 30 degrees C than at 8 degrees C.

  16. The character of Queso and health-related compounds found in milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research conducted by the Milk & Cheese group focuses on understanding the factors that influence the quality traits of cheese and health-value of milk. Our research to understand and enhance the character traits and processing nuances of the Hispanic-style cheese, Queso Chihuahua (QC), involved the...

  17. Factors Affecting the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Hydrogen Peroxide Treatments in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Amin, V. M.; Olson, N. F.

    1967-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus 196E was treated with 0.05% hydrogen peroxide in milk under varying conditions to determine the effects of treatment conditions and characteristics of the culture on bactericidal effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide. Time intervals required for 90 to 99.99% destruction of S. aureus decreased significantly as treatment temperatures increased from 37.8 to 57.2 C. Plots of survivor curves showed extended lags in destruction at 37.8 C, slight lags followed by logarithmic rates of destruction at 48.9 C, and logarithmic rates at 54.4 and 57.2 C except for trials in which there was very rapid initial destruction followed by logarithmic rates. S. aureus 196E was significantly more resistant to heat treatments at 54.4 C without added hydrogen peroxide than to treatment with 0.05% hydrogen peroxide at this temperature. Cultures grown at 37 C for 16 hr in milk were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide than were cultures grown at 35 C. Storage of cultures for 96 hr in milk at 4 C caused a decrease in the resistance of the culture. Numbers of staphylococci being treated had little effect on rates of destruction. PMID:6071792

  18. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  19. Influence of milk yield, stage of lactation, and body condition on dairy cattle lying behaviour measured using an automated activity monitoring sensor.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Jeffrey M; Boyce, Robert E; Hockin, Jeremy; Munksgaard, Lene; Eicher, Susan D; Einstein, Mark E; Schutz, Michael M

    2010-02-01

    Time spent lying by lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield was measured using an animal activity monitor. A 3-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total, 84 cows were selected with 28 cows each among three BCS categories (Thin: BCS<2.75; Moderate: 2.75 > or = BCS<3.25; Heavy: BCS> or = 3.25) and two stage of lactation categories (<150 days in milk or >150 days in milk). Cows were kept in two management systems: parlour/freestall (n=60) or automated milking system/freestall (n=24). Behaviour was recorded for 5.3+/-0.1 d for each cow. Production levels were considered using a 28-d rolling average of daily milk production. Cows that exhibited clinical lameness before or during the observation period were excluded from analyses. For cows exhibiting oestrus, the day prior to, day of, and day following breeding were removed. The final analysis included 77 cows (408 d of observation). A mixed model was fitted to describe average daily hours spent lying. Results demonstrated that lying time increased as days in milk (DIM) increased (P=0.05). Variables that were tested but not significant (P>0.05) were BCS category, parity category (1 or 2) and 28-d rolling average daily milk production. Although a numerical trend for increasing hours spent lying with increasing BCS was observed, after accounting for other factors in the mixed model, BCS did not significantly impact lying time. Continued investigation of these management factors that impact lying time and bouts, using new technologies, more cows, and more herds will help dairy owners better manage facilities and cow movements to optimize this essential behaviour.

  20. Early milk feeding influences taste acceptance and liking during infancy12345

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A; Morgan, Lindsay K; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2009-01-01

    Background: We identified a model system that exploits the inherent taste variation in early feedings to investigate food preference development. Objective: The objective was to determine whether exposure to differing concentrations of taste compounds in milk and formulas modifies acceptance of exemplars of the 5 basic taste qualities in a familiar food matrix. Specifically, we examined the effects of consuming hydrolyzed casein formulas (HCFs), which have pronounced bitter, sour, and savory tastes compared with breast milk (BM) and bovine milk–based formulas (MFs), in which these taste qualities are weaker. Design: Subgroups of BM-, MF- and HCF-fed infants, some of whom were fed table foods, were studied on 6 occasions to measure acceptance of sweet, salty, bitter, savory, sour, and plain cereals. Results: In infants not yet eating table foods, the HCF group ate significantly more savory-, bitter-, and sour-tasting and plain cereals than did the BM or MF groups. HCF infants displayed fewer facial expressions of distaste while eating the bitter and savory cereals, and they and BM infants were more likely to smile while they were eating the savory cereal. In formula-fed infants eating table foods, preferences for the basic tastes reflected the types of foods they were being fed. In general, those infants who ate more food displayed fewer faces of distaste. Conclusions: The type of formula fed to infants has an effect on their response to taste compounds in cereal before solid food introduction. This model system of research investigation sheds light on sources of individual differences in taste and perhaps cultural food preferences. PMID:19605570

  1. Global influences on milk purchasing in New Zealand – implications for health and inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Moira B; Signal, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Background Economic changes and policy reforms, consistent with economic globalization, in New Zealand in the mid-1980s, combined with the recent global demand for dairy products, particularly from countries undergoing a 'nutrition transition', have created an environment where a proportion of the New Zealand population is now experiencing financial difficulty purchasing milk. This situation has the potential to adversely affect health. Discussion Similar to other developed nations, widening income disparities and health inequalities have resulted from economic globalization in New Zealand; with regard to nutrition, a proportion of the population now faces food poverty. Further, rates of overweight/obesity and chronic diseases have increased in recent decades, primarily affecting indigenous people and lower socio-economic groups. Economic globalization in New Zealand has changed the domestic milk supply with regard to the consumer and may shed light on the link between globalization, nutrition and health outcomes. This paper describes the economic changes in New Zealand, specifically in the dairy market and discusses how these changes have the potential to create inequalities and adverse health outcomes. The implications for the success of current policy addressing chronic health outcomes is discussed, alternative policy options such as subsidies, price controls or alteration of taxation of recommended foods relative to 'unhealthy' foods are presented and the need for further research is considered. Summary Changes in economic ideology in New Zealand have altered the focus of policy development, from social to commercial. To achieve equity in health and improve access to social determinants of health, such as healthy nutrition, policy-makers must give consideration to health outcomes when developing and implementing economic policy, both national and global. PMID:19152688

  2. Factors that influence recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M E; Kazancı, A; Yaman, N D; Baş, F; Ayberk, G

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of poor outcome following lumbar disc surgery is recurrent herniation. Recurrence has been noted in 5% to 15% of patients with surgically treated primary lumbar disc herniation. There have been many studies designed to determine the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the influence of disc degeneration, endplate changes, surgical technique, and patient's clinical characteristics on recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients who underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and who were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. All these operations were performed between August 2004 and September 2009 at the Neurosurgery Department of Ataturk Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. During the study period, 126 patients were reviewed, with 101 patients underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and 25 patients were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation. Preoperative higher intervertebral disc height (P<0.001) and higher body mass index (P=0.042) might be risk factors for recurrence. Modic endplate changes were statistically significantly greater in the recurrent group than in the non-recurrent group (P=0.032). Our study suggests that patients who had recurrent lumbar disc herniation had preoperative higher disc height and higher body mass index. Modic endplate changes had a higher tendency for recurrence of lumbar disc herniation. Well-planned and well-conducted large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this and enable convenient treatment modalities to prevent recurrent disc pathology.

  3. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  4. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  5. Factors influencing the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Huub

    2005-06-01

    Several diseases and disorders are treatable with therapeutic proteins, but some of these products may induce an immune response, especially when administered as multiple doses over prolonged periods. Antibodies are created by classical immune reactions or by the breakdown of immune tolerance; the latter is characteristic of human homologue products. Many factors influence the immunogenicity of proteins, including structural features (sequence variation and glycosylation), storage conditions (denaturation, or aggregation caused by oxidation), contaminants or impurities in the preparation, dose and length of treatment, as well as the route of administration, appropriate formulation and the genetic characteristics of patients. The clinical manifestations of antibodies directed against a given protein may include loss of efficacy, neutralization of the natural counterpart and general immune system effects (including allergy, anaphylaxis or serum sickness). An upsurge in the incidence of antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among patients taking one particular formulation of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin-alpha, marketed as Eprex(R)/Erypo(R); Johnson & Johnson) in Europe caused widespread concern. The PRCA upsurge coincided with removal of human serum albumin from epoetin-alpha in 1998 and its replacement with glycine and polysorbate 80. Although the immunogenic potential of this particular product may have been enhanced by the way the product was stored, handled and administered, it should be noted that the subcutaneous route of administration does not confer immunogenicity per se. The possible role of micelle (polysorbate 80 plus epoetin-alpha) formation in the PRCA upsurge with Eprex is currently being investigated.

  6. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  7. Influence of controlled lactic fermentation on growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus in milk.

    PubMed

    Røssland, Elisabeth; Langsrud, Thor; Sørhaug, Terje

    2005-08-15

    The growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus NVH 45 in a fermentor with controlled pH or simulated pH conditions were investigated. The study was carried out in a fermentor to measure the influence of a rapid and a slow lactic acid production on the inhibition of B. cereus in a controlled environment during the initial part of fermentation and to observe if other factors than lactic acid influenced the inhibition. In the controlled pH experiments the pH was allowed to decrease to an end pH 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0 either by Lactobacillus casei 2756 (a fast acid producer) or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748 (a slow acid producer). In co-cultures of Lb. casei 2756 and B. cereus NVH 45, low numbers (10-70 cfu/ml) of B. cereus NVH 45 were observed at end pH 5.5 (72 h) while at pH 5.0 no viable cells (<10 cfu/ml) were detected (48-72 h). B. cereus NVH 45 did not sporulate in co-culture with Lb. casei 2756. In co-culture with Lb. acidophilus NCFB 1748, B. cereus NVH 45 sporulated and survived as spores. In these co-cultures B. cereus NVH 45 grew to higher maximum counts (>10(7) cfu/ml) than with Lb. casei 2756 (<10(7) cfu/ml). Significantly different amounts of lactic acid were observed between the two co-cultures after 7 and 12 h. A rapid decrease of pH appears to prevent B. cereus from sporulating and it seems that it is enough to just reach pH 5.0 rapidly and keep that pH to achieve the desirable inhibition of B. cereus. In the simulated pH experiments B. cereus NVH 45 was inoculated in the fermentor and the different pH developments from different LAB strains were monitored by addition of lactic acid. These experiments showed the same tendency: a fast pH reduction during the initial hours of fermentation, simulating lactococci, resulted in complete inhibition of B. cereus NVH 45 (<10 cfu/ml). However, when simulating the pH development of the two different Lactobacillus strains, complete inhibition of B. cereus NVH 45 was not seen. In co-cultures competition for nutrients

  8. Milk and growth in children: effects of whey and casein.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Development of an LC-MS/MS method to quantify sex hormones in bovine milk and influence of pregnancy in their levels.

    PubMed

    Regal, P; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2012-01-01

    Hormones work in harmony in the body, and this status must be maintained to avoid metabolic disequilibrium and the subsequent illness. Besides, it has been reported that exogenous steroids (presence in the environment and food products) influence the development of several important illnesses in humans. Endogenous steroid hormones in food of animal origin are unavoidable as they occur naturally in these products. The presence of hormones in food has been connected with several human health problems. Bovine milk contains considerable quantities of hormones and it is of particular concern. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, based on hydroxylamine derivatisation, has been developed and validated for the quantification of six sex hormones in milk [pregnenolone (P₅), progesterone (P₄), estrone (E₁), testosterone (T), androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)]. This method has been applied to real raw milk samples and the existence of differences between milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cows has been statistically confirmed. Basing on a revision of existing published data, it could be concluded that maximum daily intakes for hormones are not reached through milk ingestion. Although dairy products are an important source of hormones, other products of animal origin must be considered as well for intake calculations.

  10. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.

  11. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  12. Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

    1988-11-01

    During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  14. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jasmine C C; Lewis, Zachery T; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Mills, David A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2017-01-12

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  15. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  16. GWA analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep and genetic support for a QTN influencing milk protein percentage in the LALBA gene.

    PubMed

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam; Sánchez, Juan-Pablo; Bayón, Yolanda; Arranz, Juan-José

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half-sib families with available records for milk yield (MY), milk protein and fat yields (PY and FY) and milk protein and fat contents (PP and FP). The most significant association identified reached experiment-wise significance for PP and FP and was located on chromosome 3 (OAR3). These results confirm the population-level segregation of a previously reported QTL affecting PP and suggest that this QTL has a significant pleiotropic effect on FP. Further associations were detected at the chromosome-wise significance level on 14 other chromosomal regions. The marker on OAR3 showing the highest significant association was located at the third intron of the alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene, which is a functional and positional candidate underlying this association. Sequencing this gene in the 16 Churra rams of the studied resource population identified additional polymorphisms. One out of the 31 polymorphisms identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T>C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status of the sires, were utilized to assess the role of this mutation as a putative QTN for the genetic effects detected on OAR3. Our results strongly support the polymorphism LALBA_g.242T>C as the most likely causal mutation of the studied OAR3 QTL affecting PP and FP, although we cannot rule out the possibility that this SNP is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the true causal polymorphism.

  17. Influence of C16:0 and long-chain saturated fatty acids on normal variation of bovine milk fat triacylglycerol structure.

    PubMed

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Aken, G A; van Hooijdonk, A C M; van Valenberg, H J F

    2014-07-01

    Fatty acids (FA) are nonrandomly distributed within milk fat triacylglycerols (TAG). Moreover, the structure of milk fat TAG differs with feeding regimens. So far, nothing is known about the variation of milk fat TAG structure among individual cows. A deep understanding of the normal variation of TAG structures and the relationships between milk fat FA profile and its TAG structure could help to better control functional and compositional differences between milk fats from various sources and to increase the knowledge on milk fat synthesis. The focus of the present study was to determine the regiospecific TAG structure of individual samples of winter milk fat from Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows with a wide variation of FA profiles and with 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) genotypes: DGAT1 K232A genotype AA and DGAT1 K232A genotype KK. From an initial set of 1,918 individual milk fat samples, 24 were selected. The selected samples had a wide range of FA composition and had either DGAT1 K232A genotype AA or KK. The structure analysis was done with a regiospecific approach. This analysis is based on the acyl degradation of TAG by a Grignard reagent and further isolation of sn-2 monoacylglycerols by thin-layer chromatography. An intra- and interpositional approach was used to study the structural variation. With the intrapositional approach, the amount of an FA at the secondary (sn-2) and primary (sn-1,3) positions was related to its total amount in the TAG. With the interpositional approach, the proportion of C8:0, C10:0, C14:1 cis-9, C16:1 cis-9, and C18:1 cis-9 at sn-2 was positively correlated with the amount of C16:0 in the triacylglycerol; in contrast, saturated C14:0, C16:0, and long-chain saturated FA (C14:0-C18:0) were negatively correlated. These observations suggest that the amount of long-chain saturated FA in TAG influences the positioning of other FA in the TAG. With an interpositional approach, the DGAT1 polymorphism had a significant effect on

  18. Influence of low-level supplementation of grazing dairy cows with cereals or sugar beet pulp on the concentrations of CLA isomers in milk.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Collomb, Marius; Münger, Andreas; Wyss, Ueli

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of isomer-specific health benefits have been attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs). Little information is currently available on the influence of different feed components on the concentration of CLA isomers in ruminant-derived products. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of cereal mix or dried sugar beet pulp supplementations fed to grazing dairy cows on milk CLA isomeric distribution and to examine the monthly variation of CLA isomers during the grazing season. The concentrations of the isomers t7c9, t10c12 and t10t12 were higher in milk from cows supplemented with cereals (P < or = 0.001). The milk of beet pulp-supplemented cows showed higher levels of the isomers t11c13 (P < or = 0.05), t9t11 (P < or = 0.001) and t7t9 (P < or = 0.01). Total CLA as well as seven other minor isomers were not significantly affected by the concentrate type. Monthly variations occurred extensively for almost all detected isomers. Total CLAs showed the highest values at the beginning of the grazing season and in autumn in coincidence with plant regrowth. These results show that even at low levels, supplement types can significantly influence the concentration of some CLA isomers in milk fat; an indication is given of the possibility to manipulate the animals' diet to change the CLA isomeric profile in ruminant-derived products.

  19. Levels of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk and their determinant factors.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, L; López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Cebrián, M; Rueda, C; Reyes, R; López-Cervantes, M

    1999-01-01

    To document the levels and the determinants of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk, we conducted a cohort study of 50 adult females who lived in Mexico City. We measured social and dietary characteristics via interview. Levels of DDT metabolites were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The mean values (lipid milk basis) were 0.162 ppm p,p'-DDT; 0.138 ppm o,p'-DDT; and 0.594 ppm 2,2(bis)p-chlorophyenyl-1-1-dichloroethylene (DDE). The main determinants of DDT metabolites were maternal age, lifetime lactation, history of living in an agricultural area, and consumption of salted meat and fish. We estimated that 6.0% of the breast-fed babies had daily intakes of DDT above the level of 0.005 mg/kg d recommended by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). Health-outcomes research among children is needed, and investigators should design or adjust current surveillance programs.

  20. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows.

  1. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P<0.001. However, no significant variation (P>0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  3. Changes in human gut microbiota influenced by probiotic fermented milk ingestion.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Choi, Jung-Hye; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J; Ahn, Young-Tae; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of consuming probiotic fermented milk (PFM) on the microbial community structure in the human intestinal tract by using high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing. Six healthy adults ingested 2 servings of PFM daily for 3 wk, and their fecal microbiota were analyzed before and after 3 wk of PFM ingestion period and for another 3 wk following the termination of PFM ingestion (the noningestion period). Fecal microbial communities were characterized by sequencing of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. All subjects showed a similar pattern of microbiota at the phylum level, where the relative abundance of Bacteriodetes species increased during the PFM ingestion period and decreased during the noningestion period. The increase in Bacteroidetes was found to be due to an increase in members of the families Bacteroidaceae or Prevotellaceae. In contrast to PFM-induced adaptation at the phylum level, the taxonomic composition at the genus level showed a considerable alteration in fecal microbiota induced by PFM ingestion. As revealed by analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTU), the numbers of shared OTU were low among the 3 different treatments (before, during, and after PFM ingestion), but the abundance of the shared OTU was relatively high, indicating that the majority (>77.8%) of total microbiota was maintained by shared OTU during PFM ingestion and after its termination. Our results suggest that PFM consumption could alter microbial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract of adult humans while maintaining the stability of microbiota. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  5. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  6. Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.

    PubMed

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2006-09-01

    Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation.

  7. Influence of nucleic acids and polysaccharides on phosphotransferase activity of preparations of secretory immunoglobulin A from human milk.

    PubMed

    Kit, Y Y; Semenov, D V; Kuligina, E V; Richter, V A

    2000-02-01

    The influence of nucleic acids (DNA, tRNA), synthetic oligonucleotides, and polysaccharides (lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli, heparin) on protein kinase and lipid kinase activities of preparations of human secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) has been studied. The preparations of sIgA were isolated from human milk by chromatography on the column with Protein A-Sepharose and DEAE-sorbent (sIgA1), by affinity chromatography of sIgA1 on DNA-cellulose (sIgA2), and by gel-filtration of sIgA1 in buffer containing 5% dioxane (sIgA3). Two 32P-labeled products with high and low electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gel containing SDS were found after incubation of sIgA1 and sIgA2 with [gamma-32P]ATP. The product with low electrophoretic mobility was degraded in 10% trichloroacetic acid giving a radioactive background in lanes of the polyacrylamide gel. 32P-Labeled phospholipids were found among the phosphorylation products. Soluble and immobilized DNA increase lipid kinase activity of preparations of sIgA. In this case the secretory component and H-chains of sIgA were degraded. Fractions possessing lipid kinase activity were precipitated in the presence of heparin (1 mg/ml), and lipid kinase activity was separated from sIgA by gel-filtration in buffer containing 5% dioxane. 32P-Labeled products were formed in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP as well as [32P]ortho-phosphoric acid. The influence of heparin and synthetic deoxy- and ribooligonucleotides on casein kinase activity of sIgA3 was studied. It was observed that deoxyribooligonucleotides in micromolar concentrations increased the rate of casein phosphorylation in the presence of sIgA3 and [gamma-32P]ATP. It has been proposed that catalytically active sIgA have an affinity to DNA (anti-DNA sIgA) and can be present in human milk as a part of lipoprotein complexes.

  8. [Antioxidative properties of human milk].

    PubMed

    Szalagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej; Renke, Joanna; Korzon, Michał

    2004-01-01

    Human milk, despite numerous advantages, has also antioxidative properties. Oxidative stress is implicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Therefore, the influence of human milk on oxidative stress intensity in breast-fed neonates and infants is a significant issue. The concentration of antioxidants in milk depends on mother's diet, vitamins supplementation during pregnancy and lactation and geographical area of domicile. Breast-fed children have higher antioxidative capacity in blood and lower oxidative stress intensity as compared to formula-fed children. Storage increases the antioxidative activity of human milk. Maternal smoking augments oxidative damage in children and lowers the antioxidative capacity of milk.

  9. Fat source and dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio influences milk fatty-acid composition in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Vazirigohar, M; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Rezayazdi, K; Krizsan, S J; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Shingfield, K J

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the potential benefits to human health there is an increased interest in producing milk containing lower-saturated fatty acid (SFA) and higher unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations, including cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were used in two experiments according to a completely randomized block design, with 21-day periods to examine the effects of incremental replacement of prilled palm fat (PALM) with sunflower oil (SFO) in high-concentrate diets containing 30 g/kg dry matter (DM) of supplemental fat (Experiment 1) or increases in the forage-to-concentrate (F : C) ratio from 39 : 61 to 48 : 52 of diets containing 30 g/kg DM of SFO (Experiment 2) on milk production, digestibility and milk FA composition. Replacing PALM with SFO had no effect on DM intake, but tended to increase organic matter digestibility, yields of milk, protein and lactose, and decreased linearly milk fat content. Substituting SFO for PALM decreased linearly milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and cis-9 16:1, and increased linearly 18:0, cis-9 18:1, trans-18:1 (��4 to 16), 18:2 and CLA concentrations. Increases in the F : C ratio of diets containing SFO had no effect on intake, yields of milk, milk protein or milk lactose, lowered milk protein content in a quadratic manner, and increased linearly NDF digestion and milk fat secretion. Replacing concentrates with forages in diets containing SFO increased milk fat 4:0 to 10:0 concentrations in a linear or quadratic manner, decreased linearly cis-9 16:1, trans-6 to -10 18:1, 18:2n-6, trans-7, cis-9 CLA, trans-9, cis-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, without altering milk fat 14:0 to 16:0, trans-11 18:1, cis-9, trans-11 CLA or 18:3n-3 concentrations. In conclusion, replacing prilled palm fat on with SFO in high-concentrate diets had no adverse effects on intake or milk production, other than decreasing milk fat content, but lowered milk fat medium-chain SFA and increased

  10. Significance of cow's milk protein antibodies as risk factor for childhood IDDM: interactions with dietary cow's milk intake and HLA-DQB1 genotype. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, T; Virtanen, S M; Karppinen, M; Reijonen, H; Ilonen, J; Räsänen, L; Akerblom, H K; Savilahti, E

    1998-01-01

    Dietary factors are suspected to play an aetiological role in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We analysed cow's milk formula, betalactoglobulin, and bovine serum albumin antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunoassay in unselected children with newly diagnosed IDDM and in their non-diabetic siblings and inquired about infant feeding practices by questionnaire. Among 410 diabetic sibling pairs matched for age and sex, by logistic regression analysis - including overall duration of breast-feeding, age at introduction of dairy products, recent consumption of cow's milk and HLA-DQB1 genotype ("high/moderate" vs "low/decreased" risk of IDDM) - bovine serum albumin IgG antibody levels (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.25-3.57) and genetic risk (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.43-5.17) were positively associated with IDDM; cow's milk formula IgM antibodies were inversely associated with the risk of IDDM (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.87). Of the diabetic sibling pairs, 42 were identical for HLA-DQB1 alleles associated with IDDM risk or protection (DQB1*0201, *0301, *0302 and *0602/03). In these 42 pairs, children with IDDM had higher median levels of bovine serum albumin IgG, of betalactoglobulin IgG, and of cow's milk formula IgG and IgA antibodies than the non-diabetic siblings (p < 0.05). In conclusion, children with IDDM have higher levels of cow's milk protein antibodies than their HLA-DQB1-matched sibling controls, and these high levels of antibodies are independent risk markers for IDDM.

  11. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow.

  12. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  13. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  14. Evaluating the influence of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on lactational exposure to chemicals in children.

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Plouffe, Laurence; Kieskamp, Kyra K; Rodríguez-Leal, Inés; Marchitti, Satori A

    2017-05-01

    Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children. We developed a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to simulate lifetime maternal exposure, placental transfer, and lactational exposure to the child. We performed 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations where half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution were varied. Children's dose and plasma levels were compared to their mother's by calculating child:mother dose ratios and plasma level ratios. We then evaluated the association between the three chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters and child:mother dose and level ratios through linear regression and decision trees. Our analyses revealed that half-life was the most influential parameter on children's lactational dose and plasma concentrations, followed by milk:plasma partition coefficient and volume of distribution. In bivariate regression analyses, half-life explained 72% of child:mother dose ratios and 53% of child:mother level ratios. Decision trees aiming to identify chemicals with high potential for lactational exposure (ratio>1) had an accuracy of 89% for child:mother dose ratios and 84% for child:mother level ratios. Our study showed the relative importance of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on children's lactational exposure. Developed equations and decision trees will enable the rapid identification of chemicals with a high potential for lactational exposure.

  15. The relationship between milk yield and the incidence of some diseases in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, P; Metzner, M; Beyerbach, M; Hoedemaker, M; Klee, W

    2001-09-01

    Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between milk yield and incidence of certain disorders. Lactations (n = 2197) of 1074 Holstein-Friesian cows from 10 dairies (25 to 146 cows per dairy) in Lower Saxony were studied. The 305-d yield from the previous and current lactations served as the standards for milk yield. Eight disorder complexes were considered: retained placenta, metritis, ovarian cysts, mastitis, claw diseases, milk fever, ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Each disorder complex was modeled separately. In addition to milk yield, the influences of the lactation number, the calving season and the other disorder complexes were examined with the "herd" factor taken into account. A correlation between retained placenta, mastitis, and milk fever to milk yield during the previous lactation was found to be probable and for ketosis and displaced abomasum such a correlation was found to be possible. A connection to the yield in the current lactation was shown for ovarian cysts, claw diseases, and milk fever. No relationship to milk yield existed for metritis. An influence of the lactation number was also demonstrated in various models. Single models allowed a demonstration of the influences of both milk yield and lactation number. Limitations of the model types are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of on-farm veal calves' responses to unfamiliar humans and potential influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Leruste, H; Bokkers, E A M; Heutinck, L F M; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; van der Werf, J T N; Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Engel, B; van Reenen, C G; Lensink, B J

    2012-12-01

    The human-animal relationship is an important component of the welfare of farm animals and for this reason animal responsiveness tests to humans are included in on-farm welfare assessment schemes that provide indicators for this. However, apart from the behaviour of stockpersons towards their animals, other factors may also influence animals' reactivity to humans as observed through behavioural tests, which can add a further layer of complexity to the interpretation of test results. Knowledge of these factors may help a better interpretation of differences from one farm to another in the outcome of human-animal relationship tests, and may provide clues for improving the relationship between animals and humans. The main objective of this study was to identify whether management or environmental factors could influence the outcome of human-animal relationship tests in veal calves. Two tests were performed when calves were aged 14.9 ± 1.6 (SD) weeks in 148 veal farms: the voluntary approach of an unfamiliar human standing at the feeding fence and the reaction towards an unfamiliar human who entered the home pen and tried to touch each calf in a standardised way (Calf Escape Test (CET) - score 0 to 4). Questionnaires were filled in and interviews with the stockpersons were performed in order to obtain information on stockpersons, management, animal and building characteristics. The latency to touch an unfamiliar human at the feeding fence was significantly correlated with the CET scores. Total number of calves on the farm, space allowance, breed, environmental enrichment, stockperson's experience and season of observation influenced the percentage of calves that scored 0 in CET (i.e. calves that could not be approached). Type of milk distribution, type of breed and number of calves per stockperson influenced the percentage of calves that scored 4 in CET (i.e. calves could be touched). For both CET0 and CET4, the level of self-reported contacts by the stockperson

  17. Influence of milk pretreatment on production of free fatty acids and volatile compounds in hard cheeses: heat treatment and mechanical agitation.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Wolf, I V; Hynes, E R; Zalazar, C A

    2010-10-01

    This work aimed to identify technological steps that can increase fat hydrolysis and volatile compounds production in hard cheeses; these biochemical events have been related with improved piquant taste and development of genuine flavor during cheese ripening. For that purpose, 2 different pretreatments of cheese milk were tested: heat treatment and mechanical agitation. Both factors were assayed at 2 levels: milk was either batch pasteurized or nonthermally treated, and mechanical agitation was either applied or not applied. For all combinations, hard cheeses (Reggianito type) were produced in a pilot plant and ripened for 90 d. In all cheeses the degree of lipolysis, assessed by gas chromatography, increased similarly during ripening. However, the proportion of short-chain fatty acids was higher in the cheeses made with unpasteurized milk, suggesting a higher activity of lipases with positional specificity toward the sn-3 position of the triglyceride, among which milk lipoprotein lipase is found. Similar results were found for most of the volatile compounds, determined by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography flame-ionization detector/mass spectrometry, which constitute the groups of ketones, alcohols, esters, and the group of acids. On the contrary, no effect of mechanical agitation was observed, although some interactions between factors were found. In the conditions of the study, results suggest that heat treatment had a higher effect on cheese lipolysis and volatile compounds production than partial destabilization of the fat emulsion produced by the agitation method applied.

  18. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  19. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  20. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  1. Genetic and nongenetic factors contributing to differences in αS-casein phosphorylation isoforms and other major milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z H; Bovenhuis, H; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Miranda, G; Boichard, D; Visker, M H P W; Martin, P

    2017-07-01

    Relative concentrations of αS-casein (αS-CN) phosphorylation isoforms vary considerably among milk of individual cows. We aimed to explore to what extent genetic and other factors contribute to the variation in relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN defined as the proportion of isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation. We also investigated the associations of genetic variants of milk proteins and casein haplotypes with relative concentrations of αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and with the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN in French Montbéliarde cattle from the cheese production area of Franche-Comté. Detailed milk protein composition was determined by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry from 531 test-day morning milk samples. Parity, lactation stage, and genetic variation of cows contributed to the phenotypic variation in relative concentrations of individual αS-CN phosphorylation isoforms and in the phosphorylation degree of αS-CN. As lactation progressed, we observed a significant increase for relative concentrations of αS-CN isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-13P, and αS2-CN-14P) as well as for the phosphorylation degree of both αS1-CN and αS2-CN. Furthermore, the β-CN I variant was associated with a greater proportion of isoforms with lower degrees of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-8P, αS2-CN-10P, and αS2-CN-11P); the β-CN B variant was associated with a greater proportion of isoforms with higher degrees of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-12P to αS2-CN-14P). The heritability estimates were low to moderate for relative concentrations of αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms (0.07 to 0.32), high for relative concentrations of αS1-CN-8P (0.84) and αS1-CN-9P (0.56), and moderate for phosphorylation degrees of αS1-CN (0.37) and αS2-CN (0.23). Future studies investigating relations between the phosphorylation

  2. Influence of Technological Treatments on the Functionality of Bifidobacterium lactis INL1, a Breast Milk-Derived Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Zacarías, María Florencia; Souza, Tassia Costa; Zaburlín, Natalia; Carmona Cara, Denise; Reinheimer, Jorge; Nicoli, Jacques; Vinderola, Gabriel

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the technological processing on the functionality of the human breast milk probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis INL1. In vitro antagonistic activity of B. lactis INL1 was detected for Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. B. lactis INL1 was administered to mice as fresh (F), frozen (Z), spray-dried (S), or lyophilized (L) culture. Immune parameters (IgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ) were determined and histological analysis was performed to assess functionality and protection capacity against Salmonella. In BALB/c mice, F and S cultures induced an increase in the number of IgA-producing cells in the small intestine and IL-10 levels were increased for L culture in the large intestine. In Swiss mice, B. lactis INL1 increased secretory-IgA levels in the small intestine before and after Salmonella infection, both as F or dehydrated culture. Also, an attenuation of damage in the intestinal epithelium and less inflammatory infiltrates were observed in animals that received F and S cultures, whereas in liver only F showed some effect. The anti-inflammatory effect was confirmed in both tissues by myeloperoxidase activity and by IFN-γ levels in the intestinal content. B. lactis INL1 showed inhibitory activity against pathogens and confirmed its probiotic potential in animal models. Technological processing of the probiotic strain affected its functionality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Aroma-related cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in milk desserts: Influence on consumer perception.

    PubMed

    Alcaire, Florencia; Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-07-01

    Reformulation of industrialized products has been regarded as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce sugar intake. Although non-nutritive sweeteners have been extensively used to reduce the added sugar content of these products, increasing evidence about the existence of compensatory energy intake mechanisms makes it necessary to develop alternative strategies to achieve rapid sugar reductions. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate aroma-related cross modal interactions for sugar reduction in vanilla milk desserts. In particular, the influence of increasing vanilla concentration and the joint increase of vanilla and starch concentration on consumer sensory and hedonic perception was assessed. Two studies with 100 consumers each were conducted, in which a total of 15 samples were evaluated. For each sample, consumers rated their overall liking and answered a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question comprising 12 flavour and texture terms. Sugar reduction caused significant changes in the flavour and texture characteristics of the desserts. An increase in vanilla concentration had a minor effect on their sensory characteristics. However, increasing both vanilla and starch concentration led to an increase in vanilla flavour and sweetness perception and reduced changes in consumer hedonic perception. These results showed the potential of aroma-related cross modal interactions for minimizing the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction. These strategies could contribute to product reformulation without the need to use non-nutritive sweeteners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey: influence of pH and enzymatic treatments on the antigen-binding capacity of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Dugnol, Julia; Riera, Francisco A

    2016-03-30

    Hyperimmunised bovine milk and whey (whole and defatted) were submitted at 37°C to different pH values (between 1 and 10) and enzymes (pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin) at their optimum pH and the IgG immunoactivity against Campylobacter jejuni was measured by means of ELISA assays. The kinetic antigen-binding capacity (ABC) losses follow a hyperbolic-type equation. The ABC of IgG is strongly reduced at low pH (1 and 2) and the effect is lower at alkaline pH (8 and 10). The presence of pepsin (at their optimum pH of 2) almost completely reduced the IgG ABC after 2 h of treatment. The ABCs are higher in whole products (milk and whey). The influence of trypsin and quimotrypsin on the ABCs is moderate (ABC losses lower that 25%). The ABC of IgG obtained from hyperimmunised bovine defatted milk and whey is largely reduced in conditions similar to those found in the human digestive tract. Only whole milk can maintain around 40% of their initial ABC. IgG encapsulation or other methods to protect the immunoglobulin activities could be an alternative to use these type of products in final foods formulae. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  7. Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Padideh; Kamali, Elahe; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Karahmadi, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented. PMID:28413424

  8. [Factors that influence the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in nursing mothers].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Luna Jamile Xavier; Sales, Sandra dos Santos; Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Cruz, Giovanna Karinny Pereira; Azevedo, Isabelle Campos de; Ferreira Júnior, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To identify factors that can influence nursing mothers to interrupt exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life of the infant. Descriptive, exploratory, qualitative research. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 nursing mothers who had received prenatal care in the Family Basic Health Units in the city of Campina Grande - PB, from April to May 2013. The data were subjected to the content analysis technique proposed by Bardin. The nursing mothers had little knowledge of the mother-child bond, reduced family spending on child nutrition and the risk of bleeding after delivery. Their beliefs included insufficient milk production, the child´s rejection of the breast, and the possibility of various mammary postpartum complications. It is necessary to expand the guidance and support of breastfeeding for nursing mothers in the early postpartum period.

  9. [Measuring body temperature in dairy cows--applications and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V; Heuwieser, W

    2013-01-01

    Measuring body temperature plays an integral role in early puerperal cow monitoring programs. Furthermore, body temperature is part of the definition of puerperal metritis. Antibiotic treatment decisions are based on body temperature in several international publications on intervention strategies widely adopted in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the most recent publications on this important criterion. Several factors can influence the measurement of the body temperature (type of thermometer, insertion depth, skills of the investigator) as well as the cow's body temperature (days in milk, parity, time of the day, climate at calving). Furthermore, the occurrence of increased body temperature in healthy cows was demonstrated independently by several investigations. In ambiguous cases (e.g. raised body temperature as the only symptom) results should be interpreted with caution.

  10. [Influence on Strychni Semen's Analgesic Effect and Toxicity of Milk-Impregnated- Processing-Technology of Traditional Uighur Medicine].

    PubMed

    Tursun, D; Shi, Yu-zhu; Yang, Qiao-li; Liu, Yan; Xue, Wen-cai; Abas, A; Yang, Wei-jun

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different processing methods on analgesic effect and toxicity of Strychni Semen, and to provide the scientific basis of milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine for toxic medicines. Three different methods, frying with sand of traditional Chinese medicine (1), cooled milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine (2), and heated milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine (3) were used to process raw Strychni Semen and the processed products were compared with those in the raw drug (4). Karber method was used to caculate the LD50. The LD50 of (4), (1), (2) and (3)were 273.0, 289.3, 289.3 and 339.2 mg/kg,successively. Low dose group of heated milk-impregnated-processing-technology, low and high dose groups of cooled milk-impregnated-processing-technology had significant inhibition on the acetic acid-induced writhing reaction in mice (P < 0.05). Strychni Semen processed by cooled and heated milk can enhance the analgesic effect in mice while improving the LD50 of mouse, which illustrates milk-impregnated-processing- technology's pharmacological mechanism on efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing of Strychni Semen.

  11. Concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in milk from healthy and naturally infected quarters of cows.

    PubMed

    Slebodziński, A B; Malinowski, E; Lipczak, W

    2002-02-01

    The effect of naturally acquired bacterial infection of the bovine udder on the activity of 5'-thyroxine monodeiodinase (5'-MD), and on the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in milk, from healthy (control) and inflamed quarters, was determined. The diagnostic procedure included history and clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of secretions, the Californian Mastitis Test, determination of somatic cell counts and bacteriological examination of milk. It has been found that the milk triiodothyronine (T3) content and the 5'-MD activity from inflamed quarters were decreased when compared with controls. The decrease in the milk T3 from subclinical mastitic quarters was manifested when somatic cell counts were > 10(6) ml(-1). TNF-alpha was on average 2-fold higher in infected milk, and the concentration of IL-6 was unchanged. These results suggest that the decreased T3 content in mammary secretions during naturally occurring mastitis is associated with the severity of inflammation, increased TNF-alpha concentration and impaired enzymatic activity of 5'-MD.

  12. Physicochemical behavior of oil-in-water emulsions: influence of milk protein mixtures, glycerol ester mixtures and fat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Granger, C; Barey, P; Veschambre, P; Cansell, M

    2005-05-25

    Different emulsions based on two protein mixtures (skim milk powder (SMP) and functional dairy proteins (FDP)), two mono-di-glyceride mixtures (MDG) (saturated and partially unsaturated), three fats (hydrogenated and refined coconut oils and refined palm oil) were studied to investigate the interactions occurring between the oil phase, low molecular weight emulsifiers and proteins. Immediately following the emulsification process, high diameters of fat globules were obtained in FDP-based systems, relevant of an aggregation phenomenon. At this stage, the fat globule size characteristics were dependent on the emulsifier and fat types present in the formulation. In contrast, SMP-based emulsions were characterized by low proportions of aggregated particles regardless the formulations. Ageing (24 h at 4 degrees C) promoted disaggregation in FDP formulations, while SMP emulsions were well stabilized. Just after the homogenization step, less proteins were required to stabilize the globule interface in FDP systems as compared to SMP ones. Only with SMP, the amount of protein load at the fat globule surface was influenced by the oil nature and/or by the emulsifier type. A competitive adsorption of caseins, over whey proteins, was demonstrated in the case of FDP. The ageing period promoted a displacement of the proteins adsorbed at the oil droplet interface, suggesting a disruption of the interfacial protein interactions. This disruption was more marked with SMP than with FDP and, in both cases, was more or less influenced by the emulsifier and oil phase natures. The variations of the viscosity and rheological parameters (elastic and viscous moduli) were not dependent on one specific component of the formulation.

  13. Factors that predict the clinical reactivity and tolerance in children with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, S Tolga; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Sahiner, Umit M; Birben, Esra; Tuncer, Ayfer; Yakarisik, Selin; Karabulut, Erdem; Kalayci, Omer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-04-01

    Specific IgE (sIgE) may be used for the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy (CMA) and as a guide to perform food challenge tests in patients with CMA. The effect of genetic variants on the prognosis of food allergy is largely unknown. To examine the performance of sIgE analysis and the utility of the genetic variants of CD14, STAT6, IL13, IL10, SPINK5, and TSLP in predicting the clinical course in children with CMA. Serum sIgE levels of 94 children who underwent open food challenges and 54 children with anaphylaxis due to cow's milk (CM) were retrospectively analyzed between January 2002 and May 2009. The genetic polymorphisms were determined in 72 children. A total of 148 children were followed up for a median of 3.5 years, and 42 of the 94 challenge results were positive. The probability curves with 95% decision points were 2.8 kU/L for younger than 1 year, 11.1 for younger than 2 years, 11.7 for younger than 4 years, and 13.7 for younger than 6 years. Sixty-six children outgrew CMA during follow-up. Children with initial an CM sIgE level less than 6 kU/L outgrew CMA earlier than children with an initial CM sIgE level of 6 kU/L or higher (P < .001). The age of tolerance development for CM was significantly higher in children with the GG genotype at rs324015 of the STAT6 gene compared with those with the AA+AG genotype (2 years [range, 1.5-3.9 years] vs 1.2 years [range, 1.0-2.2 years]) (P = .02). The decision points of sIgE obtained in different age groups may help to determine the likelihood of clinical reactivity more precisely. The results suggest that sIgE levels and STAT6 gene variants may be important determinants to predict longer persistence of CMA. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  15. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about milk thistle—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  16. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  17. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause anaphylaxis — a severe, life-threatening reaction. Avoidance is the primary treatment for milk allergy. Fortunately, ... the symptoms, such as allergy medication or milk avoidance? What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms? ...

  18. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  19. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  20. Effect of milk minerals on calf gains and sex differences in mineral composition of milk from Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Gómez, J A; Landete-Castillejos, T; Garcia, A J; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Piñeiro, V; Casabiell, X; de la Cruz, L F

    2009-11-01

    Milk mineral content has received little attention in studies focusing on milk nutrient effects on offspring growth. This study examines calf growth in Iberian deer and compares the influence of milk minerals, other nutrients, and lactation variables relevant for growth to discern the relative weight of each factor. In addition, because Iberian deer hinds are the first mammal found to produce different milk for sons and daughters, the present study examines whether there are also sex differences in milk mineral composition. Concentrations and yields of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, and Zn in milk of 46 red deer hinds were monitored through 18 weeks of lactation. Calf growth was influenced by Ca and P percent, and total Fe production. Milk for males had a lower content in Ca and P, a greater content of K, and Mg, whereas no sex effects were found in Na, Fe, or Zn percentages. Higher percentages in Ca and P for daughters might constitute a compensatory response, as daily production was not biased towards females in Ca or P, whereas in the latter and all the other minerals daily production was greater for heavier calves, which are usually males. In conclusion, milk mineral content and production influence calf growth even after controlling for other important lactation variables and nutrients, and they show effects and interactions more complicated than expected.

  1. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives.

  2. The decision not to initiate breastfeeding--women's reasons, attitudes and influencing factors--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Foureur, Maralyn; Davis, Deborah

    2011-07-01

    Breastfeeding is the biological feeding norm for human babies. Encouraging breastfeeding is a primary health promotion strategy, with studies demonstrating the risks of artificial baby milks. Each year approximately 10% of the women who give birth in New South Wales decide not to initiate breastfeeding, and the demographic characteristics of this group of women have previously been identified. This paper reviews the literature to explore the factors that influence women's decisions about breastfeeding, and their reasons for not initiating breastfeeding. The review revealed there are relatively few studies that explore the experiences of women who decide not to initiate breastfeeding, especially in the Australian context.

  3. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii Antibodies in Bulk Milk from Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Kersh, Gilbert J

    2017-04-01

    This large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors for the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk derived from dairy cattle, sheep, and goats in Jordan. Bulk milk samples were collected from 78 dairy cattle, 48 sheep, and 23 goat farms from various places in Jordan according to the density of these animal species in each region of the country. The samples were tested for C. burnetii antibodies using the CHEKIT Q-Fever Antibody ELISA kit. A standardized questionnaire was also used to collect data from each farm to identify and rank the risk factors for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The results revealed that 62.9% (95% confidence interval: 55.1 to 70.0%) of the tested ruminant farms were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Positive results were obtained from 70.9% (60.6 to 79.5%) of dairy cattle farms, 52.1% (38.3 to 65.5%) of sheep farms, and 56.0% (37.1 to 73.3%) of goat farms. Six factors were associated with the presence of these antibodies on cattle farms, and five factors were associated with these antibodies on sheep and goat farms (chi-square test). The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that large dairy cattle farms, farms that add new animals to the herd, farms that infrequently clean the feeders, and farms in particular areas are 28.6, 19.9, 8.0, and 6.4 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. Sheep and goat farms that mix their animals with those from other farms, graze more than 5 km, and infrequently sanitize the feeders were 8.0, 0.06, and 13.6 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. These data reveal the widespread exposure of Jordanian ruminants to C. burnetii and suggest a high risk for public health.

  5. Influence of heat impact in reconstituted skim milk on the properties of yoghurt fermented by ropy or non-ropy starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Peter Chr; Ebert, Yvonne; Clawin-Rädecker, Ingrid; Schlimme, Eckhard

    2003-10-01

    The paper describes studies on the influence of heat impact in reconstituted skim milk on chemical and functional properties of yoghurt products. Reconstituted skim milk was heated for 20 min at 85 degrees C, 90 degrees C, or 95 degrees C. Ropy (producing exopolysaccharides, EPS) or non-ropy strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were used as starter culture for yoghurt manufacture. The studies have shown that the fermentation times decreased with increasing heat impact when the ropy starter culture was used, while they remained to a far extent unchanged if the non-ropy starter culture was applied. The lactic acid contents of the yoghurt products were in the same range when the milk was heated at 85 degrees C or 90 degrees C, while they were different when milk was heated at 95 degrees C. There was a tendency visible that an increase in preheating leads to increased L(+)- and decreased D(-)-lactic acid contents if the non-ropy culture was applied. Using the ropy culture, it was vice versa. A slightly decrease in proteolysis with increasing heat impact was to be noted with both starter cultures. Concerning the relation of proteolysis to acidification, the fermentation process could be subdivided into three sections with different slopes if the non-ropy starter culture was used, while a linear relation was found if the ropy starter culture was applied. Regarding final product characteristics it was found that the functional properties of yoghurt decreased with increasing heat impact when the ropy starter culture was applied, while they remained to a far extent unchanged when the non-ropy starter culture was used. It can be concluded from these studies that a preheating of milk at a temperature of 85 degrees C (20 min) is optimal in regard to final yoghurt product characteristics.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk from Italian women: influence of cigarette smoking and residential area.

    PubMed

    Zanieri, L; Galvan, P; Checchini, L; Cincinelli, A; Lepri, L; Donzelli, G P; Del Bubba, M

    2007-04-01

    The presence of PAH in breast milk collected from 32 smoking and non-smoking lactating women, residing in urban and rural areas of Tuscany (Italy) was investigated. The results indicated a significant contribution of tobacco smoke to the PAH contamination of milk: the condensate contained in the cigarettes smoked daily by each subject was strongly related with the polynuclear hydrocarbon content (R(2)=0.92, P<0.005). An experiment carried out under controlled exposure conditions to cigarette smoke allowed to demonstrate that individual metabolic activity and smoking habits affect the PAH concentration in milk samples. Mothers living in rural environments showed significantly lower PAH concentrations than those observed in urban subjects. The risk evaluation due to PAH ingestion via breast milk was assessed on the basis of the acceptable daily intake of Benzo(a)pyrene in drinking water, evidencing that a hazard cannot be excluded for heavy smokers residing in urban areas.

  7. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  8. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  9. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  10. Factors Influencing Young People's Conceptions of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Reid, Anna; Walker, Kim; Petocz, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains the importance of environmental education in schools for achieving environmental protection and improvement. Statistically examines factors that incline students to a 'relation' rather than an 'object' conception of the environment. Concludes that development of the former would seem to be an important aim of environmental education and…

  11. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation…

  12. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  13. Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; Nevins, Justin C; Gaither, Caroline; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C

    2012-01-01

    Some pharmacists have changed the focus of their practice from solely dispensing. Emerging services they have added include medication therapy management and other pharmacy services. To assess the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, resource adequacy, and pharmacy staffing on pharmacy practice change. A total of 1847 licensed U.S. pharmacists received 2 mail surveys as part of a larger national pharmacist survey. The core survey collected information about practice setting, prescription volume, and staffing. The supplemental survey assessed how the pharmacy had changed over the past 2 years to enable the delivery of pharmacy services. The amount of change was assessed by 12 items, which were summed to provide an aggregate change index. Five variables from organizational change literature were assessed as influences on practice change: proactiveness, risk taking, autonomy, work ethic, and adequacy of resources. In addition, the associations of pharmacist and technician staffing with practice change were assessed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the aggregate change index as the dependent variable and the 7 potential influences on change as the independent variables. Four hundred usable surveys were analyzed. At least some level of practice change was reported in 60% of pharmacies surveyed. The linear regression analysis of the model was significant (P<.001) with an R-square value of 0.276. Significant influences on change were 2 dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation-proactiveness and autonomy-as well as adequacy of resources and pharmacy technician staffing. Many pharmacies reported that some aspects of their practice have changed, such as collecting patient information and documenting care. Few reported changes in asking patients to pay for pharmacy services. These findings support previous results, which show that the capacity for organizational change can be augmented by increasing proactiveness, autonomy among employees, and the

  14. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p < .05) and positively correlated with the importance of research factor (r = .501, p < .01). Importance of research was negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.435, p < .01) and positively correlated with value of CBI (r = .439, p < .01) and participation in study (r = .501, p < .01). Findings from the study will contribute to the body of knowledge about factors that

  15. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  16. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    PubMed

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (p<0.05). Student ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  18. Influence of somatic cell counts and breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of hard ewes'-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Isabel; Lurueña-Martínez, Miguel A; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a physico-chemical, descriptive quantitative and consumer-preference analysis of hard ewes'-milk cheeses that had been matured for one year and to determine the correlations between the variables studied. The cheeses were elaborated with milk from three breeds of sheep (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) with different somatic cell counts (lower than 500,000 cells ml-1; between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 cells ml-1, and more than 2,500,000 cells ml-1). The results show that the cheeses elaborated with milk with high SCC had lower values of dry extract and fat and high values of pH and fat acidity and were described as pungent, granulose and less creamy. Regarding the effect of breed, the cheeses made with milk from the Churra breed had lower values for fat and those made with Assaf breed milk were significantly more rancid. The study of correlations showed that creaminess was positively correlated with the dry extract and total fat content and negatively correlated with ash and fat acidity, indeed grainy texture and pungency had the opposite sign in their correlation with these latter variables. The yellow colour was positively correlated with ash and negatively with protein. Finally, the consumer preferences reveals that the less accepted cheeses showed the higher values for rancidness and pungency and they were less likely to accept the cheeses made with Assaf breed milk.

  19. Influence of the emulsion droplet type on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of rennet gels from reconstituted milk.

    PubMed

    Gaygadzhiev, Zafir; Hill, Arthur; Corredig, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Rheological and microstructural properties of rennet-induced milk gels containing different fat globules were studied. Recombined milks were prepared by mixing reconstituted low-heat skim milk powder and anhydrous milk fat emulsified with reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP), sodium caseinate (NaCas), whey protein isolate (WPI) or Tween 20. Final elastic modulus of the rennet gels containing WPI- or Tween 20-stabilized fat globules showed significantly lower values compared with those prepared with SMP-emulsified fat globules. SMP-stabilized fat globules interacted with the continuous casein network reinforcing the gel structure. Confocal micrographs supported the rheological data revealing that gels containing SMP-stabilized fat globules formed a tighter network relative to other treatments. Microscopy images also showed some degree of droplet flocculation in the case of gels containing WPI- or Tween 20-stabilized fat globules, and this was most likely the cause of the increase of elastic modulus of these systems. Contrary to reports for acid-induced casein gels, NaCas-stabilized fat globules hindered the formation of rennet gels. These results illustrate that rennet gel structure is affected by droplet-droplet and droplet-casein interactions, which in turn are determined by the composition of the oil-water interface as well as the ionic equilibrium in the reconstituted milk gels.

  20. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    PubMed

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  2. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  3. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  4. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  5. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, “male65,” “female65” and “male85,” that differed in talker (male∕female) and presentation level (65∕85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed. PMID:20968381

  6. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  7. Prevalence of E. coli Virulence Factors in Raw Bulk Tank Milk from U.S. Dairy Farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are known reservoirs of zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and several outbreaks of disease have been associated with the consumption of raw milk or raw milk products. A national survey of US.. dairies was conducted during the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Dairy 2007 study to ...

  8. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Sodhi, C P; Egan, C E; Afrazi, A; Jia, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Lu, P; Branca, M F; Ma, C; Prindle, T; Mielo, S; Pompa, A; Hodzic, Z; Ozolek, J A; Hackam, D J

    2015-09-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease that is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Overexpression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis.

  9. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect