Science.gov

Sample records for factors influencing milk

  1. Invited review: organic and conventionally produced milk-an evaluation of factors influencing milk composition.

    PubMed

    Schwendel, B H; Wester, T J; Morel, P C H; Tavendale, M H; Deadman, C; Shadbolt, N M; Otter, D E

    2015-02-01

    Consumer perception of organic cow milk is associated with the assumption that organic milk differs from conventionally produced milk. The value associated with this difference justifies the premium retail price for organic milk. It includes the perceptions that organic dairy farming is kinder to the environment, animals, and people; that organic milk products are produced without the use of antibiotics, added hormones, synthetic chemicals, and genetic modification; and that they may have potential benefits for human health. Controlled studies investigating whether differences exist between organic and conventionally produced milk have so far been largely equivocal due principally to the complexity of the research question and the number of factors that can influence milk composition. A main complication is that farming practices and their effects differ depending on country, region, year, and season between and within organic and conventional systems. Factors influencing milk composition (e.g., diet, breed, and stage of lactation) have been studied individually, whereas interactions between multiple factors have been largely ignored. Studies that fail to consider that factors other than the farming system (organic vs. conventional) could have caused or contributed to the reported differences in milk composition make it impossible to determine whether a system-related difference exists between organic and conventional milk. Milk fatty acid composition has been a central research area when comparing organic and conventional milk largely because the milk fatty acid profile responds rapidly and is very sensitive to changes in diet. Consequently, the effect of farming practices (high input vs. low input) rather than farming system (organic vs. conventional) determines milk fatty acid profile, and similar results are seen between low-input organic and low-input conventional milks. This confounds our ability to develop an analytical method to distinguish organic from

  2. Factors that influence the level of contamination of human milk with poly-chlorinated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Albers, J M; Kreis, I A; Liem, A K; van Zoonen, P

    1996-02-01

    Polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs) accumulate in tissues with a high fat content. Nursed babies are exposed to POCs through the fat in human milk. Exposure levels are estimated to exceed those considered acceptable as a lifelong daily dose. Nevertheless, mothers are still positively advised as to breast-feeding. In 1988, a survey on contamination of human milk with POCs was carried out in The Netherlands. Levels of ten different organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and seventeen polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and -dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners were determined by use of gaschromatographic techniques with either electron-capture or mass-spectrometric detection. Information on some factors potentially influencing the level of contamination of human milk was obtained by questionnaires. The estimated response amounted to 71 percent. Regression analysis was used to investigate associations between determining factors and specific contaminants. It appeared that maternal age was positively associated with POC concentrations. Traditional omnivorous diet was associated with lower concentrations of POCs when compared to all other types of diet. The post-pregnancy Quetelet Index [by definition calculated as weight/(length)2] and the cumulated period of previous breast-feeding were negatively associated with POC concentrations. In conclusion, chemical behavior and environmental distribution patterns of the POCs measured in this study, if translated to factors of human exposure, are in accordance with the study results. Exposure levels will decrease if emissions can be further reduced. Still, in the near future, maternal age will probably rise (Vermunt 1992; Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics 1992), whereas the duration of lactation in expected to decline. Consequently, there might be an increase in average POC-concentrations in human milk in the forthcoming years.

  3. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Human Breast Milk: Influence of Antibiotherapy and Other Host and Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ana; Martín, Virginia; Jiménez, Esther; Mader, Isabelle; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leonides

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this work was to study the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria population in human milk of healthy women, and to investigate the influence that several factors (including antibioteraphy during pregnancy and lactation, country and date of birth, delivery mode, or infant age) may exert on such population. Methods: A total of 160 women living in Germany or Austria provided the breast milk samples. Initially, 66 samples were randomly selected and cultured on MRS-Cys agar plates. Then, the presence of DNA from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and from most of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species that were isolated, was assessed by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers. Results: Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be isolated from the milk of 27 (40.91%) and 7 (10.61%), respectively, of the 66 cultured samples. On the contrary, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium sequences were detected by PCR in 108 (67.50%) and 41 (25.62%), respectively, of the 160 samples analyzed. The Lactobacillus species most frequently isolated and detected was L salivarius (35.00%), followed by L fermentum (25.00%) and L gasseri (21.88%), whereas B breve (13.75%) was the bifidobacterial species most commonly recovered and whose DNA was most regularly found. The number of lactobacilli- or bifidobacteria-positive samples was significantly lower in women who had received antibiotherapy during pregnancy or lactation. Conclusions: Our results suggest that either the presence of lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria or their DNA may constitute good markers of a healthy human milk microbiota that has not been altered by the use of antibiotics. PMID:24590211

  4. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Veldman, E; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2015-04-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dairy cows were sampled monthly and MAP milk ELISA status and milk yield and composition were determined. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis. Milk yield was found to significantly influence ELISA results expressed as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios. For each 5-kg increase in milk, the S/P ratio has to be multiplied by 0.89; therefore, high milk yield can change the MAP milk ELISA outcome of a cow in early infection from positive to negative. Parity influenced ELISA outcome significantly, indicating that cows with a parity >1 are more likely to be identified by milk testing. Also, herd was an important predictor, showing that herd prevalence influences the milk ELISA strongly. Other factors influencing the S/P ratios were protein concentration, somatic cell count, and days in milk. The IgG concentration and mass excreted per day were determined longitudinally in a subset of 41 cows of which samples and data of a complete lactation were available. Again, the IgG concentration in milk was mainly influenced by milk yield. The total IgG mass secreted per day in milk was found to be relatively constant, with a mean of 8.70 ± 5.38 g despite an increasing IgG concentration in serum at the same time. The variation of IgG concentration in milk can be mainly attributed to dilution through changes in milk yield. This supports the assumption that concentrations of MAP-specific antibodies are influenced by changes in milk yield similarly. In conclusion, we confirmed that antibody concentrations, and therefore MAP ELISA outcome, were influenced by milk yield, herd, and parity. To enhance performance, milk ELISA tests should either be performed in early or late lactation, when

  5. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time.

  6. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length.

  7. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  8. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E; Carmolli, Marya P; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2017-02-15

    The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low-income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6- and ω3-PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6-PUFA or ω3-PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6- and ω3-PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  9. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk.

  10. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production.

  11. Host resistance factors in human milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A S; Smith, C W

    1973-06-01

    This paper discusses the nature of host resistance factors in human milk and epidemiologic studies regarding infections and mortality rates in breastfed and nonbreastfed babies. The defense factors and their proposed modes of action are: 1) a growth enhancer of lactobacilli, which interferes with intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens; 2) antistaphylococcal factors, which inhibit staphylococci; 3) secretory IgA and other immunoglobulins, which protect the gut and respiratory tract; 4) C4 and C3 (complement components; C3 fragments have opsonic, chemotactic, and anaphylatoxic activities); 5) lysozome, lysis of bacterial cell wall; 6) lactoperoxidase, killing of streptococci; 7) lactoferrin, kills microorganism by chelating iron, and 8) macrophages and lymphocytes, phagocytosis and cell-mediated immunity. Although it can be postulated that the breastfed infant's resistance to infection would be superior on account of the greater presence of these factors in human milk compared to cow's milk, little is known about the effects of these defense factors on the infant. Epidemiologic studies have reported on the lower morbidity and mortality rates of breastfed infants as compared to bottlefed infants. Other studies have focused on the protective effects of human milk upon the infant, but these have been inconclusive. In countries with poor sanitation and high infection rates, the incidence of bacterial infections is lowest in breastfed infants. The advantages of human milk however are difficult to demonstrate in societies with high standards of sanitation and low infection rates. Infection and mortality rates in infants have in fact declined in developed countries as the practice of breastfeeding declined. Until it is established that immunity to common pathogens is transmitted to the infant by human milk, it will not be known whether human milk does have protective effects.

  12. Lactose and milk replacer influence on lead absorption and lead toxicity in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Zmudzki, J.; Bratton, G.R.; Womac, C.W.; Rowe, L.D. Jr.; Wagner, B.

    1986-03-01

    The absorption, tissue deposition, retention, and excretion of ingested lead is in large part due to associated dietary factors. Young suckling calves are extremely susceptible to low doses of lead, especially when maintained totally on milk. Unfortunately, the complexity of milk makes it difficult to determine which constituent is actually responsible for increased Pb absorption. Recent studies have shown that lactose, the major carbohydrate of milk, is a dietary factor that increases the absorption of several minerals including Pb in rats. The authors laboratory has recently demonstrated that milk greatly increased the tissue deposition of lead in calves. Lactose, however, has not been considered in the ruminant animal. Moreover, liquid milk seems to increase the absorption of lead more significantly than powdered milk. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of lactose and powdered milk on lead uptake and tissue distribution in calves.

  13. Review-Factors involving in fluctuation of trace metals concentrations in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perween, Rubina

    2015-05-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to human diet through provision of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies with species among domestic animals according to their neonatal needs. It is recognized that imbalance in the quantity of minerals and trace elements is a serious health hazard especially for infants. Many studies reported the fluctuation in the level of metals in milk due to the influence of several factors such as geographical and exposure to environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activity. Amongst all sources, industries take lion's share to alter the metal content in milk. The importance of different nutritional and toxic metals in milk from different geographical areas is discussed.

  14. Do milking practices influence the bacterial diversity of raw milk?

    PubMed

    Verdier-Metz, Isabelle; Michel, Valérie; Delbès, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-05-01

    The link between milk production practices and bacterial diversity of 67 raw milks from dairy farms in the Savoie and Haute-Savoie regions of France was studied by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The milking practices and the cleanliness of different parts of the cow housing were evaluated. The SSCP bacterial profiles allow to classify the 67 milks into three groups: group A was characterised by a majority of Gram-positive non-lactic acid bacteria (Corynebacterineae and Micrococcaceae) and a high level of hygiene in milking practices. The SSCP profiles of groups B and C were close but different from those of group A: they were both dominated by lactic acid bacteria and by a less intensive hygiene practices. The group B milks were characterised by the dominance of Gram-negative bacteria and Lactococcus lactis species while those of group C were dominated by Brevibacterium linens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The variation of balance between bacterial populations can be associated with differences in hygienic milking production practices.

  15. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers.

  16. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    PubMed

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems.

  17. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  18. Human milk and formulae: neurotrophic and new biological factors.

    PubMed

    Serpero, Laura D; Frigiola, Alessandro; Gazzolo, Diego

    2012-03-01

    Mother milk is widely accepted to be a unique product believed to contain biological factors involved in the regulation of newborn optimal growth including brain when compared to milk-formula milks. In this setting, there is growing evidence that in milk-formula neuro-oxidative stress biomarkers, neurotrophic proteins and calcium binding proteins, known to be involved in a cascade of events leading to brain, cardiac and vascular development/damage, are to date lacking or at a lower concentration than breast milk. Therefore, this review is aimed at offering additional insights to the role in human milk of some selected biomarkers such as: i) neurotrophic factors such as Activin A; ii) Calcium binding protein such as S100B and, iii) heat shock protein known to be involved in oxidative stress response (namely hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1 or Heat shock Protein 32, HSP32).

  19. Factors affecting the antilisterial effects of nisin in milk.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Meena; Veeramachaneni, Aparna; Shelef, Leora A

    2004-12-15

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to proliferate in milk and the antilisterial activities of nisin are well documented. Although milk fat was reported to reduce the antimicrobial activities of nisin, there is little information on the influence of milk fat on the antilisterial activities of nisin in refrigerated milk, and whether pasteurization and homogenization influence these activities. Fresh, pasteurized, and homogenized milk samples (0.1%, 2.0%, and 3.5% fat) were treated with nisin (0-500 IU/ml) and challenged with 10(4) CFU/ml L. monocytogenes strain Scott A. The organism was most sensitive to nisin in skim milk, showing rapid decline in cell numbers to <10 CFU/ml after 12 days at 5 degrees C following treatment with 250 IU/ml. An initial decline in cell numbers in 2% and whole milk was followed by regrowth of the organism. Loss of the antilisterial effects of nisin was confirmed in homogenized whole milk, whether raw or pasteurized, but not in raw or pasteurized whole milk that was not homogenized. Tween 80, a nonionic emulsifier, partially counteracted the loss of the antilisterial activity of nisin, whereas lecithin, an anionic emulsifier, had no effect. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition and treatment of foods may play an important role in the antilisterial effects of nisin.

  20. The long-term impact of epigenetics and maternal influence on the neonate through milk-borne factors and nutrient status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of the symposium were to explore potential means by which colostrum and milk may affect growth and development of offspring immediately after birth, into adulthood, and in subsequent generations. The symposium was exceptional in that it brought together scientists that work in the broad ar...

  1. Influence of milk quality and production protocol on proteolysis and lipolysis in Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Caroprese, Mariangela; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of milk source and of cheese production protocol on proteolytic and lipolytic pattern of cheese during ripening. The study involved six dairy factories located in Monti Dauni Meridionali area of Southern Italy; three dairy factories processed the milk produced by their own cow herds, while the other three dairy factories processed the milk collected in other dairy farms located in the neighbouring area. Cow milk processed to cheese had different nutritional parameters and hygienic quality. Caciocavallo cheese showed differences in the evolution of proteolysis during ripening and in the intensity of the lipolytic process detected at the end of ripening. The main factors influencing Caciocavallo cheese features were the quality of the starting milk, differences in technological steps such as milk heating, type of starter cultures and coagulant used.

  2. Environmental and genetic factors affecting milk yield and quality in three Italian sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Dario, Cataldo

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the study described in the Research Communication were to determine the level of influence of some environmental factors on milk yield and quality traits, including lactose, and lactation length in ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds and to estimate the heritability for the same traits. A total of 2138 lactation records obtained from 535 ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds (Comisana, Leccese, and Sarda) were used. Breed significantly affected all of the considered traits. Moreover, year of lambing affected milk yield and lactation length without influence on milk quality traits. Parity affected significantly only the milk yield, whereas type of birth showed its effect on milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose yield. On the whole, the presently reported heritability estimates are within the range of those already obtained in other dairy breeds by other authors, with values for lactation length being very low in all the investigated populations. Considering the heritability estimates for lactose content and yield, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of information on these parameters in ovine species and this is the first report on heritability of lactose content and yield in dairy sheep breeds. Our results suggest that genetic variability for milk traits other than lactation length is adequate for selection indicating a good response to selection in these breeds.

  3. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  4. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    PubMed

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  5. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers.

  6. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  7. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  8. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    meaning and able to represent groups of fatty acids with a common origin and function. Multivariate factor analysis would therefore be a valuable tool for studying the influence of different production environments and individual animal factors on milk fatty acid composition, and for developing nutritional strategies able to manipulate the milk fatty acid profile according to consumer demand.

  9. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    PubMed

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  10. [The influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted milk quality parameters in cows].

    PubMed

    Michalski, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    The investigations of the influence of Fasciola hepatica invasion on the assorted parameters of milk quality were performed in cows. Mean protein content in the milk from infected animals ammounted 3.60% and was higher than in the milk from uninfected cows (3.30%). Similar tendency was observed in the case of the fat (5.08% and 3.91%) and lactose (4.36% and 4.34%). The count of somatic cells in milk from infected cows was lower than in milk from uninfected animals (356.07 and 1776.92). It can indicate immunosupressive activity of Fasciola hepatica on the host.

  11. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  12. On the supposed influence of milk homogenization on the risk of CVD, diabetes and allergy.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2007-04-01

    Commercial milk is homogenized for the purpose of physical stability, thereby reducing fat droplet size and including caseins and some whey proteins at the droplet interface. This seems to result in a better digestibility than untreated milk. Various casein peptides and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are reported to present either harmful (e.g. atherogenic) or beneficial bioactivity (e.g. hypotensive, anticarcinogenic and others). Homogenization might enhance either of these effects, but this remains controversial. The effect of homogenization has not been studied regarding the link between early cow's milk consumption and occurrence of type I diabetes in children prone to the disease and no link appears in the general population. Homogenization does not influence milk allergy and intolerance in allergic children and lactose-intolerant or milk-hypersensitive adults. The impact of homogenization, as well as heating and other treatments such as cheesemaking processes, on the health properties of milk and dairy products remains to be fully elucidated.

  13. Transforming growth factor-β2 is sequestered in preterm human milk by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Coffing, Hayley P; Sankaranarayanan, Nehru Viji; Jin, Yingzi; MohanKumar, Krishnan; Frost, Brandy L; Blanco, Cynthia L; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula P; Garzon, Steven A; Desai, Umesh R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-08-01

    Human milk contains biologically important amounts of transforming growth factor-β2 isoform (TGF-β2), which is presumed to protect against inflammatory gut mucosal injury in the neonate. In preclinical models, enterally administered TGF-β2 can protect against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis, an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In this study, we investigated whether TGF-β bioactivity in human preterm milk could be enhanced for therapeutic purposes by adding recombinant TGF-β2 (rTGF-β2) to milk prior to feeding. Milk-borne TGF-β bioactivity was measured by established luciferase reporter assays. Molecular interactions of TGF-β2 were investigated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and immunoblots, computational molecular modeling, and affinity capillary electrophoresis. Addition of rTGF-β2 (20-40 nM) to human preterm milk samples failed to increase TGF-β bioactivity in milk. Milk-borne TGF-β2 was bound to chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing proteoglycan(s) such as biglycan, which are expressed in high concentrations in milk. Chondroitinase treatment of milk increased the bioactivity of both endogenous and rTGF-β2, and consequently, enhanced the ability of preterm milk to suppress LPS-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. These findings provide a mechanism for the normally low bioavailability of milk-borne TGF-β2 and identify chondroitinase digestion of milk as a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of preterm milk.

  14. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  15. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo ); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi ); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  16. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  17. Milk and other dietary influences on coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    While dietary links to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality have been studied for many years, the correlation has not clearly been resolved, especially for older populations. In this paper, a multi-country statistical approach involving 32 countries is used to find dietary links to IHD and CHD for various age groups aged 35+. For IHD, milk carbohydrates were found to have the highest statistical association for males aged 35+ and females aged 65+, while for females aged 35-64, sugar was found to have the highest association. In the case of CHD, non-fat milk was found to have the highest association for males aged 45+ and females aged 75+, while for females 65-74, milk carbohydrates and sugar had the highest associations, and for females aged 45-64, sugar had the highest association. A number of mechanisms have been proposed in the literature that might explain the milk carbohydrate or non-fat milk association. One of the most prominent theories is that animal proteins contribute to homocysteine (Hcy) production; however, milk more than meat lacks adequate B vitamins to convert Hcy to useful products. Lactose and calcium in conjunction with Hcy from consumption of non-fat milk may also contribute to calcification of the arteries.

  18. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-10-19

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  19. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Santaella, Marina; Mira-Pascual, Laia; Martínez-Arias, Elena; Khodayar-Pardo, Parisá; Ros, Gaspar; Martínez-Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk (BM) is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs) and fatty acids (FAs) is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term) collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA) and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk. PMID:26492267

  20. Addition of pasture plant essential oil in milk: influence on chemical and sensory properties of milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Tornambé, G; Cornu, A; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Kondjoyan, N; Figueredo, G; Hulin, S; Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the addition, to milk, of an essential oil (EO) obtained from the hydrodistillation of plants collected from a mountain natural pasture on the milk and cheese sensory properties. The EO was mainly composed of terpenoid compounds (67 of the 95 compounds identified) as well as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and benzenic compounds. In milk, the addition of this EO at the concentration of 0.1 microL/L did not influence its sensory properties, whereas at 1.0 microL/L, sensory properties were modified. In cheeses, the effect of adding EO into milk was studied in an experimental dairy plant allowing the production of small Cantal-type cheeses (10 kg) in 3 vats processed in parallel. The control (C) vat contained 110 L of raw milk; in the other 2 vats, 0.1 microL/L (EO1) or 3.0 microL/L (EO30) of EO were added to 110 L of the same milk. Six replicates were performed. After 5 mo of ripening, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out on the cheeses, including determination of the volatile compounds by dynamic headspace combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The EO did not influence the sensory properties of the cheeses at the lower concentration (EO1). However, the EO30 cheeses had a more intense odor and aroma, both characterized as "mint/chlorophyll" and "thyme/oregano." These unusual odors and aromas originated directly from the EO added. In total, 152 compounds desorbing from cheese were found, of which 41 had been added with the EO; in contrast, 54 compounds of the EO were not recovered in the cheese. Few volatile compounds desorbing from cheeses, other than the added compounds, were affected by EO addition. Among them, 2-butanol, propanol, and 3-heptanone suggested a slight effect of the EO on lipid catabolism. The antimicrobial activity of terpenes is not or is only marginally involved in the explanation of the influence of the botanical composition of the meadows on the pressed

  1. Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrer, Andrea; Sprenger, Norbert; Kurakevich, Ekaterina; Borsig, Lubor; Chassard, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides contribute to the development of the intestinal environment by acting as decoy receptors for pathogens and as prebiotics, which promote the colonization of commensal bacteria. Here, using α2,3- and α2,6-sialyltransferase-deficient mice, we investigated the role of the sialylated milk oligosaccharides sialyl(α2,3)lactose and sialyl(α2,6)lactose on mucosal immunity. The exposure of newborn mice to milk containing or deficient in sialyllactose had no impact on the development of mucosal leukocyte populations. However, when challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, adult mice that had been fostered on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to colitis compared with mice fostered on normal milk or sialyl(α2,6)lactose-deficient milk. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed different colonization patterns depending on the presence or absence of sialyl(α2,3)lactose in the milk. Germ-free mice reconstituted with intestinal microbiota isolated from mice fed on sialyl(α2,3)lactose-deficient milk were more resistant to DSS-induced colitis than germ-free mice reconstituted with standard intestinal microbiota. Thus, exposure to sialyllactose during infancy affects bacterial colonization of the intestine, which influences the susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in adult mice. PMID:21098096

  2. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  3. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.

  4. Influence of micellar calcium and phosphorus on rennet coagulation properties of cows milk.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Sandri, Sandro; Mariani, Primo; Summer, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The main requirement for milk processed in most cheese typologies is its rennet coagulation ability. Despite the increasing number of studies, the causes for abnormal coagulation of milk are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain relationships between milk characteristics and its rennet coagulation ability, focusing on the influence of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Ca and P are essential constituents of the micelles. Micellar P can be present as part of colloidal calcium phosphate (inorganic-P) or covalently bound to caseins as phosphate groups (casein-P). Eighty one herd milk samples (SCC<400 000 cell/ml) were classified as Optimal (8), Suboptimal (39) Poor (29) and Non-coagulating milk (5), according to their rennet coagulation parameters as assessed by lactodynamographic test. Samples were analysed for their chemical composition (basic composition, protein fractions, minerals and salt equilibria), physicochemical parameters (pH and titratable acidity) and rheological properties. Optimal milk was characterised by the highest contents of major constituents, protein fractions and minerals, lowest content of chloride and highest values of titratable acidity. Non-coagulating milk was characterised by the highest values of pH and the lowest of titratable acidity. At micellar level, Optimal milk showed the highest values of colloidal Ca, casein-P and colloidal Mg (g/100 g casein), while Non-coagulating milk showed the lowest values. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference regarding the content of colloidal inorganic-P (g/100 g casein) between Optimal and Non-coagulating milks. Overall, high mineralisation of the micelle (expressed as g inorganic-P/100 g casein) positively affect its rennetability. However, excessive mineralisation could lead to a reduction of the phosphate groups (g casein-P/100 g casein) available for curd formation.

  5. Evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Turbes, Gregory; Linscott, Tyler D; Tomasino, Elizabeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy; Lim, Juyun; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    The concept of local food is rapidly gaining importance within the United States. The foundation of local food is terroir, which links a food to its production environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate evidence of terroir in milk sourcing and its influence on Cheddar cheese flavor. Specifically, the study was designed to assess if consumers could differentiate between Cheddar cheeses made with milk from different dairy farms. Milk from 5 locations, including single dairy farms and commingled sites, was collected from around the state of Oregon. Using raw and pasteurized counterparts of the milk, Cheddar cheese was made and aged. At 5 and 9mo into aging, Cheddar cheese consumers were asked to group the samples based on perceived similarity/dissimilarity of cheese flavor. Grouping data were subjected to multidimensional scaling and subsequent cluster analysis. Results at 5mo into aging revealed that cheeses made by milk originating from different farms (80km apart) within the same region were perceived as different, whereas cheeses made with milk from neighboring farms (5km apart) were grouped together, irrespective of heat treatment (i.e., raw vs. pasteurized). Cheeses made with commingled milk from different regions grouped together. At 9mo of aging, in contrast, a clear separation of perceived flavor was present between the pasteurized and raw cheese samples, whereas the effect of milk sourcing was less pronounced. These data suggest that the geographical location of the milk source has an effect on the flavor of Cheddar cheese, but that the practices of milk commingling and heat treatment likely reduce the effect of geographical location, particularly as cheese ages.

  6. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    influence on the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk than that of cow milk, probably due to a shorter and less severe period of negative energy balance. Parity affected the profiles of a few traits and had the most significant effects on branched-chain fatty acids. This work provided a detailed overview of the fatty acid profile in buffalo milk including also those fatty acids present in small concentrations, which may have beneficial effects for human health. Our results contributed also to increase the knowledge about the effects of some of the major factors affecting buffalo production traits and fatty acid concentrations in milk, and consequently its technological and nutritional properties.

  7. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  8. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  9. Influence of processing on functionality of milk and dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2007-01-01

    The inherent physical functionality of dairy ingredients makes them useful in a range of food applications. These functionalities include their solubility, water binding, viscosity, gelation, heat stability, renneting, foaming, and emulsifying properties. The suitability of dairy ingredients for an application can be further tailored by altering the structure of the proteins using appropriate processes. The processes discussed include physical modification (heat treatment, acidification, addition of mineral slats, homogenization, and shear), enzymatic modification (renneting, hydrolysis, and transglutamination), and chemical modification (use of chemical agents and the Maillard reaction). Emerging food processes (high pressure and ultrasound) are also discussed. The challenges for using dairy ingredients for the delivery of nutrients and bioactive components, while maintaining physical functionality, are also highlighted. There is a need for continued research into the fundamental aspects of milk proteins and their responses to various stresses for further differentiation of milk products and for the delivery of ingredients with consistent quality for target applications.

  10. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran's national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit.

  11. Influence of storage conditions on the growth of Pseudomonas species in refrigerated raw milk.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis.

  12. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  13. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  14. Higher levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor but similar nerve growth factor in human milk in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Dangat, Kamini; Kilari, Anitha; Mehendale, Savita; Lalwani, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    Children born to mothers with preeclampsia have consistently been suggested to be at risk for cognitive and behavioral disorders in later life. Breastfeeding is said to be associated with better neurodevelopment outcomes. Our earlier studies indicated higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human milk in women with preeclampsia. DHA is known to regulate the expression of neurotrophins and together they play a vital role in neurodevelopment and cognitive performance. The present study examines the levels of maternal plasma and milk neurotrophins [(nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in women with preeclampsia and compares them with normotensive women who served as controls. Singleton pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (n=72) and controls (n=102) were recruited for this study from Bharati Hospital, Pune. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed for NGF and BDNF levels using the Emax Immuno Assay System using promega kits. Maternal plasma NGF and BDNF levels were lower (p<0.01 for both) in women with preeclampsia as compared to the control women. Milk NGF levels were similar while milk BDNF levels were higher (p<0.05) in the preeclampsia group as compared to controls. Plasma NGF levels were positively correlated with milk NGF levels in the control group. Our results indicate the differential regulation of milk NGF and BDNF levels in women with preeclampsia. The present study suggests a role for both NGF and BDNF in human milk for postnatal brain development. Further studies need to examine the associations of DHA and BDNF in human milk with cognition at later ages.

  15. Metagenomic analysis reveals the influences of milk containing antibiotics on the rumen microbes of calves.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Han, Yunsheng; Yuan, Xue; Wang, Guan; Wang, Zhibo; Pan, Qiqi; Gao, Yan; Qu, Yongli

    2017-04-01

    Milk containing antibiotics is used as cost-effective feed for calves, which may lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. This study aims to investigate the influence of antibiotics on rumen microbes. Through metagenomic sequencing, the rumen microbial communities of calves fed with pasteurized milk containing antibiotics (B1), milk containing antibiotics (B2) and fresh milk (B3) were explored. Each milk group included calves in 2 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months of age. Using FastQC software and SOAPdenovo 2, the filtered data, respectively, were performed with quality control and sequence splicing. Following KEGG annotation was conducted for the uploaded sequences using KAAS software. Using R software, both species abundance analysis and differential abundance analysis were performed. In the B1 samples, the species abundance of Bacteroidetes gradually decreased along with the extension of feeding time, while that of Fibrobacteres gradually increased. The species abundances of Proteobacteria (p value = 0.01) and Spirochaetes (p value = 0.03) had significant differences among T1, T2 and T3 samples. Meanwhile, only the species abundance of Spirochaetes (p value = 0.04) had significant difference among B1, B2 and B3 samples. Cell cycle involving GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 was significantly enriched for the differentially expressed genes in the T1 versus T2 and T1 versus T3 comparison groups. Milk containing antibiotics might have a great influence on these rumen microbes and lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. Furthermore, GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 in rumen bacteria might affect milk fat metabolism in early growth stages of calves.

  16. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., <1/mL) can survive pasteurization and grow in milk and cheese products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in

  17. Transference factors as a tool for the estimation of arsenic milk concentration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Carrera, Alejo; Alvarez-Gonçalvez, Cristina V; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argentina represents one of the largest regions with high levels of arsenic (As) in groundwater. The aim of this study was the assessment of a biotransference factor (BTF) as a tool for the estimation of As concentration in cow's milk from As drinking water concentration. Total As content in livestock drinking water, soil, forage, and milk was determined in farms located in an area of high As groundwater, in order to analyze the relation between As uptake and its transfer to milk. The concentrations of As in milk ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 μg/L. From the results obtained, drinking water may be considered the main source of exposure to As, and the biotransference factor for milk ranges from 1.5 × 10(-5) to 4.3 × 10(-4). Therefore, BTF provides a simple tool for the estimation of arsenic levels in milk through the As livestock drinking water content.

  18. Premature delivery influences the immunological composition of colostrum and transitional and mature human milk.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Cristina; Casillas, Rosario; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida; Moretones, M Glòria; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Franch, Angels

    2011-06-01

    Human breast milk is the ideal nutrition for the newborn, and in addition to its nutritional contribution, necessary for infant growth and development, it contains various immune bioactive factors that confer some of the numerous beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The current study analyzed the concentrations of IgA, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2, cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and TNFα, and TNF-receptor I (TNF-RI) in colostrum and transitional and mature milk from mothers with mature, premature, and very premature infants. Human milk samples were collected from mothers delivering at term (T), preterm (PT), and very preterm (VPT). Milk from all the mothers was collected at 3 different time points after delivery corresponding to colostrum and transitional and mature milk. After obtaining milk whey, IgA, EGF, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 were determined by ELISA and IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNFα and TNF-RI by cytometric bead array immunoassay. The colostrum of the PT group was extremely rich in most of the factors studied, but higher concentrations than in the T group were only found for IL-6 (P = 0.051), TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the colostrum of the VPT group had lower concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, and TNFα than those in the T group (P < 0.05). Results suggest that maternal lactogenic compensatory mechanisms accelerating the development of immature breast-fed preterm infants may take effect only after wk 30 of gestation.

  19. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  20. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  1. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  2. Genetic relatedness and virulence factors of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teat skin and milk.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Hoet, A; Seo, K S; Fogt, K; Moon, B S

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of teat skin colonization in Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) by evaluating genetic relatedness of Staph. aureus isolates from milk and teat skin of dairy cows using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and characterizing the isolates based on the carriage of virulence genes. Cows in 4 known Staph. aureus-positive herds were sampled and Staph. aureus was detected in 43 quarters of 20 cows, with 10 quarters positive in both milk and skin (20 isolates), 18 positive only in milk, and 15 only on teat skin. Quarters with teat skin colonized with Staph. aureus were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Staph. aureus IMI than quarters not colonized on teat skin. Three main clusters were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using a cutoff of 80% similarity. All 3 clusters included both milk and skin isolates. The majority of isolates (72%) belonged to one predominant cluster (B), with 60% of isolates in the cluster originating from milk and 40% from teat skin. Genotypic variability was observed within 10 pairs (formed by isolates originating from milk and teat skin of the same quarter), where isolates in 5 out of the 10 pairs belonged to the same cluster. Forty-two virulence factors were screened using PCR. Some virulence factors were carried more frequently by teat skin isolates than by milk isolates or isolates from quarters with high somatic cell counts. Isolates in the predominant cluster B carried virulence factors clfA and clfB significantly more often than isolates in the minor clusters, which may have assisted them in becoming predominant in the herds. The present findings suggest that teat skin colonization with Staph. aureus can be an important factor involved in Staph. aureus IMI.

  3. Feeding goats on scrubby Mexican rangeland and pasteurization: influences on milk and artisan cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Hilario, Mario Cuchillo; Puga, Claudia Delgadillo; Wrage, Nicole; Pérez-Gil R, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foraging on local scrubby rangeland versus stable feeding with high-protein concentrate as well as the compulsory pasteurization process on goats' milk and artisan soft cheese quality in terms of chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in the energy, fat, or ash content of milk and cheese due to feeding; however, a significant influence of feeding on cheese protein and fatty acids in both milk and cheese was detected. Feeding on scrubby rangeland tended to increase the amounts of major polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese from goats. Pasteurization, which is mandatory in Mexico, did not alter the fatty acid concentrations in milk or cheese. Small goat-keepers using rangeland resources might claim better economical returns for products recognized as healthier. Further investigations to assure ecosystem sustainability of shrubby rangeland joined with economical evaluations and best animal management to avoid deleterious effects are recommended.

  4. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products.

  5. Influence of milking method, disinfection and herd management practices on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts in tropical dairy herds in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J; Sanchez, J; Stryhn, H; Ortiz, T; Olivera, M; Keefe, G P

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of milking method, disinfection practices and other management factors on the bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BTSCC) in tropical dairy herds and to examine potential interactions with time. One hundred and thirty farms in the Northern region of Antioquia, Colombia, were visited once per month for 24 months. A two level linear mixed model for repeated measures was used to assess the impact on log transformed BTSCC (lnBTSCC). The geometric mean of the BTSCC for all herds was 262,330 cells/mL. The two-level linear mixed model showed that lnBTSCCs in hand milked herds were significantly higher than in machine milked herds. Fore-stripping corresponded with a 27% increase in lnBTSCC and failing to post-dip corresponded with a 45% increase in lnBTSCC. The two way interactions of sampling month with milking method, singeing udders and pre-dipping were significant. The lowest predicted lnBTSCC was observed in machine milked herds that practised both pre-dipping and singeing of udders. This study suggests that milking procedures and disinfection practices can interact with time and have substantial effects on lnBTSCC.

  6. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk.

  7. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    PubMed

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  8. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    PubMed

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  9. Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Kamata, H; Fukuda, Y; Murasugi, E; Sato, T; Uwatoko, K; Pan, I J

    2000-12-01

    We previously reported that body weight on day 14 after birth in male offspring of rats given alkaline ionized water (AKW) was significantly heavier than that in offspring of rats given tap water (TPW), but no significant difference was noted in milk yield and in suckled milk volume between the two groups. Additionally, the offspring in the AKW group and TPW group were given AKW and TPW, respectively, at weaning, and unexpectedly, the necrotic foci in the cardiac muscle were observed at the 15-week-old age in the AKW group, but not in the TPW group. The present study was designed to clarify the factors which are involved in that unusual increase of body weight and occurrence of cardiac necrosis. Eight dams in each group were given AKW or TPW (control) from day 0 of gestation to day 14 of lactation. The milk samples were collected on day 14 of lactation and analyzed for concentrations of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and chloride (Cl). The AKW and TPW were also analyzed. Ca, Na and K levels in milk were significantly higher in the AKW group compared to the TPW group. No significant difference was noted in the Mg and Cl levels between the two groups. These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW.

  10. Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Premature Infants: Absorption, Excretion and Influence on the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.; Gaerlan, Stephanie; De Leoz, M. Lorna A.; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the intestinal microbiota in term infants. In premature infants, alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis and the influence of HMOs on the microbiota is unclear. Methods Milk, urine, and stool specimens from 14 mother-premature infant dyads were investigated by mass spectrometry for HMO composition. The stools were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to complement a previous analysis. Results Percentages of fucosylated and sialylated HMOs were highly variable between individuals but similar in urine, feces and milk within dyads. Differences in urine and fecal HMO composition suggest variability in absorption. Secretor status of the mother correlated with the urine and fecal content of specific HMO structures. Trends toward higher levels of Proteobacteria and lower levels of Firmicutes, were noted in premature infants of non-secretor mothers. Specific HMO structures in the milk, urine and feces were associated with alterations in fecal Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Conclusion HMOs may influence the intestinal microbiota in premature infants. Specific HMOs, for example those associated with secretor mothers, may have a protective effect by decreasing pathogens associated with sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis while other HMOs may increase dysbiosis in this population. PMID:26322410

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy ewes: Vertical transmission and influence on milk production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Radavelli, Willian M; Custódio, Edimar; Bianchi, Anderson E; Camillo, Giovana; Cezar, Alfredo S; Vogel, Fernanda F; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ferreira, Rogério; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the transmission of toxoplasmosis (vertical and venereal) and its influence on milk production and reproductive problems of Lacaune sheep seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii. Males and females were serologically selected using indirect immunofluorescence method in three steps of the study. Step 1: In order to evaluate the influence of toxoplasmosis on milk production, the volume of milk produced by 40 sheep (22 seronegatives and 18 seropositives for T. gondii) was weekly measured throughout the lactation period. There were no significant differences between these two groups; in other words, toxoplasmosis did not affect milk production. Step 2: In order to assess T. gondii venereal transmission, five samples of semen from seropositive rams (n = 5) were tested by endpoint and real time PCR with two days of interval; however, these semen samples were PCR negatives for T. gondii. Step 3: To evaluate reproductive problems, 12 seropositive animals out of a flock of 68 pregnant ewes showed signs of reproductive problems, such as abortion or fetal resorption. T. gondii transplacental transmission was evaluated on blood drawn from newborn lambs (n = 41), and their respective seropositive mothers (n = 30) after single, double or triple births. Serological tests showed that 65.8% of the lambs had antibodies against this protozoan, indicating a high transmission from ewe to fetus during pregnancy. Therefore, it is concluded that toxoplasmosis in sheep may impair reproduction with a high percentage of vertical transmission.

  12. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  13. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  14. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  15. Relationship between mozzarella yield and milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents.

    PubMed

    Sales, D C; Rangel, A H N; Urbano, S A; Freitas, Alfredo R; Tonhati, Humberto; Novaes, L P; Pereira, M I B; Borba, L H F

    2017-03-22

    Our aim was to identify the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents. A production of 30 batches of mozzarella cheese at a dairy industry in northeast Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte) was monitored between March and November, 2015. Mozzarella yield and 32 other variables were observed for each batch, and divided into 3 groups: milk composition variables (12); variables involved in the cheesemaking process (14); and variables for recovery of whey constituents (6). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and principal component analysis. Most of the correlations between milk composition variables and between the variables of the manufacturing processes were not significant. Significant correlations were mostly observed between variables for recovery of whey constituents. Yield only showed significant correlation with time elapsed between curd cuttings and age of the starter culture, and it showed greater association with age of the starter culture, time elapsed between curd cuttings, and during stretching, as well as with milk pH and density. Thus, processing factors and milk characteristics are closely related to dairy efficiency in mozzarella manufacturing.

  16. [Risk factors for persistent presence of salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk].

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Hofste, G T

    2011-12-01

    Given bulk milk serology, salmonellosis is present on a restricted number of Dutch dairy farms. The affected farms are clustered in some regions of the country. This study was designed to find risk factors for having persistent positive bulk milk serology for salmonella within the regions with the highest prevalence. With that knowledge, a reduction of persistent infected farms may be achieved. To this end, we performed a rather small matched case-control study with two groups of 24 farms each. Case herds were characterized by having a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella for all three samplings during one year, whereas control farms were located near the positive farms and were negative in all these three samplings. Several risk factors were found not significant, while the significant risk factors concerned general on farm hygiene practices. Significant risk factors in the multivariate analyses were less hygienic calf facilities (OR = 6.1, p = 0.04), lower cleaning frequency of alleys (OR = 5.7, p = 0.08), and a higher frequency of claw trimmers visiting the farm (OR = 5.9, p = 0.07). We concluded that these risk factors are similar to those found outside the regions with a high number of farms with a positive bulk milk serology for salmonella.

  17. Influence of repeated ochratoxin A ingestion on milk production and its carry-over into the milk, blood and tissues of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Katsunuma, Yu; Nunokawa, Masahiro; Minato, Hajime; Yonemochi, Chisato

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of repeated ingestion of ochratoxin A (OTA) on milk production of lactating Holstein cows over 28 days, and the carry-over of OTA from the diets into the milk and tissues of the cows. Nine cows were divided into three groups, labeled OTA5, OTA50 and OTA100, and fed a diet containing 5, 50 and 100 µg OTA/kg of dry matter, respectively. Body weight, feed intake and daily milk yield in cows were not different among the three groups during the OTA-intake period. OTA residues were neither detected in the tissues, such as liver, kidney, muscles, fat and jejunoileum, nor in the milk of any cows in the OTA intake groups. In contrast, a small amount of OTA (0.1 µg/kg) was detected in the blood plasma of one sample in the OTA50 group and multiple samples in the OTA100 group. The results of this study show that the ingestion of diets containing up to 100 µg/kg of OTA over 28 days does not affect feed intake or milk production of cows, and the dietary OTA is not carried over into milk and edible tissues such as the liver, muscles and fat.

  18. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.

  19. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    PubMed

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine. PMID:26329882

  1. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  2. Fossomatic cell-counting on ewe milk: comparison with direct microscopy and study of variation factors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Martínez, J R; Carrledo, J A; San Primitivo, F

    2003-01-01

    Using the Fossomatic method (FSCC) a total of 23,003 analytical SCC observations were carried out on 6400 aliquots taken from 80 individual ewe milk samples with the objective of studying the influence of 4 preservation procedures (without preservation, potassium dichromate, azidiol, and bronopol), 2 storage temperatures (ambient and refrigeration), 10 milk ages (3,6,12, and 24h, and 2,3,4,5,7, and 9d postcollection), and two analytical temperatures (40 and 60 degrees C). In addition, each sample was analyzed with direct microscopic method (DMSCC), using 3 different stainings for each sample: methylene blue (MB), May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Pyronin Y-methyl green (PGM). This allowed DMSCC and FSCC (at 24 h of age) to be compared. The reference DMSCC from MB staining was a reliable method in ewe milk, though more specific stainings such as MGG and PMG slightly improve the residual standard deviation for repeated SCC. Between DMSCC and FSCC, the highest coefficients of correlation (0.972 to 0.996) corresponded to preserved and refrigerated milk, and the lowest (0.708 to 0.919) to unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots. Except for the unpreserved and ambient stored aliquots, SCC values were similar in all aliquots. Under FSCC, preservation, storage and analytical temperature, milk age, and most of the interactions showed a significant effect on SCC variation. In preserved samples, logSCC values ranged between 5.67 (bronopol) and 5.62 (azidiol). The higest values (5.72) were for unpreserved milk, which showed false overestimation of SCC due to bacterial proliferation. LogSCC was higher at 60 degrees C (5.68) than at 40 degrees C (5.65). The interaction between age, preservation and storage temperature showed no cell degeneration in properly handled samples over the 9 d of study.

  3. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  4. Influence of lactation stage and some flock management practices on sensory characteristics of goat milk from Brazilian Saanen breed.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita; Costa, Roberto Germano; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Dos Santos Garruti, Deborah; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of lactation stage (early, middle, late) and management practices (milking hygiene and buck presence) on the sensory attributes of Saanen goat milk. Goats were randomly divided in four groups in respect of different milking sanitary procedures and the presence/absence of the buck in the barn. Milk samples were analyzed for sensory attributes including quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and acceptance. The milking hygiene practice caused no significant influence on microbiological parameters. Results of QDA revealed that the buck presence increased the characteristic odor of milk at the middle and late lactation stages. The off-odor and off-flavor descriptors showed a distinct response since a higher intensity of these sensory characteristics was noted in the samples obtained from goats maintained without the buck. Odor and flavor contributed most in characterizing the different samples regardless of the management practice and lactation stage. The acceptance of odor showed to be influenced only by the lactation stage, while the acceptance of flavor was only through the presence of the buck. Odor acceptance correlated negatively to off-odor and off-flavor, suggesting that these two sensory attributes impaired the preference for the aroma of the milk samples.

  5. Lysozyme in breast milk is a selection factor for bifidobacterial colonisation in the infant intestine.

    PubMed

    Minami, J; Odamaki, T; Hashikura, N; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to study the residential characteristics of bifidobacteria, which can be classified as either human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) or non-HRB. We investigated the growth of different strains of HRB and non-HRB in human breast milk with the aim of understanding the mechanisms involved in the unique habitation of each taxon. The growth of 37 strains of different bifidobacterial species or subspecies in breast milk was investigated by incubating each under anaerobic conditions at 37 (°)C. The tolerance of each strain to either egg white or human lysozyme was compared. Among the infant-type HRB strains, all strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium breve grew well in breast milk, but the growth characteristics of B. longum subsp. longum and B. bifidum were strain-dependent. In contrast, the tested strains of adult-type HRB and non-HRB generally failed to grow and died after incubation in breast milk. Most infant-type HRB strains were tolerant to high concentrations of lysozyme, while adult-type HRB strains possessed intermediate tolerance to lysozyme, and non-HRB strains were susceptible to lysozymes of egg white or human origin. These data suggest that breast milk lysozyme content plays a central role in the exclusion of non-HRB, while other factors, together with lysozyme content, are involved in the growth inhibition of adult-type strains in human milk. Our results suggest that infant-type HRB strains would be suitable candidates for use as infant probiotics.

  6. Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sophie; Heylen, Kim; Messens, Winy; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Vos, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Herman, Lieve; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Psychrotolerant bacteria and their heat-resistant proteases play a major role in the spoilage of UHT-processed dairy products. Summer and winter raw milk samples were screened for the presence of such bacteria. One hundred and three proteolytic psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated, characterized by API tests, rep-PCR fingerprint analysis and evaluated for heat-resistant protease production. Twenty-nine strains (representing 79% of the complete collection) were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. A seasonal inter- and intra-species influence on milk spoilage capacity (e.g. growth rate and/or protease production) was demonstrated. Moreover, this polyphasic approach led to the identification of Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas lundensis (representing 53% of all isolates) as predominant producers of heat-resistant proteases in raw milk. The role of Pseudomonas fluorescens, historically reported as important milk spoiler, could not unequivocally be established. The use of more reliable identification techniques and further revision of the taxonomy of P. fluorescens will probably result in a different perspective on its role in the milk spoilage issue.

  7. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  8. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  9. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing.

  10. Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

    2012-11-01

    Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships.

  11. Mechanistic peptidomics: factors that dictate specificity in the formation of endogenous peptides in human milk.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Andres; Dallas, David C; Contreras, Stephanie; Chee, Sabrina; Parker, Evan A; Sun, Xin; Dimapasoc, Lauren; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2014-12-01

    An extensive mass spectrometry analysis of the human milk peptidome has revealed almost 700 endogenous peptides from 30 different proteins. Two in-house computational tools were created and used to visualize and interpret the data through both alignment of the peptide quasi-molecular ion intensities and estimation of the differential enzyme participation. These results reveal that the endogenous proteolytic activity in the mammary gland is remarkably specific and well conserved. Certain proteins-not necessarily the most abundant ones-are digested by the proteases present in milk, yielding endogenous peptides from selected regions. Our results strongly suggest that factors such as the presence of specific proteases, the position and concentration of cleavage sites, and, more important, the intrinsic disorder of segments of the protein drive this proteolytic specificity in the mammary gland. As a consequence of this selective hydrolysis, proteins that typically need to be cleaved at specific positions in order to exert their activity are properly digested, and bioactive peptides encoded in certain protein sequences are released. Proteins that must remain intact in order to maintain their activity in the mammary gland or in the neonatal gastrointestinal tract are unaffected by the hydrolytic environment present in milk. These results provide insight into the intrinsic structural mechanisms that facilitate the selectivity of the endogenous milk protease activity and might be useful to those studying the peptidomes of other biofluids.

  12. Casein polymorphism heterogeneity influences casein micelle size in milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A

    2015-06-01

    Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor.

  13. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study.

  14. Influence of glucogenic dietary supplementation and reproductive state of dairy cows on the composition of lipids in milk.

    PubMed

    Mesilati-Stahy, R; Malka, H; Argov-Argaman, N

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of the frequently used glucogenic dietary supplementation in dairy herds and the hormonal changes occurring during the normal estrous cycle on the composition and concentration of milk lipid components. Holstein dairy cows were synchronized with two injections of prostaglandin F2α (estrus=day 0). Animals were held as controls or drenched for 11 days (day -3 to day 8 of the cycle) with 850 ml/day liquid propylene glycol (treatment, n=13 per group). Blood and milk samples were collected on day 1 and 8 of the cycle. In both groups, plasma progesterone concentration increased ∼10-fold between 1 and 8 days post-estrus. Milk fatty acid composition was associated primarily with estrous-cycle day: polyunsaturated fatty acids increased by 16%, n-6 by 15% and n-3 by 1% from day 1 to 8 post-estrus. Polar lipid composition was also altered by cycle day: phosphatidylethanolamine concentration was 2-fold and 1.5-fold higher on day 1 v. day 8 post-estrus in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Phosphatidylserine concentration in milk was also affected by cycle day by treatment interaction (P=0.04). A progesterone level by treatment interaction influenced the triglyceride-to-phospholipid ratio in the milk (P=0.02). The results suggest that progesterone plays a role in modulating milk lipid composition and structure. Therefore, strategies designed to alter milk lipid composition should consider the cow's reproductive status.

  15. Study on the Influence of Tea Extract on Probiotics in Skim Milk: From Probiotics Propagation to Metabolite.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids.  The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications.

  16. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  17. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  18. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  19. Pilot production of recombinant human clotting factor IX from transgenic sow milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-ling; Chang, Yuo-sheng; Lin, Yin-shen; Yen, Chon-ho

    2012-06-01

    Valuable pharmaceutical proteins produced from the mammary glands of transgenic livestock have potential use in the biomedical industry. In this study, recombinant human clotting factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic sow milk for preclinical animal studies have been established. The transgenic sow milk was skimmed and treated with sodium phosphate buffer to remove abundant casein protein. Then, the γ-carboxylated rhFIX fraction was segregated through the Q Sepharose chromatography from uncarboxylated one. For safety issue, the process included virus inactivation by solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment. Subsequently, the S/D treated sample was loaded into the Heparin Sepharose column to recover the rhFIX fraction, which was then reapplied to the Heparin Sepharose column to enhance rhFIX purity and lower the ratio of activated form rhFIX (rhFIXa) easily. This was possible due to the higher affinity of the Heparin affinity sorbent for rhFIXa than for the rhFIX zymogen. Furthermore, an IgA removal column was used to eliminate porcine IgA in purified rhFIX. Finally, nanofiltration was performed for viral clearance. Consequently, a high-quality rhFIX product was produced (approximately 700 mg per batch). Other values for final rhFIX preparation were as follows: purity, >99%; average specific activity, 415.6±57.7 IU/mL and total milk impurity, <0.5 ng/mg. This is the first report that described the whole process and stable production of bioactive rhFIX from transgenic sow milk. The overall manufacturing process presented here has the potential for industrial production of rhFIX for treatment of hemophilia B patients.

  20. Comparison of the levels of the growth factors in umbilical cord serum and human milk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Patki, Satish; Patki, Ujjwala; Patil, Rajendra; Indumathi, S; Kaingade, Pankaj; Bulbule, Akshata; Nikam, Amar; Pishte, Amit

    2012-08-01

    The process of the growth of the fetus begins in the uterus and gets further accelerated following the birth, especially during initial few months. The role of the growth factors in the physiology of the cellular growth is already well established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) seem to be imperative for angiogenesis, cell development and proliferation as well as maintenance of the tissues. The levels of these factors in the maternal serum during pregnancy as well as during postpartum period are insignificant. Consequently, we hypothesized that the fetus receives moderate supply of these growth factors from the placenta during its stay in the uterus. This supply gets further augmented during the postpartum period through the different source, i.e. mother's milk. To study this physiological transition of the source of the growth factors from the placenta to the breast milk, the concentrations of VEGF and HGF in the cord serum of full term neonates and that in the breast milk of the corresponding mothers were analyzed during ELISA. The human milk, especially the colostrum revealed significantly higher levels of VEGF and HGF (1541.759 ± 119.349 pg/ml and 7129.249 ± 273.472 pg/ml) than cord serum (16.632 ± 0.773 pg/ml and 2581.6 ± 108.275 pg/ml) respectively. The multifold higher levels of VEGF observed in colostrum probably correlates with its high neonatal requirement for the maturation of the gastrointestinal epithelium following birth. The higher levels of both the growth factors in the breast milk than those observed in the cord serum probably explain their higher needs by the neonates for immunological protection, protein synthesis and neurocognitive development. The observations of the present study strengthen the policy of the colostrum feeding, which is promoted by organizations like World Health Organization (WHO). This study further documents the fact that the commercial milk formulae cannot replace the human

  1. Influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1) casein hydrolysis during ripening of Reggianito Argentino cheese.

    PubMed

    Hynes, E R; Aparo, L; Candioti, M C

    2004-03-01

    Milk-clotting enzyme is considered largely denatured after the cooking step in hard cheeses. Nevertheless, typical hydrolysis products derived from rennet action on alpha(s1)-casein have been detected during the ripening of hard cheeses. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis in Reggianito cheeses. For that purpose, we studied the influence of cooking temperature (45, 52, and 60 degrees C) on milk-clotting enzyme residual activity and alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis during ripening. Milk-clotting enzyme residual activity in cheeses was assessed using a chromatographic method, and the hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was determined by electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. Milk-clotting enzyme activity was very low or undetectable in 60 degrees C- and 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses at the beginning of the ripening, but it increased afterwards, particularly in 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses. Cheese curds that were cooked at 45 degrees C had higher initial milk clotting activity, but also in this case, there was a later increase. Hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was detected early in cheeses made at 45 degrees C, and later in those made at higher temperatures. The peptide alpha(s1)-I was not detected in 60 degrees C-cooked cheeses. The results suggest that residual milk-clotting enzyme can contribute to proteolysis during ripening of hard cheeses, because it probably renatures partially after the cooking step. Consequently, the production of peptides derived from alpha(s1)-casein in hard cheeses may be at least, partially due to this proteolytic agent.

  2. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L

    2016-08-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8.

  3. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  4. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  5. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  7. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    PubMed

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk.

  8. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process.

  9. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    PubMed

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  10. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-derived growth factor levels in human milk of mothers with term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Ozgurtas, Taner; Aydin, Ibrahim; Turan, Ozden; Koc, Esin; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim Murat; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Akyol, Mesut; Erbil, M Kemal

    2010-05-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid. It contains many nutrients, anti-infectious and biologically active substance. Human milk also contains many angiogenic polypeptides. We have determined four of these: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of VEGF, b-FGF, IGF-I and PDGF in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term neonates. Human milk samples were collected from 29 mothers of preterm (<37 weeks) and from 29 mothers of term (38>weeks) infants at days 3, 7 and 28 postpartum. Milk samples were analyzed for VEGF, b-FGF and PDGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Human milk levels of VEGF, IGF-I and b-FGF were significantly higher (p<0.001). Furthermore, within-preterm group concentrations of VEGF, IGF-I and PDGF significantly differed during postpartum days 3-7-28 (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for b-FGF concentrations. In term groups, concentrations of IGF-I and VEGF significantly differed (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for concentrations of b-FGF and PDGF. This is the first report of simultaneous measurements of four major angiogenic factors in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term. Our results suggest that three of four angiogenic factors, VEGF, b-FGF and IGF-I, are higher concentration in human milk which collected from preterm mothers than those of terms.

  12. Effects of farm management practices and environmental factors on bulk tank milk antibodies against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy farms across Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been used as a diagnostic tool to quantify levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle by measuring Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk. Higher levels of O. ostertagi antibodies measured by ELISA methods, referred to as optical density ratios (ODRs), are associated with decreased milk production in dairy cattle. On-farm management practices (e.g. pasturing techniques and anthelmintic usage) can influence the exposure of cattle to nematode infections and the magnitude of acquired worm burdens. Additionally, environmental and climatic factors, such as land elevation and precipitation, may also influence the levels of gastrointestinal parasitism. This repeated cross-sectional study investigated the effect of farm management practices and surrounding environmental factors on bulk tank (BT) ODRs in herds from provinces across Canada, and further examined the potential effects of various anthelmintic treatment protocols on BT ODRs. A total of 195 herds contributed an average of 3.5 BT samples between December 2003 and April 2005. The farm management practices were recorded from a questionnaire asking producers about their pasturing methods (confined, pastured, etc.), pasture sharing practices (e.g. mixing heifers with milking cows) and anthelmintic treatments. Environmental data were downloaded online from various governmental databases (e.g. Natural Resources Canada, Statistics Canada, Environment Canada, etc.). Statistical models, accounting for repeated measures (multiple BT ODRs for each farm) and for clustering of farms within a region (province or ecoregion), were used to analyze environmental and farm management data. Overall, the greater the exposure that heifers and milking cows had to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies detected in BT samples. Treating the entire herd or treating milking cows at calving reduced BT ODR values. Farms in areas with higher number of rainy days

  13. Effect of a milk-derived factor on the inflammatory response to Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection.

    PubMed

    Owens, W E; Nickerson, S C; Washburn, P J

    1992-01-15

    Daily injections of an anti-inflammatory milk-derived factor (MDF) into mice increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus challenge, and reduced leukocyte infiltration. Intraperitoneal injection of MDF into lactating mice prior to S. aureus intramammary challenge resulted in greater milk secretory activity and less inflammation compared with untreated controls, but had little effect on the number of S. aureus recovered from mammary tissue. Infusion of MDF directly into mouse mammary glands prior to challenge reduced S. aureus recovered after challenge. Incubation of bovine mammary macrophages in medium supplemented with MDF enhanced phagocytosis of opsonized S. aureus. In addition, infusion of 5 mg MDF into uninfected bovine mammary glands 24 h prior to S. aureus challenge resulted in fewer infections (five of ten) than in control quarters (seven of nine). Repeated daily injections of 5 mg MDF into S. aureus-infected quarters increased the percent of mammary neutrophils and decreased the recovery of S. aureus, but did not eliminate infections. Intravenous injection of 8 g MDF into cows resulted in pronounced leukopenia while the accompanying effect on mammary leukocytes was less marked but followed a similar course. Results suggest that the use of MDF in mice enhanced resistance to experimental infection and was beneficial in maintaining mammary secretory activity and reducing inflammation after bacterial challenge. In the cow, MDF promoted phagocytosis in vitro and was effective against challenge when infused intramammarily.

  14. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry. PMID:2536940

  15. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-02-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry.

  16. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  17. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  18. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population.

  19. Case history: tracking the nutritional value of milk from a transitioning-to-organic dairy herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is focusing on many of the factors that influence the amounts of biologically active compounds (BACs) in milk, such as the influence of on-farm and seasonal factors, to improve the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, our current s...

  20. Dietary fat type influences total milk fat content in lean women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole K; Beerman, Kathy A; McGuire, Mark A; Dasgupta, Nairanjana; Griinari, J Mikko; Williams, Janet; McGuire, Michelle K

    2005-03-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in some foods (e.g., dairy products) as well as many processed foods made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). Data from a growing literature suggest that some TFA decrease milk fat in lactating animals. Because the physiologic effects of TFA in lactating women are unknown, this study was designed to investigate the effects of TFA consumption on human milk fat. A randomized, crossover design (n = 12) was used to study the effect of 3 dietary treatments: high PHVO (regular margarine), low PHVO (low TFA margarine), or low PHVO but high in naturally occurring TFA (butter) on milk fat. Treatments were administered for 5 d, with 7-d washout periods. Maternal adiposity was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Milk and blood were collected on d 5 of each intervention period. In general, milk and serum fatty acid concentrations mirrored those of the dietary treatments. There were significant interactions between treatment and maternal adiposity on milk fat and infant milk consumption, as well as on serum glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, resulted in lower milk fat in leaner, but not in more obese women. Consumption of either regular or low TFA margarine, compared with butter, elevated serum NEFA concentrations in the more obese women. In summary, consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, decreased milk fat in lean women. Further studies are required to determine whether infant milk consumption might compensate for this potentially important change in milk composition.

  1. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent.

  2. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    or 20 MAY 1976 STUDY ’ PROJECT FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ARMY CHAPLAINS BY CHAPLAIN(COLONEL) KERMIT D. JOHNSON US ARMY WAR...job •atUfaction among US kxmy chaplain« it b«aad CO • mail aurvay raaponao of 998 chap Ulna out of 1411 in tha Army chaplaincy. Factors which...chaplaincy, and cosseand. Certain professional Irritants were singled out. By means of demographic information, comparisons were made as to how

  3. Influence of Milk-Feeding Type and Genetic Risk of Developing Coeliac Disease on Intestinal Microbiota of Infants: The PROFICEL Study

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giada; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Marcos, Ascensión; García-Novo, María Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder. PMID:22319588

  4. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r{sup 2} = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r{sup 2} = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r{sup 2} = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization.

  5. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  6. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  7. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  8. Feed allowance and maternal backfat levels during gestation influence maternal cortisol levels, milk fat composition and offspring growth.

    PubMed

    Amdi, Charlotte; Giblin, Linda; Hennessy, Alan A; Ryan, Tomás; Stanton, Catherine; Stickland, Neil C; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2013-01-01

    The fetal and early postnatal environment can have a long-term influence on offspring growth. Using a pig model, we investigated the effects of maternal body condition (thin or fat) and maternal gestation feeding level (restricted, control or high) on maternal stress, milk composition, litter size, piglet birth weight and pre-weaning growth. A total of sixty-eight thin (backfat depth about 8 mm) and seventy-two fat (backfat depth about 12 mm) gilts were selected at about 22 weeks. This backfat difference was then accentuated nutritionally up to service at about 32 weeks. During gestation, individual gilts from within each group were randomly allocated to a gestation diet at the following feed allowances: 1·8 kg/d (restricted); 2·5 kg/d (control) and 3·5 kg/d (high) until day 90 of gestation. During gestation restricted gilts had higher levels of cortisol than high and control fed animals. Piglets born to fat gilts had higher average daily gain during the lactation period and higher weaning weights at day 28 than piglets born to thin gilts. Gilts on a high feed level had heavier piglets than those provided with restricted and control allocations. Fat gilts had less saturated fat in their milk at day 21 of lactation and higher unsaturated fat levels. No differences were found in the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio in the milk between thin and fat gilts. In conclusion, maternal body condition influenced the daily weight gain of offspring up to weaning (day 28) and milk fat composition. Furthermore, maternal feed level during gestation alters maternal cortisol levels and milk fat composition.

  9. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  10. Influence of diet and rennet on the composition of goats' milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Fresno Baquero, María; Álvarez Ríos, Sergio; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Darias Martín, Jacinto

    2011-05-01

    Dry matter, protein, fat, pH, mineral (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn and Se) concentrations were determined in samples of goats' milk and in fresh, semi-hard and hard cheeses to study the effect of the goats' diet and the type of rennet used for the cheese processing of the Palmero Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Two groups of 20 Palmero goats were fed 2 different diets: a Palmero diet (PD supplied by native forages adapted to subhumid areas, which had a high ratio of long fibre to concentrates (65:35), and an actual diet (AD), the most commonly used by goat farmers, with a low ratio of long fibre to concentrates (35:65). In general, the cheese samples from goats fed with PD had higher mean Ca, Zn, Cu and Se concentrations than the samples obtained from AD fed goats. The diet exhibited a greater influence on the chemical composition of the cheeses than the rennet used in their production. Applying a stepwise linear discriminant analysis a complete percentage of correct classifications of the three types of cheeses according to the diet of the goats was observed.

  11. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  13. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  14. Effect of Early Expressed Human Milk on Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Short-Term Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Francesca; Papacci, Patrizia; Costa, Simonetta; Giannantonio, Carmen; Cota, Francesco; Vento, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    Aims Preterm breast milk contains high levels of bioactive components, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), that are reduced by Holder pasteurization. Animal studies have shown that milk-borne IGF-1 is likely absorbed intact in a bioactive form by the intestines. The aim of this study was to assess if early non-pasteurized expressed breast milk nutrition may affect IGF-1 plasma levels in premature infants. We also investigated the possible association between early expressed milk nutrition and short-term outcomes. Methods Fifty-two preterm infants with gestational age < 31 weeks were divided into two groups according to expressed breast milk intake (< or ≥ 50 mL/Kg/day) until 32 weeks of postmenstrual age when blood sampling for IGF-1 analysis was performed. Results In our population, early expressed breast milk does not affect IGF-1 plasma levels (p 0.48). An association was observed between early expressed milk nutrition and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, feeding intolerance, need for parenteral nutrition and length of hospitalization. Conclusions Contrary to the results in some animal studies, our results did not seem to show that early expressed breast milk can help to maintain postnatal IGF-1 near foetal levels in preterm infants. The observed protective effect of expressed breast milk on short-term outcomes can be the starting point for further study of the effects of non-pasteurized human milk in preterm infants. PMID:27973552

  15. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  16. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes.

  17. Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic: Influence on color, apparent viscosity, and texture of goat milk yogurts.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marion P; Frasao, Beatriz S; Silva, Adriana Cristina O; Freitas, Mônica Q; Franco, Robson M; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2015-09-01

    Cupuassu is an acidic fruit that has a characteristic aroma, flavor, and texture; its fiber-rich pulp can provide a different consistency than other fruit pulps. Goat milk is an excellent source of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals, and is widely used for processing fermented milks, such as yogurt. However, compared with cow milk yogurts, it is difficult to make goat milk yogurts with a good consistency. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain technological strategies. This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding cupuassu pulp, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5), and prebiotic (inulin) to improve the texture of goat milk yogurt. A total of 6 treatments were performed: natural (N), probiotic (Pro), prebiotic (Pre), synbiotic (S), cupuassu (C), and probiotic with cupuassu (PC). The viability of probiotic in yogurts (Pro, S, and PC) was evaluated. In addition, instrumental analyses (pH, color, apparent viscosity, and texture) were performed to evaluate the influence of these different ingredients on goat milk yogurts. The probiotic bacteria remained viable (≥7 log cfu·mL(-1)) throughout the 28d of refrigerated storage, which exceeded the minimum count required to confer probiotic physiological benefits. The pH levels of the yogurts inoculated with L. acidophilus (Pro, S, and PC) were lower than others yogurts (N, Pre, and C). However, all yogurt samples underwent gradual decreases in pH until 7 to 14d of storage. The lightness (L*) was affected initially by addition of all ingredients (cupuassu pulp, probiotic, and prebiotic). The addition of cupuassu pulp (C and PC) increased the L* during the period of storage. Apparent viscosity and firmness decreased in the PC yogurt. The consistency was highest in the yogurts with added prebiotic (Pre and S) than the other yogurts (N, Pro, C, and PC) at the end of the storage period (d 28). The cohesiveness remained constant in all yogurts (N, Pro, Pre, S, C, and PC). Based on the results

  18. Factors Influencing the Eicosanoids Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials. PMID:25861641

  19. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    PubMed

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls.

  20. Oligosaccharide Composition of Breast Milk Influences Survival of Uninfected Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Lusaka, Zambia12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Hsiao, Lauren; Nissan, Caroline; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Bode, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have multiple immunomodulatory functions that influence child health. Objective: In this study we investigated whether HMO composition influences survival to 2 y of age in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children during and after breastfeeding. Methods: In the context of an early weaning trial in 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, we conducted a nested case-cohort analysis of mortality to 2 y of age among 103 HIV-infected and 143 HEU children. Breast-milk samples collected at 1 mo postpartum were analyzed for HMO content. Samples were selected to include mothers of all HIV-infected children detected by 6 wk of age, of whom 63 died at <2 y of age; mothers of all HEU children who died at <2 y of age (n = 66); and a random sample of 77 HEU survivors. Associations before and after weaning in HIV-infected and HEU infants separately were investigated by using Cox models. Results: Among HEU children, higher maternal breast-milk concentrations of 2-linked fucosylated HMOs [2′-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I] (HR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) as well as non–2-linked fucosylated HMOs (3-fucosyllactose and LNFP II/III; HR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67) were significantly associated with reduced mortality during, but not after, breastfeeding after adjustment for confounders. Breastfeeding was protective against mortality only in HEU children with high concentrations of fucosylated HMOs. Among HIV-infected children, no consistent associations between HMOs and mortality were observed, but breastfeeding was protective against mortality. Conclusions: The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk may explain some of the benefits of breastfeeding in HEU children. HIV infection may modulate some of the consequences of HMOs on child survival. PMID:25527660

  1. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations.

  2. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and physiological factors on colostrum and milk composition of Pelibuey ewes.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rafael Julio; Arredondo, Victalina; García, Fernando; Aguilar, Miguel; Prado, Omar; Rodríguez, Rosario

    2012-02-01

    The effects of supplemental yeast culture, litter size, stage and number of lactation on milk composition were studied in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty ewes were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Ten control ewes grazed on guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and were supplemented with concentrate. A further ten ewes received the same diet with 14 g/head/day of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Colostrum was collected within 24 h after parturition, and subsequently, milk samples were collected at fortnightly intervals (7, 21, 35, and 49 days). Total solids content averaged 32% in colostrum and 12.5% in milk. Colostrum of primiparous ewes had higher total solids content than that of ewes with more than five lactations. However, ewes with more than five lactations produced milk with higher net energy, total solids, protein, and casein than ewes with fewer lactations. Milk at 7 days had a significantly higher content of energy, total solids, and fat than milk at 21, 35, and 49 days. Total solids content was lower for ewes rearing one lamb than larger litter sizes. Supplementation with yeast culture did not affect the composition of colostrum and milk, which was mainly affected by the stage and number of lactation.

  3. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  4. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  5. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-01-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8−/− mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE. PMID:23832117

  6. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 mediates the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lauber, K; Keppeler, H; Munoz, L E; Koppe, U; Schröder, K; Yamaguchi, H; Krönke, G; Uderhardt, S; Wesselborg, S; Belka, C; Nagata, S; Herrmann, M

    2013-09-01

    The phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. The phosphatidylserine-binding protein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a major opsonin for apoptotic cells, and MFG-E8(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease. Similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the murine disease is associated with an impaired clearance of apoptotic cells. SLE is routinely treated with glucocorticoids (GCs), whose anti-inflammatory effects are consentaneously attributed to the transrepression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that the GC-mediated transactivation of MFG-E8 expression and the concomitantly enhanced elimination of apoptotic cells constitute a novel aspect in this context. Patients with chronic inflammation receiving high-dose prednisone therapy displayed substantially increased MFG-E8 mRNA levels in circulating monocytes. MFG-E8 induction was dependent on the GC receptor and several GC response elements within the MFG-E8 promoter. Most intriguingly, the inhibition of MFG-E8 induction by RNA interference or genetic knockout strongly reduced or completely abolished the phagocytosis-enhancing effect of GCs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MFG-E8-dependent promotion of apoptotic cell clearance is a novel anti-inflammatory facet of GC treatment and renders MFG-E8 a prospective target for future therapeutic interventions in SLE.

  7. Risk factors associated with high bulk milk antibody levels to common pathogens in UK dairies.

    PubMed

    Williams, D; Winden, S V

    2014-06-07

    Infectious diseases pose a severe economic burden on the UK dairy industry. This study used bulk milk antibody levels in 1088 UK dairy herds to estimate the current UK prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) and Leptospira hardjo. Questionnaires collected under the DairyCheck scheme (MSD Animal Health) were used concurrently to gather information on farm demographics and management practices. The prevalence of active BVDV infection was 58.6 per cent, of historic BVDV exposure was 88.6 per cent, of BHV-1 infection was 69.2 per cent and of L hardjo was 71.9 per cent. An increasing herd size and the purchasing of replacement cattle were risk factors for the presence of all three agents. Year-round calving was associated with a 1.9 times increased risk for having BVDV (P<0.005). The presence of a bull was associated with a 1.5 times increased risk for having BHV-1 (P<0.005). When compared with previous results, this study indicates a slight fall in the prevalence of BVDV within the UK dairy herd; however, BHV-1 and L hardjo levels appear to have remained constant. This study shows that herds purchasing cattle are at greater risk of infectious agents being present and therefore, if possible, a closed herd system should be implemented.

  8. Influence of dairy by-product waste milk on the microbiomes of different gastrointestinal tract components in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Y. F.; Wang, Y. J.; Zou, Y.; Azarfar, A.; Wei, X. L.; Ji, S. K.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z. H.; Wang, S. X.; Dong, S. Z.; Xu, Y.; Shao, D. F.; Xiao, J. X.; Yang, K. L.; Cao, Z. J.; Li, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of colonised bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of pre-weaned calves is affected by extrinsic factors, such as the genetics and diet of the calves; however, the dietary impact is not fully understood and warrants further research. Our study revealed that a total of 6, 5, 2 and 10 bacterial genera showed biologically significant differences in the GITs of pre-weaned calves fed four waste-milk diets: acidified waste milk, pasteurised waste milk, untreated bulk milk, and untreated waste milk, respectively. Specifically, generic biomarkers were observed in the rumen (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Clostridium, etc.), caecum (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Oxalobacter, Odoribacter, etc.) and colon (e.g., Megamonas, Comamonas, Stenotrophomonas, etc.) but not in the faeces. In addition, the predicted metabolic pathways showed that the expression of genes related to metabolic diseases was increased in the calves fed untreated waste milk, which indicated that untreated waste milk is not a suitable liquid diet for pre-weaned calves. This is the first study to demonstrate how different types of waste milk fed to pre-weaned calves affect the community structure of colonised bacteria, and the results may provide insights for the intentional adjustment of diets and gastrointestinal bacterial communities. PMID:28281639

  9. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  10. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P < 0.01) and satisfaction on the payment mode (P = 0.006). Higher self-assessment on the medical professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The

  11. Short communication: influence of dietary tallow and fish oil on milk fat composition.

    PubMed

    Jones, D F; Weiss, W P; Palmquist, D L

    2000-09-01

    Four midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed one of four diets that contained 3% added fat (dry matter basis) as 100:0, 67:33, 50:50, or 33:67 tallow:fish oil. Feed intake and yield and composition of milk were not affected by treatment. The proportion of fatty acids 18:0 and cis-18:1 decreased and trans-18:1, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3, 20:4, and 20:5 increased in milk fat with increasing fish oil. The efficiency of transferring dietary 20:5 and 22:6 to milk fat was < 7%.

  12. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains.

  13. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  14. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p < 0.05: 43.08; 380/882) in the total herd composition compared to that of she-camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p < 0.01) during rainy season followed by winter season, warm dry summer, and hot summer season. Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p < 0.01) on protein, lactose, and SNF. The present study will be helpful to design measures for the eradication of reproductive constraints and for the improvement of milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  15. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  16. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested variables did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF.

  17. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  18. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  19. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  20. Identification of sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the levels of human β-defensin-1 and human β-defensin-2 in the human milk of Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Cao, Rui-Ming; Li, Jing; Wu, Jing; Wu, Sheng-Mei; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2014-03-14

    Human milk provides infants with various immune molecules. The objective of the present study was to measure human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) levels in the colostrum and mature milk of healthy Han Chinese, to identify factors regulating milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression and to explore the potential protective effect of milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 on infants. A total of 100 mothers and their babies were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and other factors were obtained by a questionnaire. Babies were followed up for a period of 6 months. Colostrum samples (n 100) and mature milk samples (n 82) were collected by hand expression. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels differed in the colostrum and mature milk. In the colostrum, the concentration ranges of hBD-1 and hBD-2 were 1·04-12·81 μg/ml and 0·31-19·12 ng/ml, respectively. In mature milk, the hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels were 1·03-31·76 ng/ml and 52·65-182·29 pg/ml, respectively. Several independent factors influence their production. The multivariable analysis showed a strong association between pre-pregnancy BMI and hBD-1 levels in the colostrum (P=0·001), mode of delivery was significantly associated with hBD-2 levels in the colostrum (P=0·006) and gestational age was significantly associated with hBD-1 levels in mature milk (P= 0·010). During the first 6 months of life, the incidence rate of upper respiratory infection was found to be less in the high-colostrum hBD-1 group than in the low-colostrum hBD-1 group (χ²=4·995, P=0·025). The present study suggested that the abundance of hBD-1 in the colostrum may have a protective function against upper respiratory infection for infants younger than 6 months.

  1. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole. PMID:27942134

  2. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  3. Effect of gradual or abrupt cessation of milking at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score in the subsequent lactation.

    PubMed

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of milk cessation method (abrupt or gradual) at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) up to 120 d in milk during the subsequent lactation. Data from 428 cows from 8 dairy herds in Ohio were analyzed. Abrupt cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule (2 or 3 times) through dry off and gradual cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Milk yield and SCS were collected using Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records. Aseptic quarter milk samples were collected approximately 1 wk before dry off, at dry off, and within 1 wk after calving for bacterial culture to determine the presence of intramammary infections. Overall, milk cessation method was not significantly associated with either milk yield or SCS in early lactation; however, interaction between the milk cessation method and herd was highly significant. Cows producing greater amounts of milk around dry off had significantly higher SCS in the following lactation. Shorter dry periods were significantly associated with decreased milk yield in the following lactation, especially among abruptly dried off cows. Additionally, as expected, several other factors, such as parity of cows and stage of lactation, were significantly associated with both outcomes. No interactions between the milk cessation method and the other explanatory variables in the final models were significant. The results of the current study suggest that higher milk yield at dry off was associated with higher SCS in the following lactation, even though milk cessation method at the end of lactation had a varying effect on test-day milk yield and SCS in different herds during the first 120 d in milk in the following lactation. The specific herd characteristics influencing this could not be identified within this study, warranting further research.

  4. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  5. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  6. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  7. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  8. A low-molecular-weight factor in human milk whey promotes iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P

    2004-01-01

    The iron bioavailability of human milk (HM) is substantially greater than that of cow's milk (CM), but the factor responsible for this high bioavailability is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of various HM and CM fractions on iron bioavailability. Milk was separated into fat, casein and whey fractions by ultracentrifugation. Whey was further fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 10-kDa membrane to produce a 10-kDa retentate (10kR) and a 10-kDa filtrate (10kF). Samples were prepared by mixing various combinations of the fractions, bringing the samples to prefractionation weight with minimum essential medium (MEM), and adding iron (10 micro mol/L) as ferrous sulfate. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one was subjected to in vitro digestion, the other was not. Bioavailability was assessed by applying the samples to Caco-2 cell monolayers and incubating for 24 h. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron uptake. Removing the fat from undigested HM samples doubled the ferritin formation, but removing the whey or casein had no effect. Results with digested HM samples were similar, except that removing the whey decreased ferritin formation by 48%. Removing the fat from digested CM samples had no effect, but removing the casein doubled the ferritin formation. Removing the 10kF from HM reduced ferritin formation by 60%, but removing the 10kR had no effect. These data suggest that a low-molecular-weight factor (<10 kDa) in human milk enhances iron absorption.

  9. Factors Influencing Biogenic Amines Accumulation in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Daniel M.; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Martínez, Noelia; Fernández, María; Martín, María Cruz; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are among the food products more often complained of having caused episodes of biogenic amines (BA) poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain potentially harmful levels of BA, specially tyramine, histamine, and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report all those elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting BA biosynthesis and accumulation in dairy foods. Improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in milk products. Synthesis of BA is possible only when three conditions converge: (i) availability of the substrate amino acids; (ii) presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and (iii) environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxylation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization), use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time, and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH, temperature, or post-ripening technological processes, which will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:22783233

  10. Blood lead levels during different trimesters of pregnancy and the possible influencing factors in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongmei; Wang, Haijuan; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Lan; Dai, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Hui; Shi, Hua

    2011-12-01

    Lead is a toxic element. It can damage multiple human organs and systems. In present study, we detected the blood lead levels (BLLs) during the whole pregnancy period and 6-12th weeks after delivery and analyzed their influencing factors by healthy pregnant women. We recruited 128 healthy pregnant women absent of pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group. The control group consisted of 120 healthy non-pregnant women. The lead concentrations of all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were: 5.95 ± 2.27, 5.51 ± 1.93, 5.57 ± 1.85, and 6.88 ± 1.90 μg/dl; and the mean lead concentration of control group was 6.87 ± 2.29 μg/dl. We found that the BLLs of the gravida group were lower than that of control group during all three trimesters and occupations, supplement nutrition elements, and time of house painted could affect blood lead levels of pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, using cosmetics, and living in a house painted <1 year are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors. These may help people especially pregnant women to reduce lead exposure via supplement of calcium, iron, zinc, and milk or avoiding contacting above risk factors.

  11. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  12. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  13. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    PubMed

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  14. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P < 0.05). For sows with high backfat, the sows receiving the CONTROL diet had a higher total piglet mortality than those that received FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P < 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  15. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (approx. 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development.

  16. Human milk: a source of more life than we imagine.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, P V; van Bergenhenegouwen, J; Jiménez, E; Knippels, L M J; Fernández, L; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Rodríguez, J M; Martín, R

    2013-03-01

    The presence of bacteria in human milk has been acknowledged since the seventies. For a long time, microbiological analysis of human milk was only performed in case of infections and therefore the presence of non-pathogenic bacteria was yet unknown. During the last decades, the use of more sophisticated culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and the steady development of the -omic approaches are opening up the new concept of the 'milk microbiome', a complex ecosystem with a greater diversity than previously anticipated. In this review, possible mechanisms by which bacteria can reach the mammary gland (contamination versus active migration) are discussed. In addition, the potential roles of human milk for both infant and maternal health are summarised. A better understanding of the link between the milk microbiome and health benefit, the potential factors influencing this relationship and whether or not it can be influenced by nutrition is required to open new avenues in the field of pregnancy and lactation.

  17. Influence of Nrf2 activators on subcellular skeletal muscle protein and DNA synthesis rates after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Laurin, Jaime L; Musci, Robert V; Wolff, Christopher A; Reid, Justin J; Biela, Laurie M; Zhang, Qian; Peelor, Fredrick F; Melby, Christopher L; Hamilton, Karyn L; Miller, Benjamin F

    2017-03-10

    In older adults, chronic oxidative and inflammatory stresses are associated with an impaired increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis after acute anabolic stimuli. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Protandim have been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for the antioxidant response element and anti-inflammatory pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that compared to a placebo control (CON), CLA and Protandim would increase skeletal muscle subcellular protein (myofibrillar, mitochondrial, cytoplasmic) and DNA synthesis in older adults after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding. CLA decreased oxidative stress and skeletal muscle oxidative damage with a trend to increase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a Nrf2 target, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). However, CLA did not influence other Nrf2 targets (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1)) or protein or DNA synthesis. Conversely, Protandim increased HO-1 protein content but not the mRNA expression of downstream Nrf2 targets, oxidative stress, or skeletal muscle oxidative damage. Rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were maintained despite lower mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein syntheses after Protandim versus CON. Similarly, DNA synthesis was non-significantly lower after Protandim compared to CON. After Protandim, the ratio of protein to DNA synthesis tended to be greater in the myofibrillar fraction and maintained in the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions, emphasizing the importance of measuring both protein and DNA synthesis to gain insight into proteostasis. Overall, these data suggest that Protandim may enhance proteostatic mechanisms of skeletal muscle contractile proteins after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

  18. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level.

  19. Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

  20. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  1. Measurement of bovine somatotropin (bST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bovine milk using an electrochemiluminescent assay.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Michael F; Bogosian, Gregg; Fabellar, Anabella C; Staub, Robin L; Vicini, John L; Widger, Leslie A

    2008-08-27

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are peptide hormones that are involved in the regulation of milk production in dairy cows. Because these hormones are present at extremely low concentration in fresh and processed bovine milk, a highly sensitive and specific electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) has been developed to better estimate the concentration of these hormones in milk. The assay employs an imager, a capture antibody bound to a carbon electrode, and a detection antibody coupled to a ruthenium label. In the presence of tripropylamine and an electric pulse, ruthenium generates light proportional to the amount of antigen bound, and the light is captured as signal by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Using bovine milk as the starting matrix, 99.69% of bST and 104.79% of IGF-1 were recoverable. The limit of detection (LOD) was <5 pg/mL for bST and <1 pg/mL for IGF-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was <14 pg/mL for bST in milk and <2 pg/mL of IGF-1. The assay is highly specific and shows <0.2% cross-reactivity with other peptide hormones found in bovine milk such as insulin and IGF-2. These data indicate this new, ECLIA is highly sensitive and specific for estimating the concentration of bST or IGF-1 in milk.

  2. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  3. The effects of cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C on milk lipid synthesis in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lin, Ye; Duan, Xiaoyu; Lv, He; Xing, Weinan; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Hou, Xiaoming

    2017-03-08

    Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33.9 ± 2.1 kg/d, milk fat >3.5%, n = 3) and low-fat milk (milk yield 33.7 ± 0.5 kg/d, milk fat <3.5%, n = 3) groups according to their milk fat content. Lactating cows were slaughtered at 90 d in milk and mammary tissues were collected to detect CIDEC localization. Immunofluorescence staining of sections of lactating mammary glands with high- and low-fat milk showed that CIDEC was expressed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and localized to lipid droplets. Lipid droplets and CIDEC protein were also detected in isolated lactating mammary epithelial cells of dairy cows. Immunostaining of CIDEC in isolated mammary epithelial cells also confirmed its presence in the nucleus. The knockdown of CIDEC in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells decreased milk lipid content and reduced expression of genes associated with mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis, short- and long-chain intracellular fatty acid activation, triacylglycerol synthesis, and transcription regulation. These genes included those for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, -60%), fatty acid synthase (FASN, -65%), acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2, -50%), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1, -30%), diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, -60%), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1, -45%), and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP, -66%). Conversely, in cells overexpressing CIDEC, triacylglycerol content

  4. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment.

  5. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  6. Influences of different thermal processings in milk, bovine meat and frog protein structure.

    PubMed

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Lopes Lima, Samuel; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have associated the digestibility of proteins to its imunogenic potential. Though, it was objectified to evaluate the impact of the thermal processing with high and low temperatures on the proteins structure of three types of foods, by means of the digestibility in vitro and electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. The pasteurize was observed in such a way, firing 95 ºC during 15 minutes, how much freeze dried causes qualitative and quantitative modifications of constituent proteins of the food. The most sensible proteins to the increasing thermal processing order were beef, frog meat, and the last, cow milk.

  7. Factors affecting life cycle assessment of milk produced on 6 Mediterranean buffalo farms.

    PubMed

    Pirlo, G; Carè, S; Fantin, V; Falconi, F; Buttol, P; Terzano, G M; Masoni, P; Pacelli, C

    2014-10-01

    This study quantifies the environmental impact of milk production of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes and points out the farm characteristics that mainly affect their environmental performance. Life cycle assessment was applied in a sample of 6 farms. The functional unit was 1 kg of normalized buffalo milk (LBN), with a reference milk fat and protein content of 8.3 and 4.73%, respectively. The system boundaries included the agricultural phase of the buffalo milk chain from cradle to farm gate. An economic criterion was adopted to allocate the impacts on milk production. Impact categories investigated were global warming (GW), abiotic depletion (AD), photochemical ozone formation (PO), acidification (AC), and eutrophication (EU). The contribution to the total results of the following farm activities were investigated: (1) on-farm energy consumption, (2) manure management, (3) manure application, (4) on-farm feed production (comprising production and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides), (5) purchased feed production, (6) enteric fermentation, and (7) transport of purchased feeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides from producers to farms. Global warming associated with 1 kg of LBN resulted in 5.07 kg of CO₂ Eq [coefficient of variation (CV)=21.9%], AD was 3.5 × 10(-3) kg of Sb Eq (CV=51.7%), PO was 6.8 × 10(-4) kg of C₂H₄ Eq (CV=28.8%), AC was 6.5 × 10(-2) kg of SO₂ Eq (CV=30.3%), and EU was 3.3 × 10(-2) kg of PO₄(3-) Eq (CV=36.5%). The contribution of enteric fermentation and manure application to GW is 37 and 20%, respectively; on-farm consumption, on-farm feed production, and purchased feed production are the main contributors to AD; about 70% of PO is due to enteric fermentation; manure management and manure application are responsible for 55 and 25% of AC and 25 and 55% of EU, respectively. Methane and N₂O are responsible for 44 and 43% of GW, respectively. Crude oil consumption is responsible for about 72% of AD; contribution of

  8. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  9. Probiotics in milk replacer influence lamb immune function and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Annicchiarico, G; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of milk replacer (MR) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and a mix of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum on lamb immune response and on lamb meat quality. A 6-week-trial was conducted on 40 male Comisana lambs, divided into four groups, fed maternal milk (MM), MR, MR with L. acidophilus supplementation (MRL) and MR with a mix (1 : 1) of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum supplementations (MRB). Lambs fed MR containing a mix of bifidobacteria showed the highest in vivo cellular immune response to phytohemagglutinin, whereas MM and MRB showed the highest antibody response to ovalbumin. At day 11 of the trial, MRL displayed the highest value of Interleukin-10; differences disappeared among groups subsequently. Blood cholesterol levels in lambs fed MR containing L. acidophilus was almost halved compared with that found in MM and MR groups. Meat from artificially reared lambs was characterized by trans-11 18:1 and total conjugated 18:2n-6, whereas meat from the dam-suckled lambs was characterized by 14:0, cis-9 14:1 and 16:0. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in meat of MR, MRL and MRB than in MM lambs. Meat from artificially reared lamb fed MR containing probiotics showed an improved fatty acid profile for human diet.

  10. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  11. The character of Queso and health-related compounds found in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted by the Milk & Cheese group focuses on understanding the factors that influence the quality traits of cheese and health-value of milk. Our research to understand and enhance the character traits and processing nuances of the Hispanic-style cheese, Queso Chihuahua (QC), involved the...

  12. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the usual cause, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo and other mammals also can cause a ... react to cow's milk will react to sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk. Less commonly, people allergic to ...

  13. Influence of milk yield, stage of lactation, and body condition on dairy cattle lying behaviour measured using an automated activity monitoring sensor.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Jeffrey M; Boyce, Robert E; Hockin, Jeremy; Munksgaard, Lene; Eicher, Susan D; Einstein, Mark E; Schutz, Michael M

    2010-02-01

    Time spent lying by lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield was measured using an animal activity monitor. A 3-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total, 84 cows were selected with 28 cows each among three BCS categories (Thin: BCS<2.75; Moderate: 2.75 > or = BCS<3.25; Heavy: BCS> or = 3.25) and two stage of lactation categories (<150 days in milk or >150 days in milk). Cows were kept in two management systems: parlour/freestall (n=60) or automated milking system/freestall (n=24). Behaviour was recorded for 5.3+/-0.1 d for each cow. Production levels were considered using a 28-d rolling average of daily milk production. Cows that exhibited clinical lameness before or during the observation period were excluded from analyses. For cows exhibiting oestrus, the day prior to, day of, and day following breeding were removed. The final analysis included 77 cows (408 d of observation). A mixed model was fitted to describe average daily hours spent lying. Results demonstrated that lying time increased as days in milk (DIM) increased (P=0.05). Variables that were tested but not significant (P>0.05) were BCS category, parity category (1 or 2) and 28-d rolling average daily milk production. Although a numerical trend for increasing hours spent lying with increasing BCS was observed, after accounting for other factors in the mixed model, BCS did not significantly impact lying time. Continued investigation of these management factors that impact lying time and bouts, using new technologies, more cows, and more herds will help dairy owners better manage facilities and cow movements to optimize this essential behaviour.

  14. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Zonneveld, Marijke I.; Brisson, Alain R.; van Herwijnen, Martijn J. C.; Tan, Sisareuth; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Redegeld, Frank A.; Garssen, Johan; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system. PMID:25206958

  15. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  16. Global influences on milk purchasing in New Zealand – implications for health and inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Moira B; Signal, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Background Economic changes and policy reforms, consistent with economic globalization, in New Zealand in the mid-1980s, combined with the recent global demand for dairy products, particularly from countries undergoing a 'nutrition transition', have created an environment where a proportion of the New Zealand population is now experiencing financial difficulty purchasing milk. This situation has the potential to adversely affect health. Discussion Similar to other developed nations, widening income disparities and health inequalities have resulted from economic globalization in New Zealand; with regard to nutrition, a proportion of the population now faces food poverty. Further, rates of overweight/obesity and chronic diseases have increased in recent decades, primarily affecting indigenous people and lower socio-economic groups. Economic globalization in New Zealand has changed the domestic milk supply with regard to the consumer and may shed light on the link between globalization, nutrition and health outcomes. This paper describes the economic changes in New Zealand, specifically in the dairy market and discusses how these changes have the potential to create inequalities and adverse health outcomes. The implications for the success of current policy addressing chronic health outcomes is discussed, alternative policy options such as subsidies, price controls or alteration of taxation of recommended foods relative to 'unhealthy' foods are presented and the need for further research is considered. Summary Changes in economic ideology in New Zealand have altered the focus of policy development, from social to commercial. To achieve equity in health and improve access to social determinants of health, such as healthy nutrition, policy-makers must give consideration to health outcomes when developing and implementing economic policy, both national and global. PMID:19152688

  17. Type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids and minerals and body composition in infant and weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Murry, A C; Gelaye, S; Casey, J M; Foutz, T L; Kouakou, B; Arora, D

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments using 42 crossbred neonatal pigs to compare the effects of caprine and bovine milk on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility and body composition were conducted. At age 72 h, pigs were removed from their dams and randomly divided into two groups, housed separately in stainless steel metabolism cages and were fed a predetermined amount (300 mL/kg body weight) of pasteurized, nonfortified whole, caprine or bovine milk. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In Experiment 1, 22 intact male pigs were used for a 31-d experimental period. There was no significant (P > 0.05) dietary effect on growth, apparent nutrient digestibility or body composition. Significant differences (P < 0.05), however, were observed in plasma of C 8:0, C 10:0 and C 12:0 concentrations. In Experiment 2, 20 pigs (10 intact males and 10 females) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment for 52 d. Pigs fed caprine milk had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C10:0 and C12:0 as well as Na, Mg and Zn than those fed bovine milk. At Day 52, pigs fed caprine milk had less body fat (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.06) bone mineral density than those fed bovine milk. Drymatter, N and total mineral intake of male pigs was higher (P < 0.05) than female pigs. Also, male pigs had higher (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of C12:0 than females. This study demonstrates that the type of milk consumed can influence plasma concentrations of fatty acids, minerals and body composition in pigs.

  18. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  19. Milk and growth in children: effects of whey and casein.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of cow's milk is recommended in many countries. Observational and intervention studies show that cow's milk most likely has a positive influence on growth in children. The strongest evidence comes from observational studies and intervention studies in low-income countries, but there are also observational studies from high-income countries showing positive associations between milk intake and growth. Milk seems thus to have a specific stimulating effect on linear growth, not only in developing countries with high rates of malnutrition, but also in industrialized countries. However, it is not known which components in milk stimulate growth. Possible components are proteins, minerals, vitamins or combinations of these. Cow's milk proteins have a high protein quality, and whey has a slightly higher quality than casein, according to some indices based on amino acid composition. Studies, mainly from sport medicine, have suggested that whey protein also has the potential to increase muscle mass. Whether whey improves body composition to a larger extent than other milk proteins is not clear. The mechanism behind a possible growth-stimulating effect of milk and milk components is likely to be through a stimulation of insulin-like growth factor-I synthesis and maybe insulin secretion. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that milk stimulates linear growth. The mechanism is not yet clear, and more intervention studies are needed to understand which components in milk are responsible for the growth stimulation. The effects of milk on linear growth and adult height may have both positive and negative long-term implications.

  20. Influence of controlled lactic fermentation on growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus in milk.

    PubMed

    Røssland, Elisabeth; Langsrud, Thor; Sørhaug, Terje

    2005-08-15

    The growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus NVH 45 in a fermentor with controlled pH or simulated pH conditions were investigated. The study was carried out in a fermentor to measure the influence of a rapid and a slow lactic acid production on the inhibition of B. cereus in a controlled environment during the initial part of fermentation and to observe if other factors than lactic acid influenced the inhibition. In the controlled pH experiments the pH was allowed to decrease to an end pH 5.0, 5.5 or 6.0 either by Lactobacillus casei 2756 (a fast acid producer) or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFB 1748 (a slow acid producer). In co-cultures of Lb. casei 2756 and B. cereus NVH 45, low numbers (10-70 cfu/ml) of B. cereus NVH 45 were observed at end pH 5.5 (72 h) while at pH 5.0 no viable cells (<10 cfu/ml) were detected (48-72 h). B. cereus NVH 45 did not sporulate in co-culture with Lb. casei 2756. In co-culture with Lb. acidophilus NCFB 1748, B. cereus NVH 45 sporulated and survived as spores. In these co-cultures B. cereus NVH 45 grew to higher maximum counts (>10(7) cfu/ml) than with Lb. casei 2756 (<10(7) cfu/ml). Significantly different amounts of lactic acid were observed between the two co-cultures after 7 and 12 h. A rapid decrease of pH appears to prevent B. cereus from sporulating and it seems that it is enough to just reach pH 5.0 rapidly and keep that pH to achieve the desirable inhibition of B. cereus. In the simulated pH experiments B. cereus NVH 45 was inoculated in the fermentor and the different pH developments from different LAB strains were monitored by addition of lactic acid. These experiments showed the same tendency: a fast pH reduction during the initial hours of fermentation, simulating lactococci, resulted in complete inhibition of B. cereus NVH 45 (<10 cfu/ml). However, when simulating the pH development of the two different Lactobacillus strains, complete inhibition of B. cereus NVH 45 was not seen. In co-cultures competition for nutrients

  1. Development of an LC-MS/MS method to quantify sex hormones in bovine milk and influence of pregnancy in their levels.

    PubMed

    Regal, P; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2012-01-01

    Hormones work in harmony in the body, and this status must be maintained to avoid metabolic disequilibrium and the subsequent illness. Besides, it has been reported that exogenous steroids (presence in the environment and food products) influence the development of several important illnesses in humans. Endogenous steroid hormones in food of animal origin are unavoidable as they occur naturally in these products. The presence of hormones in food has been connected with several human health problems. Bovine milk contains considerable quantities of hormones and it is of particular concern. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, based on hydroxylamine derivatisation, has been developed and validated for the quantification of six sex hormones in milk [pregnenolone (P₅), progesterone (P₄), estrone (E₁), testosterone (T), androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)]. This method has been applied to real raw milk samples and the existence of differences between milk from pregnant and non-pregnant cows has been statistically confirmed. Basing on a revision of existing published data, it could be concluded that maximum daily intakes for hormones are not reached through milk ingestion. Although dairy products are an important source of hormones, other products of animal origin must be considered as well for intake calculations.

  2. The Modeling of Factors That Influence Coast Guard Manpower Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS by Kara M. Lavin December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Ronald E. Giachetti Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE MODELING OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS 5. FUNDING...200 words) This research, conducted at the request of the United States Coast Guard Manpower Requirements Determination Division, determines the

  3. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  4. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows.

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  6. Levels of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk and their determinant factors.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, L; López-Carrillo, L; Torres-Sánchez, L; Cebrián, M; Rueda, C; Reyes, R; López-Cervantes, M

    1999-01-01

    To document the levels and the determinants of dichloro-dyphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) metabolites in maternal milk, we conducted a cohort study of 50 adult females who lived in Mexico City. We measured social and dietary characteristics via interview. Levels of DDT metabolites were determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The mean values (lipid milk basis) were 0.162 ppm p,p'-DDT; 0.138 ppm o,p'-DDT; and 0.594 ppm 2,2(bis)p-chlorophyenyl-1-1-dichloroethylene (DDE). The main determinants of DDT metabolites were maternal age, lifetime lactation, history of living in an agricultural area, and consumption of salted meat and fish. We estimated that 6.0% of the breast-fed babies had daily intakes of DDT above the level of 0.005 mg/kg d recommended by the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). Health-outcomes research among children is needed, and investigators should design or adjust current surveillance programs.

  7. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P<0.001. However, no significant variation (P>0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  8. Influence of C16:0 and long-chain saturated fatty acids on normal variation of bovine milk fat triacylglycerol structure.

    PubMed

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Aken, G A; van Hooijdonk, A C M; van Valenberg, H J F

    2014-07-01

    Fatty acids (FA) are nonrandomly distributed within milk fat triacylglycerols (TAG). Moreover, the structure of milk fat TAG differs with feeding regimens. So far, nothing is known about the variation of milk fat TAG structure among individual cows. A deep understanding of the normal variation of TAG structures and the relationships between milk fat FA profile and its TAG structure could help to better control functional and compositional differences between milk fats from various sources and to increase the knowledge on milk fat synthesis. The focus of the present study was to determine the regiospecific TAG structure of individual samples of winter milk fat from Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows with a wide variation of FA profiles and with 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) genotypes: DGAT1 K232A genotype AA and DGAT1 K232A genotype KK. From an initial set of 1,918 individual milk fat samples, 24 were selected. The selected samples had a wide range of FA composition and had either DGAT1 K232A genotype AA or KK. The structure analysis was done with a regiospecific approach. This analysis is based on the acyl degradation of TAG by a Grignard reagent and further isolation of sn-2 monoacylglycerols by thin-layer chromatography. An intra- and interpositional approach was used to study the structural variation. With the intrapositional approach, the amount of an FA at the secondary (sn-2) and primary (sn-1,3) positions was related to its total amount in the TAG. With the interpositional approach, the proportion of C8:0, C10:0, C14:1 cis-9, C16:1 cis-9, and C18:1 cis-9 at sn-2 was positively correlated with the amount of C16:0 in the triacylglycerol; in contrast, saturated C14:0, C16:0, and long-chain saturated FA (C14:0-C18:0) were negatively correlated. These observations suggest that the amount of long-chain saturated FA in TAG influences the positioning of other FA in the TAG. With an interpositional approach, the DGAT1 polymorphism had a significant effect on

  9. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  10. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  11. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  13. GWA analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep and genetic support for a QTN influencing milk protein percentage in the LALBA gene.

    PubMed

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam; Sánchez, Juan-Pablo; Bayón, Yolanda; Arranz, Juan-José

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half-sib families with available records for milk yield (MY), milk protein and fat yields (PY and FY) and milk protein and fat contents (PP and FP). The most significant association identified reached experiment-wise significance for PP and FP and was located on chromosome 3 (OAR3). These results confirm the population-level segregation of a previously reported QTL affecting PP and suggest that this QTL has a significant pleiotropic effect on FP. Further associations were detected at the chromosome-wise significance level on 14 other chromosomal regions. The marker on OAR3 showing the highest significant association was located at the third intron of the alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) gene, which is a functional and positional candidate underlying this association. Sequencing this gene in the 16 Churra rams of the studied resource population identified additional polymorphisms. One out of the 31 polymorphisms identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T>C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status of the sires, were utilized to assess the role of this mutation as a putative QTN for the genetic effects detected on OAR3. Our results strongly support the polymorphism LALBA_g.242T>C as the most likely causal mutation of the studied OAR3 QTL affecting PP and FP, although we cannot rule out the possibility that this SNP is in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the true causal polymorphism.

  14. [Measuring body temperature in dairy cows--applications and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V; Heuwieser, W

    2013-01-01

    Measuring body temperature plays an integral role in early puerperal cow monitoring programs. Furthermore, body temperature is part of the definition of puerperal metritis. Antibiotic treatment decisions are based on body temperature in several international publications on intervention strategies widely adopted in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the most recent publications on this important criterion. Several factors can influence the measurement of the body temperature (type of thermometer, insertion depth, skills of the investigator) as well as the cow's body temperature (days in milk, parity, time of the day, climate at calving). Furthermore, the occurrence of increased body temperature in healthy cows was demonstrated independently by several investigations. In ambiguous cases (e.g. raised body temperature as the only symptom) results should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  16. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  17. Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors Influencing Interagency Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (from... to) June 2008 - November 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Behavioral, Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors...examined factors influencing interagency information sharing. Findings suggest that organizational culture , attitudes toward information sharing, perceived

  18. Secondary factors influencing cascade damage formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, Roger E.; Guiriec, Sylvain G.

    2004-08-01

    Primary cascade damage production in iron has been extensively investigated by molecular dynamics, and the average defect production as a function of cascade energy and temperature is well characterized. However, preliminary results indicate several factors alter `normal' cascade evolution, leading to quite different defect production behavior. Further investigation of three such factors has been carried out: (1) primary knock-on atom (PKA) direction, (2) nearby free surfaces, and (3) pre-existing effects. Results of the investigation confirm these factors significantly impact damage production. Effects include: enhanced defect survival for PKA directions lying in close-packed {1 1 0} planes, increased point defect clustering and larger defect clusters in cascades initiated near a surface, and reduced defect survival in material containing defects. The origin and implications of these effects are discussed relative to the interpretation of certain experimental observations and parameters used in other modeling studies.

  19. Factors Influencing Young People's Conceptions of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Reid, Anna; Walker, Kim; Petocz, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains the importance of environmental education in schools for achieving environmental protection and improvement. Statistically examines factors that incline students to a 'relation' rather than an 'object' conception of the environment. Concludes that development of the former would seem to be an important aim of environmental education and…

  20. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  1. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  2. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p < .05) and positively correlated with the importance of research factor (r = .501, p < .01). Importance of research was negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.435, p < .01) and positively correlated with value of CBI (r = .439, p < .01) and participation in study (r = .501, p < .01). Findings from the study will contribute to the body of knowledge about factors that

  3. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  4. The decision not to initiate breastfeeding--women's reasons, attitudes and influencing factors--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Foureur, Maralyn; Davis, Deborah

    2011-07-01

    Breastfeeding is the biological feeding norm for human babies. Encouraging breastfeeding is a primary health promotion strategy, with studies demonstrating the risks of artificial baby milks. Each year approximately 10% of the women who give birth in New South Wales decide not to initiate breastfeeding, and the demographic characteristics of this group of women have previously been identified. This paper reviews the literature to explore the factors that influence women's decisions about breastfeeding, and their reasons for not initiating breastfeeding. The review revealed there are relatively few studies that explore the experiences of women who decide not to initiate breastfeeding, especially in the Australian context.

  5. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  6. Evaluating the influence of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on lactational exposure to chemicals in children.

    PubMed

    Verner, Marc-André; Plouffe, Laurence; Kieskamp, Kyra K; Rodríguez-Leal, Inés; Marchitti, Satori A

    2017-05-01

    Women are exposed to multiple environmental chemicals, many of which are known to transfer to breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about the influence of the different chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters on children's lactational dose. Our objective was to develop a generic pharmacokinetic model and subsequently quantify the influence of three chemical-specific parameters (biological half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution) on lactational exposure to chemicals and resulting plasma levels in children. We developed a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to simulate lifetime maternal exposure, placental transfer, and lactational exposure to the child. We performed 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations where half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution were varied. Children's dose and plasma levels were compared to their mother's by calculating child:mother dose ratios and plasma level ratios. We then evaluated the association between the three chemical-specific pharmacokinetic parameters and child:mother dose and level ratios through linear regression and decision trees. Our analyses revealed that half-life was the most influential parameter on children's lactational dose and plasma concentrations, followed by milk:plasma partition coefficient and volume of distribution. In bivariate regression analyses, half-life explained 72% of child:mother dose ratios and 53% of child:mother level ratios. Decision trees aiming to identify chemicals with high potential for lactational exposure (ratio>1) had an accuracy of 89% for child:mother dose ratios and 84% for child:mother level ratios. Our study showed the relative importance of half-life, milk:plasma partition coefficient, and volume of distribution on children's lactational exposure. Developed equations and decision trees will enable the rapid identification of chemicals with a high potential for lactational exposure.

  7. Influence of milk pretreatment on production of free fatty acids and volatile compounds in hard cheeses: heat treatment and mechanical agitation.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Wolf, I V; Hynes, E R; Zalazar, C A

    2010-10-01

    This work aimed to identify technological steps that can increase fat hydrolysis and volatile compounds production in hard cheeses; these biochemical events have been related with improved piquant taste and development of genuine flavor during cheese ripening. For that purpose, 2 different pretreatments of cheese milk were tested: heat treatment and mechanical agitation. Both factors were assayed at 2 levels: milk was either batch pasteurized or nonthermally treated, and mechanical agitation was either applied or not applied. For all combinations, hard cheeses (Reggianito type) were produced in a pilot plant and ripened for 90 d. In all cheeses the degree of lipolysis, assessed by gas chromatography, increased similarly during ripening. However, the proportion of short-chain fatty acids was higher in the cheeses made with unpasteurized milk, suggesting a higher activity of lipases with positional specificity toward the sn-3 position of the triglyceride, among which milk lipoprotein lipase is found. Similar results were found for most of the volatile compounds, determined by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography flame-ionization detector/mass spectrometry, which constitute the groups of ketones, alcohols, esters, and the group of acids. On the contrary, no effect of mechanical agitation was observed, although some interactions between factors were found. In the conditions of the study, results suggest that heat treatment had a higher effect on cheese lipolysis and volatile compounds production than partial destabilization of the fat emulsion produced by the agitation method applied.

  8. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow.

  9. Factors Influencing Haptic Perception of Complex Shapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of an object by arm movement and somatosensation is a serial process that relies on memories and expectations. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that this process involves breaking the object into component shapes (primitives). This was tested by having human subjects explore shapes composed of semicircular arcs, as well as quarter circles or quarter ellipses. The subjects' perception was reported using a visual display. In the first experiment, in which a series of semicircular arcs was presented, with offsets that differed from trial to trial, performance was consistent with the perception of two (left and right) semicircles. In the second experiment, subjects often failed to detect the quarter circles or quarter ellipses and again behaved as if the object was composed of two (top and bottom) semicircles. The results suggest that the synthesis of haptically sensed shapes is biased toward simple geometric objects and that it can be strongly influenced by expectations.

  10. Patterns of milk macronutrients and bioactive molecules across lactation in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).

    PubMed

    Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay; Drought, Heather; Milligan, Lauren A; Murtough, Katie L; Bernstein, Robin M

    2017-03-01

    In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature. Milk macronutrients and hormones were measured using standard nutritional assays and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. Ape milk fat content was lower than human milk values, but protein and sugar were similar. Concentrations of all bioactive molecules were consistently detectable except for TGF-β2 in orangutan milk. Concentrations of adiponectin, EGF, and TGF-β2 in both ape milks were lower than found in human breast milk. Concentrations declined with infant age in orangutan milk; in gorilla milk concentrations were high in the first months, and then declined to stable levels until 2-3 years after birth when they increased. However, when expressed on a per energy basis milk constituent values did not differ with age for orangutan and the variation was reduced at all ages in gorilla. In orangutan milk, the ratio of EGF-R to EGF was constant, with EGF-R at 7.7% of EGF; in gorilla milk the EGF-R concentration was 4.4 ± 0.2% of the EGF concentration through 3 years and then increased. These data indicate that potent signaling molecules such as EGF and adiponectin are present in ape milk at physiological concentrations. However, human breast milk on average contains higher concentrations.

  11. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  12. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  13. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  14. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  15. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits. PMID:27830152

  16. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  17. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  18. Processing factors that influence casein and serum protein separation by microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Hurt, E; Barbano, D M

    2010-10-01

    Our objective was to demonstrate the effect of various processing factors on the performance of a microfiltration system designed to process skim milk and separate casein (CN) from serum proteins (SP). A mathematical model of a skim milk microfiltration process was developed with 3 stages plus an additional fourth finishing stage to standardize the retentate to 9% true protein (TP) and allow calculation of yield of a liquid 9% TP micellar CN concentrate (MCC) and milk SP isolate (MSPI; 90% SP on a dry basis). The model was used to predict the effect of 5 factors: 1) skim milk composition, 2) heat treatment of skim milk, 3) concentration factor (CF) and diafiltration factor (DF), 4) control of CF and DF, and 5) SP rejection by the membrane on retentate and permeate composition, SP removal, and MCC and MSPI yield. When skim milk TP concentration increased from 3.2 to 3.8%, the TP concentration in the third stage retentate increased from 7.92 to 9.40%, the yield of MCC from 1,000 kg of skim milk increased from 293 to 348 kg, and the yield of MSPI increased from 6.24 to 7.38 kg. Increased heat treatment (72.9 to 85.2°C) of skim milk caused the apparent CN as a percentage of TP content of skim milk as measured by Kjeldahl analysis to increase from 81.97 to 85.94% and the yield of MSPI decreased from 6.24 to 4.86 kg, whereas the third stage cumulative percentage SP removal decreased from 96.96 to 70.08%. A CF and DF of 2× gave a third stage retentate TP concentration of 5.38% compared with 13.13% for a CF and DF of 5×, with the third stage cumulative SP removal increasing from 88.66 to 99.47%. Variation in control of the balance between CF and DF (instead of an equal CF and DF) caused either a progressive increase or decrease in TP concentration in the retentate across stages depending on whether CF was greater than DF (increasing TP in retentate) or CF was less than DF (decreasing TP in retentate). An increased rejection of SP by the membrane from an SP removal

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii Antibodies in Bulk Milk from Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Kersh, Gilbert J

    2017-04-01

    This large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors for the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk derived from dairy cattle, sheep, and goats in Jordan. Bulk milk samples were collected from 78 dairy cattle, 48 sheep, and 23 goat farms from various places in Jordan according to the density of these animal species in each region of the country. The samples were tested for C. burnetii antibodies using the CHEKIT Q-Fever Antibody ELISA kit. A standardized questionnaire was also used to collect data from each farm to identify and rank the risk factors for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The results revealed that 62.9% (95% confidence interval: 55.1 to 70.0%) of the tested ruminant farms were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Positive results were obtained from 70.9% (60.6 to 79.5%) of dairy cattle farms, 52.1% (38.3 to 65.5%) of sheep farms, and 56.0% (37.1 to 73.3%) of goat farms. Six factors were associated with the presence of these antibodies on cattle farms, and five factors were associated with these antibodies on sheep and goat farms (chi-square test). The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that large dairy cattle farms, farms that add new animals to the herd, farms that infrequently clean the feeders, and farms in particular areas are 28.6, 19.9, 8.0, and 6.4 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. Sheep and goat farms that mix their animals with those from other farms, graze more than 5 km, and infrequently sanitize the feeders were 8.0, 0.06, and 13.6 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. These data reveal the widespread exposure of Jordanian ruminants to C. burnetii and suggest a high risk for public health.

  20. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  1. Effect of milk minerals on calf gains and sex differences in mineral composition of milk from Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Gómez, J A; Landete-Castillejos, T; Garcia, A J; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Piñeiro, V; Casabiell, X; de la Cruz, L F

    2009-11-01

    Milk mineral content has received little attention in studies focusing on milk nutrient effects on offspring growth. This study examines calf growth in Iberian deer and compares the influence of milk minerals, other nutrients, and lactation variables relevant for growth to discern the relative weight of each factor. In addition, because Iberian deer hinds are the first mammal found to produce different milk for sons and daughters, the present study examines whether there are also sex differences in milk mineral composition. Concentrations and yields of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, and Zn in milk of 46 red deer hinds were monitored through 18 weeks of lactation. Calf growth was influenced by Ca and P percent, and total Fe production. Milk for males had a lower content in Ca and P, a greater content of K, and Mg, whereas no sex effects were found in Na, Fe, or Zn percentages. Higher percentages in Ca and P for daughters might constitute a compensatory response, as daily production was not biased towards females in Ca or P, whereas in the latter and all the other minerals daily production was greater for heavier calves, which are usually males. In conclusion, milk mineral content and production influence calf growth even after controlling for other important lactation variables and nutrients, and they show effects and interactions more complicated than expected.

  2. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content.

  3. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  4. Colorectal anastomosis: factors influencing success1

    PubMed Central

    Tagart, R E B

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of the anal sphincters is now consistent with adequate extirpation of the majority of rectal neoplasms. However, there is still a troublesome incidence of leakage through colorectal anastomoses. A number of different factors, working in combination, are responsible for this. Although most problems have been solved, and the mortality is low, the anastomotic leak rate described in the present series, and in the hands of most surgeons, remains high. Efficient suturing without tension, adequate filling and drainage of the presacral space, and antimicrobial prophylaxis effective enough to abolish abdominal wound sepsis, have been applied. The large vessel arterial blood supply to the suture line is good but the microcirculation of the left colon and rectum, upon which suture line healing ultimately depends, is suspect. Reduction of blood viscosity by deliberate lowering of the haemoglobin level before operation has been practised in the hope of improving the microcirculatory flow. The results so far are encouraging and suggest that the method is worth a continued trial. PMID:7009860

  5. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  6. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  7. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  8. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  9. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  10. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  11. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  12. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  13. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  14. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  15. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  16. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  17. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  19. Prevalence of E. coli Virulence Factors in Raw Bulk Tank Milk from U.S. Dairy Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are known reservoirs of zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and several outbreaks of disease have been associated with the consumption of raw milk or raw milk products. A national survey of US.. dairies was conducted during the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Dairy 2007 study to ...

  20. Influence of heat impact in reconstituted skim milk on the properties of yoghurt fermented by ropy or non-ropy starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Peter Chr; Ebert, Yvonne; Clawin-Rädecker, Ingrid; Schlimme, Eckhard

    2003-10-01

    The paper describes studies on the influence of heat impact in reconstituted skim milk on chemical and functional properties of yoghurt products. Reconstituted skim milk was heated for 20 min at 85 degrees C, 90 degrees C, or 95 degrees C. Ropy (producing exopolysaccharides, EPS) or non-ropy strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were used as starter culture for yoghurt manufacture. The studies have shown that the fermentation times decreased with increasing heat impact when the ropy starter culture was used, while they remained to a far extent unchanged if the non-ropy starter culture was applied. The lactic acid contents of the yoghurt products were in the same range when the milk was heated at 85 degrees C or 90 degrees C, while they were different when milk was heated at 95 degrees C. There was a tendency visible that an increase in preheating leads to increased L(+)- and decreased D(-)-lactic acid contents if the non-ropy culture was applied. Using the ropy culture, it was vice versa. A slightly decrease in proteolysis with increasing heat impact was to be noted with both starter cultures. Concerning the relation of proteolysis to acidification, the fermentation process could be subdivided into three sections with different slopes if the non-ropy starter culture was used, while a linear relation was found if the ropy starter culture was applied. Regarding final product characteristics it was found that the functional properties of yoghurt decreased with increasing heat impact when the ropy starter culture was applied, while they remained to a far extent unchanged when the non-ropy starter culture was used. It can be concluded from these studies that a preheating of milk at a temperature of 85 degrees C (20 min) is optimal in regard to final yoghurt product characteristics.

  1. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  2. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  3. Influence of somatic cell counts and breed on physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of hard ewes'-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Isabel; Lurueña-Martínez, Miguel A; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a physico-chemical, descriptive quantitative and consumer-preference analysis of hard ewes'-milk cheeses that had been matured for one year and to determine the correlations between the variables studied. The cheeses were elaborated with milk from three breeds of sheep (Castellana, Churra and Assaf) with different somatic cell counts (lower than 500,000 cells ml-1; between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 cells ml-1, and more than 2,500,000 cells ml-1). The results show that the cheeses elaborated with milk with high SCC had lower values of dry extract and fat and high values of pH and fat acidity and were described as pungent, granulose and less creamy. Regarding the effect of breed, the cheeses made with milk from the Churra breed had lower values for fat and those made with Assaf breed milk were significantly more rancid. The study of correlations showed that creaminess was positively correlated with the dry extract and total fat content and negatively correlated with ash and fat acidity, indeed grainy texture and pungency had the opposite sign in their correlation with these latter variables. The yellow colour was positively correlated with ash and negatively with protein. Finally, the consumer preferences reveals that the less accepted cheeses showed the higher values for rancidness and pungency and they were less likely to accept the cheeses made with Assaf breed milk.

  4. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  5. Factors influencing the accuracy of the plating method used to enumerate low numbers of viable micro-organisms in food.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2010-09-30

    This study aims to assess several factors that influence the accuracy of the plate count technique to estimate low numbers of micro-organisms in liquid and solid food. Concentrations around 10CFU/mL or 100CFU/g in the original sample, which can still be enumerated with the plate count technique, are considered as low numbers. The impact of low plate counts, technical errors, heterogeneity of contamination and singular versus duplicate plating were studied. Batches of liquid and powdered milk were artificially contaminated with various amounts of Cronobacter sakazakii strain ATCC 29544 to create batches with accurately known levels of contamination. After thoroughly mixing, these batches were extensively sampled and plated in duplicate. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for samples from both batches of liquid and powdered product as a measure of the dispersion within the samples. The impact of technical errors and low plate counts were determined theoretically, experimentally, as well as with Monte Carlo simulations. CV-values for samples of liquid milk batches were found to be similar to their theoretical CV-values established by assuming Poisson distribution of the plate counts. However, CV-values of samples of powdered milk batches were approximately five times higher than their theoretical CV-values. In particular, powdered milk samples with low numbers of Cronobacter spp. showed much more dispersion than expected which was likely due to heterogeneity. The impact of technical errors was found to be less prominent than that of low plate counts or of heterogeneity. Considering the impact of low plate counts on accuracy, it would be advisable to keep to a lower limit for plate counts of 25 colonies/plate rather than to the currently advocated 10 colonies/plate. For a powdered product with a heterogeneous contamination, it is more accurate to use 10 plates for 10 individual samples than to use the same 10 plates for 5 samples plated in duplicate.

  6. Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers' safety risk tolerances.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayuan; Zou, Patrick X W; Li, Penny P

    2016-08-01

    While workers' safety risk tolerances have been regarded as a main reason for their unsafe behaviors, little is known about why different people have different risk tolerances even when confronting the same situation. The aim of this research is to identify the critical factors and paths that influence workers' safety risk tolerance and to explore how they contribute to accident causal model from a system thinking perceptive. A number of methods were carried out to analyze the data collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys. In the first and second steps of the research, factor identification, factor ranking and factor analysis were carried out, and the results show that workers' safety risk tolerance can be influenced by four groups of factors, namely: (1) personal subjective perception; (2) work knowledge and experiences; (3) work characteristics; and (4) safety management. In the third step of the research, hypothetical influencing path model was developed and tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). It is found that the effects of external factors (safety management and work characteristics) on risk tolerance are larger than that of internal factors (personal subjective perception and work knowledge & experiences). Specifically, safety management contributes the most to workers' safety risk tolerance through its direct effect and indirect effect; while personal subjective perception comes the second and can act as an intermedia for work characteristics. This research provides an in-depth insight of workers' unsafe behaviors by depicting the contributing factors as shown in the accident causal model developed in this research.

  7. Milk fat content and DGAT1 genotype determine lipid composition of the milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, Nurit; Mida, Kfir; Cohen, Bat-Chen; Visker, Marleen; Hettinga, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and neutral lipids as well as the composition of the polar lipids in milk has industrial as well as nutritional and health implications. Understanding phenotypic and genotypic factors influencing these parameters could contribute to improving milk lipid composition for dairy products. The focus of the present study was to determine the effect of both fat content and DGAT1 polymorphism on PL/TAG ratio, as a marker for milk fat globule size, and detailed PL composition. Milk samples were selected from 200 cows such that there were equal numbers of samples for the different fat contents as well as per DGAT1 genotype. Samples were analyzed for neutral and polar lipid concentration and composition. PL/TAG ratio was significantly associated with both fat content and DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine concentrations were associated with fat content*DGAT1 genotype with a stronger association for the AA than the KK genotype. Sphingomyelin concentration tended to interact with fat content*DGAT1 genotype. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentration showed a biphasic response to fat content, suggesting that multiple biological processes influence its concentration. These results provide a new direction for controlling polar lipid concentration and composition in milk through selective breeding of cows.

  8. Nuclear Factor of κB1 Is a Key Regulator for the Transcriptional Activation of Milk Synthesis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Zang, Yanli; Zhang, Minghui; Yuan, Xiaohan; Li, Meng; Gao, Xuejun

    2017-02-03

    The nuclear factor of κB (NFκB) family has been well known for its significant role in regulating the expression of numerous genes that control many biological processes. However, it is unclear whether NFκB could regulate milk synthesis. In this study, we identified NFκB1 as a critical regulator for milk synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Gene function study revealed that NFκB1 modulates the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and β4Gal-T2 for milk synthesis. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that both methionine (Met) and estrogen (E) triggered NFκB1 to bind to gene promoters of mTOR, SREBP-1c, and β4Gal-T2 in BMECs. In addition, we confirmed that Met and E triggered NFκB1 expression and phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) but not mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, our study reveals that NFκB1 acts as a PI3K but not mTOR-dependent critical mediator for the transcriptional activation of signaling molecules regulating milk synthesis in BMECs.

  9. Bovine alpha s1-casein gene sequences direct high level expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Oukari, M; Hyttinen, J M; Korhonen, V P; Västi, A; Alhonen, L; Jänne, O A; Jänne, J

    1997-01-01

    The generation is reported of transgenic mice expressing human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or human erythropoietin (EPO) under the control of bovine alpha s1-casein regulatory sequences. GM-CSF expression was specific to the mammary gland, and levels of human GM-CSF in transgenic mouse milk were in the range of mg ml-1. The specific activity of the milk GM-CSF was similar to that of the recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli, and the glycosylation-derived size heterogeneity corresponded to that of the native human protein. In spite of the identical bovine regulatory sequences of the fusion genes, the levels of human EPO in transgenic mouse milk were 10(3)-10(6) times lower than those of GM-CSF, ranging from 0.003 to 3 micrograms ml-1. There appeared to be a positive correlation between the amount of EPO in the milk of lactating females and blood haematocrit values. In view of this, other type of constructs should be used to achieve more efficient EPO expression and to circumvent concomitantly-occurring adverse effects. In contrast, the high-level production of recombinant GM-CSF, its resemblance to the native mammalian protein, and mild adverse consequences of transgene expression imply that the current construct could be used for generation of larger GM-CSF transgenic animals to produce this protein in quantities sufficient for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Effects of exposure to artificial long days on milk yield, maternal insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and kid growth rate in subtropical goats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fernández, Ilda G; Flores, Manuel de Jesús; Mejía, Ángel; Elizundia, José Manuel; Bedos, Marie; Ponce, José Luis; Ramírez, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any relationship exists between exposure to artificial long days, milk yield, maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and kid growth rate in goats. One group of lactating goats was maintained under naturally decreasing day length (control group; n = 19), while in another one, they were kept under artificial long days (LD group; n = 19). Milk yield was higher in goats from the LD group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Maternal IGF-1 levels at day 57 of lactation were higher (P < 0.05) in goats from the LD group than the levels in the control group and were positively correlated with the total milk yields per goat at days 43 and 57 of lactation (r = 0.77 and r = 0.84, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily weight gain at week 4 was higher (P < 0.01) in kids from the LD group than that in kids from the control group and was correlated with total and average IGF-1 maternal levels (r = 0.60 and r = 0.60, P < 0.05). It was concluded that submitting lactating goats to artificial long days increases milk yield, plasma IGF-1 maternal levels and the growth rate of the kids.

  11. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  12. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  13. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitic Milk: Serogroups, Virulence Factors, and Antibiotic Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Hassan; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Taktaz, Taghi; Rezvani, Amir; Yarali, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, by using 268 bovine mastitic milk samples which were diagnosed using California Mastitis Test. After E. coli identification, PCR assays were developed for detection of different virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance genes of Escherichia coli. The antibiotic resistance pattern was studied using disk diffusion method. Out of 268 samples, 73 (27.23%) were positive for Escherichia coli, and, out of 73 positive samples, 15 (20.54%) were O26 and 11 (15.06%) were O157 so they were the highest while O111 was not detected in any sample so it was the lowest serogroup. Out of 73 STEC strains, 11 (15.06%) and 36 (49.31%) were EHEC and AEEC, respectively. All of the EHEC strains had stx1, eaeA, and ehly, virulence genes, while in AEEC strains stx1 had the highest prevalence (77.77%), followed by eaeA (55.55%). Totally, aadA1 (65.95%) had the highest while blaSHV (6.38%) had the lowest prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. The disk diffusion method showed that the STEC strains had the highest resistance to penicillin (100%), followed by tetracycline (57.44%), while resistance to cephalothin (6.38%) was the lowest. PMID:23213293

  14. Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

    1991-12-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

  15. Maternal High-Fat Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation Influences Obestatin and Ghrelin Concentrations in Milk and Plasma of Wistar Rat Dams and Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna; Woliński, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to establish the effect of a maternal high-fat diet on obestatin concentration, total ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio during pregnancy and lactation of Wistar rats and their offspring in the first 21 days of life. On the mating day, females were randomly allocated and fed either a high-fat diet (30% of fat; HF) or breeding diet (5% fat; BD) till the 21st day of lactation. Hormones were analyzed in the blood plasma and milk of rat dams as well as in the blood plasma of their offspring. HF resulted in a significant decrease in obestatin level on the 14th day of lactation and elevation on the 21st day. Plasma obestatin in HFD offspring was significantly higher than in BD ones. HF diet did not significantly affect dam plasma ghrelin until the 21st day of lactation. The ghrelin concentrations in milk after both diets were significantly lower than in blood plasma. Milk ghrelin in HF dams was significantly higher than in the BD ones. Plasma ghrelin from HF offspring was significantly higher than that from BD dams. Our results demonstrate that a maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation influences ghrelin and obestatin level in both dams and their offspring.

  16. Influence of Reproduction on Stable-Isotope Ratios: Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Discrimination between Mothers, Fetuses, and Milk in the Fin Whale, a Capital Breeder.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Gómez-Campos, E; Aguilar, A

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the influence of gestation and lactation on the tissue stable-isotope ratios of females, fetuses, and milk remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the incidence of these events on δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in fin whales sampled off northwestern Spain between 1983 and 1985. The effect of gestation on tissue stable-isotope ratios was examined in the muscle of pregnant females (n = 13) and their fetuses (n = 10) and that of lactation in the muscle of nursing females (n = 21) and their milk (n = 25). Results suggest that fetuses are enriched compared to their mothers in both (15)N (Δ(15)N = 1.5‰) and (13)C (Δ(13)C =1.1‰), while, compared to muscle, milk is enriched in (15)N (Δ(15)N = 0.3‰) but depleted in (13)C (Δ(13)C = -0.62‰). This pattern is consistent with that previously observed for other species that, like the fin whale, rely on endogenous energy during reproduction, and it substantiates a general difference in the physiological processing of nitrogen and carbon balances between income and capital breeders. These findings are relevant to the understanding of the energetic balance of mammals during gestation and lactation and are central when inferences on trophic ecology are drawn from isotopic values of reproductive females.

  17. Dioxins levels in breast milk of women living in Caserta and Naples: assessment of environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Armando; Rivezzi, Gaetano; Carideo, Pietro; Ceci, Roberta; Diletti, Gianfranco; Ippoliti, Carla; Migliorati, Giacomo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ripani, Alessandro; Salini, Romolo; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Naples and Caserta provinces are extensively affected by the illegal dumping of hazardous and urban wastes, which were periodically set to fire. Several studies were made on the possible health impact of this illegal waste management. The aim of the study was to detect dioxins levels in breast milk of volunteer primiparae and to assess the possible source of dioxins in the affected areas. The authors determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. We determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. As a measure of environmental risk of dioxins (EDR) we used the interpolated values of dioxins concentration in buffalo milk samples collected in the study area. Correlations between the EDR, age of the mother, smoking habit, cheese consumption, occupation in activity at risk, presence of plants for the disposal of toxic waste or illegal burning of solid waste near the residence of the donor and dioxin level in breast milk were investigated. The dioxin level in breast milk is significantly correlated to the EDR, the age of the sampled women and the presence of illegal burning of solid waste.

  18. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with

  19. Alcohol and acetaldehyde in African fermented milk mursik – A possible etiological factor for high incidence of esophageal cancer in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Mikko T.; Novak-Frazer, Lily; Collins, Rebecca; Dawsey, Sonja P.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; White, Russell E.; Freedman, Neal D.; Mwachiro, Michael; Bowyer, Paul; Salaspuro, Mikko; Rautemaa, Riina

    2012-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer is unusually frequent in western Kenya, despite the low prevalence of classical risk factors such as heavy drinking and tobacco smoking. Among Kenyans consumption of fermented milk is an old tradition. Our hypothesis is that alcohol and acetaldehyde are produced during the fermentation process and that their carcinogenic potential contributes to the high incidence of esophageal cancer. Methods Eight samples of mursik milk starter cultures were collected from different Kalenjin families in the Rift Valley province, Western Kenya. A protocol provided by the families was used for milk fermentation. Ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were measured by gas chromatography. The microbial flora in starter cultures was identified by 16S and 18S sequencing. Results 7/8 starter cultures produced mutagenic (>100 µM) levels of acetaldehyde and 4/8 starter cultures produced >1000 µM of acetaldehyde. The highest alcohol levels (mean 79.4 mM) were detected in the four fermented milks with highest acetaldehyde production. The mean number of microbial species in the starter cultures was 5 (range 2–8). Yeasts were identified in all starter cultures (mean 1.5 species/milk) but their proportion of the total microbial count varied markedly (mean 35%, range 7–90%). A combination of yeast and lactobacilli, especially Candida krusei with Lactobacillus kefiriwith the exclusion of other species, seemed to correlate with higher acetaldehyde and ethanol levels. Conclusions Significant levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde were produced during mursik fermentation. Impact When ingested several times daily the repeated exposure to carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde may contribute to esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:23155139

  20. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  1. Learning Strategies and Other Factors Influencing Achievement via Web Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Ingebritsen, Tom; Pleasants, John; Flickinger, Kathleen; Brown, George

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to examine how students with different learning styles functioned in World Wide Web-based courses offered by Project BIO at Iowa State University in the Fall of 1997, and to determine what factors influenced their learning. The objectives of the study were to identify: (1) the demographic…

  2. Factors Influencing Teachers' Engagement in Informal Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Margaret C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing the engagement of public school teachers in informal learning activities. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a survey research design. Findings: Analysis of the data found that teachers rely to a greater degree on interactive than on independent informal learning…

  3. Against Conventional Wisdom: Factors Influencing Hispanic Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percell, Jay C.; Kaufman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The researchers performed a variable analysis of the 2002 Educational Longitudinal Study data investigating factors that influence students' reading scores on standardized tests. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Scores were analyzed and controlling variables were compared to determine the effect of each on both populations. Certain variables commonly…

  4. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  5. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  6. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  7. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  8. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  9. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  10. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  11. Factors Influencing Medical School Faculty Disposition Toward Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Thomas G.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that faculties perceive the protection or enhancement of collegiality as the single most important factor influencing their attitudes toward unionization. Faculties see collective bargaining as a means of strengthening their position in the decisionmaking process of the medical school. (Editor/PG)

  12. Factors Influencing Females' Access to the High School Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Rae Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing females' access to the Oklahoma secondary school principalship. Although in the United States federal laws and policies are in place to promote equity, research indicates females are underrepresented in secondary school administration. Regardless of equity…

  13. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  14. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  15. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  16. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  17. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  18. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  19. Organizational, Financial, and Environmental Factors Influencing Deans' Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Rebecca; Bhak, Karyn; Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Griner, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of factors influencing tenure of 382 medical school deans from 1985-1994 found that, at the schools that were less healthy financially, were under the same ownership as the primary teaching hospital, and had small faculties, deans tended to have shorter tenures and higher turnover. Possible reasons for these findings and implications for…

  20. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  1. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  2. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  3. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  4. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  5. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  6. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  7. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  8. Factors That Influence Faculty Adoption of Learning-Centered Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a recommended course of action for faculty development based upon Rogers' theory of Diffusion of Innovations and data collected in a study looking at the prevalence of use of learning-centered teaching practices. Specific faculty development strategies are aligned with Rogers' factors influencing decisions to adopt…

  9. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  10. An Investigation of Classroom Factors That Influence Proof Construction Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Sharon Soucy; Martin, Tami S.; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Wallace, Michelle L.

    This paper on classroom factors influencing students' proof construction ability reports findings from the data collected in the first two years of a three-year National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project. Four different classrooms, two from each participating school, were involved in the project. Data sources included videotaped classroom…

  11. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  12. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  13. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  14. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  15. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  16. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  17. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  18. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  19. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  20. Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Self-Evaluation of Numerical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Vicki N.; Durrani, Naureen

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study explores factors influencing undergraduates' self-evaluation of their numerical competence, using data from an online survey completed by 566 undergraduates from a diversity of academic disciplines, across all four faculties at a post-1992 UK university. Analysis of the data, which included correlation and multiple regression…

  1. Factors Influencing Residents' Satisfaction in Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the important factors influencing residents' satisfaction in residential aged care and to provide a better understanding of their interrelationships. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the required information, including resident satisfaction, resident dependency…

  2. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  3. Pantomime Production by People with Aphasia: What Are Influencing Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present article aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to participants without brain damage (PWBD) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 PWBD in their use of 6 representation techniques ("handling,"…

  4. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  5. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  6. Factors influencing trust and mistrust in health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2016-07-27

    Partnerships between sectors can achieve better outcomes than can be achieved by individual partners working alone. Trust is necessary for partnerships to function effectively. Mistrust makes partnership working difficult, if not impossible. There has been little research into partnership functioning factors that influence trust and mistrust. This study aimed to identify these factors in health promotion partnerships. Data were collected from 337 partners in 40 health promotion partnerships using a postal survey. The questionnaire incorporated multi-dimensional scales designed to assess the contribution of factors that influence partnership trust and mistrust. Newly validated scales were developed for trust, mistrust and power. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the significance of each factor to partnership trust and mistrust. Power was found to be the only predictor of partnership trust. Power, leadership, and efficiency were the most important factors influencing partnership mistrust. Power in partnerships must be shared or partners will not trust each other. Power-sharing and trust-building mechanisms need to be built into partnerships from the beginning and sustained throughout the collaborative process.

  7. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  8. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  9. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  10. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  11. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Park, Keigan M

    2012-05-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies.

  12. Influence of starter culture on flavor and headspace volatile profiles of fermented whey and whey produced from fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-11-01

    Rennet whey and skim milk were compared as media for fermentation by commercial cheese, yogurt, and probiotic starter cultures. Effect of culture, medium, and their interaction on flavor was assessed and compared by sensory descriptive analysis and headspace volatile analysis by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. In general, the aroma of fermented whey was similar to that of whey separated from fermented milk, indicating a favorable possibility of substituting milk with whey in the manufacture of fermented milk-like beverages. Starter culture significantly affected most sensory characteristics of the products. Key volatile compounds for the characteristic flavor of yogurt, such as acetaldehyde and diacetyl, were not significantly affected by medium when fermented with the yogurt culture, and reached similar levels in both systems. Volatile analysis results were consistent with the results of the sensory evaluation, indicating the high reliability of proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry in detecting important volatile compounds for aroma. Integration of this sensory and chemical information allows a better understanding of how flavor and related compounds are affected by ingredients or processing, which may be useful for the development of value-added whey products.

  13. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  14. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  15. Human milk secretory immunoglobulin a and lactoferrin N-glycans are altered in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Totten, Sarah M; Huang, Jincui; Grapov, Dmitry; Durham, Holiday A; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J; Lebrilla, Carlito; German, J Bruce

    2013-12-01

    Very little is known about the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on lactation and milk components. Recent reports suggested that hyperglycemia during pregnancy was associated with altered breast milk immune factors. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N-glycans of milk immune-modulatory proteins are implicated in modulation of infant immunity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of GDM on HMO and protein-conjugated glycan profiles in breast milk. Milk was collected at 2 wk postpartum from women diagnosed with (n = 8) or without (n = 16) GDM at week 24-28 in pregnancy. Milk was analyzed for HMO abundances, protein concentrations, and N-glycan abundances of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). HMOs and N-glycans were analyzed by mass spectrometry and milk lactoferrin and sIgA concentrations were analyzed by the Bradford assay. The data were analyzed using multivariate modeling confirmed with univariate statistics to determine differences between milk of women with compared with women without GDM. There were no differences in HMOs between milk from women with vs. without GDM. Milk from women with GDM compared with those without GDM was 63.6% lower in sIgA protein (P < 0.05), 45% higher in lactoferrin total N-glycans (P < 0.0001), 36-72% higher in lactoferrin fucose and sialic acid N-glycans (P < 0.01), and 32-43% lower in sIgA total, mannose, fucose, and sialic acid N-glycans (P < 0.05). GDM did not alter breast milk free oligosaccharide abundances but decreased total protein and glycosylation of sIgA and increased glycosylation of lactoferrin in transitional milk. The results suggest that maternal glucose dysregulation during pregnancy has lasting consequences that may influence the innate immune protective functions of breast milk.

  16. Factors influencing validation of ambulatory blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Atkins, N; Staessen, J

    1995-11-01

    With the introduction of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring into clinical practice a vast market for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices has been created. To satisfy this market manufacturers are producing an array of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices. There is no obligation on manufacturers to have such devices validated independently, even though two national protocols, one from the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the other from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), call for independent validation and state the means of doing so. However, many factors can influence the validation procedure. They include compliance to the protocol being employed; the accuracy of the standard; establishing precisely the model being validated; the influences of blood pressure level, age and exercise on device accuracy; the provisions necessary for special populations, such as pregnant women, the elderly and children; the influence of oscillometric versus Korotkoff sound detection and electrocardiographic gating on comparative measurements; the assessment of performance as distinct from accuracy; and the relevance of general factors, such as the algorithm being employed and computer compatibility. Forty-three ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices have been marketed for ambulatory blood pressure measurement and of those only 18 have been validated according to either the BHS or the AAMI protocol. The influence of the factors listed above on the validation studies of those devices will be considered and the relevance of validation procedures to the clinical use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices will be discussed.

  17. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  18. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development.

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, R L

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure. The latter analysis indicates that for children less than 24 months of age, lead-containing dust in the home and on the children's hands are important determinates of their blood lead levels. This relationship is influenced by the amount of maternal involvement with their child and other indices of interaction between the child and primary caregiver. PMID:2417831

  19. Phenotypic, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from buffalo and cow mastitic milk

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Hassan, Hany M; Orabi, Ahmed; Abdelhafez, Ahmed S T

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n = 10/232) and cow (n = 35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance. PMID:24915048

  20. Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing substance use by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liepman, Michael R; Calles, Joseph L; Kizilbash, Leena; Nazeer, Ahsan; Sheikh, Suhail

    2002-06-01

    Substance use by adolescents can lead to mortality, physical and social morbidity, and a brain disorder called substance dependence if allowed to progress to chronic, repetitive self-administration. Substance abuse and dependence can begin in adolescence or adulthood, but many of the attitudes and behaviors that affect risk become established during adolescence. Genetic risk factors have been identified for at least two distinct disorders and more are under active study to determine the cause and pathophysiology of addictive disorders. Although much remains to be done, a complex interplay of numerous genetic and environmental risk factors clearly is involved. An understanding of the most important environmental risk factors has led to effective primary prevention approaches; knowledge of the genetic risk factors and neuropharmacology of drugs of abuse in the brain is beginning to influence secondary prevention efforts and treatment, including better medications for addictive disorders. A large proportion of adolescents carry a genetic vulnerability that can be expressed when they accept peer and societal influences that promote experimentation with substances of abuse. At that point, the genetic factors take over, maintaining the drug self-administration pattern. Decay of social status results from association with drug-using peers and shifts in priorities supportive of drug use rather than education and productivity. More research into the genetic risk factors and applications of current knowledge to treatment is needed.

  1. Milk Fever Control Principles: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Three main preventive principles against milk fever were evaluated in this literature review, and the efficacy of each principle was estimated from the results of controlled investigations. Oral calcium drenching around calving apparently has a mean efficacy of 50%–60% in terms of milk fever prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K) – (Cl + S)) significantly reduce the milk fever incidence. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a mean RR between 0.19 and 0.35 when rations with a negative versus positive DCAD are compared. The main drawback from the DCAD principle is a palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR (between 0 and 0.20) (daily calcium intake below versus above 20 g/d). The main problem in implementing the low-Ca principle is difficulties in formulating rations sufficiently low in calcium when using commonly available feeds. The use of large doses of vitamin D metabolites and analogues for milk fever prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with sufficient magnesium to fulfil its needs, and to prevent the dry cows from being too fat. Available information on the influence of carbohydrate intake, and on the effect of

  2. Human Milk: Mother Nature’s Prototypical Probiotic Food?1234

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “probiotic” is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: “a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host.” As such, answering the fundamental question posed here—“Is human milk a probiotic?”—requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother’s and/or the recipient infant’s health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known. PMID:25593150

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Factors influencing autism spectrum disorder screening by community paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    WS, Angie; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David; Sharon, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most cases, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be reliably diagnosed at two to three years of age. However, Canadian data reveal a median age at diagnosis of approximately four years. OBJECTIVE: To examine general paediatricians’ practices regarding ASD screening and identify factors that influence decisions regarding the use of ASD screening tools. METHODS: Using a qualitative inquiry-based interpretive description approach, 12 paediatricians from four practice groups participated in four focus groups and one individual interview. These were conducted using semistructured interviews, digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: Five main domains of themes were identified related to screening tool use: benefits; needs not addressed; elements that limit utility; elements that encourage utility; and implementation challenges. Factors influencing practice included availability of time, comfort with screening tool use, previous use and knowledge about specific tools. Systemic factors included knowledge and access to community resources, as well as the ability to provide support to the child and family. CONCLUSION: The results from the present study identified important factors that influence paediatric practice in ASD screening. As screening tools improve, it will be important to examine the implementation and effectiveness of screening tools and strategies for increased uptake. Future research will also need to attend to the practical needs of physicians and communities in the aim of earlier diagnosis and rapid access to interventional resources. PMID:26175565

  7. QoS test traffic influence factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fei; Cao, Yang

    2004-04-01

    This paper described certain problems when performing QoS active measurement. The term Test Traffic Influence Factor (TTIF), describing quantitatively influence which the test traffic compared to actual traffic on Qos parameters is defined. A kind of ideal model based on the queue theory to study TTIF is build up and a TTIF for delay is discussed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using network simulation tool-OPNET modeler. Then certain important conclusions and advice about IP network QoS measurement are given and further research direction is directed.

  8. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids.

  9. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors.

  10. Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hinh

    2009-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of serious and fatal forms of human blood disorder (acquired aplastic anemia, AA) and lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF). We and other researchers have recently shown that naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding the telomere maintenance complex (telomerase) may predispose patients to the development of AA or IPF. Epidemiological data have shown that environmental factors can also cause and/or exacerbate the pathogenesis of these diseases. The exact mechanisms that these germ-line mutations in telomere maintenance genes coupled with environmental insults lead to ineffective hematopoiesis in AA and lung scarring in IPF are not well understood, however. In this article, we provide a summary of evidence for environmental and genetic factors influencing the diseases. These studies provide important insights into the interplay between environmental and genetic factors leading to human diseases with telomere dysfunction. PMID:19684885

  11. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  12. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelberg, Irmgard M.J.G.; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed. PMID:16896415

  13. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  14. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  15. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  16. The Influence of Various Factors on the Methane Fermentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanova, M. G.; Egushova, E. A.; Pozdnjakova, OG

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the stages of the methane fermentation process. The phases of methane formation are characterized. The results of the experimental data based on the study of various factors influencing the rate of biogas production and its yield are presented. Such factors as the size of the substrate particles and temperature conditions in the reactor are considered. It is revealed on the basis of experimental data which of the farm animals and poultry excrements are exposed to the most complete fermentation without special preparation. The relationship between fermentation regime, particle size of the feedstock and biogas yield is graphically presented.

  17. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  18. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII is down-regulated in sepsis via the lipopolysaccharide-CD14 pathway.

    PubMed

    Komura, Hidefumi; Miksa, Michael; Wu, Rongqian; Goyert, Sanna M; Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Phagocytosis prevents the release of potentially harmful or immunogenic materials from dying cells. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF)-factor VIII (MFG-E8) mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. We have previously shown that the administration of MFG-E8-rich exosomes from immature dendritic cells promotes the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and improves survival in sepsis. Because endotoxin is elevated in polymicrobial sepsis, we hypothesized that down-regulation of MFG-E8 is mediated via the LPS-CD14 pathway, eventually leading to the accruement of apoptotic cells. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in CD14-deficient (CD14(-/-)), TLR4-mutated and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, endotoxemia was elicited by i.p. injection of LPS. LPS was also neutralized by pretreating CLP-induced WT mice with polymyxin B. Splenic MFG-E8 expression, phagocytic activity, and apoptosis were assessed 5 and 20 h after CLP or 5 h after LPS administration. In septic WT mice, MFG-E8 mRNA and protein levels were suppressed by 49 and 33%, respectively. Endotoxemia reduced MFG-E8 mRNA expression in a dose dependent manner and the down-regulation of MFG-E8 mRNA expression in CLP-induced sepsis was attenuated by polymyxin B. This CLP-induced suppression was not observed in both CD14(-/-) and TLR4-mutated mice. CLP significantly decreased phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages in WT (by 30%), but not in CD14(-/-) mice. CLP also induced significant apoptosis in the spleen of WT (by 61%), but less in CD14(-/-) mice. Thus, MFG-E8 production is down-regulated in sepsis by LPS-CD14 dependent fashion, leading to a reduction of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

  19. Influence of geophysical factors on oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Baranets, A.N.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.F.; Borisova, T.D.; Bubnov, V.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of geophysical factors, including magnetoionospheric disturbances, on decameter wave propagation over extended paths using oblique sounding (OS) data, and also to compare experimental and calculated OS ionograms for various conditions of radio waver propagation (season, time of day). Variations of oblique-sounder ionospheric characteristics along a 9000 km long subauroral path for various geophysical conditions are considered. A comparison is made of experimental and calculated ionograms of oblique sounding.

  20. Foundation doctors career choice and factors influencing career choice.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Begg, Drummond; Dixon, Guy

    2015-11-01

    This study is seeking to establish the factors influencing foundation doctors' decision-making when applying for speciality training. A questionnaire was sent to all foundation doctors in Scotland (n = 1602, response rate 34%) asking them about their career intention in relation to General Practice, whether they received career advice and the extent to which certain factors influenced their career choice. For the majority of trainees, General Practice was not their first choice but just under half were considering it as a career. There were significant differences in career choices between the four Scottish regions and between the medical schools, with a greater proportion of those who studied in Aberdeen and Dundee Medical Schools opting for a career in General Practice. Undergraduate GP placement was reported as the strongest influence in favour of a career in General Practice followed by discussion with family and friends and discussion with speciality trainees. There were differences between medical schools in the way hospital placements, General Practice placements and role models influenced career choices. Career advice on General Practice was reported to be less available and more difficult to find.

  1. Factors influencing veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animals.

    PubMed

    Serpell, James A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of demographic and experiential factors on first-year veterinary students career choices and attitudes to animal welfare/rights. The study surveyed 329 first-year veterinary students to determine the influence of demographic factors, farm experience, and developmental exposure to different categories of animals on their career preferences and on their attitudes to specific areas of animal welfare and/or rights. A significant male gender bias toward food-animal practice was found, and prior experience with particular types of animals--companion animals, equines, food animals--tended to predict career preferences. Female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. Seventy-two percent of students also reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values. Animals ranked second in importance after parents in this respect. The present findings illustrate the importance to issues of animal welfare of the cultural context of past experience and influences on attitude development. The results also suggest that previous interactions with animals play a critical role in guiding veterinary students into their chosen career, as well as in helping to determine their specific employment preferences within the veterinary profession. From an animal welfare perspective, the dearth of women choosing careers in food-animal practice is a source of concern.

  2. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  3. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  4. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    PubMed

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p < .05), 38.6% higher inpatient caseloads (p < .01), and 55.9% higher emotional stress scores (p < .01). There was a trend for reported events to also be associated with less sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  5. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lukas; Mueller, André; Barthel, Christiane; Snijders, Bianca; Jansen, Margje; Simões-Wüst, A Paula; Huber, Machteld; Kummeling, Ischa; von Mandach, Ursula; Steinhart, Hans; Thijs, Carel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P = 0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed.

  6. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was <10 cfu/mL in most of the samples (709/742, 95.6%). A positive correlation was found between log SCC and log TVC (r=0.32), between log SCC and CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal

  7. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stacie E; Evason, Kimberley; Xiong, Chengjie; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2007-02-16

    Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  8. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  9. Associations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 levels with biomarker-calibrated protein, dairy product and milk intake in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jeannette M; Gunter, Marc J; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Prentice, Ross L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Vitolins, Mara Z; Strickler, Howard D

    2014-03-14

    It is well established that protein-energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.

  10. [Consensus document: nutritional and metabolic importance of cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Fernández Fernández, Elena; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo; Martínez Suárez, Venancio; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Collado Yurrita, Luis Rodolfo; Hernández Cabria, Marta; Morán Rey, Francisco Javier

    2014-10-25

    Cow's milk is a staple food for human consumption at all stages of life. Industrial processing has allowed widespread access to its consumption by the population, which has helped to significantly improve their health. From its composition point of view, milk is a complete and balanced food that provides high nutrient content in relation to its calorie content, so its consumption should be considered necessary from childhood to elderly. The benefits of cow's milk are not limited to its nutritional value, but extend beyond and are a factor of prevention in certain non communicable pathologies as cardiovascular disease, some cancers, high blood pressure or bone or dental pathology. It can also help in the fight against childhood overweight and obesity. In recent years we have seen a worrying decline in milk consumption among the Spanish population, at least in part influenced by misconceptions about its consumption and of other dairy products. This consensus document aims to review the current state of the topic regarding the effects of milk consumption on health, while making a call to the institutions and scientific societies to develop programs and information campaigns about the benefits of milk and dairy products consumption.

  11. Personal and situational factors influencing coaches' perceptions of stress.

    PubMed

    Knight, Camilla J; Reade, Ian L; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    Coaching has been recognised as a demanding occupation, associated with a range of stressors. The extent to which coaches perceive stress is likely to be influenced by various personal and situational factors. The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' levels of perceived stress and examine the personal and situational factors that may influence coaches' perceptions of stress. In total, 502 coaches working with university, college, Canada Games, and/or nationally identified athletes completed this study. Coaches completed an online survey, which included questions regarding demographics, work/job-related considerations, and aspects relating to their contract. Coaches also completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983). Overall coaches indicated slightly below average levels of perceived stress (M = 15.13 out of 40) compared with norm-values (Cohen & Janicki-Deverts, 2012). Demographic factors, job-related characteristics, and certain aspects of their contract were associated with coaches' perceptions of stress. In particular, unclear expectations, long-working hours (>40), lack of agreed evaluation criteria, higher salaries, and a lack of social support were related to higher perceptions of stress. As such, the findings of the current study indicate that a reduction in perceived stress is likely to be achieved through a multifaceted approach that addresses multiple factors associated with coaching.

  12. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  13. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19).

  14. Influence factors affecting career choice of preclinical medical technology students.

    PubMed

    Gleich, C

    1978-06-01

    Over a seven-year period, data were gathered on 249 declared medical technology majors enrolled in an Introduction to Medical Technology course at the University of Iowa. The Kendall Tau C test for significance (p = less than .05) was utilized in determining the influence of several variables or factors in the students' choice of medical technology as a career. Such factors as the type of work, demand for medical technologists, and desire to help people were found to be highly motivating factors in choice. It appeared the motivation was primarily internalized with assistance sought from various sources. The decision of medical technology as a career was predominantly made in the junior/senior year in high school or freshman/sophomore year in college.

  15. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  16. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, Chinedum Peace; Morse, Gene D.; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity. PMID:27777797

  17. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

  18. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  19. Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Kharoune, Mourad; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. PMID:27877925

  20. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  1. Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates. Methods The factors considered in this study are those envisioned to impact whether a dog is likely to have heartworm. The factors include climate conditions (annual temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), socio-economic conditions (population density, household income), local topography (surface water and forestation coverage, elevation), and vector presence (several mosquito species). A baseline heartworm prevalence map is constructed using estimated proportions of positive tests in each county of the United States. A smoothing algorithm is employed to remove localized small-scale variation and highlight large-scale structures of the prevalence rates. Logistic regression is used to identify significant factors for predicting heartworm prevalence. Results All of the examined factors have power in predicting heartworm prevalence, including median household income, annual temperature, county elevation, and presence of the mosquitoes Aedes trivittatus, Aedes sierrensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Interactions among factors also exist. Conclusions The factors identified are significant in predicting heartworm prevalence. The factor list is likely incomplete due to data deficiencies. For example, coyotes and feral dogs are known reservoirs of heartworm infection. Unfortunately, no complete data of their populations were available. The regression model considered is currently being explored to forecast future values of heartworm prevalence. PMID:24906567

  2. [INFLUENCE OF THE REGULAR INTAKE OF FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS ENRICHED BY MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME INDICES OF IRON METABOLISM IN ADOLESCENTS INVOLVED IN SPORTS].

    PubMed

    Turchaninov, D V; Bovarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V; Bagrova, L V; Gotwald, A R; Kozubenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the influence of regular intake offermented milk enriched by products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" on indices of iron metabolism in adolescents of 12-17 years, involved in sports (n = 94). In all study participants there was made double blood test (every 60 days), there were determined the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein. The intervention in the main group (n = 68) was in daily intake offermented milk product in a volume of 200 ml (1 Cup) in addition to the normal diet within 2 months, including 35 cases who had used the bioproduct "Bifidin" and 33 persons- bioproduct "Prolacta". The control group was consisted of 26 persons from the adolescents engaged in the same sections, but not taking additional fermented milk drinks. The average values of all studied indices in adolescent athletes of the main and control groups before and after the intervention were consistent with reference values. Latent iron deficiency was detected in 23.4 ± 4.4% of adolescents involved in sports. At the second point of the research in two months of intake of enriched dairy products in the main group there was noticed the gain in levels of serum iron, ferritin, and the decline of the concentration of C-reactive protein. The results of the study allow us to consider enriched dairy products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" as one of the components of complex measures of prophylaxis of hypovitaminosis and microelementoses in adolescents who are actively involved in sports.

  3. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  4. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  5. The effects of dairy processes and storage on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) content in milk and in model IGF-I-fortified dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kang, S H; Kim, J U; Imm, J Y; Oh, S; Kim, S H

    2006-02-01

    The effects of several dairy processes on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in milk and the storage stability of IGF-I-fortified dairy products were examined. The IGF-I content in raw milk determined by radioimmunoassay was significantly changed by the strength of heat treatments. In commercial manufacture of whole milk dry powder, IGF-I concentration was not significantly changed. A significant reduction in IGF-I content was found as the result of fermentation with a commercial starter culture. The IGF-I content in fortified milk and dried milk powder exhibited no significant changes over the tested storage periods (12 d for milk, 4 wk for dried milk powder), but the IGF-I content in the yogurt decreased significantly during storage. The use of IGF-I was varied by lactic strains and was apparent in the viable cells. When IGF-I was encapsulated using the surface-reforming process, the remaining IGF-I content after fermentation was significantly higher compared with that of the untreated control. Therefore, enteric coating of IGF-I before fermentation might be an effective method for the prevention of IGF-I degradation during fermentation.

  6. The trade-offs between milk production and soil organic carbon storage in dairy systems under different management and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Schipper, Louis A; Mudge, Paul L; Rutledge, Susanna; Puche, Nicolas J B; Campbell, David I

    2017-01-15

    A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production. We tested the model by using 2years of observations of the exchanges of water and CO2 measured with an eddy covariance system on a dairy farm in New Zealand's Waikato region. We obtained excellent agreement between the model and observations, especially for evapotranspiration and net photosynthesis. For the scenario analysis, we found that SOC could be increased through supplying supplemental feed, increasing fertiliser application, or increasing water availability through irrigation on very dry sites, but SOC decreased again for larger increases in water availability. Soil warming strongly reduced SOC. For other changes in key properties, such as changes in soil water-holding capacity and plant root:shoot ratios, SOC changes were often negatively correlated with changes in milk production. The work showed that changes in SOC were determined by the complex interplay between (1) changes in net primary production; (2) the carbon fraction taken off-site through grazing; (3) carbon allocation within the system between labile and stabilised SOC; and (4) changes in SOC decomposition rates. There is a particularly important trade-off between carbon either being removed by grazing or remaining on site and available for SOC formation. Changes in SOC cannot be fully understood unless all four factors are considered together in an overall assessment.

  7. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed.

  8. High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors Influencing Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school…

  9. Innovative Caciocavallo cheeses made from a mixture of cow milk with ewe or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Niro, Serena; Fratianni, Alessandra; Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Panfili, Gianfranco; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-03-01

    This study assessed and compared the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of Caciocavallo cheeses, made from cow milk and a mixture of cow with ewe or goat milk, during ripening. Different cheese-making trials were carried out on an industrial scale following the standard procedure of pasta filata cheeses, with some modifications. The percentage of the different added milk to cow milk influenced compositional and nutritional characteristics of the innovative products, leading to a satisfactory microbiological and sensorial quality.

  10. Factors associated with variation in bulk tank milk Mycoplasma bovis antibody-ELISA results in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mette B; Krogh, Kaspar; Nielsen, Liza R

    2016-05-01

    The relevance and limitations for using measurements of antibodies against Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk (BTM) as a potentially cost-effective diagnostic tool for herd classification has not been evaluated before. Assuming that an increasing or high seroprevalence is a result of on-going or recent spread of M. bovis in a dairy herd, we tested the hypothesis that increasing prevalence of antibody-positive cows and young stock are associated with increasing BTM antibody ELISA values against M. bovis in Danish dairy herds with different courses of M. bovis infection. Furthermore, we tested whether herd size was associated with variations in the BTM responses. Thirty-nine Danish dairy herds selected to represent 4 different herd-level infection groups [8 control herds, 14 acute outbreak herds, 7 herds with previous outbreaks, and 10 herds with elevated BTM ELISA-values directed against M. bovis (>64% optical density measurement)] were visited 4 to 5 times, approximately 3mo apart. At each visit, 65 young stock were blood sampled. At the milk recording date closest to the herd visit date, 50 milk recording samples from individual lactating cows were randomly selected. In addition, a BTM sample was collected as a representative sample directly from the bulk tank by the dairies' milk truck drivers as part of the mandatory milk quality-control scheme. Blood and milk samples were tested for antibodies against M. bovis with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio-X BIO K 302, Bio-X Diagnostics, Rochefort, Belgium). A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the effects of the prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows and young stock and herd size on the BTM M. bovis ELISA results. Herd was included as a random effect to account for clustering of BTM samples originating from the same herd. Increasing prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows was the only variable associated with increasing M. bovis BTM ELISA optical density measurement. In contrast, the

  11. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  12. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  13. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  14. Susceptibility of the individual caseins in reconstituted skim milk to cross-linking by transglutaminase: influence of temperature, pH and mineral equilibria.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; Huppertz, Thom; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-11-01

    The susceptibility of total casein and the individual caseins in reconstituted skim milk to transglutaminase (TGase)-induced cross-linking was studied as a function of incubation temperature (5-40 °C), pH (5·0-7·0) and mineral addition. Within the ranges studied, the level of total casein cross-linked increased with increasing temperature, pH and concentration of added trisodium citrate, whereas adding calcium chloride had the opposite effect. These effects can be largely related to the effects of these parameters on TGase activity. In addition, the parameters were also found to influence the susceptibility of κ-casein, and to a lesser extent β-casein, to cross-linking, whereas the susceptibility of αs1-casein was not affected. The susceptibility of κ-casein to cross-linking increased with increasing temperature and calcium chloride addition, but decreased with increasing pH and citrate content, whereas the susceptibility of β-casein to TGase-induced cross-linking decreased with increasing temperature, but was not affected by other parameters. These findings highlight the fact that selection of environmental conditions during cross-linking can be applied to tailor the surface, and hence possibly colloidal stability, of casein micelles in TGase-treated milk.

  15. Human milk for the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M D; Desai, N S; Charlet, S S

    1979-05-01

    Closer study of premature infants has led to the establishment of human milk as the recommended nutritional standard for them. Infants fed with human milk are found to gain protection against necrotizing enterocolitis, and have fewer upper respiratory tract infections and systemic infections. Antibacterial components of human milk include leukocytes (macrophages, granulocytes, and T and B cell lymphocytes), the B cell secreted immunoglobulins, and complement factors. Lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin in breast milk are particularly active against group B beta hemolytic streptococcus and staphylococcus, respectively. Fresh human milk helps in the colonization of the infant's gut by Lactobacillus bifidus, a bacteria that suppresses other possibly pathogenic organisms. Nutritional values of human milk offer certain advantages and disadvantages over cow's milk. The quality of human milk protein is superior to that of cow's milk, and human milk's higher levels of cystine are especially required in the premature infant, where the liver is deficient in the enzyme required to convert methionine to cystine. Human milk is low in certain essential electrolytes and trace elements, such as sodium. It can also harbor drugs, pollutants, and harmful viruses that can be dangerous to the infant. Freezing of human milk for banking can destroy many of the immunological advantages of its use. Given that the advantages seem to outweigh the disadvantages, the authors favor the use of human milk for premature infants.

  16. Factors influencing choice of dental treatment by private general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2002-01-01

    Service rate variations have focused attention on treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to examine factors considered in choosing treatments, to classify dentists in terms of clinical decision making, and to investigate the association of decision making with services provided. From a random sample of dentists (response rate 60.3%) treatment constraints (15.0%), periodontal status (12.1%), tooth status (11.3%), mouth status (10.1%), and patient factors (9.8%) were considered important factors across six alternative treatment pair choice scenarios. Cluster analysis of the treatment choice scenarios produced one cluster that reflected patient preferences, another that reflected treatment constraints such as cost, and a third that reflected oral health factors. Compared with the oral health cluster, dentists in the constraints cluster had higher rates (p < .05) of extractions (rate ratio [RR] = 1.49), bridge work (RR = 1.77), and dentures (RR = 1.32), whereas dentists in the patient cluster had higher restoration rates for two-surface ionomers (RR = 2.45) and resins on three or more surfaces (RR = 1.50) and other preventive services (RR = 1.78) such as oral hygiene instruction. Although a range of factors influenced treatment choice, a limited set accounted for the majority of responses, with cost a major determinant, ahead of oral health status and patient preference. Decision-making style was associated with service provision.

  17. Neutralising fair credit: factors that influence unethical authorship practices.

    PubMed

    Trinkle, Brad S; Phillips, Trisha; Hall, Alicia; Moffatt, Barton

    2017-01-31

    This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor. In addition, four techniques of neutralisation, 'diffusion of responsibility', 'defence of necessity', 'advantageous comparison' and 'euphemistic labelling', are associated with student willingness to act unethically. Participants who had received responsible conduct of research training were no less likely to commit the violation than those who had not. Knowledge of these influencing factors for QRPs will provide for opportunities to improve research ethics education strategies and materials.

  18. Psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal among older women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Della-Monica, Nola R

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, many older women are uninformed about the increased risk and have lower mammography screening rates than younger women. Understanding older women's perceptions of risk might assist health care providers in offering appropriate resources that result in screening. In this study, we explored psychosocial components influencing older women's breast cancer risk appraisal. To identify key psychosocial components of breast cancer risk appraisal, we conducted focus group interviews. Data saturation occurred with four groups (N = 36) of older Black (58%) and White (42%) women with no prior history of breast cancer. On analysis of the data, we found three themes representing psychosocial factors influencing breast cancer risk appraisal with this cohort. Our findings revealed that worry/fear/anxiety, self-regulating empowerment, and realistic optimism were psychosocial mechanisms older Black and White women in this sample used in appraising breast cancer risk.

  19. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    PubMed

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  20. Toxoplasma Infection and Milk Consumption: Meta-analysis of Assumptions and Evidences.

    PubMed

    Boughattas, Sonia

    2015-10-14

    Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread infection worldwide. It occurs within congenital contamination, organ transplant or immune system depression. Primary infection is mainly foodborne with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat; unwashed fruit-vegetables, unhygienic water or contaminated milk. Gaps in current knowledge about the risk assessment of Toxoplasma gondii by milk consumption are noted. Contradictory data are observed within risk assessment of milk consumption and toxoplasmosis occurrence. While some papers reported positive correlations between drinking milk and infection transmission to human, other studies stated non significant influence of milk or milk products consumption. New debate about the detection of the parasite in the milk matrix from different hosts raised interrogations. To figure out the real contribution and the potential correlations of milkborne way in toxoplasmic infection, meta-analysis approach was investigated. Overall analysis showed heterogeneous responses and led to sate that statistically: dairy matrix (other than milk); Bovidae products; agricultural population and countries in Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia are not linked to milkborne toxoplasmosis. The most involved factors are Capridae products, immune-depressed population and North America, Middle East and Latin territories. The current work advanced which parameters could affect the public health and should be envisioned in further epidemiological analysis.

  1. Principal component analysis of indicator PCB profiles in breast milk from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, Biljana; Szyrwińska, Katarzyna; Durišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Nowicki, Piotr; Lulek, Janina

    2010-11-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a data set containing the levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk of mothers living in the Wielkopolska region, Poland, in order to investigate the information captured in the PCB patterns and to elucidate the relationship between PCB concentrations in milk and donor characteristics. According to the obtained PCA results milk fat content was the most influential factor affecting the PCB levels in milk of the Wielkopolska cohort. The lifestyle data collected from the questionnaire completed by the donors appeared to have no influence on PCB concentrations in breast milk. The score plots revealed the PCB contents of milk were quite low and uniform with a few outliers, without discrimination observed either between the primipareous and secundipareous females or between donors from the urban and rural areas. Comparison of the PCB levels and profiles of human milk from the Wielkopolska region and from various European and Asian locations made by PCA reflected a generally low background exposure and indicated the possible reasons for the outlying of some samples. In order to enhance the chances of observing the relationship between donor habits and PCB levels in breast milk it was suggested that the questionnaire be redesigned to gather information about vegetable product consumption and indoor air exposure.

  2. PMR Characterization of the Water Structure in Tibetan Milk Mushroom Zooglea: Influence of Medium Hydration and Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, T. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu. I.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Tsapko, M. D.; Turov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The state of water in Tibetan milk mushroom zooglea with different degrees of hydration (h) was investigated using low-temperature PMR spectroscopy in air and in contact with the hydrophobic media polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-1000 and CHCl3 with added trifl uoroacetic acid (TFA). The maximum hydration of the zooglea amounted to h = 32 g/g (of dry matter). Water existed as polyassociates (clusters or domains) of strongly and weakly associated water. Bound water decomposed into clusters in the presence of TFA. The NMR spectra showed six types of bound water at h = 0.3 g/g.

  3. Phages of dairy Leuconostoc mesenteroides: genomics and factors influencing their adsorption.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Mercanti, Diego J; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea del L

    2015-05-18

    Phages infecting Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains can be overlooked during milk fermentation because they do not slowdown the acidification process. However, they can negatively impact the flavor profile of the final product. Yet, the information about these phages is still scarce. In this work, we investigated diverse factors influencing the adsorption of seven virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages, isolated from blue cheese manufacture in Argentina, to their host cells. The addition of calcium ions was generally necessary to observe complete cell lysis and plaque formation for four of the seven phages, but adsorption was very high even in the absence of this cation for all phages. The temperature barely influenced the adsorption process as it was high within the temperature range tested (0 to 50 °C). Moreover, the kinetics of adsorption were similar on viable and non-viable cells, revealing that phage adsorption does not depend on physiological state of the bacterial cells. The adsorption rates were also high at pH values from 4 to 9 for all Ln. mesenteroides phages. We also analyzed the complete genome sequences of two of these phages. Complete nucleotide analysis of phages Ln-8 and Ln-9 showed dsDNA genomes with sizes of 28.5 and 28.9 kb, and the presence of 45 and 48 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. These genomes were highly similar to those of previously characterized Φ1-A4 (USA, sauerkraut, fermentation) and ΦLN25 (England, whey), both virulent Ln. mesenteroides phages. A detailed understanding of these phages will lead to better control strategies.

  4. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  5. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as processed lunchmeats, margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another ... yogurt, milk, pudding, sour cream, and cottage cheese butter, butter flavoring (such as diacetyl), butter fat, butter ...

  6. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  7. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  8. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  9. Risk factors for herds to test positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-antibodies with a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Ontario and western Canada.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Ulrike S; Lissemore, Kerry; Godkin, Ann; Jansen, Jocelyn; Hendrick, Steven; Wells, Scott; Kelton, David F

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with i) a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-antibody milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAP milk ELISA)-positive herd status, and ii) the within-herd MAP milk ELISA-positive prevalence in Canadian dairy herds. This prospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2009 on 226 herds in Ontario and western Canada, which participated in a voluntary risk assessment (RA)-based Johne's disease control program. Two MAP milk ELISA and risk assessments and a previsit survey were available per herd. The overall farm RA scores alone could not be used to predict whether a herd would test positive for MAP antibodies. However, the results of this study indicated that increasing the likelihood of exposing calves to MAP through certain management practices, as assessed with the RA, increased the likelihood of a herd being test-positive for MAP antibodies.

  10. Cadmium in rice: Transport mechanisms, influencing factors, and minimizing measures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Li, Hui Yuan; Mo, Ce Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding of Cd transport processes and its management aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in rice may help to improve rice growth and grain quality. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the factors influencing Cd accumulation will be helpful to derive efficient strategies to minimize Cd in rice. In this article, we reviewed Cd transport mechanisms in rice, the factors affecting Cd uptake (including physicochemical characters of soil and ecophysiological features of rice) and discussed efficient measures to immobilize Cd in soil and reduce Cd uptake by rice (including agronomic practices, bioremediation and molecular biology techniques). These findings will contribute to ensuring food safety, and reducing Cd risk on human beings.

  11. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Lee, Anna K.; Witherspoon, Daphne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students’ experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed. PMID:25530924

  12. Prevalence and potential influencing factors of non-nutritive oral behaviors of veal calves on commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Leruste, H; Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Kemp, B; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; Lensink, B J; Bokkers, E A M; van Reenen, C G

    2014-11-01

    Veal calves raised under intensive conditions may express non-nutritive oral behaviors. When expressed in an abnormal way, these behaviors can be a sign of mental suffering and reduced welfare due to a mismatch between environmental or management features and the animal's needs. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of non-nutritive oral behaviors in a large sample of veal farms in Europe and to determine the potential influencing factors present at farm level. Data were collected on 157 commercial veal farms in the 3 main veal-producing countries in Europe (the Netherlands, France, and Italy). Observations of 3 non-nutritive oral behaviors (manipulating substrates, tongue rolling, and manipulating a penmate) were performed when calves were aged 14 wk, and the prevalence of these behaviors was calculated. Information on management practices and characteristics of the building and equipment were collected on all farms to assess potential influencing factors for each of the 3 behaviors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effect of each individual factor within a generalized linear model. The mean percentage of calves per farm performing manipulating substrates was 11.0 ± 0.46%, performing tongue rolling 2.8 ± 0 .18%, and manipulating a penmate 2.7 ± 0.09%, with a high range between farms. Allowing more space for calves than the legal minimum requirement of 1.8 m(2)/ calf and housing them in groups of >10 calves/pen reduced the incidences of manipulating substrates and tongue rolling. Incidence of manipulating substrates was lower for calves fed maize silage compared with calves fed cereal grain, pellets, or muesli. A higher risk of tongue rolling was found when baby-boxes (i.e., single housing during the first 5 to 8 wk) were not used. Risk of calves manipulating a penmate was higher for calves of milk- or meat-type breeds compared with dual-purpose breeds and for calves fed with 280 to 380 kg compared with

  13. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  14. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  15. The influence of salt concentration on the chemical, ripening and sensory characteristics of Iranian white cheese manufactured by UF-Treated milk.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mostafa; Guzeler, Nuray; Hayaloglu, Ali A

    2015-08-01

    Iranian White cheese was manufactured from ultrafiltered cows' milk using different concentrations of salt consisting of 1, 2.5, 4% and salt free. Chemical composition, proteolysis, counts for lactic acid bacteria and sensory evaluation were examined during 90 d of ripening. It was found that the use of different salt concentrations significantly influenced all chemical composition, proteolysis, total number of lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Increasing the salt concentrations caused a proportional decrease in proteolysis determined by both urea-PAGE of caseins and RP-HPLC of peptides. With increased salt concentration, total number of lactic acid bacteria decreased. Cheeses with 1 and 2.5% salt were suitable and acceptable in odour and flavour that may be due to the proportional level of proteolysis products. In conclusion, reducing salt concentration from 4 to 2.5 and 1% had no ineligible effect on the quality and acceptability of the cheese.

  16. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  17. Maternal Milk Consumption Predicts the Tradeoff between Milk and Soft Drinks in Young Girls’ Diets1

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake constitutes an important source of dietary calcium for young girls but declines throughout childhood. Recent work shows that the intake of soft drinks may contribute to this decline. Influences on the apparent tradeoff between soft drinks and milk in young girls’ diets are not well described. The objective of this research was to test a model depicting maternal beverage choices as predictors of their daughters’ milk and soft drink intake. A structural equation model describing maternal influences on daughters’ milk, soft drink and calcium intakes was tested using data from 180 non-Hispanic, white families with 5-y-old daughters. Mothers’ calcium, milk and soft drink intakes were evaluated as predictors of their daughters’ intakes. Mothers’ and daughters’ soft drink intakes were also examined as predictors of their own milk and calcium intakes. The model provided a good fit to the data, revealing mother-daughter similarities in beverage intake. Mothers who drank milk more frequently had daughters who drank milk more frequently and drank fewer soft drinks. For both mothers and daughters, soft drink consumption was negatively related to both milk and calcium intake. This research provides evidence that mothers’ beverage choices influence the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in their daughters’ diets. In particular, mothers’ milk and soft drink intakes may affect their daughters’ calcium adequacy in early childhood by influencing the frequency with which their daughters consume those beverages. PMID:11160541

  18. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  19. Factors influencing quality of chest compression depth in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Lim, Eun Ju

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing quality of chest compression depth in nursing students. A convenience sample of 102 female nursing students enrolled in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills training session. Each student performed 3 min of chest compression skills on a Resusci Anne SkillReporter manikin for measurements of both depth and rate. Nursing students with correct compression depth (50-60 mm) had higher body weight (t = -2.02, P = 0.046) and body mass index (t = -2.19, P = 0.031) compared with students in the incorrect depth group. Mean chest compression depth was shallower in underweight nursing students compared with normal weight or overweight students (F = 8.89, P < 0.001). Body weight was a significant factor influencing quality of chest compression depth (F = 4.25, P = 0.003). Educational intervention targeting underweight nursing students might need to enhance the quality of chest compression skills.

  20. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  1. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01). Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001), 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  3. Diverse influences of dietary factors on cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    The major environmental risk factors for cancer are carcinogen and co-carcinogen exposure in tobacco, insufficient exercise and above all an unhealthy diet. What we eat or do not eat is exceedingly important in determining what cancers or other chronic disease we may suffer from. Carcinogens may be integral contaminants of the diet, like nitrosamines in some situations and aflatoxins, or may be generated by cooking processes, as is known to be the case for heterocyclic amine pyrolysis products. Examples of co-carcinogenic agents may include grit in bread products, salt in pickles or betel in chewing quids. Dietary insufficiencies, for example of zinc, may also act to increase sensitivity to genetic damage, for example. Influence on metabolism of carcinogens, like induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione S transferases, further directly impacts on carcinogenicity. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables are typical examples of protective agents acting in this way. In addition we have dietary fibre which can decrease carcinogen exposure through accelerating passage of faeces through the gut. Other types of fibre, the soluble forms, can act to decrease uptake of glucose and thus suppress insulin exposure, an important factor for colon cancer. Natural anti-inflammatory agents like N-3 fatty acids in fish offer another example of preventive factors in the diet. Individual dietary components, like isoflavones in soy products, can interfere with hormone function to exert a beneficial action, as on the breast. Other compounds may act via stimulation of the immune system like lactoferrin and betaglucans. Perhaps the most important influence of diet on cancer, however, in a world of increasing comfort and ease of access to foodstuffs, is through over-eating and consequent obesity. Given the importance of diet to all our lives, we need to focus on all possible interactive effects in providing an evidence base to guide our choices regarding what we should eat in Asia.

  4. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  5. Influences of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on haematologic and immunologic changes in rainbow trout milked regularly.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M E; Koprucu, K

    2016-11-30

    In this study, it was examined the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the haematocrit (Ht), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), total protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) values, erythrocyte (RBC) and leucocyte (WBC) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), phagocytic index (PI) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) milked regularly. For this aim, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Omega-3 fatty acid was not supplement to the control diet. However, the D1 and D2 diets included 1 and 3% omega-3 fatty acids, respectively. The Ht, Hb, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, NBT, TP, TI and PI values of  the rainbow trout fed the control diet were found significantly lower than these values in the fish fed the D2 and D1 diets at all sampling periods, too (P < 0.01). The highest levels for all these parameters were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all sampling periods. These values in the rainbow trout fed the D2 diet were significantly higher than the values in the fish fed the D1 diet at all sampling periods (P < 0.01). However, the effect of sampling periods on these values in the fish fed the D1 and D2 diets was found insignificant (P > 0.01). In conclusion, the omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at 2% level to the diet can effectively support the haematological and immunological values in the rainbow trout under regular milking conditions, and ultimately protect the health.

  6. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  7. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  8. Factors influencing computer literacy of Taiwan and South Korea nurses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, I-Chiu; Yen, David C

    2009-04-01

    Healthcare is experiencing a major transformation in its information technology base. Hospitals are adopting information technology (IT) to reduce costs and increase competitiveness. IT applications in healthcare are trending towards electronic patient records and even health records. Therefore, practices in nursing are also affected by IT. Many researchers have studied what computer literacy a nurse should possess, but have focused less on factors that actually impact computer literacy. The purposes of this study are to examine current computer literacy levels of nurses, and to indicate what variables influence their computer literacy. Taiwan and South Korea both implemented a national health insurance system, and used state-of-the art IT to provide higher volume and better quality of services. The data were collected from two case hospitals which are located in Taiwan and South Korea, respectively. By using a structured questionnaire, a total of 203 nurses responded; 104 from Taiwan and 99 from South Korea. The results revealed that personal innovativeness in IT, computer education, and age are significant factors that affected computer literacy levels. These factors serve as reference for administrators and executives in hospitals, or nursing educators seeking the data necessary to make decisions on curriculum.

  9. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  10. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population. PMID:25214754

  11. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods.

  12. Perceptual factors that influence use of computer enhanced visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, David; Boehm-Davis, Debbie

    1993-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA/Langley contract entitled 'Perceptual Factors that Influence Use of Computer Enhanced Visual Displays.' The document consists of two parts. The first part contains a discussion of the problem to which the grant was addressed, a brief discussion of work performed under the grant, and several issues suggested for follow-on work. The second part, presented as Appendix I, contains the annual report produced by Dr. Ann Fulop, the Postdoctoral Research Associate who worked on-site in this project. The main focus of this project was to investigate perceptual factors that might affect a pilot's ability to use computer generated information that is projected into the same visual space that contains information about real world objects. For example, computer generated visual information can identify the type of an attacking aircraft, or its likely trajectory. Such computer generated information must not be so bright that it adversely affects a pilot's ability to perceive other potential threats in the same volume of space. Or, perceptual attributes of computer generated and real display components should not contradict each other in ways that lead to problems of accommodation and, thus, distance judgments. The purpose of the research carried out under this contract was to begin to explore the perceptual factors that contribute to effective use of these displays.

  13. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service

    PubMed Central

    Hinckley, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. Aims To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. Methods A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Results Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Conclusions Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work–life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. PMID:27810889

  14. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Newburg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications.

  15. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  16. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  17. Proximate and landscape factors influence grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists increasingly recognize that birds can respond to features well beyond their normal areas of activity, but little is known about the relative importance of landscapes and proximate factors or about the scales of landscapes that influence bird distributions. We examined the influences of tree cover at both proximate and landscape scales on grassland birds, a group of birds of high conservation concern, in the Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota, USA. The Grassland contains a diverse array of grassland and woodland habitats. We surveyed breeding birds on 2015 100 m long transect segments during 2002 and 2003. We modeled the occurrence of 19 species in relation to habitat features (percentages of grassland, woodland, shrubland, and wetland) within each 100-m segment and to tree cover within 200-1600 m of the segment. We used information-theoretic statistical methods to compare models and variables. At the proximate scales, tree cover was the most important variable, having negative influences on 13 species and positive influences on two species. In a comparison of multiple scales, models with only proximate variables were adequate for some species, but models combining proximate with landscape information were best for 17 of 19 species. Landscape-only models were rarely competitive. Combined models at the largest scales (800-1600 m) were best for 12 of 19 species. Seven species had best models including 1600-m landscapes plus proximate factors in at least one year. These were Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis), Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Bobolink (Dolychonix oryzivorus), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). These seven are small-bodied species; thus larger-bodied species do not necessarily respond most to the largest landscapes. Our findings suggest that birds respond to habitat features at a variety of

  18. Contribution to the study of staphylococcus contamination of cows' milk on a number of farms in Algiers: its impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Hamiroune, M; Berber, A; Boubekeur, S

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe a survey and screening programme for staphylococcus. The study covers 14 dairy farms in the Algiers region, from which 203 samples of cows' milk were taken for bacteriological testing. The survey results show that poor husbandry conditions are the main cause of staphylococcus in cows' milk. Staphylococcus was found in the milk of 30% of the cows sampled. These results were influenced by a variety of factors, in that: the contamination rate rose with the number of pregnancies, age, and volume of milk output of the cow, as well as the bedding thickness; the milk contamination rate was greater when milking occurred outside a milking parlour and when it was performed by machine; higher rates of staphylococcus infection were found in the milk of cows at the end of lactation, in red and white breeds, and in those with cylindricalteats. Identification of the bacteria found (staphylococcus) showed that coagulase- negative staphylococci were present in 67.21% of samples, whereas coagulase- positive staphylococci were present in only 32.79%. The average count for the latter was equal to 0.54 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Seventy percent of the milk analysed was free from staphylococci and most of the bacteria identified were not pathogenic to consumers (coagulase- negative staphylococci); nevertheless, consuming fresh milk still presents a degree of risk.

  19. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli in Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Three Cities in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Laryssa Freitas; Barbosa, Mayhara Martins Cordeiro; Pinto, Fernanda de Rezende; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Oliveira, Mônica Costa; de Souza, Viviane; de Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino; Borges, Lucimara Antonio; do Amaral, Luiz Augusto; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-09-01

    The production of cheeses from unpasteurized milk is still widespread in Brazil, even with a legal ban imposed on its marketing. The manufacture of this cheese is a public health problem, due to the use of raw milk and the poor hygienic conditions throughout the supply chain process. Contamination may occur from several sources and involve several different pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. The latter can cause different clinical manifestations depending on the pathotype involved. Furthermore, some isolates manifest antimicrobial resistance and may be a risk for public health. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli in raw-milk cheese in Brazil and their possible risk to public health. A total of 83 cheeses were collected from three different cities and 169 E. coli isolates were characterized for the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence genes, phylogenetic type, antimicrobial resistance, O serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of samples positive for E. coli was highest in Aracaju (90.32%, 28/31). The prevalence of samples positive for potential ExPEC genes was similar for Uberaba and Aracaju (23.07%); the most prevalent ExPEC virulence genes were tsh, iucD, and papC. Isolates from Uberaba had a higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (38.46%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.85%), and ampicillin (61.54%) than the other cities. Overall, antimicrobial resistance genes tetB, blaTEM, and blaCMY-2 were the most prevalent genes (26.32%, 15.79%, and 28.95%, respectively) and the most prevalent serotypes were O4 (8%), 018 (12%), and O23 (8%). Clones originating from the same regions and from different regions were observed. These results emphasize the presence of a potential danger for humans in the consumption of raw-milk cheeses in three cities in Brazil due to

  1. Factors influencing mortality in acute pancreatitis: can we alter them?

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Patel, Nayan M; Shah, Prasanna

    2005-10-01

    Severe acture pancreatitis (SAP), a multisystem disease, is characterized by multiple organ system failure and additionally by local pancreatic complications such as necrosis, abscess, or pseudocyst. The rate of mortality in SAP, which is about 20% of all cases of acute pancreatitis (AP), may be as high as 25%, as in infected pancreatic necrosis. The factors that influence mortality in different degrees are various. Etiology for the episode, age, sex, race, ethnicity, genetic makeup, severity on admission, and the extent and nature of pancreatic necrosis (sterile vs. infected) influence the mortality. Other factors include treatment modalities such as administration of prophylactic antibiotics, the mode of feeding (TPN vs. enteral), ERCP with sphincterotomy, and surgery in selected cases. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of AP is increasing along with an increase in obesity, a bad prognostic factor. Many studies have indicated a worse prognosis in idiopathic AP compared to pancreatitis induced by alcoholism or biliary stone. The risk for SAP after ERCP is the subject of extensive study. AP after trauma, organ transplant, or coronary artery bypass surgery is rare but may be serious. Since Ranson reported early prognostic criteria, a number of attempts have been made to simplify or add new clinical or laboratory studies in the early assessment of severity. Obesity, hemoconcentration on admission, presence of pleural effusion, increased fasting blood sugar, as well as creatinine, elevated CRP in serum, and urinary trypsinogen levels are some of the well-documented factors in the literature. The role of appropriate prophylactic antibiotic therapy although still is highly controversial, in properly chosen cases appears to be beneficial and well accepted in clinical practice. Early enteral nutrition has gained much support and jejunal feeding bypassing the pancreatic stimulatory effect of it in the duodenum is desirable in selected cases. The limited

  2. Factors influencing experience in crowds - The participant perspective.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Victoria; Eason, Ken; Waterson, Patrick; Haslam, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Humans encounter crowd situations on a daily basis, resulting in both negative and positive experiences. Understanding how to optimise the participant experience of crowds is important. In the study presented in this paper, 5 focus groups were conducted (35 participants, age range: 21-71 years) and 55 crowd situations observed (e.g. transport hubs, sport events, retail situations). Influences on participant experience in crowds identified by the focus groups and observations included: physical design of crowd space and facilities (layout, queuing strategies), crowd movement (monitoring capacity, pedestrian flow), communication and information (signage, wayfinding), comfort and welfare (provision of facilities, environmental comfort), and public order. It was found that important aspects affecting participant experience are often not considered systematically in the planning of events or crowd situations. The findings point to human factors aspects of crowds being overlooked, with the experiences of participants often poor.

  3. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie A; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Kruseman, Gideon; Lakner, Dora; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2015-03-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use. Their use, however, has been limited to the Netherlands. This paper investigates the role of farm and farmer characteristics and farmers' attitudes toward technology-specific attributes in influencing the likelihood of the adoption of mechanical manure separation technology. The analysis used survey data collected from 111 Dutch dairy farmers in 2009. The results showed that the age and education level of the farmer and farm size are important variables explaining the likelihood of adoption. In addition to farm and farmer characteristics, farmers' attitudes toward the different attributes of manure separation technology significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. The study generates useful information for policy makers, technology developers and distributors in identifying the factors that impact decision-making behaviors of farmers.

  4. Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Sinnaeve, Georges; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A large set of maize silage samples was produced to assess the major traits influencing the biomethane production of this crop. The biomass yield, the volatile solids contents and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare (average=7266m(3)ha(-1)). The most influential factor controlling the biomethane yield was the cropping environment. The biomass yield had more impact than the anaerobic digestibility. Nevertheless, the anaerobic digestibility of maize silages was negatively affected by high VS content in mature maize. Late maturing maize varieties produced high biomass yield with high digestibility resulting in high biomethane yield per hectare. The BMP was predicted with good accuracy using solely the VS content.

  5. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink.

  6. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers.

  7. Factors that influence the performance of experienced speech recognition users.

    PubMed

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann

    2006-01-01

    Performance on automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems for users with physical disabilities varies widely between individuals. The goal of this study was to discover some key factors that account for that variation. Using data from 23 experienced ASR users with physical disabilities, the effect of 20 different independent variables on recognition accuracy and text entry rate with ASR was measured using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The results show that use of appropriate correction strategies had the strongest influence on user performance with ASR. The amount of time the user spent on his or her computer, the user's manual typing speed, and the speed with which the ASR system recognized speech were all positively associated with better performance. The amount or perceived adequacy of ASR training did not have a significant impact on performance for this user group.

  8. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joyce Mendes; de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Sousa, Adair Vieira; de Paula, Aécio Moraes; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil. PMID:23778666

  9. Talking about Relations: Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Baltaretu, Adriana; Krahmer, Emiel J.; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first) relatum. The results showed a small preference to start with the left entity, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b), and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c), then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d). Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first) relatum than those on the right (Experiments 1a–d). Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d). When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiments 1c, d). In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2), participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed. PMID:26903911

  10. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  11. Factors influencing yield of plateletpheresis using intermittent flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    DAS, S S; Chaudhary, R K; Shukla, J S

    2005-10-01

    Platelet recovery in the recipient is influenced by the transfused dose of platelets, which in turn is dependent on the quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of platelet yield. Various donor factors such as predonation platelet count and Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. A total of 61 plateletpheresis procedures performed on intermittent flow cell separator (MCS3p, Hemonetics) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between predonation platelet count and Hb concentration with yield of platelets was studied using Pearson Correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.9 +/- 0.64 x 10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between predonation platelet count and yield (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r = -0.05, P > 0.005). The yield was > or =3 x 10(11) in >80% of procedures when the predonation platelet count was > or =250 x 10(3)/mm. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by predonation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. However, further studies in this regard are needed using more advanced cell separators.

  12. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity.

  13. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems.

  14. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs. PMID:27429513

  15. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Su

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  16. Determination of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in breast milk of healthy women by digital PCR.

    PubMed

    Qian, L; Song, H; Cai, W

    2016-09-01

    Breast milk is one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently used for the quantitative analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in breast milk. However, this method relies on the use of standard curves and is imprecise when quantitating target DNA of low abundance. In contrast, droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) provides an absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. A comparison between DD-PCR and qRT-PCR was conducted for the quantitation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 16S RNA genes in human breast milk, and the impacts of selected maternal factors were studied on the composition of these two bacteria in breast milk. From this study, DD-PCR reported between 0-34,460 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium genera and between 1,108-634,000 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus genera in 1 ml breast milk. The 16S rRNA gene copy number of Lactobacillus genera was much greater than that of Bifidobacterium genera in breast milk. DD-PCR showed a 10-fold lower limit of quantitation as compared to qRT-PCR. A higher correlation and agreement was observed between qRT-PCR and DD-PCR in Lactobacillus quantitation as compared to Bifidobacterium quantitation. Based on our DD-PCR quantitation, a low abundance of Bifidobacterium bacteria in breast milk was correlated to higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). However, no significant difference was observed for these two bacteria in breast milk between mothers who had vaginal deliveries and caesarean deliveries. This study suggests that DD-PCR is a better tool to quantitate the bacterial load of breast milk compared to the conventional qRT-PCR method. The number of breast milk Bifidobacterium bacteria is influenced by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI.

  17. Milk fat composition of Holstein and Jersey cows with control or depleted copper status and fed whole soybeans or tallow.

    PubMed

    Sol Morales, M; Palmquist, D L; Weiss, W P

    2000-09-01

    We studied effects of breed, dietary fat source, and dietary copper intake as factors known to influence unsaturation of milk fat and its potential for development of spontaneous oxidized flavor in milk. Twelve Holstein and 12 Jersey cows were allotted to three blocks with four cows of each breed. Cows within breed were allotted randomly within blocks and fed control or copper-depleting diets for 2 mo to achieve stable or depleted liver copper stores. Cows then were fed tallow or roasted whole soybeans in a two-period switchback (5 wk per period); during the last week of each period additional vitamin E (2000 IU/d) was added. Copper depletion for 2 mo decreased concentrations of copper in liver. Feed intake and milk yield were influenced only by breed. The proportions of C4:0 to C14:0 and C18:0 in milk fat were higher, whereas C16:1 and cis-C18:1 were lower in Jersey cows. Feeding soybeans increased C4:0 to C14:0, C18:0, C18:2, and C18:3 in milk, and decreased C14:1, C16:0, C16:1, trans-C18:1, and cis-C18:1. Depleted copper status increased conjugated linoleic acid in milk. Several breed x fat source interactions for individual milk fatty acids occurred. Feeding soybeans decreased plasma concentrations of copper and zinc, and increased concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and milk. The concentration of zinc was higher in milk of Jersey cows. Depleted copper status tended to increase copper concentration in plasma and decreased copper in milk. Fat source did not influence plasma copper concentration when status was adequate, but plasma copper concentration was higher when tallow was fed to cows with depleted copper status. Supplementing vitamin E increased concentration of alpha-tocopherol in plasma and milk and decreased concentration of zinc in milk. Factors influencing the potential for oxidized flavor development in milk can be manipulated by changing the diet of the cow.

  18. Influence of abiotic factors on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tavaria, Freni K; Costa, Eduardo M; Gens, Eduardo J; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to bypass the adverse secondary effects attributed to the traditional therapeutic approaches used to treat skin disorders (such as atopic dermatitis), alternative antimicrobials have recently been suggested. One such antimicrobial is chitosan, owing to the already proved biological properties associated with its use. However, the influence of abiotic factors on such activities warrants evaluation. This research effort assessed the antimicrobial activity of chitosan upon skin microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in vitro when subject to a combination of different abiotic factors such as pH, ionic strength, organic acids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids, ionic strength and pH significantly affected chitosan's capability of reducing the viable numbers of S. aureus. This antimicrobial action was potentiated in the presence of palmitic acid and a lower ionic strength (0.2% NaCl), while a higher ionic strength (0.4% NaCl) favored chitosan's action upon the reduction of viable numbers of S. epidermidis and E. coli. Although further studies are needed, these preliminary results advocate that chitosan can in the future be potentially considered as an antimicrobial of choice when handling symptoms associated with atopic dermatitis.

  19. Factors influencing post-exercise plasma protein carbonyl concentration.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Alex J; Turner, James E; Aldred, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration can cause acute oxidative stress. Plasma protein carbonyl (PC) moieties are abundant, chemically stable, and easily detectable markers of oxidative stress that are widely used for the interpretation of exercise-induced changes in redox balance. Despite many studies reporting acute increases in plasma PC concentration in response to exercise, some studies, including those from our own laboratory have shown decreases. This review will discuss the differences between studies reporting increases, decreases, and no change in plasma PC concentration following exercise in humans; highlighting participant physiology (i.e. training status) and study design (i.e. intensity, duration, and novelty of the exercise bout) as the main factors driving the direction of the PC response to exercise. The role of the 20S proteasome system is proposed as a possible mechanism mediating the clearance of plasma PC following exercise. Resting and exercise-induced differences in plasma protein composition and balance between tissues are also discussed. We suggest that exercise may stimulate the clearance of plasma PC present at baseline, whereas simultaneously increasing reactive oxygen species production that facilitates the formation of new PC groups. The balance between these two processes likely explains why some studies have reported no change or even decreases in plasma PC level post-exercise when other biomarkers of oxidative stress (e.g. markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated. Future studies should determine factors that influence the balance between PC clearance and formation following acute exercise.

  20. Factors influencing HIV vaccine community engagement in the urban South.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; del Rio, Carlos; Clifton, Sarah; Archibald, Matthew; Hormes, Joseph T; Mulligan, Mark J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine personal characteristics, socio-environmental conditions, and motivational factors that potentially influence HIV vaccine research community engagement. Specifically, the study identified predictive aspects that may aid in future community program development on HIV vaccine issues. A cross-sectional survey consisting of evaluative measures, demographics, social interaction, and health information-seeking behaviors was conducted. Participants were a diverse group of 452 adults (>or=18 years) at HIV vaccine awareness-building and community education gatherings in Atlanta. The sample included large numbers of women (n=251) and minorities (n=224). In multivariate analysis, the overall logistic regression model was significant, with a resulting coefficient of determination (Nagelkerke R(2)) of .505. Highly significant factors included an excellent activity/event rating (log odds beta = 4.521, P< .001), White race (beta= -.835, P= .005), greater educational attainment (beta= .725, P= .011), travel distance (beta = 1.186, P= .002), and excellent perception of the study site (beta=2.131, P< .001). Subgroup analyses by gender and race revealed similar findings. These data demonstrate the importance of building a favorable study site image and gaining familiarity in the community to aid in the promotion of HIV vaccine research on an ongoing basis.

  1. Factors influencing deoxynivalenol accumulation in small grain cereals.

    PubMed

    Wegulo, Stephen N

    2012-11-06

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.

  2. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  3. Abiotic factors influence plant storage lipid accumulation and composition.

    PubMed

    Singer, Stacy D; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2016-02-01

    The demand for plant-derived oils has increased substantially over the last decade, and is sure to keep growing. While there has been a surge in research efforts to produce plants with improved oil content and quality, in most cases the enhancements have been small. To add further complexity to this situation, substantial differences in seed oil traits among years and field locations have indicated that plant lipid biosynthesis is also influenced to a large extent by multiple environmental factors such as temperature, drought, light availability and soil nutrients. On the molecular and biochemical levels, the expression and/or activities of fatty acid desaturases, as well as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, have been found to be affected by abiotic factors, suggesting that they play a role in the lipid content and compositional changes seen under abiotic stress conditions. Unfortunately, while only a very small number of strategies have been developed as of yet to minimize these environmental effects on the production of storage lipids, it is clear that this feat will be of the utmost importance for developing superior oil crops with the capability to perform in a consistent manner in field conditions in the future.

  4. Factors influencing habitat selection by arboreal pit vipers.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Nitin S; Jadhav, Trupti D

    2013-01-01

    We studied factors influencing habitat selection by two arboreal species of pit viper, namely Trimeresurus malabaricus (Malabar pit viper) and T. gramineus (Bamboo pit viper). The macrohabitat of these species was classified as forest, forest edge, or open habitat. To determine microhabitat selection, a variety of features at every other snake location were measured. Whether or not the animal was found in a tree, the tree species, its height of perch, position on the branch (distal/ apical/middle), diameter of the branch, the tree canopy (thick/sparse) and vegetation of the area (thick/sparse) were recorded. Assessment of habitat was done to determine how patterns of habitat use vary seasonally. Shaded ambient (air) temperatures and humidity were recorded. Data pertaining to 90 individuals of T. malabaricus and 100 individuals of T. gramineus were recorded. Trimeresurus malabaricus selected home ranges that included areas with thick vegetation and were encountered at regions of higher altitude. Neither of the species was found in open habitats. Both of the species preferred diverse habitats and were spread over the entire available space during the monsoon; they did not show any preference for the perch height during different seasons. Males had a positive correlation between body mass and preferred perch diameter. The present study suggests that several factors play an important role in habitat selection by these arboreal pit vipers, thus making them highly habitat-specific.

  5. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality.

  6. IMMUNOGENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL COURSE OF HCV INFECTION (REVIEW).

    PubMed

    Kamkamidze, G; Butsashvili, M; Gendzekhadze, K

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical course and the outcome of the HCV infection is determined by the complex interplay between the viral replication and the host defense mechanisms. Several recent studies have shown that MHC class I and class II as well as natural killer (NK) cell's immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) loci can be associated with the HCV protection and clearance as well as with disease progression and responsiveness to antiviral treatment. Current status of our knowledge about the influence of immunogenetic factors on the clinical course of HCV infection is presented in the paper. Plans to investigate these factors among HCV infected patients enrolled in the HCV Elimination Program (launched in April 2015 in Georgia) are discussed.

  7. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways.

  8. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed.

  9. Ecological factors influence population genetic structure of European grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Branicki, Wojciech; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Stachura, Krystyna; Funk, Stephan M

    2006-12-01

    Although the mechanisms controlling gene flow among populations are particularly important for evolutionary processes, they are still poorly understood, especially in the case of large carnivoran mammals with extensive continuous distributions. We studied the question of factors affecting population genetic structure in the grey wolf, Canis lupus, one of the most mobile terrestrial carnivores. We analysed variability in mitochondrial DNA and 14 microsatellite loci for a sample of 643 individuals from 59 localities representing most of the continuous wolf range in Eastern Europe. We tested an array of geographical, historical and ecological factors to check whether they may explain genetic differentiation among local wolf populations. We showed that wolf populations in Eastern Europe displayed nonrandom spatial genetic structure in the absence of obvious physical barriers to movement. Neither topographic barriers nor past fragmentation could explain spatial genetic structure. However, we found that the genetic differentiation among local populations was correlated with climate, habitat types, and wolf diet composition. This result shows that ecological processes may strongly influence the amount of gene flow among populations. We suggest natal-habitat-biased dispersal as an underlying mechanism linking population ecology with population genetic structure.

  10. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    PubMed

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( < 0.01). The percentage of fat in colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  11. Factors influencing wood mobilization 1 in Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  12. Factors influencing reproduction and genetic toxic effects on male gonads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. P.; Dixon, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of toxicological study of a target organ, such as the testis, is to elucidate the qualitative and quantitative toxic effects of a chemical on that organ. The ultimate objective is to assess the toxic effects of a chemical in laboratory animals and extrapolate the pertinent experimental data to man. To accomplish these objectives, one must consider the main factors which may influence and modulate the toxic effects of chemicals in the organ. In the male gonads, such modifying factors are the pharmacokinetic parameters governing the absorption, distribution, activation and detoxification of indirect carcinogens, covalent bindings to macromolecules, and DNA damage as well as DNA repair of damaged germ cells. All of these factors have been presently studied in our laboratory and are discussed in this paper with the exception of covalent bindings to macromolecules. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the functional blood–testis barrier (BTB) closely resembles the blood-brain barrier in transport characteristics: the permeability of nonelectrolytes and the acidic drugs with pKa values depend upon their molecular size and their partition coefficients, respectively. Thus, the functional BTB, restricts the permeability of many foreign compounds to male germ cells. Studies of mixed function oxidases and cytochrome P-450 system in male gonads demonstrated that the presence of AHH, EH, and GSH-ST implicate activation and detoxification of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Thus, active electrophiles may exert significant toxic effects locally within both interstitial and germ cell compartments. The presence of an efficient DNA repair system in premeiotic spermatogenic cells (and not in spermiogenic cells) can further modify both toxic and mutagenic events in the subsequent differentiation of germ cells to mature spermatozoa. PMID:17539139

  13. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  14. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  15. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  16. What is the Main Potential Factor Influencing Ocular Protrusion?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinwei; Su, Yun; Song, Xuefei; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Xianqun

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to establish the normal-range orbital parameters and to explore the relationships between ocular protrusion and various orbital morphological factors. Material/Methods A retrospective, non-comparative case series was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. We recruited 56 subjects (112 orbits), including 27 males (21 to 87 years of age) and 29 females (22 to 88 years of age) in this study. Nine length measurements, 2 angle measurements, and 2 volume measurements of various aspects of the orbit were obtained using Mimics v18.0 software. The data were collected manually using a 3D measurement technique. Statistical analyses using t tests and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the differences and relationships between the parameters, respectively. Results Ocular protrusion in both sexes was closely related to the following values: orbital soft tissue volume (OSTV) (males: r=0.61, p<0.001; females: r=0.39, p=0.003), orbital soft tissue volume/bony orbital volume (OSTV/BOV) (males: r=0.90, p<0.001; females: r=0.87, p<0.001), orbital width (males: r=0.40, p=0.003; females: r=0.53, p<0.001), orbital height (males: r=0.29, p=0.038; females: r=0.45, p<0.001), and globe diameter (males: r=0.52, p<0.001; females: r=0.48, p<0.001). No differences were found between the right and left orbits. Conclusions The study provides insight into the potential factors that influence ocular protrusion, which include the OSTV/BOV ratio, the shape of the orbital aperture, and the ocular axial length. The results of orbital surgery can be made more predictable by accounting for these 3 factors. The database and regression formula might provide support for surgical planning in the future. PMID:28053301

  17. Short communication: Effects of milking frequency on udder morphology, milk partitioning, and milk quality in 3 dairy goat breeds.