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Sample records for factors influencing selection

  1. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  2. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  3. Key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee; Ammarapala, Veeris; Suanmali, Suthathip

    2017-08-31

    The construction industry involves many hazardous activities that may expose workers to a wide variety of health hazards. Selection of construction safety equipment is crucial in ensuring workers' safety. This article aims to examine key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection, utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A questionnaire survey is conducted in the construction companies in Bangkok, Thailand. The factor analysis extracts 103 sets of data into six key factors - namely supplier agreements, supplier support, personal, equipment design, safety-related policies and cost value factors - with a total of 20 associated items. The AHP results conclude that the safety-related policies, equipment design and personal factors are the most important factors when selecting construction safety equipment. A construction company can use the study results as a checklist to help assess different safety equipment, and to select the best equipment.

  4. Factors influencing consumers' selection of a primary care physician.

    PubMed

    McGlone, Teresa A; Butler, E Sonny; McGlone, Vernon L

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature regarding patient choice of health care plans, patient satisfaction, and patient evaluation of health care quality, but there is little information concerning the factors that influence the initial selection of a primary care physician (PCP). This exploratory study identifies and conceptualizes the physician selection dimensions which include: physician reputation/manner, physician record, physician search, consumer self-awareness, physician location, physician qualifications, physician demographics, office atmospherics, house calls/insurance, and valuing patient opinion. The study also develops and tests a scale for PCP selection using factor analysis which is demonstrated to be valid, and determines significant differences of variables, which include education level, gender, and age, using a summated scale. The study is of use to physicians in their targeting and communication strategies, and to researchers seeking to refine the scale.

  5. Spine Surgeon Selection Criteria: Factors Influencing Patient Choice.

    PubMed

    Manning, Blaine T; Ahn, Junyoung; Bohl, Daniel D; Mayo, Benjamin C; Louie, Philip K; Singh, Kern

    2016-07-01

    A prospective questionnaire. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that patients consider when selecting a spine surgeon. The rise in consumer-driven health insurance plans has increased the role of patients in provider selection. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that may influence a patient's criteria for selecting a spine surgeon. Two hundred thirty-one patients who sought treatment by one spine surgeon completed an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 26 questions. Four questions regarded demographic information; 16 questions asked respondents to rate the importance of specific criteria regarding spine surgeon selection (scale 1-10, with 10 being the most important); and six questions were multiple-choice regarding patient preferences toward aspects of their surgeon (age, training background, etc.). Patients rated board certification (9.26 ± 1.67), in-network provider status (8.10 ± 3.04), and friendliness/bedside manner (8.01 ± 2.35) highest among factors considered when selecting a spine surgeon. Most patients (92%) reported that 30 minutes or less should pass between check-in and seeing their surgeon during a clinic appointment. Regarding whether their spine surgeon underwent training as a neurosurgeon versus an orthopedic surgeon, 25% reported no preference, 52% preferred neurosurgical training, and 23% preferred orthopedic training. Our findings suggest that board certification and in-network health insurance plans may be most important in patients' criteria for choosing a spine surgeon. Advertisements were rated least important by patients. Patients expressed varying preferences regarding ideal surgeon age, training background, proximity, medical student/resident involvement, and clinic appointment availability. The surgeon from whom patients sought treatment completed an orthopedic surgery residency; hence, it is notable that 52% of patients preferred a spine surgeon with a neurosurgical background. In the context

  6. Factors Influencing Patient Selection of an Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Physician.

    PubMed

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Saltzman, Bryan M; Cotter, Eric J; Wang, Kevin C; Epley, Chad T; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R

    2017-08-01

    The rise in consumer-centric health insurance plans has increased the importance of the patient in choosing a provider. There is a paucity of studies that examine how patients select an orthopaedic sports medicine physician. To evaluate factors that patients consider when choosing an orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 1077 patients who sought treatment by 3 sports medicine physicians were administered an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire included 19 questions asking respondents to rate the importance of specific factors regarding the selection of orthopaedic sports medicine physicians on a scale of 1 (not important at all) to 10 (very important). The remaining 6 questions were multiple-choice and regarded the following criteria: preferred physician age, appointment availability, clinic waiting room times, travel distance, and medical student/resident involvement. Of the 1077 consecutive patients administered the survey, 382 (35%) responded. Of these, 59% (n = 224) were male, and 41% (n = 158) were female. In ranking the 19 criteria in terms of importance, patients rated board certification (9.12 ± 1.88), being well known for a specific area of expertise (8.27 ± 2.39), and in-network provider status (8.13 ± 2.94) as the 3 most important factors in selecting an orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Radio, television, and Internet advertisements were rated the least important. Regarding physician age, 63% of patients would consider seeking a physician who is ≤65 years old. Approximately 78% of patients would consider seeking a different physician if no appointments were available within 4 weeks. The study results suggest that board certification, being well known for a specific area of expertise, and health insurance in-network providers may be the most important factors influencing patient selection of an orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Advertisements were least important to patients. Patient

  7. Reboot: Revisiting Factors Influencing Female Selection of the CIS Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Darin; Corley, Ken

    2017-01-01

    A concern among many universities, this study reflects and continues research on the changing attitude and intent of selecting a Computer Information Systems major. Focusing on the gender gap for selection of major for women in this field, studies indicate instrumental beliefs and subjective norms can influence behavior and indicate how selection…

  8. Factors Influencing the Selection of General Internal Medicine Fellowship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Caiola, Enrico; Litaker, David

    2000-01-01

    Although criteria are available to guide the selection of general internal medicine (GIM) fellowship programs, the factors actually used in this process are unclear. Using a survey of current GIM fellows, we determined that most received information from their residency advisors, and many viewed them as the most important source of fellowship information. Program location was the top selection factor for fellows, followed by research opportunities, availability of a mentor, and the reputation of the program. This information may be useful to both fellowship candidates as an additional selection guide and to program directors seeking to best structure and market their fellowships. PMID:11029680

  9. Factors influencing property selection for conservation revolving funds.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Mathew J; Fitzsimons, James A; Bekessy, Sarah A; Gordon, Ascelin

    2017-07-20

    Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making. We conducted exploratory, semi-structured interviews with managers from each of the five major revolving funds in Australia. Responses suggest that whilst conservation factors are important, financial and social factors are also highly influential, with a major determinant being whether the property can be on-sold within a reasonable timeframe, and at a price that replenishes the fund. To facilitate the on-sale process, often selected properties include the potential for the construction of a dwelling. Practitioners are faced with clear trade-offs between conservation, financial, amenity and other factors in selecting properties; and three main potential risks: difficulty recovering the costs of acquisition, protection, and resale; difficulty on-selling the property; and difficulty meeting conservation goals. Our findings suggest that the complexity of these decisions may be limiting revolving fund effectiveness. We draw from participant responses to identify potential strategies to mitigate the risks identified, and suggest that managers could benefit from a shared learning and adaptive approach to property selection given the commonalities between programs. Understanding how practitioners are dealing with complex decisions in the implementation of revolving

  10. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation.

  11. Factors Influencing Patient Selection of a Foot and Ankle Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Wang, Kevin C; Hamid, Kamran S; Holmes, George B; Lee, Simon

    2017-09-01

    An increasingly consumer-centric health insurance market has empowered patients to select the providers of their choice. There is a lack of studies investigating the rationale by which patients select a foot and ankle surgeon. In the present study, 824 consecutive new patients seeking treatment from 3 foot-ankle surgeons were consecutively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first appointment. It included rating the importance of 15 factors regarding specialist selection on a 1 to 10 scale, with 10 designated " Very important" and 1 designated " Not important at all." The remaining questions were multiple choice regarding patient perspectives on other surgeon aspects (appointment availability, waiting room times, clinic proximity, etc). Of 824 consecutive patients administered the survey, 305 (37%) responded. Patients rated board certification (9.24 ± 1.87) and on-site imaging availability (8.48 ± 2.37)-on a 1 to 10 scale, with 10 designated "Very important- as the 2 most important criteria in choosing a foot and ankle surgeon. Patients rated advertisements as least important. Among the patients, 91% responded that a maximum of 30 minutes should elapse between clinic check-in and seeing their physician; 61% responded that a maximum of 20 minutes should elapse between clinic check-in and seeing their physician. In the context of an increasingly consumer-driven paradigm of health care delivery and reimbursement, it is important to understand patients' preferences in specialist selection. Level III: Prospective questionnaire.

  12. Factors influencing anesthesia residency selection: impact of global health opportunities.

    PubMed

    Evans, Faye M; Mallepally, Niharika R; Dubowitz, Gerald; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; McClain, Craig D; Enneking, Kayser

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that the current generation of medical students and young physicians is interested in global health. However, there are few data on the interest in global health by students pursuing a career in anesthesiology. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the importance of global health opportunities in regard to applicants' choice of anesthesiology residency programs. Anesthesiology residency program directors in the United States were invited to distribute an online survey to recently matched residents. To reduce study bias, the survey included a wide selection of reasons for program choices in addition to global health. Participants were asked to rate independently, on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = least important, 10 = most important), the importance that each factor had on their selection of an anesthesiology residency program. Of the 117 U.S. anesthesiology programs contacted, 87 (74%) distributed the survey. Completed surveys were obtained from 582 of 1,092 (53%) polled participants. All factors assessed were rated between 5 and 9 and the global health median [interquartile range] rating was 6 [3-7]. Nearly half of the survey respondents were interested in incorporating global health into future careers. More than three-quarters reported being interested in participating in, or reading about, global health activities during their residency. Responders with previous global health experience, or who were interested in an "in-country" experience, were more likely to choose programs that had global health opportunities available during residency. Anesthesia residency program applicants are interested in global health. Having a global health opportunity was an important reason for choosing a residency program, comparable to some more traditional factors. Regardless of previous global health experience, the majority of future anesthesia residents are either planning or considering participation in global health activities during or

  13. Factors That Influence State or Private University Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargic, Lejla; Poturak, Mersid

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the university is one of the most important life decisions among young people. With a continually rising assortment of educational options, future students look for institutions that will provide them a distinctive educational knowledge that they will keep in their minds for a lifetime. Also, students usually seek an educational…

  14. Factors Influencing College Selection by NCAA Division I, II, and III Lacrosse Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine factors influencing college selection by NCAA Division I, II and III lacrosse players. The Influential Factors Survey for Student-Athletes-Revised was used to collect data from 792 male and female collegiate lacrosse players. Descriptive statistics showed the most influential factors were: career…

  15. [Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children].

    PubMed

    Rolf, Katarzyna; Januszko, Olga; Bylinowska, Justyna; Sicińska, Ewa; Pietruszka, Barbara; Kałuza, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12. Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland. More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users). It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with

  16. Study to Determine Influencing Factors for Selecting Agricultural Education as a Career. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillson, John; Hagee, Gale

    A descriptive research study was conducted to determine those factors influencing people to select a career in agricultural education. Undergraduate students majoring in agricultural education at Virginia Tech and randomly chosen Virginia vocational agriculture teachers were surveyed by the use of a project-developed instrument. Among the findings…

  17. The Influence of Selected Academic, Demographic, and Instructional Program Related Factors on Elementary Student Retention Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marshall, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of selected academic, demographic, and instructional program related factors on the retention rates of elementary school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the relationship and predictability of the reading and mathematics variables scores, gender, ethnicity, program…

  18. School Choice: Factors That Influenced Parents to Select an Urban City Charter School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayhan, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the factors that influenced parents to select a charter school. The study was conducted at an urban city charter school system which has eight K-5 campuses operating in two districts within a city in the southern United States. Using online survey methods, data were collected from 2,875 parents who had more than…

  19. Factors Influencing Residency Program Selection by Medical Students Pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    PubMed

    Alston, Meredith J; Metz, Torri D; Fothergill, Russell; Meg Autry, Amy; Wagner, Sarah A; Allshouse, Amanda A; Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence medical student selection of obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residency programs. We assessed the factors influencing residency program selection by fourth-year medical students pursuing ob-gyn training. A voluntary, anonymous, 19-question survey of residency selection factors was distributed to all fourth-year medical students interviewing at 1 of 5 academic ob-gyn departments for a residency position during the 2013-2014 interview season. Participants were surveyed about the relative importance (not important, somewhat important, important) of various residency selection factors, including operative experience, exposure to subspecialties, curricular experience, access to fellowships, and administrative aspects of residency, including adherence to duty hour restrictions. Of 322 potential respondents, 262 (81%) completed the survey. Surgical training and training in laparoscopic surgery were deemed "important" by nearly all respondents (98%, 258 of 262, and 97%, 253 of 262, respectively). Factors that were considered "not important" by a significant group of respondents included maternity/paternity leave policies (22%, 58 of 259); opportunity for international rotations/electives (20%, 51 of 259); exposure to quality and safety initiatives (13%, 34 of 259); and training in abortion (13%, 34 of 262). Fourth-year medical students identified surgical training as the most important factor in selecting an ob-gyn residency, a finding that is particularly relevant as decreasing and changing surgical volumes affect residency training in this specialty.

  20. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults' food selection behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hebden, L; Chan, H N; Louie, J C; Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-08-01

    Young or 'emerging' adulthood (ages 18-24 years) is a life-stage characterised by rapid weight gain, particularly among those born in recent decades, when environments have become saturated with cheap, highly palatable, processed foods. Although intervening in the immediate food environments of emerging adults is indicated, little is known about the factors influencing their food selection. The present study aimed to: (i) measure the relative importance of different influences on foods selected by emerging adults for consumption from a tertiary education setting and (ii) examine whether these influences differ according to gender, adiposity status, perceived stress and dieting or physical activity behaviours. An online survey was administered with 112 emerging adults aged 19-24 years assessing demographics, perceived stress, dieting, physical activity and influences on food selection. Adiposity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference) were measured. Analyses compared the importance of influences on food selection by gender, adiposity, perceived stress, dieting and physical activity. Taste was the most important influence on food selection, followed by convenience (availability), cost, nutrition/health value, smell and stimulatory properties (alertness). Participants with an elevated waist circumference selected foods to help them cope with stress and control their weight. Those reporting a higher level of physical activity placed greater importance on nutritional/health value of foods but less importance on taste. Female dieters also placed less importance on taste and value for money. Health promotion strategies addressing tertiary education food environments of emerging adults should ensure the ready availability of tasty and nutritious foods at a low cost. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  3. Differential Factors That Influence Applicant Selection of a Prosthodontic Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Blissett, Ryan; Lee, Meng-Chieh; Jimenez, Monik; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main objectives of this study were to identify current prosthodontic resident demographics and to analyze factors that may influence applicants in selecting prosthodontics as a career, as well as a specific prosthodontic program. We also investigated the influence of age, gender, relationship status, and year in program on applicant decisions. Materials and Methods Two questionnaires were mailed to all prosthodontic residents (N = 304) registered with the American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) Central Office. Part I assessed resident demographics and factors influencing choice of specialty. Part II assessed factors influencing the selection of a specific prosthodontic program. Results Completed surveys were obtained from 193 of 304 (63.4%) of all prosthodontic residents registered at the ACP Central Office. The completed surveys represented approximately 48% of the total population of prosthodontic residents in the United States. Demographic data revealed that 37% and 62% of the respondents were female and male, respectively (1% did not report gender). The mean age of the respondents was 30.3 years. More residents reported being married than either single or in a relationship. Most residents were accepted to their top choice program. Part I of the survey revealed that the complexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment, ability to lead multidisciplinary cases, possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty, enjoyment of clinical work, and the intellectual content of the specialty were reported to be the five most influential factors in choosing prosthodontics as a career. Part II demonstrated that applicants place a high emphasis on clinical education, their impression of the program director, advice from predoctoral mentors, their impression of resident satisfaction and happiness, and the opportunity to place dental implants. The factors of least importance are climate and opportunities to moonlight, teach, and conduct research

  4. [Influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development].

    PubMed

    Krzemień, Grazyna; Wolanin, Grazyna; Stemplewska, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    All environment strata, natural, cultural and social environment affect the individual in typical way and create his specific reactions as well as mental experiences. A speech, as one of elements enabling adaptation to life in community is formed individually with particular children. The basis of such process is always the possibility of the intercourse with speech. The aim of undertaken subject was the analysis of influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development. The study was conducted with children of six and seven year old, where speech should be mastered with fixed pronunciation and proper speech technique. The following research problems have been assumed: 1) how does the speech competences' development with children of six and seven proceed, 2) in which level do the following factors of family environment (parents' age, parents' education, family's financial conditions) influence the child's speech development, 3) does the family's structure influence the proper child's speech development. The following research methods were applied: observation, interview and questionnaire. Applied research tools may be described as follows: inquiry sheet of questionnaire, child's speech card, pictorial test, test chi2. The presented work is a trial of analysis how the selected family environment factors influence the child's speech development.

  5. Finding the Perfect Match: Factors That Influence Family Medicine Residency Selection.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katherine M; Ryan, Elizabeth R; Gatta, John L; Anderson, Lauren; Clements, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    Residency program selection is a significant experience for emerging physicians, yet there is limited information about how applicants narrow their list of potential programs. This study examines factors that influence residency program selection among medical students interested in family medicine at the time of application. Medical students with an expressed interest in family medicine were invited to participate in a 37-item, online survey. Students were asked to rate factors that may impact residency selection on a 6-point Likert scale in addition to three open-ended qualitative questions. Mean values were calculated for each survey item and were used to determine a rank order for selection criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predict a strong interest in urban, suburban, and rural residency programs. Logistic regression was also used to identify factors that predict a strong interest in academic health center-based residencies, community-based residencies, and community-based residencies with an academic affiliation. A total of 705 medical students from 32 states across the country completed the survey. Location, work/life balance, and program structure (curriculum, schedule) were rated the most important factors for residency selection. Logistic regression analysis was used to refine our understanding of how each factor relates to specific types of residencies. These findings have implications for how to best advise students in selecting a residency, as well as marketing residencies to the right candidates. Refining the recruitment process will ensure a better fit between applicants and potential programs. Limited recruitment resources may be better utilized by focusing on targeted dissemination strategies.

  6. Non-clinical factors influencing the selection of patients with acute coronary syndromes for angiography

    PubMed Central

    Quaas, A; Curzen, N; Garratt, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse clinical and non-clinical factors determining the selection for coronary angiography in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Design: Single centre, prospective cohort study. Participants: Eighty consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS during the period 21 May 2001 to 4 July 2001. Setting: Coronary care unit of a tertiary referral centre, the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Data collection: Information concerning baseline patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and the selection for angiography was collected from the patient notes. Data analysis: Windows SPSS version 9.0 using cross tabulations with χ2 estimation and binomial logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Selection for angiography in ACS. Results: Cross tabulations with χ2 analysis and logistic regression analysis identified significant non-clinical factors predicting the use of angiography. Although clinical factors such as recurrent ischaemia (odds ratio 5.11) influenced the decision to undergo coronary angiography, non-clinical factors such as young age (odds ratio 6.88 for <65 years old), gender (odds ratio 3.81 for males), admission on a weekday (odds ratio 0.2488 for admission on the weekend), and consultant in charge (odds ratio 0.111 for consultant "2") independently predicted the use of angiography in ACS. Conclusion: The selection of patients for angiography in ACS is not based purely on clinical criteria. Awareness of the apparent sources of bias among clinical decision makers may improve management of these patients. PMID:15254306

  7. Factors influencing infant-feeding choices selected by HIV-infected mothers: perspectives from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Marembo, Joan; Zvinavashe, Mathilda; Nyamakura, Rudo; Shaibu, Sheila; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle

    2014-10-01

    To assess factors influencing infant-feeding methods selected by HIV-infected mothers. A descriptive quantitative study was conducted among 80 mothers with babies aged 0-6 months who were randomly selected and interviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the findings. Factors considered by women in choosing the infant-feeding methods included sociocultural acceptability (58.8%), feasibility and support from significant others (35%), knowledge of the selected method (55%), affordability (61.2%), implementation of the infant-feeding method without interference (62.5%), and safety (47.5%). Exclusive breast-feeding was the most preferred method of infant feeding. Disclosure of HIV status by a woman to her partner is a major condition for successful replacement feeding method, especially within the African cultural context. However, disclosure of HIV status to the partner was feared by most women as only 16.2% of the women disclosed their HIV status to partners. The factors considered by women in choosing the infant-feeding option were ability to implement the options without interference from significant others, affordability, and sociocultural acceptability. Knowledge of the selected option, its advantages and disadvantages, safety, and feasibility were also important factors. Nurses and midwives have to educate clients and support them in their choice of infant-feeding methods. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. Which factors influence students' selection of advanced graduate programs? One institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sophia; Jimenez, Monik; Howell, Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2008-06-01

    The reasons that students choose certain specialties may be integral to the quality of specialty programs and the future of those specialties. The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) has a high percentage (87.6 percent) of students who enroll in postgraduate programs. The goals of this study were to establish a baseline of factors that affect postgraduate program selection at HSDM and to determine if there was a significant difference in factor selection by gender, relationship status, graduation year, or choice to specialize versus choice to pursue advanced training in general dentistry. As a pilot study, we asked HSDM graduates from the classes of 2005 to 2007 to rank the importance of forty-two factors in selecting a field of dentistry and a particular program or institution within a specialty. Overall, students felt that intellectual content, challenging diagnostic problems, and possessing a special skill or talent unique to a specialty were the most important factors in choosing a field of dentistry. Influence of family members in dentistry was ranked as least important. In choice of a certain program or institution within a given field, clinical training and philosophy of training were ranked most highly. Students felt that the opportunity to moonlight was least important. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found regarding gender, relationship status, and students who chose to specialize versus those pursuing advanced general dentistry training. No significant differences were found among the students in different graduating classes.

  9. Factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction in selected private hospitals in England.

    PubMed

    Lephalala, R P; Ehlers, V J; Oosthuizen, M J

    2008-09-01

    The quantitative descriptive survey used self-completion questionnaires to study factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction in selected private hospitals in England. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation was used to contextualise the results obtained from 85 completed questionnaires. In terms of Herzberg's Theory of Motivation, the most important extrinsic (hygiene) factor was no satisfaction with their salaries compared to nurses' salaries in other private hospitals in England, in the NHS and even at their own hospitals. However, most nurses were satisfied with the other extrinsic factors (organisation and administration policies, supervision and interpersonal relations). The most important intrinsic factors (motivators), influencing nurses' job satisfaction was their lack of satisfaction with promotions (including the fact that their qualifications were reportedly not considered for promotions), lack of advancement opportunities and being in dead-end jobs, and lack of involvement in decision- and policy-making activities. Nurses' levels of job satisfaction might be enhanced if promotion policies could be consistent, advancement opportunities implemented, qualifications considered for promotions, salary issues clarified, and if nurses could be involved in decision- and policy-making. Enhanced levels of job satisfaction could help to reduce turnover rates among registered nurses at the private hospitals in England that participated in this study.

  10. Sustaining the edge: factors influencing strategy selection in academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anne M; Szabat, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Competition within the acute care sector as well as increased penetration by managed care organizations has influenced the structure and role of academic health centers during the past decade. The market factors confronting academic health centers are not dissimilar from conditions that confront other organizations competing in mature industries characterized by declining profitability and intense rivalry for market share. When confronted with intense competition or adverse external events, organizations in other industries have responded to potential threats by forming alliances, developing joint ventures, or merging with another firm to maintain their competitive advantage. Although mergers and acquisitions dominated the strategic landscape in the healthcare industry during the past decade, recent evidence suggests that other types of strategic ventures may offer similar economic and contracting benefits to member organizations. Academic health centers have traditionally been involved in network relationships with multiple partners via their shared technology, collaborative research, and joint educational endeavors. These quasi-organizational relationships appear to have provided a framework for strategic decisions and allowed executives of academic health centers to select strategies that were competitive yet closely aligned with their organizational mission. The analysis of factors that influenced strategy selection by executives of academic health centers suggests a deliberate and methodical approach to achieving market share objectives, expanding managed care contracts, and developing physician networks.

  11. Factors that influence first year medical students' choice of student selected component.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jane

    2009-09-01

    Undergraduate medical training should ensure students have choice and autonomy in the learning process, including the student selected components (SSCs) which should comprise up to about a third of the curriculum. Students' choices of SSC will influence the knowledge, skills and attitudes they acquire. To investigate how motivations and personality in first year medical students influence their choice of SSCs. A questionnaire regarding motivations for SSC choice and the NEO-FFI personality measure was administered to all first year students at a London medical school. Relationships with type of SSC were examined. A total of 82% (268/329) students responded. Six motivational factors arose from a principle components analysis of the questionnaire: future achievements, prior information, internal motivation, personal recommendation, convenience and certainty. Students with different motivational factors chose different SSCs, and had different personality traits. Weak but significant correlations were found between personality traits and motivational factors, but not between personality and SSC choice, or sex and SSC choice. This offers insight into medical student choices of SSC and is the first step towards ensuring appropriate provision of modules that students wish to study to enable them to meet the demands of the medical profession.

  12. A Flight Evaluation of the Factors which Influence the Selection of Landing Approach Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Fred J., III; Cooper, George E.

    1958-01-01

    The factors which influence the selection of landing approach speeds are discussed from the pilot's point of view. Concepts were developed and data were obtained during a landing approach flight investigation of a large number of jet airplane configurations which included straight-wing, swept-wing, and delta-wing airplanes as well as several applications of boundary-layer control. Since the fundamental limitation to further reductions in approach speed on most configurations appeared to be associated with the reduction in the pilot's ability to control flight path angle and airspeed, this problem forms the basis of the report. A simplified equation is presented showing the basic parameters which govern the flight path angle and airspeed changes, and pilot control techniques are discussed in relation to this equation. Attention is given to several independent aerodynamic characteristics which do not affect the flight path angle or airspeed directly but which determine to a large extent the effort and attention required of the pilot in controlling these factors during the approach. These include stall characteristics, stability about all axes, and changes in trim due to thrust adjustments. The report considers the relationship between piloting technique and all of the factors previously mentioned. A piloting technique which was found to be highly desirable for control of high-performance airplanes is described and the pilot's attitudes toward low-speed flight which bear heavily on the selection of landing approach speeds under operational conditions are discussed.

  13. Factors Influencing Physicians' Selection of Continuous Professional Development Activities: A Cross-Specialty National Survey.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Price, David W; Wittich, Christopher M; West, Colin P; Blachman, Morris J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to understand what influences physicians' decisions about participation in continuous professional development (CPD) activities, and how often physicians engage in specific CPD activities. From September 2015 to April 2016, we administered a survey to 4648 randomly sampled licensed US physicians. Survey items addressed perceived barriers to CPD, factors that might influence participation in four prototypical CPD activities (reading an article, or completing a local activity, online course, or far-away course), and frequency of CPD engagement. Nine hundred eighty-eight (21.6%) physicians responded. The most important barriers were time (mean [SD] 3.5 [1.3], 1 = not important, 5 = extremely important) and cost (2.9 [1.3]). In prioritizing factors influencing participation in four prototypical CPD activities, topical relevance consistently had the highest average rank. Quality of content and time to complete the activity were also frequently selected. Over the past 3 years, most physicians reported having participated in patient-focused learning and self-directed learning on a weekly basis; quality improvement and local continuing medical education (CME) activities several times per year; online learning, on-site courses, and national board-related activities a few times per year; and interprofessional learning less than once per year. Physicians believed that they ought to engage more often in all of these activities except board-related activities. They would like CME credit for these activities much more often than currently obtained. The reasons physicians select a given CPD activity vary by activity, but invariably include topic and quality of content. Physicians want CME credit for the CPD activities they are already doing.

  14. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    PubMed

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  15. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P < or = 0.05) was related to the gender, as well as the ride distance and air temperature during the ride. Higher cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration.

  16. Factors that Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-10-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how demographics, school context, pedagogical approaches and professional development (PD) influenced the likelihood of a teacher using a tool via a multilevel cross-classification-ordered logit analysis (Goldstein 1995). The findings revealed that science teachers were more likely to use hardware than software; more specifically, this included instructional tools (i.e., SMARTboards, clickers) and laboratory tools (probeware). Differences in teachers' use of tools were largely due to differences in tools as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics. Use of a tool was more likely by teachers who taught physics, who taught via inquiry, or who had more PD with a tool. These findings have implications for how we conceptualize selection and usage of technologies that enter the science education pipeline; which tools become sustainable in the science classroom and how technological take-up differs across science disciplines.

  17. Factors that influence residency applicants in the selection of a specific program.

    PubMed

    Senst, B L; Scott, B E

    1990-05-01

    The relative importance of factors that influenced residency applicants in the selection of a specific program was determined through a national survey. A four-page questionnaire was developed through a series of focus groups with current and former pharmacy residents. A total of 370 questionnaires were mailed to the preceptors of all residencies participating in the 1987 ASHP Resident Matching Program; the preceptors were instructed to forward the questionnaires to all first-year residents in their programs. Respondents were asked to provide demographic information and to rate (using a seven-point Likert scale) the importance of 19 factors that might have influenced their choice of residency program. The respondents also were asked to list which 4 of the 19 factors had been most important to them in their choice. Most of the 243 respondents had entered the residency programs with little or no postgraduate pharmacy experience. The average residency candidate applied to 2.8 programs; approximately half of the respondents had accepted a residency position in the state in which they currently lived. The reputation of the residency program as a good learning program was rated most important by all groups. ASHP accreditation was rated slightly higher by residents in general programs, whereas the type of medical services provided by the hospital and the university teaching affiliation were rated slightly higher by respondents in clinical and specialty programs. Factors with low importance ratings included desirable climate and total number of residency hours worked. Residency preceptors can use the results of this study to focus their marketing and recruiting strategies.

  18. Food preferences and factors influencing food selectivity for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Kimberly A; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an informant-based questionnaire to survey parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (N=138) to determine: (a) the types of feeding problems their children typically exhibit, (b) the food items their children prefer, (c) the relationship of feeding problems to family eating preferences, and (d) the relationship of the diagnostic characteristics of autism to feeding behavior. Results indicated that the children preferred fewer types of food items within groups than their families; however, family food preferences appeared to influence food selection more than the diagnostic characteristics of autism.

  19. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, Jerome R.; Trauger, David L.; Austin, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  20. Factors Influencing the Selection of Speech Pathology as a Career: A Qualitative Analysis Utilising the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors identified by 16 participants during in-depth interviews as influencing selection of speech pathology as a career were described using the Systems Theory Framework (STF, Patton & McMahon, 2006). Participants were highly likely to identify factors from the individual and social systems, but not the environmental-societal system, of the STF…

  1. Factors Influencing the Selection of Speech Pathology as a Career: A Qualitative Analysis Utilising the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Factors identified by 16 participants during in-depth interviews as influencing selection of speech pathology as a career were described using the Systems Theory Framework (STF, Patton & McMahon, 2006). Participants were highly likely to identify factors from the individual and social systems, but not the environmental-societal system, of the STF…

  2. Factors Influencing the Academic Progression of African American Male Students in Selected North Carolina Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dorrance

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that African American males perceived as influencing their retention in higher education. The purpose was also to discover African American males' perceptions of their freshman year experiences and how the university's initiatives influenced their decision to return their sophomore year.…

  3. Factors Influencing the Academic Progression of African American Male Students in Selected North Carolina Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dorrance

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that African American males perceived as influencing their retention in higher education. The purpose was also to discover African American males' perceptions of their freshman year experiences and how the university's initiatives influenced their decision to return their sophomore year.…

  4. Kin, daytime associations, or preferred sleeping sites? Factors influencing sleep site selection in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lock, Louise C; Anderson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzee nesting behaviours and the factors that may influence these behaviours are rarely studied in captive settings. In the present study, the daytime associations, sleeping site selections and nesting groups of 11 zoo-housed chimpanzees over a 29-day period were analysed. Neither daytime associations nor presence of kin influenced sleeping site selection in females. Daytime associations did influence sleeping arrangements in males. Nighttime spatial arrangements and individual preferences for specific sleeping areas were broadly comparable to nesting patterns reported in free-living chimpanzee communities. In the interests of captive ape welfare, we conclude that exhibits should incorporate multilevel nesting areas and a choice of several potential sleeping sites.

  5. Factors Influencing Bachelor of Education Arts Students' Selection of History as Career Subject: Case of University of Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owino, Joseph Ogutu; Odundo, Paul Amolloh

    2016-01-01

    History is one of the teaching subjects studied by Bachelor of Education Arts students at the University of Nairobi. In the last five years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of students specializing in History as a teaching subject. This paper therefore has examined factors influencing students' selection of History as career…

  6. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model.

  7. Demographic Factors Influencing Selection of an Ideal Graduate Institution: A Literature Review with Recommendations for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Chuang, Ning-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Choosing a graduate (masters and doctoral) program of study at an ideal institution is probably one of the most important decisions students and their family will make. The graduate college selection involves identifying the most critical academic and non-academic factors, and weighing their importance against the large quantity of choices…

  8. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  9. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  10. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  11. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  12. Using a fuzzy DEMATEL method for analyzing the factors influencing subcontractors selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozik, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Subcontracting is a long-standing practice in the construction industry. This form of project organization, if manage properly, could provide the better quality, reduction in project time and costs. Subcontractors selection is a multi-criterion problem and can be determined by many factors. Identifying the importance of each of them as well as the direction of cause-effect relations between various types of factors can improve the management process. Their values could be evaluated on the basis of the available expert opinions with the application of a fuzzy multi-stage grading scale. In this paper it is recommended to use fuzzy DEMATEL method to analyze the relationship between factors affecting subcontractors selection.

  13. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  14. Influences of vehicle size and mass and selected driver factors on odds of driver fatality.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, "vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck" was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of "vehicle type" variable, further investigation of vehicle "stiffness" and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted.

  15. [Influence of nutrition on selected metabolic cardiovascular risk factors among female residents of Krakow].

    PubMed

    Piórecka, Beata; Jagielski, Paweł; Zwirska, Jaśmina; Piskorz, Anna; Brzostek, Tomasz; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The study involved influence of nutritional factors on select anthropometrical and lipid indices (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) in female residents of Krakow who were voluntarily participating in the investigation. Only women free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases were included. The study group consisting of 100 women aged 30-65 years, was divided into two groups: pre-menopause (PM, n=47) and after menopause (AM, n=53). The anthropometrical measurements, % of fat tissue - Tanita scale and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The energy value and the consumption of basic nutrients intake were calculated using 24-hour recalls from the day before the examination. The AM group presented higher anthropometrical and metabolic risk profile: overweight and obesity (BMI-PM = 25.51 +/- 4.16 kg/m2; AM = 28.28 +/- 4.89 kg/m2) and central adiposity type (WC-PM = 81.04 +/- 10.00 cm; AM = 86.46 +/- 11.73 cm); lipids (Total cholesterol-PM = 5.14 +/- 0.87 mmol/l, AM = 5.67 +/- 1.10 mmol/l; LDL-chol-PM = 2.98 +/- 0.90 mmol/l, AM = 3.40 +/- 0.93 mmol/l; HDL-chol-PM = 1.65 +/- 0.39 mmol/l; AM = 1.63 + 0.46 mmol/l). The irregular participation of fatty acids, proteins from plant sources and dietary fibers in daily diet were found (%Energy PM: SFA = 11.66 +/- 4.34, MUFA = 10.91 +/- 4.04, PUFA = 4.76 +/- 2.75, Keys index = 41.89 +/- 14.91; %EnergyAM: SFA = 11.48 +/- 3.86, MUFA = 11.02 +/- 4.12, PUFA = 4.89 +/- 2.92, Keys index = 40.87 +/- 14.4). Women in the AM group represented healthier nutritional behaviors. Results presented indicate that in further study concerning evaluation of nutrients consumption among women the fact of natural menopause should be considered.

  16. A factors influencing applicant selection of entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kim Curbow; Weber, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapist education programs must compete for qualified applicants due to a nationwide reduction in the applicant pool. To develop successful recruitment strategies, faculty members need information on factors influencing applicant selection of a program. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing selection of an entry-level physical therapist education program. Survey subjects were students enrolled in the first professional year of an accredited entry-level physical therapist education program. A survey instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with physical therapist students and faculty members. Results of pilot studies to determine face and content validity were acceptable. Stratified random cluster sampling was applied to select 66 entry-level physical therapy programs from an available population of 150 of the 199 accredited programs. Forty-nine programs were not included in the population for various reasons. Using a five-point Likert scale, subjects rated the influence of 51 items on their selection of a specific physical therapist education program. The overall return rate was 70.4% (1,250 surveys returned). Data were analyzed by response frequency. Four factors were selected as "very influential" by 50% or more of the subjects: degree offered, accreditation status, perception of educational quality, and program atmosphere. Additional factors selected by 45% or more of respondents as "very influential" were pass rate on licensing examination, marketability of degree, student/faculty ratio, and small class size. Factors rated "not influential" by 50% or more of subjects included ethnic, cultural, and gender issues. Since 1998, the physical therapy profession has experienced changes in entry-level degree requirements, practice requirements, and employment opportunities, resulting in increased competition for qualified applicants to education programs. The information gained in this study may assist faculty in

  17. Information acquisition for women facing surgical treatment for breast cancer: influencing factors and selected outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Katherine A; Estabrooks, Carole A; Olson, Kärin; Cumming, Ceinwen

    2007-12-01

    To examine, summarize, and critically assess the literature focusing on information use by early-stage breast cancer patients. Empirical articles reporting the information needs, sources used/preferred, and intervention-related outcomes experienced by patients in the context of making a treatment choice were chosen. Several healthcare databases were searched. Articles were limited to those published in English between January 1, 1986 and March 31, 2006. A total of 25 articles met the inclusion criteria. Information needs were consistent, and highest rankings were for (in order): information about chances for a cure, stage of disease, and treatment options. Results were equivocal regarding the factors found to influence information need: age, time since diagnosis, and preferred role in decision-making. The highest ranked information sources accessed and preferred were physicians. Age, education, and type of treatment chosen influenced source choice. Patients using consumer decision aids (CDAs) had less decisional conflict, higher satisfaction with the decision made and the decision process, and higher knowledge levels. Information needs and source use were influenced by several personal and contextual factors. A better understanding of source use could provide more effective ways of disseminating information to patients.

  18. Attaching the phage display-selected GLA peptide to liposomes: factors influencing target binding.

    PubMed

    van Rooy, Inge; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2012-02-14

    In our previous study, phage display selections were performed by in situ perfusion of a random peptide library through a mouse brain. This yielded two peptides (GLA and GYR) that showed significant binding to human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) when displayed on phage particles, but not to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, these peptides were produced synthetically and coupled to liposomes to investigate the capacity of the peptides to act as ligands for targeting to hCMEC/D3 cells. Flow cytometry studies showed that these peptides when coupled to liposomes showed weak binding to the target brain endothelial cells. We hypothesized that the weak endothelial cell binding of the selected peptides when coupled to liposomes as compared to the binding of the peptides displayed on phage particles may be ascribed to: change of vehicle shape, change of peptide density, or change of peptide conformation. Peptide density on the liposomes influenced binding of the liposomes to the cells, however, this effect was minor. To study the influence of the peptide conformation, the GLA peptide was recombinantly produced fused to the N1-N2 domains of the phage p3 minor coat protein (p3-GLA) to mimic its conformation when displayed on phage particles. Binding of liposomes modified with either the GLA peptide or the p3-GLA protein to hCMEC/D3 cells was studied, and the p3-GLA-liposomes showed a higher binding to the cells compared to the GLA-liposomes. The experiments demonstrate that bringing the GLA peptide into the original phage protein environment restores and improves the peptide binding capacity and suggest that the GLA peptide, with some modifications, may be used as a brain-targeting ligand in the future.

  19. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  20. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Krauss, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Mikrut, Kinga; Chęcińska, Zuzanna; Szulińska, Monika; Piątek, Jacek; Pięta, Beata; Sosnowski, Przemysław; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Kupsz, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS) shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor - 67%, living conditions - 18.4% and health- 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation: side effects and other factors that influence medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B; Cardoni, Alex A; Woznicki, Brenda A; Piez, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Patients with major depression discontinue taking their antidepressants for many reasons. Although side effects are often cited as the reason for discontinuation, few prospective studies have addressed this question, and none has specifically examined discontinuation in patients with severe depression. Inpatients and outpatients treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for major depressive disorder were identified after admission. Three months later, patients were contacted and interviewed to determine antidepressant usage and the side effects experienced, including when these were experienced and their severity. Between October 2001 and April 2003, 406 English- or Spanish-speaking patients aged 18 to 75 years were followed up. One in 4 patients discontinued the index antidepressant. Among specific side effects noted, only "change in weight" and "anxiety" were significant predictors of discontinuation after controlling for confounders. Experiencing 1 or more "extremely" bothersome side effects was associated with more than a doubling of the risk of discontinuation, but the presence of side effects and side effects less severe than "extremely" bothersome were not significant predictors. There were no differences among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in either the presence/absence of side effects or in the discontinuation rates. The results suggest that the contribution of side effects to antidepressant discontinuation is more complex than previously suggested. Disparate findings from earlier studies may reflect aspects of study design, such as examining populations whose severity of depression varied widely or not controlling for important confounding factors. Future research should separately examine high-risk groups (or control for severity of depression) and carefully rule out other potential contributors to discontinuation.

  2. Anatomical Factors Influencing Selective Vestibular Neurectomy: A Comparison of Posterior Fossa Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Master, Adam N.; Flores, Jose M.; Gardner, L. Gale; Cosetti, Maura K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify measurable anatomical factors that may guide the surgical approach for posterior fossa selective vestibular neurectomy (SVN) and predict identification of the vestibulocochlear cleavage (VCC) plane. Study Design Dissection of fixed cadaveric heads through retrolabyrinthine and retrosigmoid-internal auditory canal (RSG-IAC) approaches with measurement of landmarks. Setting Cadaveric dissection model. Main Outcome Measures Area of the Trautmann triangle (TT) and the distance from the posterior semicircular canal to the anterior border of the sigmoid along the posterior Donaldson line (pDL). VCC planes from each approach were calculated and compared. Results Overall mean pDL was 8.53 mm (range: 5–11.5 mm); mean TT area was 124 mm2 (range: 95–237 mm2). The VCC was identified in 63% of ears through the retrolabyrinthine (RVN) approach alone, whereas 37% of ears required the RSG-IAC approach. In ears requiring IAC dissection, the VCC was found within 1 to 2 mm distal to the porus. The pDL (p < 0.05) and area of TT (p < 0.05) were significantly larger in the RVN group compared with the RSG-IAC group. Conclusion Ears amenable to the RVN approach had a greater pDL and TT area. These anatomical measurements may have a role in surgical planning and the choice of approach for SVN. PMID:26949584

  3. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Overeducation: A Bivariate Probit with Sample Selection Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, the likelihood of overeducation is shown to be inversely related to unemployment rates when not control for selectivity. Furthermore, incidence data show that overeducation is more common among men than women and among Whites than Blacks. At issue is selectivity: employment must be selected for overeducation to occur.…

  4. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Overeducation: A Bivariate Probit with Sample Selection Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to expectations, the likelihood of overeducation is shown to be inversely related to unemployment rates when not control for selectivity. Furthermore, incidence data show that overeducation is more common among men than women and among Whites than Blacks. At issue is selectivity: employment must be selected for overeducation to occur.…

  5. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  6. The influence of occupational chronic lead exposure on the levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Machoń-Grecka, A; Dobrakowski, M; Boroń, M; Lisowska, G; Kasperczyk, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively. Similarly, the values of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-basic) were higher by 19% and 63%, respectively. In the group of workers chronically exposed to lead, there were positive correlations between the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and angiogenic factors (VEGF, FGF-basic, sVEGFR-1, and soluble angiopoietin receptor). In the control group, there were no correlations between the levels of the abovementioned parameters. Results of the present study indicate that chronic occupational lead exposure promotes inflammatory processes via induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulates angiogenesis, and elicits interdependencies between the immune response and angiogenic factors.

  7. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  8. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  9. Examining Factors Influencing Attrition at a Small, Private, Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Zhang, Yi; Beatty, Cameron C.; Paja, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Despite a diverse body of literature on college student retention, studies focusing on small, private, selective liberal arts colleges are limited. This study utilized a mixed methodology beginning with logistic regression analyses and followed with a qualitative inquiry that included interviews with students who had not persisted. While variables…

  10. Examining Factors Influencing Attrition at a Small, Private, Selective Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Zhang, Yi; Beatty, Cameron C.; Paja, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Despite a diverse body of literature on college student retention, studies focusing on small, private, selective liberal arts colleges are limited. This study utilized a mixed methodology beginning with logistic regression analyses and followed with a qualitative inquiry that included interviews with students who had not persisted. While variables…

  11. College Choice for Black Males in the Community College: Factors Influencing Institutional Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Harrison, John D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the college choice process for Black males attending community colleges. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study, findings indicated that Black males who attend community colleges select their institutions based upon having a degree in their chosen field, the coursework/curriculum, job placement record,…

  12. Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary drugs of abuse in opioid-dependent subjects (n = 3520) entering one of 160 drug treatment programs around the country. Anonymous, self-administered surveys and direct qualitative interviews were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and decision-related factors on primary opioid selection. Our results showed that oxycodone and hydrocodone were the drugs of choice in 75% of all patients. Oxycodone was the choice of significantly more users (44.7%) than hydrocodone (29.4%) because the quality of the high was viewed to be much better by 54% of the sample, compared to just 20% in hydrocodone users, who cited acetaminophen as a deterrent to dose escalation to get high and hence, its low euphoric rating. Hydrocodone users were generally risk-averse women, elderly people, noninjectors, and those who prefer safer modes of acquisition than dealers (ie, doctors, friends, or family members). In contrast, oxycodone was a much more attractive euphorigenic agent to risk-tolerant young, male users who prefer to inject or snort their drugs to get high and are willing to use more aggressive forms of diversion. Prevention and treatment approaches, and pain physicians, should benefit from these results because it is clear that not all drug abusers share the same characteristics, and the decision to use one drug over another is a complex one, which is largely attributable to individual differences (eg, personality, gender, age, and other factors). Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  14. Factors Influencing Student Selection of Marriage and Family Therapy Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertlein, Katherine M.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation…

  15. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  16. Systematic assessment of factors influencing preferences of Crohn's disease patients in selecting an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent (CHOOSE TNF TRIAL).

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Stephan R; Bentele, Nicoletta; Scharl, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Frei, Pascal; Straumann, Alex; Binek, Janek; Schoepfer, Alain M; Fried, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA), and certolizumab pegol (CZP) have similar efficacy in induction and maintenance of clinical remission in Crohn's disease (CD). Given the comparable nature of these drugs, patient preferences may influence the choice of the product. We aimed to identify factors that may contribute to CD patients' decision in selecting one anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent over the others. A prospective survey was performed among anti-TNF-naïve CD patients. Prior to completion of a questionnaire, patients were provided with a written description of the three anti-TNF agents, focusing on indications, mode of administration, side effects, and scientific evidence of efficacy and safety for each drug. One hundred patients (47 females, mean age 45 ± 16 years, range 19-81) with an ileal, colonic, or ileocolonic (33%, 40%, and 27%, respectively) disease location completed the questionnaire. Based on the information provided, 36% of patients preferred ADA, 28% CZP, and 25% IFX, whereas 11% were undecided. The patients' decision in selecting a specific anti-TNF drug was influenced by the following factors: ease of use (69%), time required for therapy (34%), time interval between application of the drug (31%), scientific evidence for efficacy (19%), and fear of syringes (10%). The majority of patients preferred anti-TNF medications that were administered by subcutaneous injection rather than by intravenous infusion. Ease of use and time required for therapy were two major factors influencing the patients' selection of a specific anti-TNF drug. Patients' individual preferences should be taken into account when prescribing anti-TNF drugs. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  17. The developmental potential of iPSCs is greatly influenced by reprogramming factor selection.

    PubMed

    Buganim, Yosef; Markoulaki, Styliani; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Hoke, Heather; Wu, Tao; Ganz, Kibibi; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; He, Yupeng; Abraham, Brian J; Porubsky, David; Kulenkampff, Elisabeth; Faddah, Dina A; Shi, Linyu; Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Sovan; Cohen, Malkiel; Goldmann, Johanna; Nery, Joseph R; Schultz, Matthew D; Ecker, Joseph R; Xiao, Andrew; Young, Richard A; Lansdorp, Peter M; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-09-04

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are commonly generated by transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (OSKM) into cells. Although iPSCs are pluripotent, they frequently exhibit high variation in terms of quality, as measured in mice by chimera contribution and tetraploid complementation. Reliably high-quality iPSCs will be needed for future therapeutic applications. Here, we show that one major determinant of iPSC quality is the combination of reprogramming factors used. Based on tetraploid complementation, we found that ectopic expression of Sall4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Lin28 (SNEL) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated high-quality iPSCs more efficiently than other combinations of factors including OSKM. Although differentially methylated regions, transcript number of master regulators, establishment of specific superenhancers, and global aneuploidy were comparable between high- and low-quality lines, aberrant gene expression, trisomy of chromosome 8, and abnormal H2A.X deposition were distinguishing features that could potentially also be applicable to human. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Developmental Potential of iPSCs Is Greatly Influenced by Reprogramming Factor Selection

    PubMed Central

    Buganim, Yosef; Markoulaki, Styliani; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Hoke, Heather; Wu, Tao; Ganz, Kibibi; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; He, Yupeng; Abraham, Brian J.; Porubsky, David; Kulenkampff, Elisabeth; Faddah, Dina A.; Shi, Linyu; Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Sovan; Cohen, Malkiel; Goldmann, Johanna; Nery, Joseph R.; Schultz, Matthew D.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Xiao, Andrew; Young, Richard A.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are commonly generated by transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (OSKM) into cells. Although iPSCs are pluripotent, they frequently exhibit high variation in terms of quality, as measured in mice by chimera contribution and tetraploid complementation. Reliably high-quality iPSCs will be needed for future therapeutic applications. Here, we show that one major determinant of iPSC quality is the combination of reprogramming factors used. Based on tetraploid complementation, we found that ectopic expression of Sall4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Lin28 (SNEL) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated high-quality iPSCs more efficiently than other combinations of factors including OSKM. Although differentially methylated regions, transcript number of master regulators, establishment of specific superenhancers, and global aneuploidy were comparable between high- and low-quality lines, aberrant gene expression, trisomy of chromosome 8, and abnormal H2A.X deposition were distinguishing features that could potentially also be applicable to human. PMID:25192464

  19. On the selection and evaluation of visual display symbology Factors influencing search and identification times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Williams, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Three single-target visual search tasks were used to evaluate a set of cathode-ray tube (CRT) symbols for a helicopter situation display. The search tasks were representative of the information extraction required in practice, and reaction time was used to measure the efficiency with which symbols could be located and identified. Familiar numeric symbols were responded to more quickly than graphic symbols. The addition of modifier symbols, such as a nearby flashing dot or surrounding square, had a greater disruptive effect on the graphic symbols than did the numeric characters. The results suggest that a symbol set is, in some respects, like a list that must be learned. Factors that affect the time to identify items in a memory task, such as familiarity and visual discriminability, also affect the time to identify symbols. This analogy has broad implications for the design of symbol sets. An attempt was made to model information access with this class of display.

  20. On the selection and evaluation of visual display symbology Factors influencing search and identification times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Williams, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Three single-target visual search tasks were used to evaluate a set of cathode-ray tube (CRT) symbols for a helicopter situation display. The search tasks were representative of the information extraction required in practice, and reaction time was used to measure the efficiency with which symbols could be located and identified. Familiar numeric symbols were responded to more quickly than graphic symbols. The addition of modifier symbols, such as a nearby flashing dot or surrounding square, had a greater disruptive effect on the graphic symbols than did the numeric characters. The results suggest that a symbol set is, in some respects, like a list that must be learned. Factors that affect the time to identify items in a memory task, such as familiarity and visual discriminability, also affect the time to identify symbols. This analogy has broad implications for the design of symbol sets. An attempt was made to model information access with this class of display.

  1. Specification of sites for polarized growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the influence of external factors on site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K; Snyder, M

    1992-01-01

    Many eucaryotic cell types exhibit polarized cell growth and polarized cell division at nonrandom sites. The sites of polarized growth were investigated in G1 arrested haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. When yeast cells are arrested during G1 either by treatment with alpha-factor or by shifting temperature-sensitive cdc28-1 cells to the restrictive temperature, the cells form a projection. Staining with Calcofluor reveals that in both cases the projection usually forms at axial sites (i.e., next to the previous bud scar); these are the same sites where bud formation is expected to occur. These results indicate that sites of polarized growth are specified before the end of G1. Sites of polarized growth can be influenced by external conditions. Cells grown to stationary phase and diluted into fresh medium preferentially select sites for polarized growth opposite the previous bud scar (i.e., distal sites). Incubation of cells in a mating mixture results in projection formation at nonaxial sites: presumably cells form projections toward their mating partner. These observations have important implications in understanding three aspects of cell polarity in yeast: 1) how yeast cell shape is influenced by growth conditions 2) how sites of polarized growth are chosen, and 3) the pathway by which polarity is affected and redirected during the mating process. Images PMID:1421575

  2. When elders choose: Which factors could influence the decision-making among elderly in the selection of health tourism services?

    PubMed

    Tomasović Mrčela, N; Borovac, J A; Vrdoljak, D; Grazio, S; Tikvica Luetić, A; Tomek-Roksandić, S

    2015-12-01

    Elderly beneficiaries (age 65+) exhibit specific characteristics that influence the distribution of health tourism market. High incidence of multiple morbidities and functional disability are hallmarks in this age group. For these reasons, elderly population requires different elements and diverse spectrum of services within health tourism, in comparison to younger beneficiaries. Thus, differences would occur within heterogeneous elderly population itself. A preliminary study that we conducted showed that the level of functional independence was one of the significant factors that guided decision-making among elderly beneficiaries when it came to their health tourism-related choices. Results suggested that beneficiaries recognized and appreciated the effect of the natural remedies and attractions available at the given destination. Maritime and continental health tourism are two different entities commonly selected by elderly beneficiaries for therapeutic purposes. We propose that the climate conditions, geographical location and availability of regional natural remedies are the key factors to why different services were elected by different groups of elderly. The model of Croatia, an established country in the field of health tourism was utilized for this purpose. Differences in the diagnostic categories of beneficiaries are expected due to effects of marine (sea, Mediterranean climate) and continental (thermal water, healing mud) health tourism. In addition, multitudes of mutually intertwined factors affect decision-making process among elderly regarding their health tourism choices. Such factors include the scale of preferences (with special emphasis on well-being and health), leisure opportunities, marketing influences, cost (price) and the availability/diversity of health tourism services within the particular region. Moreover, individual psychosocial and physical characteristics, disabilities and other debilitating conditions, examined in our preliminary

  3. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  4. Factors That Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how…

  5. Factors That Influence Science Teachers' Selection and Usage of Technologies in High School Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Noemi; Chiu, Ming Ming; Whitford, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    This study contributed to our understanding of those factors that serve as predictors of science teachers' selection and use of technologies and more specifically, how selection and usage was realized among teachers of different science disciplines. Notable descriptive statistics were examined, and we tested an explanatory model of how…

  6. A population-based study on infertility and its influencing factors in four selected provinces in Iran (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing. PMID:25408706

  7. Factors that influence the selection of sterile glove brand: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the performance and cost of gloves.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Smith, Hugh M; Duncan, Christopher M; Torsher, Laurence C; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hebl, James R

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether glove use modifies tactile and psychomotor performance of health care providers when compared with no glove use and to evaluate factors that influence the selection of sterile glove brand. Forty-two anesthesia providers (nine anesthesiologists, seven nurse anesthetists, 20 residents, six student nurse anesthetists) enrolled in and completed this cross-over randomized trial from May 2010 until August 2011. Participants underwent standardized psychomotor testing while wearing five different types of protective gloves. Assessments of psychomotor performance included tactile, fine motor/dexterity, and hand-eye coordination tests. Subjective ratings of glove comfort and performance were reported at the completion of each glove trial. The manufacturer's suggested retail price was collected for each glove tested. There were statistically significant differences in touch sensitivity for all nerve distributions, with all glove types resulting in less sensitivity than a bare hand. When compared with the non-sterile glove, only the thickest glove tested (Ansell Perry Orthopaedic) was found to have less touch sensitivity. Fine motor dexterity testing revealed no statistically significant differences in time to completion amongst glove types or bare handed performance. In hand-eye coordination testing across treatment conditions, the thickest glove tested (Ansell Perry(®) Orthopaedic) was the only glove to show a statistically significant difference from a bare hand. There were statistically significant differences in glove comfort ratings across glove types, with latex-free, powder-free (Cardinal Esteem(®)), and latex powder-free (Mölnlycke-Biogel(®)) rated highest; however, there were no statistically significant differences in subjective performance ratings across glove types. Given the observed similarities in touch sensitivity and psychomotor performance associated with five different glove types, our results suggest that subjective provider

  8. Selected Personal and Environmental Factors Influencing Conformity or Non-Conformity to Organizational Norms in the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Clarence Ned

    The objectives of this study were to determine: the differences among three positional levels within a large publicly-supported organization toward perception of the norms of the organization; the influence that certain personal and environmental factors have on this perception; and the nature of the reactions to organizational norms which may be…

  9. "I Didn't Understand the Damage It Did": Narrative Factors Influencing the Selection of Sexual Abuse as Epiphany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasker, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the classification of life experiences as epiphanies is a task critical to personal growth. Uses narrative analysis to illuminate the factors that seem to influence the choice of events as epiphanies for survivors of sexual abuse. Examines such narratives from the life and work of D.H. Lawrence, as well as modern narratives from…

  10. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  11. On selective influences, marginal selectivity, and bell/CHSH inequalities.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    The Bell/CHSH inequalities of quantum physics are identical with the inequalities derived in mathematical psychology for the problem of selective influences in cases involving two binary experimental factors and two binary random variables recorded in response to them. The following points are made regarding cognitive science applications: (1) compliance of data with these inequalities is informative only if the data satisfy the requirement known as marginal selectivity; (2) both violations of marginal selectivity and violations of the Bell/CHSH inequalities are interpretable as indicating that at least one of the two responses is influenced by both experimental factors. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Influence of antibiotic therapy on the level of selected angiogenic factors in patients with benign gynecologic tumors--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Michalska, M; Palatyńska-Ulatowska, A; Palatyński, A; Mirowski, M; Kaplińska, K; Nawrot-Modranka, J; Lazarenkow, A

    2011-08-01

    An increased fibrin level enhances the activity of proangiogenic factors and may contribute to tumor formation. Formation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis leads to neoplasm development through interaction with factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukins. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perioperative antibiotic therapy in women with benign gynecological tumors with regard to basic fibroblast growth factor level, fibrinogen concentration and fibrin viscosity. The influence of clindamycin plus metronidazole therapy (group I) and cephazolin therapy (group II) on fibrinogen concentration, level of bFGF and fibrin viscosity was studied in women diagnosed with nonmalignant myomas and cysts. In patients with benign gynecologic tumors, higher bFGF levels (51.40 +/- 13.72 pg/ml), fibrinogen concentration (348.26 +/- 164.74 mg/dl) and fibrin viscosity (2.63 +/- 0.36 mPa) were observed, as compared with healthy women. There were strong indications that antiangiogenic activity occurred with both clindamycin plus metronidazole and cephazolin, although the response to these particular antibiotic therapies was different. The use of various drug therapies in groups I and II resulted in faster and delayed antiangiogenic effects, respectively. Further research is essential to provide more detailed information about the mechanisms of the induction of antiangiogenic activity by perioperative adjuvant antibiotic treatment.

  13. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  14. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  15. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  16. An Analysis of Background Factors Influencing Selection of Residency Facility for Dental Students in Universities Located in Rural Areas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    H, Kono; H, Sasahara; S, Furukawa; N, Taguchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Japan, since 2006, participation in a 1-year residency programme by all dentists who have passed the National Board Dental Examination has been mandatory. Therefore, a ‘matching system’ has become necessary for dental students in their final year to decide their desired residency facility, but the rate of matching in dental schools located in rural areas is still low. Aim : The principal aim of this study was to elucidate the background factors influencing the selection of residency facilities by dental students in rural areas to facilitate the training of dentists working in local communities. Methods : Using the matching results from 554 final-year students of Kagoshima University Faculty of Dentistry from 2005 to 2013, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed on the background factors of the subjects. Results : Concerning the selection of the residency facility, it was verified that there were strong background factors for subjects to select residency facilities in their hometown, but compared with subjects from other regions, those from Kinki and Kanto regions did not select residency facilities in their hometown. Compared with males, a significantly higher number of females selected residency facilities in their hometown. A significantly higher number of subjects who repeated a school year selected the residency facility of their alma mater. Conclusion : In dental schools of national universities located in provinces, the establishment of a quota system for students from the region, where possible, is one of the most effective steps for securing future dental trainees. PMID:26140061

  17. Individual influence on model selection.

    PubMed

    Sterba, Sonya K; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-12-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit of a single model in isolation has been often studied, case influence on model selection results is greatly underappreciated in psychology. This article introduces the issue of case influence on model selection and proposes 3 influence diagnostics for commonly used selection indices: the chi-square difference test, Bayesian information criterion, and Akaike's information criterion. These 3 diagnostics can be obtained simply from the byproducts of full information maximum likelihood estimation without heavy computational burden. We provide practical information on the interpretation and behavior of these diagnostics for applied researchers and provide software code to facilitate their use. Simulated and empirical examples involving different kinds of model comparison scenarios encountered in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and multilevel research as well as involving different kinds of outcome distributions illustrate the generality of the proposed diagnostics. An awareness of how cases influence model selection results is shown to aid researchers in understanding how representative their sample level results are at the case level.

  18. Improving Readiness and Reducing Costs: An Analysis of Factors That Influence Site Selection for Army Outpatient Surgical Services.

    PubMed

    Little, Katherine E; Martinez, Katie M; Forman, Jessica L; Richter, Jason P; Wade, Michael L

    The variable costs of providing surgical procedures for military beneficiaries are greater when care is rendered in the civilian purchased care network than when provided at a direct care military treatment facility (MTF). To reduce healthcare-related costs, retaining surgical services is a priority at MTFs across the U.S. Army Medical Command. This study is the first to identify factors significantly associated with outpatient surgical service site selection in the military health system (MHS). We analyzed 1,000,305 patient encounters in fiscal year 2014, of which 970,367 were direct care encounters and 29,938 were purchased care encounters. We used multiple binomial logistic regression to assess and compare the odds of site selection at a purchased care facility and an MTF. We found that an increase in provider administrative time (OR = 1.024, p < .001) and an increase in case complexity (OR = 1.334, p < .001) were associated with increased odds that an outpatient surgical service was provided in a purchased care setting. The increased odds that highly complex cases were seen in purchased care has the potential to affect the medical readiness of military providers and the efficacy of graduate medical education programs. Healthcare administrators can use the results of this study to develop and implement MTF level policies to enhance outpatient surgical service practices in the Army medical system. These efforts may reduce costs and increase military provider medical readiness.

  19. Molecular factors of catalytic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Somorjai, Gabor A; Park, Jeong Y

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity--the production of one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules--is the key concept in developing clean processes that do not produce by-products (green chemistry). Small differences in the potential-energy barriers of single reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), while the overall activation energy of the reaction controls the turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated that tailoring parameters at the atomic or molecular level--such as the surface structures of active sites--gives turnover rates and reaction selectivities that depend on the nanoparticle size and shape. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence the selectivity of heterogeneous catalyst reactions on single-crystal model surfaces and colloid nanoparticles: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states. We show the importance of the single factors by means of examples and describe in situ analyses that permit their roles in surface reactions to be investigated.

  20. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs

    PubMed Central

    Fapohunda, Bolaji; Orobaton, Nosakhare

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Nigeria 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression procedures were conducted. The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State. Mothers with existing high risk factors, including higher parity, were more likely to select unsafe/unskilled delivery practices than younger, lower-parity mothers. Evidenced by the high prevalence of delivery with traditional birth attendants, this study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. This conclusion is supported by the high correlation between a mother’s socioeconomic status and the likelihood of using skilled attendance. To improve the access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants, we recommended two solutions: 1) the use of cash subsidies to augment women’s incomes in order to reduce finance-related barriers in the use of formal health services, thus increasing demand; and 2) a structural improvement that will increase women’s economic security by improving their access to higher education, income, and urban ideation. PMID:24516341

  1. Influence of selected factors on development the students' of the biological sciences faculties bioethical attitudes towards experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Fedyk, Oleg; Wilczyński, Krzysztof Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although it may help to widen our knowledge, conducting experiments with use of animals, is very controversial, especially since the most recent technology enables us to significantly avoid their use. Currently, the European directives require researchers to reduce the using of animals in scientific experiments, but some studies suggest awareness of the problem is still insufficient. Thanks to examining students' attitude towards conducting scientific experiments on animals the authors wanted to discover and mark the most significant factors that might have impact on moulding students' opinions. 217 subjects participated in the study. They were students of the Faculty of Medicine at the Silesian Medical University in Katowice and students of the Biology & Biotechnology Faculty at the University of Silesia. A proprietary questionnaire sent via the Internet was used. The authors created specific ratios and numeral 5-grade Likert-type scale showing the behavioural, cognitive and affective component of the respondents' attitudes on the issue being studied. It contained among other things the questions such as granting animals personality, consciousness, and the right to life. The method used allowed the investigators to show the general trends of all the studied responses and therefore the compilation of results. The study showed that the attitude of respondents on studied subject undergoes some changes related to gender. Furthermore, the results did not depend with statistical significance on previous experience in conducting such experiments, religious belief of respondent, his or her parents type and level of education. It also showed the that students had little knowledge about current animal protection law and alternative methods to animal research. The results show the complexity and multiplicity of factors influencing the attitudes of bioethics and point to the need to deepen our knowledge in the studied area.

  2. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  3. A National Research Study on Factors Influencing Faculty Turnover at Selected Nigerian Colleges of Technology/Polytechnics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallam, Ugbo

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 208 full-time faculty in Nigerian higher education institutions investigated 7 factors (work, pay, promotion, supervision, coworkers, job in general, commitment) perceived as influential in faculty turnover. Results suggest a generalized dissatisfaction with conditions of service, particularly pay and promotion. Demographic variables…

  4. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    PubMed

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents <1 to 18.3 % of the total bacteria. The vertical distribution of AAPs confirmed their presence in the upper parts of the water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes.

  5. Subluxation of the shoulder joint in stroke patients and the influence of selected factors on the incidence of instability.

    PubMed

    Pop, Teresa

    2013-06-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of shoulder subluxation in stroke patients and the impact of rehabilitation and presence/absence of fluid in the subhumeral and subdeltoid bursae on the occurrence of instability. The study group was composed of 182 patients after stroke, with 108 men and 74 women. 156 of the patients had suffered an ischemic stroke whereas 26 had experienced a hemorrhagic stroke; 90 patients had right-sided paresis and 92 left-sided paresis. The study variables were evaluated by performing, on two occasions, an ultrasound examination of the shoulder and an assessment of upper limb functional capacity using the Brunnström scale. 182 patients of the study group participated in an exercise programme according tothe PNF concept. There was no subluxation of the shoulder on the healthy side, while on the paretic side, subluxation occurred in 25.3% of the patients. Bursal fluid was seen more frequently on the paretic side (12.6%). A statistically significant reduction of the subluxation and bursal fluid was achieved after the rehabilitation. Subluxation occurred more frequently in patients with a known presence of fluid in the bursae and in those with poorer functional capacity of the upper limb. 1. The clinical symptoms of stroke are the cause of subluxation in the shoulder joint. 2. Subluxation occurs more frequently in patients with a known presence of fluid in the subhumeral and subdeltoid bursae and in patients with reduced functional capacity. 3. The reduction of subluxation and bursal fluid was influenced by the exercise program and improved functional capacity.

  6. Factors influencing knowledge on completion of treatment among TB patients under directly observed treatment strategy, in selected health facilities in Embu County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndwiga, Joshua Muriuki; Kikuvi, Gideon; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) strategy as the standard to increase adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) medication. However, cases of retreatment and Multi Drug Resistant continue to be reported in many parts of Kenya. This study sought to determine the factors influencing the completion of tuberculosis medication among TB patients in Embu County, Kenya. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of tuberculosis patients under DOT attending selected TB treatment clinics in Embu County, in Kenya. One hundred and forty TB patients interviewed within a period of 3 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and included Bivariate and Multivariate Analysis. The level of significance was p≤ 0.05. Results The male and female participants were 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35±31.34-39.3 years. For the majority (52%) of the participants, the highest level of education was primary education. The unemployed participants formed the highest number of the respondent in the study (73%). The majorities (91.4%0) of the respondents were under the home-based DOT strategy (91.4%, 95% C.I: 85.5-95.5). Bivariate analysis using Chi-square showed that the level of education (p=0.003), patients feeling uncomfortable during supervision (p=0.01), and knowledge regarding the frequency of taking medication (p=0.004) were all significantly associated with knowledge regarding the importance of completion of medication. However, none of these factors was significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusion Most participants did not know the importance of completion of medication. TB programs should come up with better ways to educate TB patients on the importance of supervision and treatment completion during the treatment of TB. The education programs should focus on influencing the attitudes of patients and creating awareness about the importance of treatment

  7. Factors influencing knowledge on completion of treatment among TB patients under directly observed treatment strategy, in selected health facilities in Embu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndwiga, Joshua Muriuki; Kikuvi, Gideon; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) strategy as the standard to increase adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) medication. However, cases of retreatment and Multi Drug Resistant continue to be reported in many parts of Kenya. This study sought to determine the factors influencing the completion of tuberculosis medication among TB patients in Embu County, Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of tuberculosis patients under DOT attending selected TB treatment clinics in Embu County, in Kenya. One hundred and forty TB patients interviewed within a period of 3 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and included Bivariate and Multivariate Analysis. The level of significance was p≤ 0.05. The male and female participants were 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35±31.34-39.3 years. For the majority (52%) of the participants, the highest level of education was primary education. The unemployed participants formed the highest number of the respondent in the study (73%). The majorities (91.4%0) of the respondents were under the home-based DOT strategy (91.4%, 95% C.I: 85.5-95.5). Bivariate analysis using Chi-square showed that the level of education (p=0.003), patients feeling uncomfortable during supervision (p=0.01), and knowledge regarding the frequency of taking medication (p=0.004) were all significantly associated with knowledge regarding the importance of completion of medication. However, none of these factors was significant after multivariate analysis. Most participants did not know the importance of completion of medication. TB programs should come up with better ways to educate TB patients on the importance of supervision and treatment completion during the treatment of TB. The education programs should focus on influencing the attitudes of patients and creating awareness about the importance of treatment completion. The TB programs should be

  8. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Treesearch

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  9. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  10. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  11. Selective factors governing in vitro β-carotene bioaccessibility: negative influence of low filtration cutoffs and alterations by emulsifiers and food matrices.

    PubMed

    Corte-Real, Joana; Richling, Elke; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    Because of their putative health benefits, the biological fate of carotenoids after digestion has been met with much interest, and ex vivo methods using carotenoid standards to study their digestion and further metabolism have been developed. In the absence of a complex food matrix, that is, when studying isolated carotenoids, protocol conditions of gastrointestinal digestion models have to be adjusted. In this investigation, we hypothesized that certain selected factors would significantly influence the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in vitro. The factors considered included (i) type of lipid matrix employed (milk, cream, or oil), (ii) presence/absence of emulsifiers (e.g. lecithin and taurocholate), (iii) addition of a gastric lipase, and (iv) final filtration (20 or 200 nm) of the digesta. Adding an emulsifier mixture (10 mg lecithin + 50 mg monoolein + 5 mg oleic acid) enhanced β-carotene bioaccessibility 3 times (P < 0.001), whereas additional taurocholate and the presence/absence of gastric lipase added before intestinal digestion had no significant effect. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was superior with oil than with milk (18.8% ± 0.7% and 6.1% ± 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.03), especially after filtration, thus suggesting incomplete micelle formation after addition of milk. Filtration through 20 nm filters reduced carotenoid concentration in the aqueous fraction (from 7.1% ± 0.2% to 5.5% ± 0.2% in samples digested with canola oil, P < 0.001), indicating that not all formed micelles compared in size with those normally formed in vivo. When studying carotenoid standards during in vitro digestion, care should be taken to separate mixed micelles by filtration, and the choice of emulsifier and matrix should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  13. Emotional Reactivity to Incentive Downshift as a Correlated Response to Selection of High and Low Alcohol Preferring Mice and an Influencing Factor on Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes et al., 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption, or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that alcohol intake either doesn’t provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, that high drinking and emotional intensity following incentive

  14. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions.

  15. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  16. An Examination of Influences and Factors on the Institutional Selection Processes of Freshmen Student-Athletes at Small Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Benjamin D.; Jubenville, Colby B.; Orejan, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to identify institutional selection factors most influential upon small-college student-athletes. Mean scores for 229 freshman student-athletes from six institutions were analyzed using a modified Student-Athlete College Choice Profile Scale. The sample was also stratified by gender and sports-program categories. Overall, four of…

  17. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  18. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  19. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  20. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  1. Genetic selection for resistance to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) in the Landrace line influences the expression of soluble factors in blood after MPS vaccine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Borjigin, Liushiqi; Katayama, Yuki; Li, Meihua; Satoh, Takumi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Roh, Sang-gun; Aso, Hisashi; Kazuo, Katoh; Suda, Yoshihito; Sakuma, Akiko; Nakajo, Mituru; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2014-04-01

    We recently developed a Landrace line that is resistant to mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine (MPS) infection by genetic selection for five generations, and we reported that the immunophenotype of this line is different from that of the non-selected line in terms of changes in peripheral blood leukocyte population after MPS vaccination. This study followed up previous findings demonstrating changes in soluble factors in blood, namely, hormones, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), and cytokines. These two lines were injected with MPS vaccine on days -7 and 0 after blood sampling on those days, and blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 2, 7 and 14. We found changes in the levels of many hormones and cytokines in both lines. However, we found that only growth hormone (GH) and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were statistically different between these two lines. GH concentration was reduced (day 0) and IFN-γ concentration was increased (day 14) in the MPS-selected line compared with the non-selected line, despite unchanged IFN-γ messenger RNA expression in blood cells. Although detailed mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unsolved, these traits would be useful to improve MPS resistance in pig production and provide an insight into MPS infection.

  2. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  3. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  4. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  5. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    1999-01-01

    Although food habits arc not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  6. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Koivisto Hursti, U K

    1999-04-01

    Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  7. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusing on developing generic calibrations for driver behavior, transmission gear selection and torque converter lockup. In addition, show the derivation of correction factors needed to estimate cold start emission results. To provide an overview of the ALPHA tool with additional focus on recent updates by presenting the approach for validating and calibrating ALPHA to match particular vehicles in a general sense, then by looking at the individual losses, and calibration factors likely to influence fuel economy.

  8. [Contingent nurses' burnout and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ock; Moon, Sook Ja; Han, Sang Sook

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to identify burnout and factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted with a sample of 228 contingent nurses randomly selected from 25 general hospitals in Korea. The tools used for this study were scales measuring burnout (8 items), job stress (8 items), job satisfaction (9 items), self efficacy (9 items), organizational commitment (9 items), empowerment (9 items), autonomy (7 items) and social support (8 items). The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 employing Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The mean score for burnout in contingent nurses was 3.05 points. Factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses were identified as job stress (β=.40), satisfaction level with current ward (β=-.25), organizational commitment (β=-.21), job satisfaction (β=-.19) and empowerment (β=-.16). These factors explained 65.0% of burnout reported by contingent nurses. The results indicate which factors are major factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses in general hospitals. Therefore, these factors may serve as predictors of burnout in contingent nurses.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance: Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmed, Saeed; Wang, Funan; Gu, Yufeng; Zhang, Chaonan; Chai, Ximan; Wu, Yalan; Cai, Jinxia; Cheng, Guyue

    2017-01-01

    Rational use of antibiotic is the key approach to improve the antibiotic performance and tackling of the antimicrobial resistance. The efficacy of antimicrobials are influenced by many factors: (1) bacterial status (susceptibility and resistance, tolerance, persistence, biofilm) and inoculum size; (2) antimicrobial concentrations [mutant selection window (MSW) and sub-inhibitory concentration]; (3) host factors (serum effect and impact on gut micro-biota). Additional understandings regarding the linkage between antimicrobial usages, bacterial status and host response offers us new insights and encourage the struggle for the designing of antimicrobial treatment regimens that reaching better clinical outcome and minimizing the emergence of resistance at the same time. PMID:28659799

  10. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  11. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  12. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  13. Selection factors in cohort studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Cohort studies play an important role in the quantitation of cancer risk among occupationally exposed individuals. Properly conducted cohort studies can develop important data on the age, time, and exposure dependence of cancer risk. Such information allows identification of possible selection effects which may be present and allows generalization of risk estimates to other exposure circumstances.

  14. Factors influencing permanent teeth eruption. Part one--general factors.

    PubMed

    Almonaitiene, Ruta; Balciuniene, Irena; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the normal eruption of teeth is a common finding, but significant deviation from established norms should alert the clinician to take some diagnostic procedures in order to evaluate patient health and development. Disturbance in tooth eruption time could be a symptom of general condition or indication of altered physiology and craniofacial development. The aim of this review is to analyze general factors that could influence permanent teeth eruption. The articles from 1965 to 2009 in English related to topic were identified. 84 articles were selected for data collection. Although permanent teeth eruption is under significant genetic control, various general factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, craniofacial morphology, body composition can influence this process. Most significant disturbance in teeth emergence is caused by systemic diseases and syndromes.

  15. Stepwise Variable Selection in Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kano, Yutaka; Harada, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Takes several goodness-of-fit statistics as measures of variable selection and develops backward elimination and forward selection procedures in exploratory factor analysis. A newly developed variable selection program, SEFA, can print several fit measures for a current model and models obtained by removing an internal variable or adding an…

  16. [Factors influencing vitality among nurses].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soon; Oh, Won-Oak

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to understand the degree of vitality, meaning in life and self-efficacy and to elucidate the factors influencing this vitality in the nurses of Korea. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from 4 hospitals was conducted by convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires which were constructed to include a Vitality Self Test, Purpose in Life Test and Self-efficacy Scale. The degree of vitality in nurses was in the middle range. The nurses of this study had few goals towards meaning in life, and an existential vacuum state. A positive relationship was found between vitality and the research variables. The significant predictors influencing vitality in nurses were meaning in life, self-efficacy, and clinical career, and these variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance in vitality. This results support that vitality is an important link with meaning in life and self-efficacy. There should be a comprehensive study in the future for in-depth understanding of the vitality of nurses.

  17. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  18. Causal Networks with Selectively Influenced Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-29

    The sorites paradox: A behavioral approach . In J. Valsiner and L. Rudolph (Eds). Mathematical Models for Research on Cultural Dynamics: Qualitative...tests it through goodness of fit. A portion of the work on the grant is on developing further another approach , Tree Inference (Schweickert & Chen...of a given stimulus property selectively influenced by this property alone? in medical research , does the presence or absence of a given symptom

  19. Perceptual load influences selective attention across development.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W

    2011-09-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual selective attention across development from 7 years of age to adulthood. Specifically, the author examined if changes in processing as a function of selective attention are similarly influenced by perceptual load across development. Participants were asked to complete a task at either low or high perceptual load while processing of an unattended probe stimulus was examined using event related potentials. Similar to adults, children and teens showed reduced processing of the unattended stimulus as perceptual load increased at the P1 visual component. However, although there were no qualitative differences in changes in processing, there were quantitative differences, with shorter P1 latencies in teens and adults compared with children, suggesting increases in the speed of processing across development. In addition, younger children did not need as high a perceptual load to achieve the same difference in performance between low and high perceptual load as adults. Thus, this study demonstrates that although there are developmental changes in visual selective attention, the mechanisms by which visual selective attention is achieved in children may share similarities with adults.

  20. [Influence of weather factors on suicidal hangings].

    PubMed

    Trepińska, Janina; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Bakowski, Rafał; Bolechała, Filip; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a certain biometeorological problem. The evaluation of influence of weather factors on frequency of suicidal cases by hanging in the area of Cracow City during 1991-2002 was examined. Rapid changes of air pressure, air temperature, hot, sweltering and sultry days, very frosty days, days with strong or foehn wind, days with thunderstorms, fog and haze were selected as unfavourable weather factors. They give an occasion for strong psychical stress. The results of detailed investigations are next: more frequency of cases of suicide during the advance of cold fronts, rapid decreases of air pressure during hot, sweltering and sultry days, days with thunderstorms and foehn winds in the Tatra Mountains.

  1. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    PubMed

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  2. Factors Influencing Agricultural Education Students' Choice to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawver, Rebecca Grace

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence senior level agricultural education students' choice to become secondary agriculture teachers. This study focused on the extent to which beliefs and attitude influenced students' intent to select a teaching secondary agricultural education as a career. The Agricultural…

  3. Seasonal variations of selected cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews research on selected biomarkers of cardiovascular risk - cholesterol and other lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine - in the attempt to determine the existence of a predictable seasonal chronobiological pattern of variation. Studies dating as far back as the 1930s have reported seasonal variations in cholesterol levels. Statistically significant seasonal changes in lipid levels have been found in individuals irrespective of the country where the research has been conducted, and irrespective of the age, sex, ethnicity, and baseline lipid levels of the study subjects. While not all studies have been in complete agreement on either the amplitude (degree of seasonal change) or month/s of highest lipid levels, a strong winter/summer difference has been found in most studies. Existing evidence for an independent effect of season in variation of CRP is weak. Studies have consistently reported significant seasonal variations in fibrinogen levels. While other biological factors clearly interact to affect fibrinogen variability, seasonality appears to be an independent source of variability. Evidence from several studies points to a lack of seasonal variability in homocysteine levels. Although seasonal variability is just one source of periodicity influencing biological function and assessments in clinical practice, for some biomarkers, including lipids and fibrinogen, it is a source of variability that warrants consideration prior to a decision to treat and in assessing response to interventions.

  4. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  5. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  6. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natsual Techuical Imfwmatmi Suuwie AD-A024 267 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY...PREPARED FOR AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OCTOBER 1975 138097 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG Final report - October, 1975...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN FIP.1 Scientific Report TlE DOG "Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  7. Advanced Choice Employment (ACE) factors influencing PGY-1 workplace selection and future career intentions of a cohort of doctors in Waikato.

    PubMed

    Clark, Helen; de Beer, Wayne; Gibbons, Veronique

    2017-01-27

    To assess whether or not a sample of PGY-1 doctors in the Waikato region remained satisfied with the ACE system for employment 12 years after its inception. An anonymous paper-based survey was completed by a cohort (n=60) of 2015 and 2016 PGY-1 doctors based at the Waikato DHB. Questions were based around reasons for selecting the DHB, satisfaction with the ACE process and future career intentions. Overall satisfaction with the ACE selection process was reasonable (63%). Over 60% of the 2015 and 2016 cohorts chose Waikato as their first choice DHB, and of those, over 90% intended to carry on through to at least PGY2 level at the DHB. An overwhelming majority (93-96%) intended to continue practicing in New Zealand. Consistent trends were observed across the two cohorts in regards to their reasons for selecting the DHB, satisfaction with ACE and future intentions, with some differences observed with familial background and interest in pursuing hospital-based specialties. Our findings suggest that ACE remains a satisfactory recruiting system for postgraduate junior doctors, however, motives around initial DHB selection and future vocational intentions remain unclear and warrant further investigation.

  8. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  9. A Survey of Factors Influencing High School Start Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study surveyed high school personnel regarding high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from 345 secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. Factors affecting reported start times included…

  10. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  11. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. Methods An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Results Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. Conclusion One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful

  12. Maternal Factors That Influence Children's Positive Behavior: Demonstration of a Structural Equation Analysis of Selected Data from the Berkeley Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crano, William D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis using data drawn from Nancy Bayley's Berkeley Growth Study is performed for didactic purposes to illustrate the use of structural equation modeling on a child development data set. Alternatives to standard latent factor approaches are demonstrated for use in research situations in which the subject-to-variable ratio is less than…

  13. Maternal Factors That Influence Children's Positive Behavior: Demonstration of a Structural Equation Analysis of Selected Data from the Berkeley Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crano, William D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis using data drawn from Nancy Bayley's Berkeley Growth Study is performed for didactic purposes to illustrate the use of structural equation modeling on a child development data set. Alternatives to standard latent factor approaches are demonstrated for use in research situations in which the subject-to-variable ratio is less than…

  14. Factors influencing women's selection of combined hormonal contraceptive methods after counselling in 11 countries: results from a subanalysis of the CHOICE study.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Johannes; Cupanik, Vladimir; Fait, Tomas; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Grob, Paul; Oddens, Björn J; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Unzeitig, Vit

    2013-10-01

    To investigate which characteristics of women and healthcare professionals (HCPs) were associated with changing to another combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) method after contraceptive counselling. CHOICE was a cross-sectional survey in which 18,787 women were counselled about combined hormonal contraceptives, during which their contraceptive methods preferred both prior to and after counselling were recorded. In this subanalysis, characteristics associated with changing the method after counselling were determined using logistic regression models. The probability of intending to change from the pill to another method was associated with being older; university-educated; being in a steady relationship; a prior unintended pregnancy; a younger HCP or one who recommended methods other than the pill. Changing to the patch was associated with a female HCP or a HCP who recommended the patch or an injectable. Changing to the ring was associated with being over 21 years; university-educated; being in a relationship; previous hormonal method use; and counselling by a female HCP, a HCP < 60 years old, or a HCP who recommended the ring or an implant. The country of residence influenced these changes in a complex pattern. Women's choice of CHC methods after contraceptive counselling are influenced by their age, educational background, relationship status, prior unplanned pregnancies and country of residence, as well as age, gender and preferences of their HCP.

  15. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  16. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole. PMID:27942134

  17. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  18. Influence of selected quality factors of beef on the profile and the quantity of heterocyclic aromatic amines during processing at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-03-01

    New factors were identified impacting significantly on the formation of HAA during grilling. The number and profile of HAA in grilled beef depend on the fattening system (intensive and semi-intensive), and the effect of the animal's sex. The fewest HAAs were formed in rib steak from heifers from a semi-intensive fattening system. A significant effect of storage of meat in refrigerated conditions (5 to 15 days) was also demonstrated on the formation of HAA during grilling. The longer the raw meat was stored, the more HAA was formed during grilling. The quantity of HAA was strongly correlated with the content of free amino acids and a very strong correlation was found with an increasing content of free purine and pyrimidine bases and their nucleosides. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  20. Price elasticity and pharmaceutical selection: the influence of managed care.

    PubMed

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Salkever, David S

    2003-07-01

    State Medicaid programs are turning increasingly to managed care to control expenditures, although the types of managed care programs in use have changed dramatically. Little is known about the influence of the shifting Medicaid managed care arena on treatment decisions. This paper investigates factors affecting the selection of treatments for depression by providers participating in either of two Medicaid managed care programs. Of particular interest is the influence of medication price on the choice of treatment, since one vehicle through which managed care organizations can reduce total expenditures is by increasing the price sensitivity of participating providers. We take a new approach by phrasing the problem as a discrete choice, using a nested multinomial logit model for the analyses. Contrary to earlier literature, we find some evidence that physicians in both programs do take price into consideration when selecting among treatment options. HMO providers in particular demonstrate increased price sensitivity in the two most commonly prescribed categories of antidepressants.

  1. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  2. Influence of Selected Organic Micropollutants on Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the toxicity of organic micropollutants on tested microorganisms. Itis a current issue because organic micropollutants are identified in all elements of environmental (surface water, ground water, soils) and in food products. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, halogenated compounds and by-products of water treatment. Some organic compounds cause hazard for health and human life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The influence on organisms indicators of these compounds based on literature data were presented. The level of TEQ (toxic equivalency) in response to organic chlorine derivatives (PCDDs, PCDF, PCBs) is usually determined by toxic equivalency factor (TEF). The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies organic micropollutants as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), possibly carcinogenic (Group 2A) or probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

  3. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  4. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    Treesearch

    Gretchen H. Roffler; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine Pilgrim; Sandra L. Talbot; George K. Sage; Layne G. Adams; Gordon Luikart

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is...

  5. Selection factors for local anesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    Budenz, Alan W

    2008-10-01

    The decision to inject local anesthetic agents to achieve profound anesthesia is dependent upon many factors, particularly the depth and duration of anesthesia required, and the possible need for hemostasis. To maximize the safety of local anesthetic injections, it is necessary to weigh the risks against the benefits for each patient, for each anesthetic agent, for use of a vasoconstrictor, and for the delivery technique for the selected agent.

  6. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  7. Factors influencing perfect surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Lim, A S

    1997-03-01

    With affluence and education, the population of Asia will be demanding quality surgical care. The energetic, affluent and educated Asian professionals and business communities in the cities demand the best; and in surgery, they seek perfect results. Perfect results require a combination of 3 factors: the skill, knowledge and experience of the surgeon. He must be a skilled surgeon with good basic surgical techniques and also technical skills in the management of his discipline combined with meticulous attention to details. Furthermore, he must have a clear knowledge of the basic physiopathology of surgical principles of the condition he is to manage. Experience with difficult situations and intrasurgical problems are essential for success.

  8. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  9. Factors Influencing Student Choice of College and Course of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, W. Rodman; Boruch, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Relates results of a longitudinal study (1958-67) of 16,395 science majors, revealing what grade level (prior to 9th grade through college-6th year) science was chosen as their major interest, when final major was selected, and when highest degree aspiration was decided. Presents discussion of factors influencing students' choice of liberal arts…

  10. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  11. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    PubMed

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  12. "I could cry, the amount of shoes I can't get into": A qualitative exploration of the factors that influence retail footwear selection in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have reported that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not wearing NHS supplied therapeutic footwear; therefore it is likely they are wearing footwear sourced through retailers. Previous research gives limited information (largely associated with cosmesis) on people's perceptions on the relationships that exist between retail footwear, well-being and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of women with RA regarding their choice of retail footwear and identify the factors influencing retail footwear selection. Methods Eleven women with RA wearing normal retail footwear were recruited from an out-patient podiatry clinic in the south east of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and transcript analysis. Results Six key themes were revealed from the analysis: (1) the nature of foot complaints and deformities, (2) aesthetic appearance and design of footwear, (3) body image, (4) psychosocial aspects, (5) Perceptions of footwear and (6) the therapeutic value of retail shoes. These contributed to an overarching concept of loss of choice associated with retail footwear. In particular, the areas discussed most frequently throughout were themes (2), (3) and (4), which were notably more 'emotional' in nature. Conclusions Limitations in retail footwear for these women have impacted on their individuality, linking significantly with their body image. The loss of choice in footwear as a consequence of the disease impacts negatively on emotions, wellbeing and was identified in reduced self-perceived quality of life. PMID:21794134

  13. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  15. Career Satisfaction as a Factor Influencing Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-14

    the influence of job satisfaction on first-term nt behavi ntent to reenlist as a criterion. Factors found to I related included not liking the work...benefits have been curtailed, largely due to the recent recession . When the economy brightens and civilian jobs become more plentiful, dissatisfactions...Satisfaction also his exchange power in the market place. Because economic value is influenced by consumer tastes and preferences, individual motivations

  16. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  17. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  18. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  19. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  20. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Diane R.; Powers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. PMID:25972465

  1. Factors Influencing the Fatigue Strength of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1941-01-01

    A number of factors are considered which influence the static and fatigue strength of materials under practical operating conditions as contrasted with the relations obtaining under conditions of the usual testing procedure. Such factors are interruptions in operation, periodically fluctuating stress limits and mean stresses with periodic succession of several groups and stress states, statistical changes and succession of stress limits and mean stresses, frictional corrosion at junctures, and notch effects.

  2. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-20

    or 20 MAY 1976 STUDY ’ PROJECT FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG ARMY CHAPLAINS BY CHAPLAIN(COLONEL) KERMIT D. JOHNSON US ARMY WAR...job •atUfaction among US kxmy chaplain« it b«aad CO • mail aurvay raaponao of 998 chap Ulna out of 1411 in tha Army chaplaincy. Factors which...chaplaincy, and cosseand. Certain professional Irritants were singled out. By means of demographic information, comparisons were made as to how

  3. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  4. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Treesearch

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  5. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  6. Factors Influencing Employee Learning in Small Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Perry, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify key factors influencing employee learning from the perspective of owners/managers. Design/methodology/research: Data were gathered from owners/managers in a total of 27 small manufacturing and services firms through interviews and analysed using content analytic procedures. Findings: The…

  7. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    Block 13 ARO Report Number Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics , Vol. Ed. 0 39, (3) (2014), (, (3...DOl : 10.1 002/prep .201300154 Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions Keerti...energetic formulations, in- cluding pyrotechnics , explosives, and propellants. One ap- proach was to add particulate media to conventional high explosives

  8. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  9. Factors Which Influence Community College Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Steven

    This report explores factors influencing the persistence and graduation of students at New York City Technical College. Part 1 presents an overview of an 8-semester study conducted of 307 freshmen from September 1989 through June 1994, while part 2 describes the research procedure utilized, indicating that the following types of data were…

  10. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  11. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study.

    PubMed

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  12. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    PubMed

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  13. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication

    PubMed Central

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations. PMID:28660238

  14. Analysis on Main Influence Factors for Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Steel Weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Sun, Jiandong; Liu, Dong; Guo, Yujun; Gao, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The paper determined several main factors influencing ultrasonic detection results through research and analysis on the influence results and accuracy during the ultrasonic flaw detection of steel structure weld, and made a summary how to select and operate instruments correctly, utilize favorable factors of detection results and avoid unfavorable factors, as well as improve detection accuracy during the practical detection.

  15. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    PubMed

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  16. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Political and economic factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

    PubMed

    Sai, F T

    1993-01-01

    International, national and local level politics influence the uptake of contraception through consensuses, laws, financial and moral support or the creation of an enabling atmosphere. Opposition to contraception generally comes from some churches and groups opposed to particular technologies. Socio-economic factors, particularly education, the health care system and the perceived or actual cost of fertility regulation as compared to benefits expected from children also powerfully influence contraceptive use. For many poor women in developing countries their powerlessness in relation to their male partners is an important obstacle.

  18. Influencing factor on the prognosis of arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Tae Min; Pang, Kang Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to evaluate factors influencing prognosis of arthrocentesis in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Materials and Methods The subjects included 145 patients treated with arthrocentesis at the Dental Center of Ajou University Hospital from 2011 to 2013 for the purpose of recovering mouth opening limitation (MOL) and pain relief. Prognosis of arthrocentesis was evaluated 1 month after the operation. Improvement on MOL was defined as an increase from below 30 mm (MOL ≤30 mm) to above 40 mm (MOL ≥40 mm), and pain relief was defined as when a group with TMJ pain with a visual analog scale (VAS) score of 4 or more (VAS ≥4) decreased to a score of 3 or more. The success of arthrocentesis was determined when either mouth opening improved or pain relief was fulfilled. To determine the factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis, the patients were classified by age, gender, diagnosis group (the anterior disc displacement without reduction group, the anterior disc displacement with reduction group, or other TMJ disorders group), time of onset and oral habits (clenching, bruxism) to investigate the correlations between these factors and prognosis. Results One hundred twenty out of 145 patients who underwent arthrocentesis (83.4%) were found to be successful. Among the influencing factors mentioned above, age, diagnosis and time of onset had no statistically significant correlation with the success of arthrocentesis. However, a group of patients in their fifties showed a lower success rate (ANOVA P=0.053) and the success rate of the group with oral habits was 71% (Pearson's chi-square test P=0.035). Conclusion From this study, we find that factors influencing the success of arthrocentesis include age and oral habits. We also conclude that arthrocentesis is effective in treating mouth opening symptoms and for pain relief. PMID:25247144

  19. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  20. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  1. Variables Influencing Graduate Business Students' College Selections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marion Stanton

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 1,499 graduate students from 7 colleges and universities in northeastern Ohio identified 15 major factors in graduate business school choice: academic reputation, accreditation, evening classes, programs, potential degree marketability, part-time programs, completion time, proximity, costs, faculty contact time, location, library size,…

  2. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    AD-A008 942 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG D. G. Moulton Pennsylvania University Prepared for: Air Force Office of Scientific...developed Tor the quartitative analysis of the relation between odor detection and sniff parameters. Thirsty dogs are rewarded with water for identifying...winch of two ports is associated with an odor . Sniff flow rate, frequency and amplitude are recorded from the output of a pn.^u.Tiotachometer

  3. Factors influencing the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Ma, Tso-Chiang; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jin-Tang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2008-07-01

    To test the factors that influence Chinese medicine outpatients' behavior patterns in purchasing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) under the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. A structural questionnaire was developed and administered to randomly selected outpatients waiting for Chinese Medicine at pharmacies in two academic hospitals that offered Chinese Medicine services in central Taiwan. A total of 641 effective questionnaires were collected. SPSS 10.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to run descriptive analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, LISREL 8.30 (Analytical Package, Scientific Software International, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to modify and analyze the relationship between the variables of the hypothetical pathway model. Path analysis showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influences on the outpatients' patterns of purchasing TCM. Furthermore, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly influenced the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients. In addition, one-way ANOVA showed that the purchasing behavior was significantly influenced by the number of diseases that an individual suffered. The results of the pathway model showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influence on the TCM purchasing behavior of Chinese Medicine outpatients. However, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly had influence on the TCM purchasing behavior. Furthermore, the analysis result of one-way ANOVA showed that the more chronic diseases the surveyed subject suffered, the more significant the influence on purchasing behavior

  4. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... public at reasonable rates. (b) The secondary selection factors are: (1) The quality of the offeror's... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... factors? (a) The five principal selection factors are: (1) The responsiveness of the proposal to the...

  6. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public at reasonable rates. (b) The secondary selection factors are: (1) The quality of the offeror's... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... factors? (a) The five principal selection factors are: (1) The responsiveness of the proposal to the...

  7. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public at reasonable rates. (b) The secondary selection factors are: (1) The quality of the offeror's... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... factors? (a) The five principal selection factors are: (1) The responsiveness of the proposal to the...

  8. 36 CFR 51.17 - What are the selection factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public at reasonable rates. (b) The secondary selection factors are: (1) The quality of the offeror's... factors? 51.17 Section 51.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... factors? (a) The five principal selection factors are: (1) The responsiveness of the proposal to the...

  9. Factors Influencing the Eicosanoids Synthesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials. PMID:25861641

  10. Factors influencing the prescription of drugs of different price levels.

    PubMed

    Semark, Birgitta; Engström, Sven; Brudin, Lars; Tågerud, Sven; Fredlund, Kerstin; Borgquist, Lars; Petersson, Göran

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic factors have been suggested to influence the prescribing of newer and more expensive drugs. In the present study, individual and health care provider factors were studied in relation to the prevalence of differently priced drugs. Register data for dispensed drugs were retrieved for 18 486 individuals in a county council in Sweden. The prevalence of dispensed drugs was combined with data for the individual's gender, age, education, income, foreign background, and type of caregiver. For each of the diagnostic groups (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, diabetes, and osteoporosis), selected drugs were dichotomized into cost categories, lower and higher price levels. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed using cost category as the dependent variable and the individual and provider factors as independent variables. In all four diagnostic groups, differences were observed in the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels with regard to the different factors studied. Age and gender affected the prescription of drugs of lower and higher price levels more generally, except for gender in the osteoporosis group. Income, education, foreign background, and type of caregiver affected prescribing patterns but in different ways for the different diagnostic groups. Certain individual and provider factors appear to influence the prescribing of drugs of different price levels. Because the average price for the cheaper drugs versus more costly drugs in each diagnostic group was between 19% and 69%, there is a risk that factors other than medical needs are influencing the choice of drug. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Factors influencing severity of peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Saaby, Martin; Karring, Eva; Schou, Søren; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis. Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level. Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors. The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  13. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations.

  14. A biomedical informatics perspective on human factors - How human factors influence information technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R

    2011-01-01

    to select and summarize excellent research published in 2010 in the field of bio-medical informatics human factors. we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of the activity and new trends in this field, from a selection of worldwide research papers published during 2010. this year again, healthcare information technology (HIT) adoption occupies a central role in the field and leads to research focused mainly on measuring impact and factors influencing it. One of the selected papers especially dissects the anatomy of a nationwide personal electronic health record adoption failure. Due to the vast and increasing amount of excellent works, choosing the best papers in human factors is a challenge. More and more the published work takes into account fundamental principles expressed in Grudin's Laws, one form of which is: "When those who beneût from a technology are not those who do the work, then the technology is likely to fail or be subverted.".

  15. Peer influence and selection effects on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollard, Michael; Tucker, Joan S

    2010-06-01

    Studies showing that adolescents are more likely to smoke if they have friends who smoke typically infer that this is the result of peer influence. However, it may also be due to adolescents choosing friends who have smoking behaviors similar to their own (i.e., selection). One of the most influential studies of influence and selection effects on smoking concluded that these processes contribute about equally to peer group homogeneity in adolescent smoking (Ennett and Bauman, 1994). The goal of this study was to conduct a partial replication of these findings. Data are from 1223 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Spectral decomposition techniques identified friendship cliques, which were then used as the unit of analysis to examine influence and selection effects over a one-year period. Non-smokers were more likely to become smokers if they initially belonged to a smoking (vs. non-smoking) group, and smokers were more likely to become non-smokers if they initially belonged to a non-smoking (vs. smoking) group, indicating an influence effect on both initiation and cessation. Further, group members who changed groups between waves were more likely to select groups with smoking behavior congruent to their own, providing evidence of a selection effect. While our results generally replicate the group analyses reported by Ennett and Bauman (1994), they suggest that peer influence and selection effects on adolescent smoking may be much weaker than assumed based on this earlier research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing laboratory animal spontaneous tumor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, J F

    1985-01-01

    In chemical carcinogenicity and drug-safety testing, a carcinogen is defined as an agent that when administered by an appropriate route causes an increased incidence of tumors in experimental animals as compared to unexposed control animals. Although a carcinogen may cause the appearance of tumors in organs where tumors do not usually occur in a given strain, the usual response is to increase the types of tumors seen spontaneously and to shorten the period of latency. The use of carcinogenesis experiments for research and safety assessment requires properly designed and well-conducted experiments and a knowledge of background data and variations in tumor incidences of control animals. Many factors can influence the reported incidences of spontaneous tumors. These include species, strain, sex, age, and source of the experimental test animal; study duration; extent of the pathology examination; dietary and environmental conditions; qualifications and experience of the study pathologist; diagnostic criteria and nomenclature conventions; and quality assurance and review procedures. This paper discusses several factors which may influence the incidence of tumors in control and test animals, and provides examples to illustrate the potential for these factors to affect the data.

  17. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  18. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  19. Neonatal thyroid function: influence of perinatal factors.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R C; Carpenter, L M; O'Grady, C M

    1985-01-01

    Indices of thyroid function were measured in 229 healthy term neonates at birth and at 5, 10, and 15 days of age. Results were analysed to assess whether maternal diabetes mellitus, toxaemia of pregnancy, intrapartum fetal distress, duration of labour, method of delivery, asphyxia at birth, race, sex, birthweight, birth length, head circumference, or method of feeding influenced any index. Thyroxine, the free thyroxine index, and free thyroxine concentrations at birth correlated with birthweight. Method of delivery influenced mean thyroxine and free thyroxine index values at birth and at age 5 days. Mean values of triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyroxine binding globulin, and thyroid stimulating hormone were not affected by any of the perinatal factors studied. Birthweight and perhaps method of delivery should be taken into account when interpreting neonatal thyroxine parameters but determination of thyroid stimulating hormone as a screen for congenital hypothyroidism in healthy term neonates circumvents these considerations. PMID:3977386

  20. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    PubMed

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  1. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  2. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P < 0.01) and satisfaction on the payment mode (P = 0.006). Higher self-assessment on the medical professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The

  3. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-07

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  6. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  7. Audit in general practice: factors influencing participation.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R.; Robertson, N.; Farooqi, A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the factors influencing participation in a single topic audit initiated by a medical audit advisory group. DESIGN--Interview and questionnaire survey of general practitioners who had been invited to take part in an audit of vitamin B-12. SETTING--All 147 general practices in Leicestershire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Aspects of structure, attitude, and behaviour that influenced participation or non-participation. RESULTS--75 practices completed the audit, 49 withdrew after initial agreement, and 23 refused to take part at the outset. Participants were more likely than those who refused to view the advisory group as useful or a threat and to have positive thoughts about audit but less likely to have previously undertaken audit entailing implementation of change. Participants were more likely than those who withdrew to have positive thoughts about audit and to have discussed whether to take part within the practice but were less likely to view the advisory group as useful. The most common reason given for withdrawal was lack of time. CONCLUSIONS--Participation was influenced by attitudes towards audit in general and the advisory group in particular and by aspects of behaviour such as communication within the practice. Practical support and resources may help some practices undertake audit, but advisory groups must also deal with attitudes and unsatisfactory communication in practice teams. PMID:7613323

  8. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  9. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time.

  10. Interpersonal Factors That Influence Principals' Rating of Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, William, Jr.; Davis, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    A study to determine whether principals are influenced by attraction factors in teacher evaluations found that principals are affected by nonperformance factors when they evaluate teacher performance. (MD)

  11. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  12. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  13. Factors in Selecting Residence Hall Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullozzi, Anthony, Jr.; Spees, Emil R.

    1971-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which empathy, self actualization, and leadership in group discussion situations would predict the criterion of who would be hired as resident fellows (RF). Since leaderless group discussion did differentiate with some degree of "accuracy" it promises to be an excellent future device for use with RF selection.…

  14. [Progress report. Factors influencing nutritional toxic effects].

    PubMed

    Bleyl, D W

    1989-01-01

    The basis of the requirement for nutrio-toxicological model investigations is the result of many years of international experience. They are, however, limited for pragmatic reasons to standardized one-dimensional test conditions and can only be partially compared with the variable exposure conditions of man. Therefore, we have tried to review the practical significance of factors influencing nutrio-toxic effects. It has been shown that due to physiological and genetic differences, different lifestyle, biogeochemical and nutritional factors, additional occupational exposure as well as spontaneous diseases individual sensitivity shows a great variation range in man and laboratory animals. The multiple exposure which is common practice makes it difficult to provide proven evidence. The safety factor used for the extrapolation of results obtained in animal experiments as compared with man is a suitable pragmatic safety measure, but in the case of 1:100 as to the order of magnitude it is not always in accordance with the range of response to xenobiotics in a human population. This fact raises the necessity of searching for so-called "risk-groups" in the population. Additionally, the possible acceleration of spontaneous diseases by exposure to xenobiotics has to be taken into consideration.

  15. Olecranon fractures: factors influencing re-operation.

    PubMed

    Snoddy, Mark Christopher; Lang, Maximilian Frank; An, Thomas J; Mitchell, Phillip Michael; Grantham, William Jeffrey; Hooe, Benjamin Scoot; Kay, Harrison Ford; Bhatia, Ritwik; Thakore, Rachel V; Evans, Jason Michael; Obremskey, William Todd; Sethi, Manish Kumar

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated factors influencing re-operation in tension band and plating of isolated olecranon fractures. Four hundred eighty-nine patients with isolated olecranon fractures who underwent tension band (TB) or open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) from 2003 to 2013 were identified at an urban level 1 trauma centre. Medical records were reviewed for patient information and complications, including infection, nonunion, malunion, loss of function or hardware complication requiring an unplanned surgical intervention. Electronic radiographs of these patients were reviewed to identify Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) fracture classification and patients who underwent TB or ORIF. One hundred seventy-seven patients met inclusion criteria of isolated olecranon fractures. TB was used for fixation in 43 patients and ORIF in 134. No statistical significance was found when comparing complication rates in open versus closed olecranon fractures. In a multivariate analysis, the key factor in outcome was method of fixation. Overall, there were higher rates of infection and hardware removal in the TB compared with the ORIF group. Our results demonstrate that the dominant factor driving re-operation in isolated olecranon fractures is type of fixation. When controlling for all variables, there is an increased chance of re-operation in patients with TB fixation.

  16. Selection of student-selected component [SSCs] modules across the medical undergraduate curriculum: relationship with motivational factors.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Duggan, Eileen; Khashan, Ali S; Boylan, Geraldine B; O'Flynn, Siún

    2012-01-01

    Student-selected components (SSCs) encourage the following within the undergraduate medical curriculum: greater exploration of core curriculum topics; exploration of non-core subjects/experiences; research and self-directed learning; and personal and professional development opportunities. This study examined the motivational factors which influence SSC choice to assess (a) SSC selection patterns across each year of the curriculum (direct and graduate entry) and (b) motivation underlying SSC selection across the curriculum. During SSC registration at University College Cork, all medical undergraduates (years 1-3, graduate-entry medicine) were required to select an SSC and provide a written justification for their selection. Five primary motivational factors were identified: correction of perceived deficits; genuine interest in subject and wish to study in more depth; career strategy; exam strategy; and taking a chance. A complex pattern of relationships emerged in relation to matching of motivational factors with SSC categories, e.g. selection of research skills SSCs was strongly associated with the 'career strategy' motivation. Significant differences were observed across curriculum years, as well as between direct-entry versus graduate-entry undergraduates, with respect to SSC selections and underlying motivation. This study provides insight into changing patterns of SSC selection in medicine, as well as accompanying motivational factors, across the undergraduate years.

  17. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  18. Manual flying skills under the influence of performance shaping factors.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Schubert, Ekkehart; Onnasch, Linda; Hüttig, Gerhard; Bubb, Heiner; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study investigating pilots' manual flying skills. In today's line oriented flight training, basic flying skills are neglected frequently. So, the study examines the manual flying skills of commercial airline pilots under the influence of several performance shaping factors like training, practice or fatigue in a landing scenario. The landing phase shows a disproportionate high percentage of aircraft accidents and it is typically flown by hand. The study is to be undertaken with randomly selected pilots in a full motion flight simulator to ensure a high validity of the results.

  19. Selection and Influence Mechanisms Associated With Marijuana Initiation and Use in Adolescent Friendship Networks.

    PubMed

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S

    2013-09-01

    Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use at both schools, but friends were found to influence the initiation and frequency of adolescent marijuana use in just one of these schools. There was minimal evidence that peer effects were moderated by personal, school, or family risk factors.

  20. Selection and Influence Mechanisms Associated With Marijuana Initiation and Use in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.; Pollard, Michael S.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2013-01-01

    Friends are thought to influence adolescent drug use. However, few studies have examined the role of drugs in friendship selection, which is necessary to draw sound conclusions about influence. This study applied statistical models for social networks to test the contribution of selection and influence to associations in marijuana use among friends in two large high schools (N = 1,612; M age = 16.4). There was evidence for friend selection based on similar lifetime and current marijuana use at both schools, but friends were found to influence the initiation and frequency of adolescent marijuana use in just one of these schools. There was minimal evidence that peer effects were moderated by personal, school, or family risk factors. PMID:24187477

  1. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  2. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    PubMed

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  3. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  4. Factors influencing acrylamide formation in gingerbread.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schönbächler, Barbara; Escher, Felix; Amadò, Renato

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ingredients, additives, and process conditions on the acrylamide formation in gingerbread was investigated. The sources for reducing sugars and free asparagine were identified and the effect of different baking agents on the acrylamide formation was evaluated. Ammonium hydrogencarbonate strongly enhanced the acrylamide formation, but its N-atom was not incorporated into acrylamide, nor did acrylic acid form acrylamide in gingerbread. Acrylamide concentration and browning intensity increased both with baking time and correlated with each other. The use of sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent reduced the acrylamide concentration by more than 60%. Free asparagine was a limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the acrylamide content could also be lowered by replacing reducing sugars with sucrose or by adding moderate amounts of organic acids. A significant reduction of the acrylamide content in gingerbread can be achieved by using sodium hydrogencarbonate as baking agent, minimizing free asparagine, and avoiding prolonged baking.

  5. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Meyrick C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of “being there” in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users’ attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds. PMID:24199058

  6. School readiness and factors that influence decision making.

    PubMed

    McBryde, Cathy; Ziviani, Jenny; Cuskelly, Monica

    2004-01-01

    Occupational therapists are frequently asked to make recommendations regarding a child's school readiness. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision making of parents and teachers regarding this issue. The home environments and developmental status of 215 preschool children (age: M = 62.2 months, SD = 4.65) were assessed. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires about each child's behaviour, temperament, and readiness for school. Their perceptions were analysed separately. Results showed that chronological age, and the presence of adaptability, well-developed social skills, and the ability to persist with an activity until completed influenced parents' as well as teachers' perceptions of school readiness. In addition, teachers' decisions were influenced by gender (girls were perceived as being more ready for school than boys), and the presence of the temperament characteristic of inhibition (withdrawn, shy behaviours). These results indicated that factors other than a child's developmental status influenced parental and teacher decision making, challenging occupational therapists to adopt a broader focus when consulting with parents and teachers about school readiness. Limitations of the study included the self-selected sample resulting in potential bias owing to the over-representation of families from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. It is suggested that future research take the form of a matched pairs design, and focus on a comparison between a population of children perceived to be ready to progress to school and a group perceived not to be ready.

  7. Career Selection Factors of Home Economics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julie M.

    1987-01-01

    To ensure an adequate number of professionals in home economics education, recruitment strategies must be determined. This paper reviews studies that identify the factors involved in a home economics career decision. Suggestions for recruiting home economics majors, particularly home economics education majors, are given. (Author/CH)

  8. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    PubMed

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  10. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  12. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  13. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  14. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  15. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  16. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  17. Influence of selected physicochemical parameters on microbiological activity of mucks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Całka, A.; Sokołowska, Z.; Warchulska, P.; Dąbek-Szreniawska, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the basic factor decided about soil fertility are microorganisms that together with flora, determine trend and character of biochemical processes as well totality of fundamental transformations connected with biogeochemistry and physicochemical properties of soil. Determination of general bacteria number, quantity of selected groups of microorganisms and investigation of respiration intensity let estimate microbiological activity of soil. Intensity of microbiological processes is directly connected with physicochemical soil parameters. In that case, such structural parameters as bulk density, porosity, surface or carbon content play significant role. Microbiological activity also changes within the bounds of mucks with different stage of humification and secondary transformation. Knowledge of relations between structural properties, microorganism activity and degree of transformation and humification can lead to better understanding microbiological processes as well enable to estimate microbiological activity at given physicochemical conditions and at progressing process of soil transformation. The study was carried out on two peaty-moorsh (muck) soils at different state of secondary transformation and humification degree. Soil samples were collected from Polesie Lubelskie (layer depth: 5 - 25 cm). Investigated mucks originated from soils formed from low peatbogs. Soil sample marked as I belonged to muck group weakly secondary transformed. Second sample (II) represented soil group with middle stage of secondary transformation. The main purpose of the research was to examine the relations between some physicochemical and surface properties and their biological activity. Total number and respiration activity of microorganisms were determined. The effectiveness of utilizing the carbon substances from the soil by the bacteria increased simultaneously with the transformation state of the peat-muck soils. Quantity of organic carbon decreased distinctly in the soil

  18. Protege Selection by Mentors: Contributing Individual and Organizational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.

    2004-01-01

    Protege selection was examined in a laboratory experiment and a field study of experienced mentors. The results from both studies indicated that protege willingness to learn was a critical component of protege selection. Results of the field study also revealed that organizational rewards for developing others related to the influence protege…

  19. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  20. Research on influencing factors of LED frequency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Tianyu; Qian, Keyuan

    2017-08-01

    In LED-based visible light communication, the choice of light source device is an important issue. In this paper, the frequency response (FR) of different types of blue LEDs and phosphors is measured. On the basis of that, this paper proposes the FR model of phosphor and supplements the FR model of blue LED. And also, a method is proposed to calculate the FR of phosphor coated LEDs using FR of blue LED and that of phosphor. On this basis, this paper analyses the influencing factors of the FR of blue LED and FR of phosphor respectively. It provides guidance for not only selecting the light source device but also selecting and blending phosphor in visible light communication based on LED.

  1. Genome-wide inference of natural selection on human transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Arbiza, Leonardo; Gronau, Ilan; Aksoy, Bulent A; Hubisz, Melissa J; Gulko, Brad; Keinan, Alon; Siepel, Adam

    2013-07-01

    For decades, it has been hypothesized that gene regulation has had a central role in human evolution, yet much remains unknown about the genome-wide impact of regulatory mutations. Here we use whole-genome sequences and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing data to demonstrate that natural selection has profoundly influenced human transcription factor binding sites since the divergence of humans from chimpanzees 4-6 million years ago. Our analysis uses a new probabilistic method, called INSIGHT, for measuring the influence of selection on collections of short, interspersed noncoding elements. We find that, on average, transcription factor binding sites have experienced somewhat weaker selection than protein-coding genes. However, the binding sites of several transcription factors show clear evidence of adaptation. Several measures of selection are strongly correlated with predicted binding affinity. Overall, regulatory elements seem to contribute substantially to both adaptive substitutions and deleterious polymorphisms with key implications for human evolution and disease.

  2. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D

    2007-01-01

    Research ethics committees—animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal‐based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects—have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a model, 28 members of AECs at four universities in western Canada were interviewed. Committees were selected to represent variation in the number and type of protocols reviewed, and participants were selected to include different types of committee members. We found that a bias towards institutional or scientific interests may result from (1) a preponderance of institutional and scientist members, (2) an intimidating atmosphere for community members and other minority members, (3) recruitment of community members who are affiliated with the institution and (4) members joining for reasons other than to fulfil the committee mandate. Thoroughness of protocol review may be influenced by heavy workloads, type of review process and lack of full committee participation. These results, together with results from the literature on research ethics committees, suggested potential ways to improve the effectiveness of research ethics committees. PMID:17470508

  3. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  4. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  5. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  6. Factors that influence recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M E; Kazancı, A; Yaman, N D; Baş, F; Ayberk, G

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of poor outcome following lumbar disc surgery is recurrent herniation. Recurrence has been noted in 5% to 15% of patients with surgically treated primary lumbar disc herniation. There have been many studies designed to determine the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the influence of disc degeneration, endplate changes, surgical technique, and patient's clinical characteristics on recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients who underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and who were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. All these operations were performed between August 2004 and September 2009 at the Neurosurgery Department of Ataturk Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. During the study period, 126 patients were reviewed, with 101 patients underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and 25 patients were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation. Preoperative higher intervertebral disc height (P<0.001) and higher body mass index (P=0.042) might be risk factors for recurrence. Modic endplate changes were statistically significantly greater in the recurrent group than in the non-recurrent group (P=0.032). Our study suggests that patients who had recurrent lumbar disc herniation had preoperative higher disc height and higher body mass index. Modic endplate changes had a higher tendency for recurrence of lumbar disc herniation. Well-planned and well-conducted large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this and enable convenient treatment modalities to prevent recurrent disc pathology.

  7. [Factors influencing the decision to seek abortion].

    PubMed

    af Geijerstam, G

    1980-02-13

    In 1974, a law was passed in Sweden allowing abortion on demand. Studies are now being undertaken to determine the effect of this law in 3 important areas: abortion counselling, abortion frequency, and possible means of psychological assistance for those who undergo abortions. Abortion must be studied as it affects the entire reproductive chain, in which there are 4 main links: frequency of sexual intercourse, physiological fertility, motivation to have children, and measures taken for birth control. In an agricultural society, children have a value as part of the work force and for retirement security; in a modern society, children have a much more abstract value. The reproductive chain is also affected by the increasing number of unmarried couples living together. There is a need to interview individuals and families to determine "fertility choice behavior", which can help to illuminate motivations for becoming pregnant or seeking abortion. These studies could help determine the perceived advantages and disadvantages of having children and what factors influence "fertility choice behavior".

  8. Factors influencing the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Huub

    2005-06-01

    Several diseases and disorders are treatable with therapeutic proteins, but some of these products may induce an immune response, especially when administered as multiple doses over prolonged periods. Antibodies are created by classical immune reactions or by the breakdown of immune tolerance; the latter is characteristic of human homologue products. Many factors influence the immunogenicity of proteins, including structural features (sequence variation and glycosylation), storage conditions (denaturation, or aggregation caused by oxidation), contaminants or impurities in the preparation, dose and length of treatment, as well as the route of administration, appropriate formulation and the genetic characteristics of patients. The clinical manifestations of antibodies directed against a given protein may include loss of efficacy, neutralization of the natural counterpart and general immune system effects (including allergy, anaphylaxis or serum sickness). An upsurge in the incidence of antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) among patients taking one particular formulation of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin-alpha, marketed as Eprex(R)/Erypo(R); Johnson & Johnson) in Europe caused widespread concern. The PRCA upsurge coincided with removal of human serum albumin from epoetin-alpha in 1998 and its replacement with glycine and polysorbate 80. Although the immunogenic potential of this particular product may have been enhanced by the way the product was stored, handled and administered, it should be noted that the subcutaneous route of administration does not confer immunogenicity per se. The possible role of micelle (polysorbate 80 plus epoetin-alpha) formation in the PRCA upsurge with Eprex is currently being investigated.

  9. Consideration of Selected Influences on Work Place Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confessore, Gary J.; And Others

    Several factors influence learning as it occurs in the workplace and in other settings where learning is undertaken for the expressed purpose of acquiring or improving competencies that will be used in the workplace. Over the past decade, the nature of the workplace has changed, and workers must continually strive to learn in order to keep up with…

  10. Perspectives of Elementary General Music Teachers on Factors Influencing Student Participation in Secondary Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Gabrielle; Mizener, Charlotte P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider characteristics of elementary general music teachers and their views of factors influencing students to take part in secondary music programs, including their own influence and characteristics of their music programs. The following research questions concerning selected characteristics of elementary…

  11. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  12. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  13. An Assessment of Students' Perceptions toward Factors Influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lauren J.; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student perceptions toward factors influencing Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) participation. This descriptive study was conducted in 120 randomly selected agricultural education programs throughout four purposively selected states representative of the National FFA regions. Within each state…

  14. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  15. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  16. It takes three: selection, influence, and de-selection processes of depression in adolescent friendship networks.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J T; Stattin, Håkan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-07-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms) and friendship de-selection (i.e., de-selection of friends with dissimilar levels of depressive symptoms). Further, this study is unique in that these processes were studied both inside and outside the school context. The authors used a social network approach to examine 5 annual measurements of data in a large (N =847) community-based network of adolescents and their friends (M = 14.3 years old at first measurement). Results supported the proposed model: adolescents tend to select friends with similar levels of depression, and friends may increase each other's depressive symptoms as relationships endure. These two processes were most salient outside the school context. At the same time, friendships seemed to be ended more frequently if adolescents' level of depressive symptoms was dissimilar to that of their friends.

  17. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  18. Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

    1988-11-01

    During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis on Peptides: Investigation of Side-Chain Influence, Preorganization, and Guidelines in Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  20. Quantitative exploration of factors influencing psychotic disorder ailments in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Adebowale O; Ikoba, Nehemiah A; Suleiman, Esivue A; Okagbue, Hilary I; Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Odetunmibi, Oluwole A; Job, Obalowu

    2017-10-01

    In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation) and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status), divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic) factors that influence them. A clear description on each of these psychotic disorders (bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), insomnia and Schizophrenia) was considered separately using tables and bar diagrams. Data analysis results are as follows: firstly, 40.2%, of the 500 psychotic patients tested positive to bipolar, 40.6% to insomnia, 75.0% to schizophrenia, 43.6% to MBD and 69.2% to vascular dementia. Secondly, female patients were more prone to all the psychotic indicators than their male counterpart except in MBD. Thirdly, the oldest age group (> 60 years) is more prone to bipolar and insomnia ailments, while the mid age group (30 - 60 years) is prone to schizophrenia and vascular dementia, and the youngest group (< 30 years) is prone to MBD. Lastly, the factors that influence the ailments are listed: bipolar (age, occupation, marital status, divorce, and spiritual consultation); insomnia (age, occupation, marital status, divorce, and spiritual consultation); schizophrenia (age, occupation, religion, marital status, hereditary, and divorce); MBD (gender, age, occupation, and marital status); and vascular dementia (history of the ailment and spiritual consultation). Bipolar and

  1. Factors influencing primary treatment of midline vulvar cancers.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Lesley B; Conrad, Steven A; Miller, David S; Richardson, Debra L; Kehoe, Siobhan; Lea, Jayanthi S

    2016-07-01

    Advanced vulvar cancers involving midline structures pose a therapeutic challenge. Our objectives were to review the management and outcomes, and identify factors influencing primary treatment modality. Patients with midline vulvar cancers diagnosed from 1985 to 2012 were included in the analysis. Medical records were abstracted for demographics, clinico-pathological findings, treatment, and outcomes. Groin node status was defined by clinical findings or pathology. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and differences by log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Factors influencing treatment modality were evaluated using stepwise logistic regression. Forty-two patients were identified. Twenty-one underwent primary radical vulvectomy and 21 underwent primary radiation. Median tumor diameter was 3.4cm (range 2-9cm) for primary radical vulvectomy and 5cm (range 2.3-15cm) for primary radiation. Primary radiation was significantly associated with a tumor diameter ≥5cm (p=0.02), or when 2 or more midline (p=0.008) or 1 or more mucosal structures (p=0.03) were involved. On multivariate analysis, age and tumor diameter were predictors of progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.02 and p=0.0004, respectively) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.03 and p=0.0005, respectively). Thirty-month OS for primary surgery and primary radiation was 74% and 71% (p=0.78), respectively. There were no differences in PFS or recurrence rates between the two treatment groups. Clinical tumor diameter and the number of midline or mucosal structures involved influence selection of primary treatment modality. Survival outcomes and recurrence rates did not differ between treatment groups. Age and tumor diameter are important prognostic factors for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selected Cognitive Factors and Speech Recognition Performance among Young and Elderly Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of selected cognitive factors on age-related changes in speech recognition was examined by measuring the effects of recall task, speech rate, and availability of contextual cues on the recognition performance of 10 young listeners (ages 18-40) and 10 older listeners (ages 65-76). Hearing loss affected performance. (Author/CR)

  3. Perceptions of Administrators and Instructors Concerning Factors Influencing Vocational Agriculture Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Lierman, Shannan R.

    A study was conducted to determine the contribution of selected factors to the decline in enrollment in secondary vocational agricultural education programs in Idaho. It investigated the perceptions of 73 Idaho secondary school administrators and 81 vocational agriculture instructors toward the influence of the factors on enrollment. Data were…

  4. Factors influencing career choice among high school students in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mugonzibwa, E A; Kikwilu, E N; Rugarabamu, P N; Ntabaye, M K

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influenced career choice among high school students in Tanzania. The information obtained would be used to formulate effective recruitment strategies and counseling students on their career expectations in dentistry. All 352 high school students who were studying in five randomly selected high schools completed a pre-tested questionnaire containing twenty-four items addressing five factors. Image of a profession (good experiences from the work of professionals, professionals who are attractive to respondents, and professionals who command high respect in the community) was perceived as an important factor in career choice by the majority of respondents (over 88 percent). Work/profession characteristics (knowledge about work to be done, treating patients, giving medicines to patients, helping relatives, etc.) was ranked as the second most important factor, and course characteristics (availability of postgraduate studies, size of annual intake, pass rate, geographic location, etc.) was ranked third. Direct gains and advice from important persons were perceived as least important in career choice.

  5. Tumor clustering using nonnegative matrix factorization with gene selection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chun-Hou; Huang, De-Shuang; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen

    2009-07-01

    Tumor clustering is becoming a powerful method in cancer class discovery. Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has shown advantages over other conventional clustering techniques. Nonetheless, there is still considerable room for improving the performance of NMF. To this end, in this paper, gene selection and explicitly enforcing sparseness are introduced into the factorization process. Particularly, independent component analysis is employed to select a subset of genes so that the effect of irrelevant or noisy genes can be reduced. The NMF and its extensions, sparse NMF and NMF with sparseness constraint, are then used for tumor clustering on the selected genes. A series of elaborate experiments are performed by varying the number of clusters and the number of selected genes to evaluate the cooperation between different gene selection settings and NMF-based clustering. Finally, the experiments on three representative gene expression datasets demonstrated that the proposed scheme can achieve better clustering results.

  6. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  7. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  8. Factors influencing behavior guidance: a survey of practicing pediatric dentists.

    PubMed

    Juntgen, Laura M; Sanders, Brian J; Walker, Laquia A; Jones, James E; Weddell, James A; Tomlin, Angela M; Eckert, George; Maupome, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing behavior guidance technique utilization among practicing pediatric dentists and explore potential barriers to the incorporation of previously unused techniques. The data for this study were obtained from a web-based survey containing 15 multiple choice questions concerning the practitioners' past, current, and anticipated future behavior guidance technique utilization. Most respondents received hands-on training in 10 of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry behavior guidance techniques. The type of training was associated with the practitioners' level of comfort using a given technique upon graduation and with the current frequency of technique utilization. Residency type impacted hands-on behavior guidance training, with 39 percent of respondents reporting no intravenous sedation training. The type of practice was associated with the frequency of behavior guidance technique utilization, as was graduation decade. Currently practicing dentists cited legal concerns, parental acceptance to change, and limited resources as perceived obstacles in the incorporation of new techniques. Behavior guidance technique selection and utilization among practicing pediatric dentists was influenced by multiple factors, including advanced education training, residency type, graduation decade, and practice type. Obstacles to the incorporation of previously unused techniques appear to be multifactorial.

  9. Factors important to students in selecting a residency program.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, A C; Robbins, J M; Brinker, M R; Rice, J C; Kerstein, M D

    1990-10-01

    A 22-item questionnaire, designed to assess the factors students considered important when they ranked residency programs, was distributed to the 1988 senior class of Tulane University School of Medicine just before the submission deadline of the National Residency Matching Program. Completed surveys were obtained from 111 of the 157 graduating students (approximately 71%) and were representative of the entire class in terms of sex, age, race, marital status, and anticipated field of specialization. Results of this investigation suggest that the satisfaction of a program's house officers and the seniors' general impression at the interview were the most important selection factors of the matriculating seniors surveyed. Diversity of the training experience and geographic location were also important selection factors. House officer benefits and salary were low-priority factors in the seniors' program selections.

  10. TLR7 influences germinal center selection in murine SLE.

    PubMed

    Boneparth, Alexis; Huang, Weiqing; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Woods, Megan; Sahu, Ranjit; Arora, Shitij; Akerman, Meredith; Lesser, Martin; Davidson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    TLR7 enhances germinal center maturation and migration of B cells to the dark zone where proliferation and somatic hypermutation occur. Our goal was to determine how Tlr7 dose influences selection of the autoreactive B cell repertoire in NZW/BXSB. Yaa mice bearing the site-directed heavy chain transgene 3H9 that encodes for the TLR7 regulated anti-CL response. To create a physiologic setting in which autoreactive B cells compete for survival with non-autoreactive B cells, we generated bone marrow chimeras in which disease onset occurred with similar kinetics and the transferred 3H9+ female non-Yaa, male Yaa or male TLR7(-/Yaa) cells could be easily identified by positivity for GFP. Deletion of 3H9 B cells occurred in the bone marrow and the remaining 3H9 follicular B cells manifested a decrease in surface IgM. Although there were differences in the naïve repertoire between the chimeras it was not possible to distinguish a clear pattern of selection against lupus related autoreactivity in TLR7(-/Yaa) or female chimeras. By contrast, preferential expansion of 3H9+ B cells occurred in the germinal centers of male Yaa chimeras. In addition, although all chimeras preferentially selected 3H9/Vκ5 encoded B cells into the germinal center and plasma cell compartments, 3H9 male Yaa chimeras had a more diverse repertoire and positively selected the 3H9/Vκ5-48/Jκ4 pair that confers high affinity anti-cardiolipin activity. We were unable to demonstrate a consistent effect of Tlr7 dose or Yaa on somatic mutations. Our data show that TLR7 excess influences the selection, expansion and diversification of B cells in the germinal center, independent of other genes in the Yaa locus.

  11. Selection Strategies for Social Influence in the Threshold Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.

  12. Factors influencing maternal mortality among rural communities in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azuh, Dominic Ezinwa; Azuh, Akunna Ebere; Iweala, Emeka Joshua; Adeloye, Davies; Akanbi, Moses; Mordi, Raphael C

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity reflect the status of population health and quality of life across nations. Poor understanding of the interplay of many antecedent factors, including sociocultural, economic and logistic factors, combined with an overwhelming poor health services delivery, is a basic challenge in several countries, particularly in rural settings where functional health care services are relatively scarce. There are still uncertainties as to the extent of this burden, owing to current challenges with information and data collation. This study aimed at identifying nonmedical factors associated with maternal mortality in rural and semiurban communities of southwestern Nigeria. Methodology The study was carried out in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage sampling technique and an informant survey approach were used in the study. A total sample of 360 eligible respondents were selected randomly from 11 out of 16 political wards in the study area and interviewed through the administration of questionnaires. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results Place of consultation (P=0.000), who pays the treatment costs (P=0.000), awareness of pregnancy complications (P=0.002) and knowledge of the place of antenatal care treatment (P=0.000) significantly influenced maternal mortality (proxy by place of delivery of last birth). The F-statistic (15.100) confirmed the hypothesis that nonmedical factors influence maternal mortality. The correlation of predictor variables was significant at both the 0.01 level and the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Conclusion Our findings suggest that in a rural community setting with a depleted health care system, health education tailored toward community culture, subsidized maternal health care services by the government and operators of private clinics, as well as empowering and improving the status of women may reduce maternal mortality and prompt better

  13. Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Instrumental Delivery Success

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Catherine E; Aiken, Abigail R; Brockelsby, Jeremy C; Scott, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for unsuccessful instrumental delivery when variability between individual accoucheurs is taken into account. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of attempted instrumental deliveries over a 5-year period (2008–2012 inclusive) in a tertiary U.K. center. To account for inter-accoucheur variability, we matched unsuccessful deliveries (cases) with successful deliveries (controls) by the same operators. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare successful and unsuccessful instrumental deliveries. Results Three thousand seven hundred ninety-eight Instrumental deliveries of vertex-presenting, single, term infants were attempted, of which 246 were unsuccessful (6.5%). Increased birth weight (OR=1.11 p<0.001), second-stage duration (OR=1.01 p<0.001), rotational delivery (OR=1.52 p<0.05) and use of ventouse versus forceps (OR=1.33 p<0.05) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. When interaccoucheur variability was controlled for, instrument selection and decision to rotate were no longer associated with instrumental delivery success. More senior accoucheurs had higher rates of unsuccessful deliveries (12% v. 5%, p<0.05), but undertook more complicated cases. Cesarean delivery in the second stage without prior attempt at instrumental delivery was associated with higher birth weight (OR=1.07 p<0.001), increased maternal age (OR=1.03 p<0.01), and epidural analgesia (OR=1.46 p<0.001). Conclusion Results suggest that birth weight and head position are the most important factors in successful instrumental delivery, whereas the influence of instrument selection and rotational delivery appear to be operator-dependent. Risk factors for lack of instrumental delivery success are distinct from risk factors for requiring instrumental delivery, and these should not be conflated in clinical practice. PMID:24785607

  14. Factors influencing the likelihood of instrumental delivery success.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Catherine E; Aiken, Abigail R; Brockelsby, Jeremy C; Scott, James G

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate risk factors for unsuccessful instrumental delivery when variability between individual obstetricians is taken into account. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of attempted instrumental deliveries over a 5-year period (2008-2012 inclusive) in a tertiary United Kingdom center. To account for interobstetrician variability, we matched unsuccessful deliveries (case group) with successful deliveries (control group) by the same operators. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare successful and unsuccessful instrumental deliveries. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-eight instrumental deliveries of vertex-presenting, single, term newborns were attempted, of which 246 were unsuccessful (6.5%). Increased birth weight (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; P<.001), second-stage labor duration (OR 1.01; P<.001), rotational delivery (OR 1.52; P<.05), and use of ventouse compared with forceps (OR 1.33; P<.05) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. When interobstetrician variability was controlled for, instrument selection and decision to rotate were no longer associated with instrumental delivery success. More senior obstetricians had higher rates of unsuccessful deliveries (12% compared with 5%; P<.05) but were used to undertake more complicated cases. Cesarean delivery during the second stage of labor without previous attempt at instrumental delivery was associated with higher birth weight (OR 1.07; P<.001), increased maternal age (OR 1.03; P<.01), and epidural analgesia (OR 1.46; P<.001). Results suggest that birth weight and head position are the most important factors in successful instrumental delivery, whereas the influence of instrument selection and rotational delivery appear to be operator-dependent. Risk factors for lack of instrumental delivery success are distinct from risk factors for requiring instrumental delivery, and these should not be conflated in clinical practice.

  15. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y

    2016-07-26

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication.

  16. Socially selected ornaments influence hormone titers of signalers and receivers

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Crocker, Katherine; Huang, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of behavioral endocrinology research have shown that hormones and behavior have a bidirectional relationship; hormones both influence and respond to social behavior. In contrast, hormones are often thought to have a unidirectional relationship with ornaments. Hormones influence ornament development, but little empirical work has tested how ornaments influence hormones throughout life. Here, we experimentally alter a visual signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominulus paper wasps and measure the behavioral and hormonal consequences of signal alteration in signalers and receivers. We find wasps that signal inaccurately high fighting ability receive more aggression than controls and receiving aggression reduces juvenile hormone (JH) titers. As a result, immediately after contests, inaccurate signalers have lower JH titers than controls. Ornaments also directly influence rival JH titers. Three hours after contests, wasps who interacted with rivals signaling high fighting ability have higher JH titers than wasps who interacted with rivals signaling low fighting ability. Therefore, ornaments influence hormone titers of both signalers and receivers. We demonstrate that relationships between hormones and ornaments are flexible and bidirectional rather than static and unidirectional. Dynamic relationships among ornaments, behavior, and physiology may be an important, but overlooked factor in the evolution of honest communication. PMID:27402762

  17. Optimal selection of nodes to propagate influence on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yifan

    2016-11-01

    How to optimize the spreading process on networks has been a hot issue in complex networks, marketing, epidemiology, finance, etc. In this paper, we investigate a problem of optimizing locally the spreading: identifying a fixed number of nodes as seeds which would maximize the propagation of influence to their direct neighbors. All the nodes except the selected seeds are assumed not to spread their influence to their neighbors. This problem can be mapped onto a spin glass model with a fixed magnetization. We provide a message-passing algorithm based on replica symmetrical mean-field theory in statistical physics, which can find the nearly optimal set of seeds. Extensive numerical results on computer-generated random networks and real-world networks demonstrate that this algorithm has a better performance than several other optimization algorithms.

  18. Marketing Factors Influencing the Overall Satisfaction of Marriage Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael Lane; Cooper, Catherine; Gross, Kevin H.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-one married couples attending marriage education workshops were surveyed regarding price, product, place, people, and promotional marketing factors influencing their overall satisfaction as workshop participants. Findings suggest both similar and unique marketing factors influenced husbands' and wives' satisfaction. Recommendations for…

  19. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  20. Familial influences on conduct disorder reflect 2 genetic factors and 1 shared environmental factor.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence reflects multiple symptomatic dimensions. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the underlying nature of the etiologic influences contributing to conduct disorder (CD) symptoms as defined in the DSM. To determine the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for CD. Population-based twin registry. Virginia. Two thousand seven hundred sixty-nine members of male-male twin pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Retrospective self-reported symptoms of CD. The best-fitting multivariate twin model included 2 genetic factors, 1 shared environmental common factor, and 1 nonshared environmental common factor, along with criterion-specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects. The CD criteria with the strongest loadings on the 2 genetic factors were, respectively, those reflecting rule breaking (eg, playing hooky) and overt aggressive acts (eg, hurting people). The shared environmental common factor had salient loadings on a distinct set of criteria reflecting covert delinquent acts (eg, stealing and hurting animals). Loadings on the single nonshared environmental common factor were more uniform and less selective. Scores on the 3 familial CD factors were differentially associated with a range of personality, psychopathology, and demographic factors. From a genetic perspective, the DSM criteria for CD do not reflect a single dimension of liability. The familial risk to CD is composed of 2 discrete dimensions of genetic risk, reflecting rule breaking and overt aggression, and 1 dimension of shared environmental risk, reflecting covert delinquency. These 3 familial factors differ meaningfully in their association with a range of relevant validators.

  1. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  2. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  3. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  4. [Beverage consumption of community residents and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Fan, Lili; Teng, Chengang; Fu, Chunling; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Jian; Tang, Lingyan

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the beverage consumption and affective factors about residents of Suzhou and provide basic information for nutrition improvement. The study population included 600 residents selected from four communities using the method of stratified multistage cluster random sampling. The data on beverage consumption were collected through a questionnaire survey, and analyzed through SPSS, including statistic description and Logistic regression. The average water consumption of four age groups was 889 - 1450 ml. Excluding drinking water, the overall milk consumption was highest, reaching to 1372 ml per week. Apart from those, the highest consumption beverages of preschool children, children and youth, and adults were juice, carbonated beverage, and tea, respectively. Age and food preference were important factors affecting beverage consumption, other influencing factors including gender, BMI and income. The health consciousness on beverage consumption need to be further improved, and intervention measures could be carried out through changing food preference behavior, controlling weight and so on according to different age person, thus beverage consumption will be correctly conducted.

  5. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  6. Factors Influencing Early Lexical Acquisition: Lexical Orientation and Phonological Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)

  7. Factors Influencing Curricular Reform; An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena; Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    There are various influences and obstacles when planning an educational curriculum. The imprint of globalisation on the landscape of Irish medicine highlights the importance of delivering a diverse curriculum with international dimensions so that knowledge and skills can transfer across borders. It is also clear that medical emigration has a…

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  9. Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Padideh; Kamali, Elahe; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Karahmadi, Mojgan

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented. PMID:28413424

  10. Factors influencing mortality in acute pancreatitis: can we alter them?

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Patel, Nayan M; Shah, Prasanna

    2005-10-01

    Severe acture pancreatitis (SAP), a multisystem disease, is characterized by multiple organ system failure and additionally by local pancreatic complications such as necrosis, abscess, or pseudocyst. The rate of mortality in SAP, which is about 20% of all cases of acute pancreatitis (AP), may be as high as 25%, as in infected pancreatic necrosis. The factors that influence mortality in different degrees are various. Etiology for the episode, age, sex, race, ethnicity, genetic makeup, severity on admission, and the extent and nature of pancreatic necrosis (sterile vs. infected) influence the mortality. Other factors include treatment modalities such as administration of prophylactic antibiotics, the mode of feeding (TPN vs. enteral), ERCP with sphincterotomy, and surgery in selected cases. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of AP is increasing along with an increase in obesity, a bad prognostic factor. Many studies have indicated a worse prognosis in idiopathic AP compared to pancreatitis induced by alcoholism or biliary stone. The risk for SAP after ERCP is the subject of extensive study. AP after trauma, organ transplant, or coronary artery bypass surgery is rare but may be serious. Since Ranson reported early prognostic criteria, a number of attempts have been made to simplify or add new clinical or laboratory studies in the early assessment of severity. Obesity, hemoconcentration on admission, presence of pleural effusion, increased fasting blood sugar, as well as creatinine, elevated CRP in serum, and urinary trypsinogen levels are some of the well-documented factors in the literature. The role of appropriate prophylactic antibiotic therapy although still is highly controversial, in properly chosen cases appears to be beneficial and well accepted in clinical practice. Early enteral nutrition has gained much support and jejunal feeding bypassing the pancreatic stimulatory effect of it in the duodenum is desirable in selected cases. The limited

  11. Visual Stimulus Speed Does Not Influence the Rapid Emergence of Direction Selectivity in Ferret Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Neil J.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather whether experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naive ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons. Visual experience is necessary for the development of direction selectivity in carnivores. If, during development, cortical neurons had the flexibility to choose from among different inputs with a range of spatial positions and temporal delays, then correlation-based plasticity mechanisms could instruct the precise spatiotemporal selectivity that underlies speed tuning and direction selectivity, and the parameters of an individual animal's experience would influence the tuning that emerges. Alternatively, the tuning parameters of these neurons may already be established at the onset of visual experience, and experience may merely permit the expression of this tuning. We found that providing different groups of animals with either slow (12.5 deg/s) or fast (50 deg/s) visual stimuli resulted in emergence of direction selectivity, but that speed tuning and direction selectivity were similar in the two groups. These results are more consistent with a permissive role for experience in the development of direction selectivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The proper development of brain circuits and neural response properties depends on both nature (factors independent of experience) and nurture (factors dependent on experience). In this study, we examined whether the quality of visual experience of an individual animal influences the

  12. Visual Stimulus Speed Does Not Influence the Rapid Emergence of Direction Selectivity in Ferret Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Neil J; Anderson, Nora M; Van Hooser, Stephen D

    2017-02-08

    Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather whether experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naive ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons. Visual experience is necessary for the development of direction selectivity in carnivores. If, during development, cortical neurons had the flexibility to choose from among different inputs with a range of spatial positions and temporal delays, then correlation-based plasticity mechanisms could instruct the precise spatiotemporal selectivity that underlies speed tuning and direction selectivity, and the parameters of an individual animal's experience would influence the tuning that emerges. Alternatively, the tuning parameters of these neurons may already be established at the onset of visual experience, and experience may merely permit the expression of this tuning. We found that providing different groups of animals with either slow (12.5 deg/s) or fast (50 deg/s) visual stimuli resulted in emergence of direction selectivity, but that speed tuning and direction selectivity were similar in the two groups. These results are more consistent with a permissive role for experience in the development of direction selectivity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The proper development of brain circuits and neural response properties depends on both nature (factors independent of experience) and nurture (factors dependent on experience). In this study, we examined whether the quality of visual experience of an individual animal influences the

  13. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  14. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection.

  15. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  16. Unique genetic factors influence sensitivity to the rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine versus cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Gubner, Noah R.; Reed, Cheryl; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors significantly influence addiction-related phenotypes. This is supported by the successful bidirectional selective breeding of two replicate sets of mouse lines for amount of methamphetamine consumed. Some of the same genetic factors that influence methamphetamine consumption have been previously found also to influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine. The goal of the current studies was to determine if some of the same genetic factors influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of cocaine. Cocaine conditioned reward was examined in methamphetamine high drinking and low drinking line mice using a conditioned place preference procedure and cocaine conditioned aversion was measured using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. In addition, a general sensitivity measure, locomotor stimulant response to cocaine, was assessed in these lines; previous data indicated no difference between the selected lines in sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced stimulation. In contrast to robust differences for methamphetamine, the methamphetamine high and low drinking lines did not differ in sensitivity to either the rewarding or aversive effects of cocaine. They also exhibited comparable sensitivity to cocaine-induced locomotor stimulation. These data suggest that the genetic factors that influence sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding and aversive effects of methamphetamine in these lines of mice do not influence sensitivity to these effects of cocaine. Thus, different genetic factors may influence risk for methamphetamine versus cocaine use. PMID:23994231

  17. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives.

  18. Factors influencing bird foraging preferences among conspecific fruit trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The rates at which birds visit fruiting individuals of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) differ substantially among trees. Such avian feeding preferences are well-known, but usually involve fruits and trees of different species. Factors controlling avian preferences for particular trees in a population of conspecifics are generally undocumented. To address this issue, I attempted to correlate rates at which individual birds and species fed in trees of Allophylus with 27 fruit or plant characteristics. Birds that swallow fruits whole were considered separately from those that feed in other ways. Plant characters were selected on the basis of their potential influence on feeding efficiency or predation risk, assuming that birds would select feeding trees so as to maximize the net rate of energy or nutrient intake and to minimize predation. Correlations were found between feeding visits by some groups of birds and percent water in the pulp, milligrams of mineral ash in the pulp, and crop size. No character was correlated with feeding visits by all groups of birds in both years of the study. The correlations with water and mineral ash are unexplained and may be artifacts. The correlation with crop size may represent a tactic to minimize predation.

  19. Weight Factor Selection in Double Exponential Smoothing Enrollment Forecasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Don E.

    1981-01-01

    The merits of double exponential smoothing are discussed relative to other types of pattern-based enrollment forecasting methods. The basic assumptions and formulas for its use are outlined. The difficulties associated with selecting an appropriate weight factor are discussed, and the potential effect on prediction results is illustrated.…

  20. THE EFFECT OF SELECTED FACTORS ON OCCUPATIONAL STATUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VERI, CLIVE C.

    THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF SELECTED FACTORS ON THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF 60 PESTICIDE DEALERS IN NEBRASKA. CORRELATION AND INTERCORRELATION COEFFICIENTS WERE COMPUTED AND CONTINGENCY TABLES WERE CONSTRUCTED. IT WAS FOUND THAT FORMAL EDUCATIONAL LEVEL CORRELATES WITH OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND…

  1. Selected Factors Affecting the Performance Assessment of Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott

    1990-01-01

    This study determined whether nontraditional assessment factors (principal's gender, choice of subject matter for demonstrating competence, or years of teacher experience) would affect elementary teachers' scores when completing the Leon County (Florida) Teacher Assessment Process. Principal's gender and subject selected were significant…

  2. Selection Factors among International Medical Graduates and Psychiatric Residency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiroma, Paulo R.; Alarcon, Renato D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the association between the selection factors used in a psychiatric residency program and subsequent clinical and academic performance among international medical graduate (IMG) candidates. Methods: The authors completed a retrospective review of application files and residency evaluations of 50 IMG residents who…

  3. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  4. The Influence of Noneconomic Factors on Negotiators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Certain noneconomic factors in collective bargaining are directly related to the negotiator's personal inclination to settle for the new contract. In this study, the pattern of relationships between the parties, the nature of the work itself, favorable recognition, team policy, and interpersonal relationships proved to be significantly related to…

  5. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  6. Factors Influencing Young People's Conceptions of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Reid, Anna; Walker, Kim; Petocz, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains the importance of environmental education in schools for achieving environmental protection and improvement. Statistically examines factors that incline students to a 'relation' rather than an 'object' conception of the environment. Concludes that development of the former would seem to be an important aim of environmental education and…

  7. Factors Influencing Recruitment in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Norah

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the factors that educational psychologists in training (EPiTs) look for when applying for jobs in educational psychology services. Relevant literature on "job attraction" is reviewed and a three-stage research process employed. This involved a focus group approach to questionnaire generation…

  8. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  9. Organizational factors influencing pharmacy practice change.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; Nevins, Justin C; Gaither, Caroline; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A; Schommer, Jon C

    2012-01-01

    Some pharmacists have changed the focus of their practice from solely dispensing. Emerging services they have added include medication therapy management and other pharmacy services. To assess the effect of entrepreneurial orientation, resource adequacy, and pharmacy staffing on pharmacy practice change. A total of 1847 licensed U.S. pharmacists received 2 mail surveys as part of a larger national pharmacist survey. The core survey collected information about practice setting, prescription volume, and staffing. The supplemental survey assessed how the pharmacy had changed over the past 2 years to enable the delivery of pharmacy services. The amount of change was assessed by 12 items, which were summed to provide an aggregate change index. Five variables from organizational change literature were assessed as influences on practice change: proactiveness, risk taking, autonomy, work ethic, and adequacy of resources. In addition, the associations of pharmacist and technician staffing with practice change were assessed. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the aggregate change index as the dependent variable and the 7 potential influences on change as the independent variables. Four hundred usable surveys were analyzed. At least some level of practice change was reported in 60% of pharmacies surveyed. The linear regression analysis of the model was significant (P<.001) with an R-square value of 0.276. Significant influences on change were 2 dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation-proactiveness and autonomy-as well as adequacy of resources and pharmacy technician staffing. Many pharmacies reported that some aspects of their practice have changed, such as collecting patient information and documenting care. Few reported changes in asking patients to pay for pharmacy services. These findings support previous results, which show that the capacity for organizational change can be augmented by increasing proactiveness, autonomy among employees, and the

  10. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p < .05) and positively correlated with the importance of research factor (r = .501, p < .01). Importance of research was negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.435, p < .01) and positively correlated with value of CBI (r = .439, p < .01) and participation in study (r = .501, p < .01). Findings from the study will contribute to the body of knowledge about factors that

  11. [Co-prevalence of chronic disease risk factors and influencing factors in floating population in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z H; Zhang, M; Li, Y C; Huang, Z J; Wang, L M

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and co-prevalence of tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity in floating population and influencing factors in China, 2012. Methods: Data from the 2012 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Survey in Floating Population in China were used. In this survey, 48 704 people aged 18-59 years in floating population were selected through stratified multistage clustering sampling in 170 counties and districts from 31 province (autonomous regions and municipalities) and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The gender specific prevalence and co-prevalence of five risk factors were estimated, and the rank sum test was used for result comparison. Results: Among the people surveyed, 27.4% had one risk factor, 37.1% had two risk factors, 28.5% had ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors were positively correlated with age (P<0.05), income level (P<0.05) and migration time (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with educational level (P<0.05). People who were males, in Han ethnic group, engaged in construction and from other provinces were more likely to have more risk factors (P<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence and co-prevalence of tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity and overweight or obesity were high in floating population in China, suggesting that it is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive behavior intervention in floating population.

  12. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    PubMed

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (p<0.05). Student ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  14. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    PubMed

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  16. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  17. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  18. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, “male65,” “female65” and “male85,” that differed in talker (male∕female) and presentation level (65∕85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed. PMID:20968381

  19. Factors important in laryngology fellow and laryngology fellowship selection.

    PubMed

    Yung, Katherine C; Courey, Mark S

    2015-11-01

    To determine factors that laryngology fellowship directors believe are most important in choosing a fellow and that laryngology applicants believe are most important in choosing a program. The number of laryngology fellowship programs and the number of laryngology fellowship applicants have been increasing in recent years. Selection criteria in choosing a fellow or fellowship program have not been studied. Survey study using anonymous online questionnaires of laryngology fellowship directors and recent laryngology fellowship applicants. Directors were asked to rate qualities for judging the strength of a fellowship applicant. Applicants were assessed for the importance of various factors in choosing a fellowship. Sixteen of 27 fellowship directors (59%) and 33 of 53 fellowship applicants (62%) contacted responded to the survey. Program directors listed interview performance, letters of recommendation, and personal knowledge of applicant as the most important factors. Gender or ethnicity, previous research in laryngology, and likelihood that the applicant will rank the director's program highly were ranked as least important factors. Applicants ranked personal rapport with fellowship mentor(s), large experience in endoscopic surgeries, and reputation of mentor(s) as most important, whereas call schedule, salary, and having more than one fellow per year were ranked as least important factors. Interview performance, trusted colleague's recommendation, and personal knowledge were ranked as the most important factors in fellow selection. These criteria are consistent with previous research on otolaryngology residency and pediatric otolaryngology fellow selection. When selecting a fellowship, laryngology fellowship applicants choose based on personal rapport with mentor, opportunity to learn endoscopic surgeries, and mentor reputation. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Surface factors influencing burnout on flat heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ramilison, J.M.; Sadasivan, P.; Lienhard, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Ever since Kutateladze (1951) and Zuber (1958) proposed hydrodynamic descriptions of the burnout heat flux, q{sub max}, confusion has marked the scope of their agreed-upon equation. The problem stems from Kutateladze's original correlation. The mischief in all of this is that Zuber's sketches and other aspects of his derivation suggested that he was deriving an expression applicable to a flat heater. In fact, Zuber operated under the premise - later disproved by many investigators - that the geometry did not affect burnout. His comparison of his prediction with Kutateladze's correlation did not reflect a lack of care. It reflected the conviction that geometry did not matter. As one looks more closely, surface conditions become more important than once thought. The objective of this paper is to take into account the influence of the condition of the heater surface in recreating a correlation of q{sub max} for horizontal heaters.

  1. Factors Influencing Haptic Perception of Complex Shapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Jonathan M; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2008-01-01

    Exploration of an object by arm movement and somatosensation is a serial process that relies on memories and expectations. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that this process involves breaking the object into component shapes (primitives). This was tested by having human subjects explore shapes composed of semicircular arcs, as well as quarter circles or quarter ellipses. The subjects' perception was reported using a visual display. In the first experiment, in which a series of semicircular arcs was presented, with offsets that differed from trial to trial, performance was consistent with the perception of two (left and right) semicircles. In the second experiment, subjects often failed to detect the quarter circles or quarter ellipses and again behaved as if the object was composed of two (top and bottom) semicircles. The results suggest that the synthesis of haptically sensed shapes is biased toward simple geometric objects and that it can be strongly influenced by expectations.

  2. Vegetation context influences the strength and targets of pollinator-mediated selection in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John Magne; Agren, Jon

    2013-06-01

    Clarifying the relationship between environmental context and the adaptive significance of floral traits is fundamental for an understanding of spatial and temporal variation in pollinator-mediated selection. We manipulated vegetation height and pollination regime of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial design to test whether pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits is stronger in tall than in short vegetation, and whether this difference is larger for visual traits affecting pollinator attraction than for traits affecting pollination efficiency. In tall vegetation, pollinators mediated strong selection for taller plants (change in selection gradient for pollination, deltabeta(poll) = 0.33), more flowers (deltabeta(poll) = 0.34), and longer spurs (deltabeta(poll) = 0.42). In short vegetation, there was no significant selection on plant height, and pollinator-mediated selection on number of flowers and spur length was reduced by 52% and 25%, respectively. The results demonstrate experimentally that vegetation context can markedly influence the strength of pollinator-mediated selection on visual display traits, and indicate that this effect is weaker for traits affecting pollination efficiency. The study illustrates how crossed manipulations of environmental factors can reveal the causal links between ecological context and selection on floral traits.

  3. Factors influencing pleural drainage in parapneumonic effusions.

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S

    2016-10-01

    The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients' physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients' inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life's issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer.

  5. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Context Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients’ physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. Data Collection A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Results Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. Conclusions The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients’ inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life’s issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer. PMID:28184329

  6. Influence of psychological factors on grip strength.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeffrey; Ring, David

    2008-12-01

    Grip strength is widely used to assess upper-extremity function. Although grip strength is a quantitative measure of function, grip strength is a reflection of both physical impairment as well as subjective, psychological factors. We investigated the determinants of grip strength with the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with diminished grip strength. One hundred thirty-four patients with an isolated, discrete upper-extremity condition had grip strength measurements, and, as part of one of several prospective clinical studies, during the same visit they completed 2 or more of the following surveys: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Univariate and multivariable statistical analysis sought determinants of absolute grip strength and grip strength as a percentage of the opposite, uninvolved limb. Determinants of absolute grip strength included gender and grip strength of the uninvolved limb. The association between CES-D score and absolute grip strength was near significant but very weak. Multivariable regression analysis produced a best-fit model that retained grip strength of the uninvolved limb and CES-D scores. When grip strength of the involved limb was evaluated as a percentage of grip strength of the uninvolved limb, CES-D score was a weak but significant predictor, and patients recovering from a fracture of the distal radius had weaker grip strength than did patients with nontraumatic conditions. Depression scores were minimally associated with diminished grip strength. Psychological factors appear to affect disability (patient-reported health status) more than they affect performance-based measures of function. Prognostic II.

  7. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  8. Developmental factors that influence sow longevity.

    PubMed

    Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

    2011-04-01

    The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with longevity, regardless of definition, were age at first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing and last farrowing, number of stillborn in the first litter, adjusted 21-d litter weight of the first litter, herd type, backfat, and growth. Within a contemporary group, fatter, slower growing gilts had a decreased risk of being culled. Additionally, sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors

  9. Influence of Synbiotics on Selected Oxidative Stress Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) influence on oxidative stress parameters such as concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione, and free sulfhydryl groups content. Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). The subjects were divided into women group (n = 16) and men group (n = 16) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 wks, at the end of the study. The administration of synbiotic resulted in a significant decrease in MDA (p < 0.01), H2O2 (p < 0.01), and GSSG concentrations (p < 0.05) as compared with the control groups and significant increase in the concentrations of GSHt (p < 0.001), GSH (p < 0.01), and -SH group content (p < 0.05) versus control. Synbiotics containing L. casei plus inulin may have positive influence on selected oxidative stress markers. PMID:28286605

  10. Temperature Influences Selective Mortality during the Early Life Stages of a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2011-01-01

    For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs) and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD), early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality. PMID:21559305

  11. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  12. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons.

  13. Factors influencing the spinal motoneurons in development

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord needs a concerted interaction of transcription factors activating diverse genes and signals from outside acting on the specification of the different cells. Signals have to act on the segments of the embryo as well as on the cranial-caudal axis and the dorso-ventral axis. Additionally the axons of the motoneurons have to cross the central nervous system barrier to connect to the periphery. Intensive anatomical studies have been followed by molecular characterization of the different subsets of transcription factors that are expressed by cells of the developing spinal cord. Here, intensive studies for the most important appearing cells, the motoneurons, have resulted in a good knowledge on the expression patterns of these proteins. Nonetheless motoneurons are by far not the only important cells and the concert activity of all cells besides them is necessary for the correct function and integrity of motoneurons within the spinal cord. This article will briefly summarize the different aspects on spinal cord development and focuses on the differentiation as well as the functionalization of motoneurons. PMID:26807112

  14. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  15. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  16. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing karst rocky desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Erqi; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-04-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have also lacked insight into their interactive impacts. To address these issues, we have used geographical information system techniques and a geographical detector model to explore the spatial consistency of driving factors and their interactions in relation to the evolution of KRD. Changshun County in China was selected as a representative area for the study. Nine relevant driving factors, including both natural and anthropogenic factors, were studied in regard to their relationships with KRD transformation between 2000 and 2010. Our results demonstrate the relative importance of driving data in influencing the improvement and deterioration of KRD. Lithology, soil type and road influence are identified as the leading factors. Interestingly, to our study at least, there is no significant difference between the impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing KRD improvement, and even natural factors have a higher impact on KRD deterioration. Factors were found to enhance the influence of each other for KRD transformation. In particular, the results show a non-linearly enhanced effect between driving factors, which significantly aggravates KRD. New information found in our study helps to effectively control and restore areas afflicted by KRD.

  17. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances <10 m from the water's edge, and of moderately steep (avocets) or flat (terns) slopes. Further, avocet and tern nesting probability increased as the number of nests initiated in adjacent plots increased up to a peak of 11–12 tern nests, and then decreased thereafter. Yet, avocets were less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest

  18. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  19. The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection.

    PubMed

    Sänger, Jessica; Wascher, Edmund

    2011-10-10

    The biased competition approach to visuo-spatial attention proposes that the selection of competing information is effected by the saliency of the stimulus as well as by an intention-based bias of attention towards behavioural goals. Wascher and Beste (2010) [32] showed that the detection of relevant information depends on its relative saliency compared to irrelevant conflicting stimuli. Furthermore the N1pc, N2pc and N2 of the EEG varied with the strength of the conflict. However, this system could also be modulated by rather global mechanisms like attentional effort. The present study investigates such modulations by testing the influence of extrinsic motivation on the selection of competing stimuli. Participants had to detect a luminance change in various conditions among others against an irrelevant orientation change. Half of the participants were motivated to maximize their performance by the announcement of a monetary reward for correct responses. Participants who were motivated had lower error rates than participants who were not motivated. The event-related lateralizations of the EEG showed no motivation-related effect on the N1pc, which reflects the initial saliency driven orientation of attention towards the more salient stimulus. The subsequent N2pc was enhanced in the motivation condition. Extrinsic motivation was also accompanied by enhanced fronto-central negativities. Thus, the data provide evidence that the improvement of selection performance when participants were extrinsically motivated by announcing a reward was not due to changes in the initial saliency based processing of information but was foremost mediated by improved higher-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of selective adaptation on perception of audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Dias, James W.; Cook, Theresa C.; Rosenblum, Lawrence D.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that selective adaptation in speech is a low-level process dependent on sensory-specific information shared between the adaptor and test-stimuli. However, previous research has only examined how adaptors shift perception of unimodal test stimuli, either auditory or visual. In the current series of experiments, we investigated whether adaptation to cross-sensory phonetic information can influence perception of integrated audio-visual phonetic information. We examined how selective adaptation to audio and visual adaptors shift perception of speech along an audiovisual test continuum. This test-continuum consisted of nine audio-/ba/-visual-/va/ stimuli, ranging in visual clarity of the mouth. When the mouth was clearly visible, perceivers “heard” the audio-visual stimulus as an integrated “va” percept 93.7% of the time (e.g., McGurk & MacDonald, 1976). As visibility of the mouth became less clear across the nine-item continuum, the audio-visual “va” percept weakened, resulting in a continuum ranging in audio-visual percepts from /va/ to /ba/. Perception of the test-stimuli was tested before and after adaptation. Changes in audiovisual speech perception were observed following adaptation to visual-/va/ and audiovisual-/va/, but not following adaptation to auditory-/va/, auditory-/ba/, or visual-/ba/. Adaptation modulates perception of integrated audio-visual speech by modulating the processing of sensory-specific information. The results suggest that auditory and visual speech information are not completely integrated at the level of selective adaptation. PMID:27041781

  1. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  2. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; Mcconnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

  3. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits. PMID:27830152

  4. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  5. Factors influencing subjective ranking of driver distractions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh; Ball, David J; Jones, Huw

    2008-01-01

    Driver distraction is recognised as a significant cause of road traffic incidents. However, the more objective measurement and ranking of the relative importance of individual distractions in contributing to incidents tend to differ from subjectively-held rankings. To investigate this, the present study examines qualitative characteristics of 14 driver distractions to determine if these characteristics might explain the discrepancy. The conclusion is that for laypersons, qualitative characteristics, such as equity and familiarity, do contribute to their ranking of driver distractions. This poses some interesting issues for risk managers. For example, should safety interventions aimed at driver distractions be based purely on factual data and life-saving potential, or should they accommodate qualitative factors of salience to the public?

  6. Factors influencing the genesis of neurosurgical technology.

    PubMed

    Bergman, William C; Schulz, Raymond A; Davis, Deanna S

    2009-09-01

    For any new technology to gain acceptance, it must not only adequately fill a true need, but must also function optimally within the confines of coexisting technology and concurrently available support systems. As an example, over the first decades of the 20th century, a number of drill designs used to perform cranial bone cuts appeared, fell out of favor, and later reappeared as certain supportive technologies emerged. Ultimately, it was the power source that caused one device to prevail. In contrast, a brilliant imaging device, designed to demonstrate an axial view of the lumbar spine, was never allowed to gain acceptance because it was immediately superseded by another device of no greater innovation, but one that performed optimally with popular support technology. The authors discuss the factors that have bearing on the evolution of neurosurgical technology.

  7. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  8. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  9. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  10. Optical factors influencing the amplitude of accommodation.

    PubMed

    López-Alcón, Diego; Marín-Franch, Iván; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-09-23

    The purpose of this work was to find plausible predictors among optical parameters that may explain the inter-individual differences in subjective amplitude of accommodation not explained by age. An exploratory multivariable regression analysis was carried out retrospectively on a dataset with 180 eyes from 97 subjects (ages ranged from 20 to 58years). Subjective amplitudes of accommodation were recorded with the use of a custom-made Badal system. A commercial aberrometer was used to obtain each eye's wavefront during the full range of accommodation. The plausible predictors under study were pupil diameter in the unaccommodated eye, its reduction with accommodation; fourth- and six-order Zernike spherical aberration, their reduction with accommodation, and subjective refraction. At a significance level of 0.05, only fourth- and sixth-order Zernike spherical aberration were found to be predictors of subjective amplitude of accommodation not explained by age, each explaining on their own less than 5% of the variance, and about 9% together. All other optical parameters explained less than 2%. Spherical aberration did not explain the greater variability for younger eyes than for older eyes. The remainder variability in amplitude of accommodation not explained by age or spherical aberration was about ±2.6D for 20year-old subjects, ±1.5D for 40year-old subjects, and about ±0.6D for 55year-old subjects. Optical factors do not seem to account for much of the inter-individual differences in subjective amplitude of accommodation. Most of the variability not explained by age must be due to anatomical differences and physiological, psychological, or other factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Positive influence on cardiovascular risk factor by blocking the endocannabinoid system].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, T; Ritz, A; Ince, H; Nienaber, Ch A; Rehders, T C

    2008-05-28

    Intra-abdominal fat mass, or central adiposity, and cardiovascular risk are strongly correlated. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes hormones and cytokines influencing appetite, energy metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Rimonabant is the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor in development for the treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus typ 2, and cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an review of efficacy of rimonabant the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor.

  12. Factors that influence the career goals of pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Savage, Laney M; Beall, Jennifer W; Woolley, Thomas W

    2009-04-07

    To identify pharmacy students' short- and long-term career goals, including projected areas of practice, and evaluate the factors that influence these goals. A 19-question survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in each of the 4 professional pharmacy years. The results were analyzed to determine factors influencing students' career goals and to compare choices among the different classes. The most important factor considered by pharmacy students was work environment. Their career goals upon graduation were predominantly in the retail chain setting. However, 5 years after graduation, their projected areas of practice were divided between retail and clinical settings. Specific factors influence pharmacy students' short- and long-term career goals and identifying these factors may provide insights to faculty members in planning the experiential curriculum and assist prospective employers in increasing job retention among new pharmacists and improving their overall job satisfaction.

  13. Factors Influencing Demand for Vocational Education and Training Courses. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Allen, Kim

    The factors influencing demand for vocational education and training (VET) courses in Australia by individuals, enterprises, industries, communities, and regions were examined through a review of Australian and selected international research. The following were among the key findings: (1) current definitions of "industry" may not be…

  14. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  15. Perceptions of College Students on Social Factors That Influence Student Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeremy L.; LaVergne, Douglas D.; Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed undergraduate students' (n = 280) attitudes toward selected social factors that would influence and discourage student persistence at a four-year research university. Using a modified Delphi technique to construct the questionnaire, the researchers discovered that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors,…

  16. Perceptions of College Students on Social Factors That Influence Student Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeremy L.; LaVergne, Douglas D.; Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed undergraduate students' (n = 280) attitudes toward selected social factors that would influence and discourage student persistence at a four-year research university. Using a modified Delphi technique to construct the questionnaire, the researchers discovered that family encouragement, positive relationships with professors,…

  17. Factors Influencing Demand for Vocational Education and Training Courses. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Allen, Kim

    The factors influencing demand for vocational education and training (VET) courses in Australia by individuals, enterprises, industries, communities, and regions were examined through a review of Australian and selected international research. The following were among the key findings: (1) current definitions of "industry" may not be…

  18. Causal Factors Influencing Adversity Quotient of Twelfth Grade and Third-Year Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangma, Rachapoom; Tayraukham, Sombat; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The aim of this research was to study the causal factors influencing students' adversity between twelfth grade and third-year vocational students in Sisaket province, Thailand. Six hundred and seventy two of twelfth grade and 376 third-year vocational students were selected by multi-stage random sampling techniques. Approach:…

  19. Factors Influencing College Decision-Making for First-Generation Appalachian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This investigation determined the degree of importance for selected personal-psychological, academic, peer, financial, and family factors influencing the decision to attend college by first-generation, Appalachian (FGA) sophomore students. Outcomes were further related to the degree of academic and social integration in college and the likelihood…

  20. Factors influencing kenaf harvesting and processing in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The selection of the appropriate kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) production and harvest system is dependent on many factors, including location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plants, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consisten...

  1. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  2. Factors influencing bacterial adherence to biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Merritt, K; Chang, C C

    1991-01-01

    The adherence of bacteria to implanted medical devices is believed to be important in the development of implant associated infections. Measures which reduce bacterial adherence should reduce the incidence of these infections. However, in order to assess the importance of adherence, the effectiveness of methods to reduce adherence, and compare data from different laboratories, the conditions of the in vitro studies on adherence need to be specified. There are currently no correct and incorrect methods, however, methods used need to be carefully described. The studies reported here indicate that the definition of adherence needs to be established, with the use of polystyrene as the reference material recommended. Since the adherent organisms lose adherence traits with culture, cultures must be selected for adherence regularly. It is important to control the number of organisms/ml but the volume used is not important. The medium used to grow the organisms and the use of stationary, rocking or flow conditions will alter adherence and need to be specified and be consistent within a set of experiments. Culture conditions, methods of rinsing the material, methods of elution and counting, or direct counting of organisms on the material need to be specified. Finally, as much information as possible on the bulk and surface properties of the material should be provided. The handling of the material for the experiments should be careful and defined. Fingerprints, contact with protein, wet surfaces vs dry surfaces, etc., will all affect the subsequent adherence. The materials should not be re-used since the removal of the adherent proteins or the biofilm is very difficult. Progress can be made in this important area if the details of procedures are specified.

  3. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers.

    PubMed

    Lang, Feng-Chao; Li, Xin; Vladmirova, Olga; Li, Zhuo-Ran; Chen, Gui-Jun; Xiao, Yu; Li, Li-Hong; Lu, Dan-Feng; Han, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Ju-Min

    2015-05-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude γH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth.

  4. Selective recruitment of host factors by HSV-1 replication centers

    PubMed Central

    LANG, Feng-Chao; LI, Xin; VLADMIROVA, Olga; LI, Zhuo-Ran; CHEN, Gui-Jun; XIAO, Yu; LI, Li-Hong; LU, Dan-Feng; HAN, Hong-Bo; ZHOU, Ju-Min

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enters productive infection after infecting epithelial cells, where it controls the host nucleus to make viral proteins, starts viral DNA synthesis and assembles infectious virions. In this process, replicating viral genomes are organized into replication centers to facilitate viral growth. HSV-1 is known to use host factors, including host chromatin and host transcription regulators, to transcribe its genes; however, the invading virus also encounters host defense and stress responses to inhibit viral growth. Recently, we found that HSV-1 replication centers recruit host factor CTCF but exclude βH2A.X. Thus, HSV-1 replication centers may selectively recruit cellular factors needed for viral growth, while excluding host factors that are deleterious for viral transcription or replication. Here we report that the viral replication centers selectively excluded modified histone H3, including heterochromatin mark H3K9me3, H3S10P and active chromatin mark H3K4me3, but not unmodified H3. We found a dynamic association between the viral replication centers and host RNA polymerase II. The centers also recruited components of the DNA damage response pathway, including 53BP1, BRCA1 and host antiviral protein SP100. Importantly, we found that ATM kinase was needed for the recruitment of CTCF to the viral centers. These results suggest that the HSV-1 replication centers took advantage of host signaling pathways to actively recruit or exclude host factors to benefit viral growth. PMID:26018857

  5. Factors influencing single mother's employment status.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J

    2000-03-01

    Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered.

  6. Colorectal anastomosis: factors influencing success1

    PubMed Central

    Tagart, R E B

    1981-01-01

    Preservation of the anal sphincters is now consistent with adequate extirpation of the majority of rectal neoplasms. However, there is still a troublesome incidence of leakage through colorectal anastomoses. A number of different factors, working in combination, are responsible for this. Although most problems have been solved, and the mortality is low, the anastomotic leak rate described in the present series, and in the hands of most surgeons, remains high. Efficient suturing without tension, adequate filling and drainage of the presacral space, and antimicrobial prophylaxis effective enough to abolish abdominal wound sepsis, have been applied. The large vessel arterial blood supply to the suture line is good but the microcirculation of the left colon and rectum, upon which suture line healing ultimately depends, is suspect. Reduction of blood viscosity by deliberate lowering of the haemoglobin level before operation has been practised in the hope of improving the microcirculatory flow. The results so far are encouraging and suggest that the method is worth a continued trial. PMID:7009860

  7. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  8. Rank Selection in Nonnegative Matrix Factorization using Minimum Description Length.

    PubMed

    Squires, Steven; Prügel-Bennett, Adam; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2017-08-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is primarily a linear dimensionality reduction technique that factorizes a nonnegative data matrix into two smaller nonnegative matrices: one that represents the basis of the new subspace and the second that holds the coefficients of all the data points in that new space. In principle, the nonnegativity constraint forces the representation to be sparse and parts based. Instead of extracting holistic features from the data, real parts are extracted that should be significantly easier to interpret and analyze. The size of the new subspace selects how many features will be extracted from the data. An effective choice should minimize the noise while extracting the key features. We propose a mechanism for selecting the subspace size by using a minimum description length technique. We demonstrate that our technique provides plausible estimates for real data as well as accurately predicting the known size of synthetic data. We provide an implementation of our code in a Matlab format.

  9. Adolescent Friendships, BMI, and Physical Activity: Untangling Selection and Influence Through Longitudinal Social Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Schaefer, David R; Price, Chara D; Vest, Andrea E

    2013-09-01

    Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents' health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents' friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity.

  10. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Methods Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Results Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). Conclusions This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further. PMID:19897506

  11. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further.

  12. Factors Influencing Patient Experience in Pediatric Neurology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suprit C; Sheth, Raj D; Burrows, James F; Rosen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Hospitals have begun to shift toward patient-centered care because of the pay-for-performance system that was established by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In pediatrics, the needs of both the caregiver and the pediatric patient have to be taken into account. Pediatric practices have been shifting toward a family-centered approach, although the primary drivers have not been well defined. Identifying the key patient experiences that lead to higher patient satisfaction would enable a more meaningful clinical encounter. To better understand patient experience, we examined waiting time and the elements of the physician-patient interaction in pediatric neurology. We predict that the determining factor in patient satisfaction is the physician-patient interaction. Patient satisfaction surveys were sent to families via mail or e-mail after their ambulatory pediatric neurology visit. The visits took place between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, at one of multiple locations in a children's health system spanning four states. A Likert scale was used for these surveys, and a top-box method (measuring percent of survey questions were rated 5 out of 5) was used to filter data from this database. Statistical analysis using a Pearson correlation was used for data analysis, with likelihood to recommend practice as the dependent variable. The five survey questions that correlated most with overall likelihood to recommend the practice were cheerfulness of practice (r = 0.79); staff working together (r = 0.76); cleanliness of practice (r = 0.70); wait time at clinic, from entering to leaving (r = 0.66); and likelihood of recommending care provider (r = 0.65). Pediatric neurologists striving to enhance overall patient satisfaction in their practices should work toward providing an atmosphere that supports office staff cheerfulness, teamwork, and visit efficiency provided in a clean and friendly environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  14. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  15. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  16. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  17. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  18. Factors Influencing Digital Reference Triage: A Think-Aloud Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a think-aloud study conducted to identify factors that influence the decisions made by digital reference "triagers" when performing triage on questions received by digital reference services. This study follows and expands on a Delphi study that identified factors that triagers agreed on after the fact of their performance…

  19. A Study of Factors Influencing Teacher Salaries in Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callas, Rosanne; McCormick, Rod

    A study was done of factors affecting differences in teacher salaries among Vermont towns. Data from 181 local education agencies were used for the study and a set of factors was examined that included family, community, and school information to determine what influences teacher salaries. Findings included the following: (1) average teacher's…

  20. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  1. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  2. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  3. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  4. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  5. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  6. From Hospital to Nursing Facility: Factors Influencing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan E.; Auerbach, Charles; LaPorte, Heidi Heft

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the factors influencing decisions to send medicine-surgical (med-surg) patients home or to nursing facilities (NFs). The sample (n = 7,852) was taken from a large, urban, teaching, med-surg unit where discharges were documented and data collected over a two-and-a-half-year period. Using logistical regression, the factors found…

  7. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  8. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  9. Factors influencing preferences of Korean people toward advance directives.

    PubMed

    Su Hyun Kim

    2011-07-01

    Although Korean society has begun to seek a way of utilizing advance directives, there is not much known about the factors influencing the average Korean person's preference toward advance directives. The purpose of this study was to examine factors, in addition to demographic variables, influencing preferences regarding advance directives. These include: to what extent people's awareness of advance directives, preferences of extending their life at the end of life, experience of illness and medical care, and family functioning independently influence the preferences toward advance directives. The participants were 382 community-dwelling Korean people. The data analysis was performed using hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. The findings showed that a majority of Korean people had a positive preference on advance directives and the factors influencing their preferences for advance directives were the preferences against the use of life-sustaining treatment at the end of life, a good self-rated heath status, and an unsatisfactory family functioning.

  10. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  11. Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

  12. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  13. Influence of vowel selection on determination of phonation threshold pressure.

    PubMed

    Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J

    2012-09-01

    Phonation threshold pressure values reported in the literature have largely been determined with use of one of three consonant-vowel sequences, /pi/, /pae/, and /pa/; however, it is not currently known if vowel choice influences phonation threshold pressure values. Based on the evidence that describes velopharyngeal closure variations between vowels, this research effort hypothesized that phonation threshold pressure values measured from the consonant-vowel sequence /pi/ would be significantly lower than the /pae/ and /pa/ sequences. Twelve female participants aged between 20 and 27 years produced five-syllable trains of /pi/, /pae/, and /pa/ at low, modal, and high pitches. A within-subject repeated measures approach was conducted to compare phonation threshold pressure value differences between the three consonant-vowel sequences for three different pitches while controlling for other task elicitation variables that may also influence phonation threshold pressure values. Repeated measures analysis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference (P<0.05) in phonation threshold pressure values between the three consonant-vowel sequences at any frequency assessed. Further, for all three consonant-vowel sequences measured, significant differences of phonation threshold pressure magnitude were observed when comparing the high frequency versus the low and modal frequencies, a finding consistent with previous publications. The vowel selected for task elicitation for phonation threshold pressure determination does not appear to significantly affect phonation threshold values, indicating flexibility of the vowel aspect of this measure for clinical use of phonation threshold pressure. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of filler selection on twin screw foam granulation.

    PubMed

    Rocca, K E; Weatherley, S; Sheskey, P J; Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of filler selection in wet granulation was studied for the novel case where the binder is delivered as an unstable, semi-rigid aqueous foam to an extrusion process. The work primarily examined the impact of differing concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH® 101) in a formulation with spray-dried α-lactose monohydrate (Flowlac® 100) in regards to wetting and granule nucleation for this relatively new technique known as continuous foam granulation. Foam stability was varied within the work to change its drainage and coarsening behavior atop these powder excipients, by use of different foamable binding agents (METHOCEL™ F4 PLV and METHOCEL™ Premium VLV) as well as by adjusting the foam quality. A static bed penetration test was first used to study the foam behavior in wetting these powders without the processing constraints of an extruder which limit possible liquid-to-solids ratios as well as introduce shear which may complicate interpretation of the mechanism. The test found that the penetration time to saturate these powders decreased as their water absorption capacity increased which in turn decreased the size of the formed nuclei. Differences in the stability of the foamed binder had minimal influence on these attributes of wetting despite its high spread-to-soak behavior. The size of granules produced by extrusion similarly demonstrated sensitivity to the increasing water absorption capacity of the filler and little dependency on foam properties. The different liquid-to-solids ratios required to granulate these different formulations inside the extruder highlighted an evolving concept of powder lubricity for continuous foam granulation.

  15. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  16. Relaxed selection against accidental binding of transcription factors with conserved chromatin contexts.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, G A

    2010-10-15

    The spurious (or nonfunctional) binding of transcription factors (TF) to the wrong locations on DNA presents a formidable challenge to genomes given the relatively low ceiling for sequence complexity within the short lengths of most binding motifs. The high potential for the occurrence of random motifs and subsequent nonfunctional binding of many transcription factors should theoretically lead to natural selection against the occurrence of spurious motif throughout the genome. However, because of the active role that chromatin can influence over eukaryotic gene regulation, it may also be expected that many supposed spurious binding sites could escape purifying selection if (A) they simply occur in regions of high nucleosome occupancy or (B) their surrounding chromatin was dynamically involved in their identity and function. We compared nucleosome occupancy and the presence/absence of functionally conserved chromatin context to the strength of selection against spurious binding of various TF binding motifs in Saccharomyces yeast. While we find no direct relationship with nucleosome occupancy, we find strong evidence that transcription factors spatially associated with evolutionarily conserved chromatin states are under relaxed selection against accidental binding. Transcription factors (with/without) a conserved chromatin context were found to occur on average, (87.7%/49.3%) of their expected frequencies. Functional binding motifs with conserved chromatin contexts were also significantly shorter in length and more often clustered. These results indicate a role of chromatin context dependency in relaxing selection against spurious binding in nearly half of all TF binding motifs throughout the yeast genome.

  17. Secretogranin III: a diabetic retinopathy-selective angiogenic factor.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Webster, Keith A; LeBlanc, Michelle E; Tian, Hong

    2017-08-30

    Secretogranin III (Scg3) is a member of the granin protein family that regulates the biogenesis of secretory granules. Scg3 was recently discovered as an angiogenic factor, expanding its functional role to extrinsic regulation. Unlike many other known angiogenic factors, the pro-angiogenic actions of Scg3 are restricted to pathological conditions. Among thousands of quantified endothelial ligands, Scg3 has the highest binding activity ratio to diabetic vs. healthy mouse retinas and lowest background binding to normal vessels. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor binds to and stimulates angiogenesis of both diabetic and control vasculature. Consistent with its role in pathological angiogenesis, Scg3-neutralizing antibodies alleviate retinal vascular leakage in mouse models of diabetic retinopathy and retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mice. This review summarizes our current knowledge of Scg3 as a regulatory protein of secretory granules, highlights its new role as a highly disease-selective angiogenic factor, and envisions Scg3 inhibitors as "selective angiogenesis blockers" for targeted therapy.

  18. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    With the booming of healthcare industry and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we take advantage of EHR data to develop an effective disease risk management model that not only models the progression of the disease, but also predicts the risk of the disease for early disease control or prevention. Existing models for answering these questions usually fall into two categories: the expert knowledge based model or the handcrafted feature set based model. To fully utilize the whole EHR data, we will build a framework to construct an integrated representation of features from all available risk factors in the EHR data and use these integrated features to effectively predict osteoporosis and bone fractures. We will also develop a framework for informative risk factor selection of bone diseases. A pair of models for two contrast cohorts (e.g., diseased patients versus non-diseased patients) will be established to discriminate their characteristics and find the most informative risk factors. Several empirical results on a real bone disease data set show that the proposed framework can successfully predict bone diseases and select informative risk factors that are beneficial and useful to guide clinical decisions.

  19. Main Non-Clinical Factors Influencing Endodontic Referral.

    PubMed

    Broome, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Specialisation in endodontics allows for endodontic referrals by general dental practitioner (GDPs) and the study of factors influencing referral. These centre on a triad consisting of the referral process, non-clinical and clinical reasons for referral. Many non-clinical factors have been identified which may influence the referral process to the endodontist. A systematic review study was undertaken into the main non-clinical factors influencing endodontic referral by general dental practitioners to endodontists. Such awareness and appreciation of these factors benefits the commercial aspect of the referral practice, increases access by reducing barriers to care, and ultimately improves patient care. A literature search yielded three papers that met the eligibility criteria. All studies included were cross sectional survey studies completed by GDPs. The main non-clinical factors seen from the studies include: Availability. Personality, relationships and communication. Availability presented as a common thread throughout all the studies. In conclusion, endodontic referral is multifactorial and influenced by several factors, that are not related to the nature of the endodontic disease, and this is a dynamic process. Due to the lack of high level studies, and limitations of the available studies, further research is suggested into the relevant area of non-clinical endodontic factors for endodontic referral and thus allowing for further analysis.

  20. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  1. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  2. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    PubMed

    Roffler, Gretchen H; Schwartz, Michael K; Pilgrim, Kristy L; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Adams, Layne G; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  3. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  4. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically. PMID:23717488

  5. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends—except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes. PMID:22184242

  6. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-03

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends-except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes.

  7. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    PubMed

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  8. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  9. Health information technology vendor selection strategies and total factor productivity.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Menachemi, Nir; Thompson, Mark A; Yu, Feliciano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health information technology (HIT) adoption strategies' relative performance on hospital-level productivity measures. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics for fiscal years 2002 through 2007 were used for this study. A two-stage approach is employed. First, a Malmquist model is specified to calculate hospital-level productivity measures. A logistic regression model is then estimated to compare the three HIT adoption strategies' relative performance on the newly constructed productivity measures. The HIT vendor selection strategy impacts the amount of technological change required of an organization but does not appear to have either a positive or adverse impact on technical efficiency or total factor productivity. The higher levels in technological change experienced by hospitals using the best of breed and best of suite HIT vendor selection strategies may have a more direct impact on the organization early on in the process. However, these gains did not appear to translate into either increased technical efficiency or total factor productivity during the period studied. Over a longer period, one HIT vendor selection strategy may yet prove to be more effective at improving efficiency and productivity.

  10. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  11. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  12. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals.

  13. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  14. The Interrelationships of Preadolescents' Student Characteristics Influencing Selection of Career Exploration Courses [And Abstract]. Industrial Arts Education Monograph No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    The study investigated the interaction of personal and environmental factors influencing seventh graders' selection of career exploration courses for increased exploration in the eighth grade. A stratified random sample (496 students) was drawn from the Pittsburgh Public School's Occupational, Vocational, and Technical Exploratory Program.…

  15. Supervising medication administration by undergraduate nursing students: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Moxham, Lorna; Walker, Sandra; Happell, Brenda

    2010-03-01

    The administration of medication is an important skill nursing students need to learn in the clinical setting to develop safe practices. Legally within Queensland, registered nurses are required to provide personal supervision for this process. Research undertaken by the authors suggests the supervision students receive frequently falls short of what is legally required. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that influence the experiences of final-year undergraduate nursing students when administering medications in the clinical setting. A grounded theory approach was used with constant comparative analysis to identify categories from the data. The experiences of final-year nursing students were explored using a grounded theory approach. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 final-year undergraduate nursing students in Queensland, Australia. Supervision was found to be the central issue influencing medication administration for students. Three main factors were identified as influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses: attitudes of the registered nurse, communication from the university, and busyness and having time. The extent to which registered nurses provide direct supervision to nursing students when administering medication is influenced by factors inherent within the clinical environment. The factors influencing the supervision provided by registered nurses needs further exploration that effective strategies can be implemented to ensure safe practices in relation to medication administration can be implemented.

  16. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  17. Hospital doctors' views of factors influencing their prescribing.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, Christina; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Tully, Mary Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Factors influencing doctors in prescribing of drugs have mostly been studied in primary care. Studies performed in hospital care have primarily focused on new drugs, not prescribing in general. An in-depth understanding of the prescribing process in the more specialized secondary care is not only important for secondary care itself, but because it also influences prescribing in primary care. The aim of this study is therefore to identify factors that secondary care doctors believe influence them in prescribing drugs, using a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospital doctors in different medical specialities and the interviews were analysed from an interpretivist perspective. The information gathered was on how prescribing decisions were made in general and how the doctors chose a specific drug therapy, including information sources used. According to our interviews, the hospital doctors took patient-specific factors and cost into consideration when prescribing, informed by different written information sources and commercial verbal information. Personal practice, colleagues and therapeutic tradition at the hospital or clinic, were influential in the prescribing of drugs. The themes identified should not to be seen as individual influences; many of them probably act in combination. If changes in prescribing behaviour are desired, factors warranting more attention include understanding how to influence therapeutic traditions and the doctor's personal habits for prescribing. The importance of clinical experience and information exchange with colleagues should not be underestimated in providing information about drugs to hospital doctors.

  18. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  19. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  20. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gregory M K; Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-05-27

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation.

  1. Exploring the influential factors in incident clearance time: Disentangling causation from self-selection bias.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuan; Ma, Xiaolei; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between influential factors and incident clearance time is crucial to make effective countermeasures for incident management agencies. Although there have been a certain number of achievements on incident clearance time modeling, limited effort is made to investigate the relative role of incident response time and its self-selection in influencing the clearance time. To fill this gap, this study uses the endogenous switching model to explore the influential factors in incident clearance time, and aims to disentangle causation from self-selection bias caused by response process. Under the joint two-stage model framework, the binary probit model and switching regression model are formulated for both incident response time and clearance time, respectively. Based on the freeway incident data collected in Washington State, full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method is utilized to estimate the endogenous switching model parameters. Significant factors affecting incident response time and clearance time can be identified, including incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational attributes. The estimate results reveal the influential effects of incident, temporal, geographical, environmental, traffic and operational factors on incident response time and clearance time. In addition, the causality of incident response time itself and its self-selection correction on incident clearance time are found to be indispensable. These findings suggest that the causal effect of response time on incident clearance time will be overestimated if the self-selection bias is not considered.

  2. Behavior problems among children from different family structures: the influence of genetic self-selection.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, H H; Wiebe, R P; van den Oord, E J; Rowe, D C

    2000-01-01

    To examine both genetic and environmental influences on children's behavior problems in households defined by marital status and sibling relatedness, this study applied behavioral genetic methodology to four groups totalling 1524 sibling pairs drawn from 796 households: (1) two-parent full siblings, (2) two-parent half siblings, (3) mother-only full siblings, and (4) mother-only half siblings. Model-fitting procedures found that within-group variation on four subscales from the Behavior Problems Index was best explained by a model including both genetic and shared environmental factors. This model was then fit to the behavior problems means of the four groups. Its successful fit to these mean structures suggested that mean-level differences between groups were explained with the same influences that accounted for within-group variation. Genetic influences accounted for 81% to 94% of the mean-level difference in behavior problems between the two-parent, full sibling and the mother-only, half sibling groups. In contrast, shared environmental influences accounted for 67% to 88% of the mean-level difference in behavior problems between the two-parent, full sibling and mother-only, full sibling groups. The genetic influences are interpreted in terms of genetic self-selection into family structures.

  3. Factors influencing consumer use of written drug information.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michelle M; Krass, Ines; Aslani, Parisa

    2003-02-01

    To provide an overview of the use and impact of written drug information (WDI) on consumers, and to review the literature on the factors influencing the use of WDI by consumers. Relevant articles published in English since the late 1970s were identified based on searches of on-line databases, texts, and cited references in published articles. Articles reporting findings on the origin, use, and impact of WDI were included. Due to limited literature, articles reporting findings on factors influencing the use of written drug as well as disease information were included. Due to the lack of design consistency between studies and the comparatively small volume of work, subjective assessment rather than a criteria-based objective review was deemed more appropriate. To date, research on WDI has focused on its use and impact. WDI has the potential to increase patients' knowledge, compliance, and satisfaction. However, there is also the potential for anxiety or premature cessation of therapy due to fear of possible adverse effects. Multiple factors may potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers including those associated with the written information document (readability, presentation), the patient (health literacy, role of caregiver, demographic factors, health locus of control, coping style, health belief model), and the environment (timing of provision, experience). WDI has the potential to impact consumers positively and negatively. Although not widely investigated, a number of factors can potentially influence the use of WDI by consumers. The findings of this review can form the basis for much needed further research.

  4. Factors used by program directors to select hand surgery fellows.

    PubMed

    Nies, Matthew S; Bollinger, Alexander J; Cassidy, Charles; Jebson, Peter J L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors and attributes hand surgery fellowship program directors consider important in selecting applicants for interview and ranking. A web-based questionnaire was sent to all hand fellowship program directors in the United States. The questionnaire was designed to identify the most important criteria in granting an interview, sources of letters of recommendation, the interview process, and factors used to rank a candidate. Each criterion was ranked in importance on a 1 to 5 Likert scale, with 1 being not important and 5 being critical. All responses were anonymous. The most important criterion for each section of the survey was determined by comparing the average Likert scores. Fifty-two of 76 program directors responded (68%). The criteria with the highest mean Likert scores for offering an applicant an interview were, in order, quality letters of recommendation from hand surgeons, completion of an orthopedic surgery residency, comments regarding the applicant's technical competence, applicant having an MD degree (as opposed to a DO degree), and residency program reputation. The letters of recommendation with the highest value were from the division chief of hand surgery and another hand surgeon in the division/department. The most important features of the interview were maturity of applicant, ability of applicant to articulate thoughts, ability to listen well, self-confidence, and relevant questions asked. The most important factors in ranking a candidate were applicant integrity, commitment to hard work, quality of letters of recommendation, quality of the interview, and ability to work well with other members of the hand surgery team. There are identifiable factors considered important by hand surgery fellowship directors when selecting and ranking an applicant. This information may be valuable to medical students and residents contemplating careers in hand surgery. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier

  5. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett's Oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Horna Strand, A; Franzén, T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett's oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux), family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) examined at Linköping University Hospital's Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett's oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO). Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett's oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P < 0.05). Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett's oesophagus patients (62%) than in the control group (35%) (P < 0.05). Male patients with Barrett's oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38%) than male controls (65%) (P < 0.05). No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett's oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett's oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett's oesophagus rated

  6. Factors Influencing Consumers Intention for Online Grocery Shopping - A Proposed Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, SFF; Thoo, AC; Tan, LC; Muharam, FM; Talib, NA

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, Internet is one of the most popular platforms for people to do online shopping including grocery items. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the determinants of customer intentions for online grocery shopping. Till now, there is no consensus on what are the factors that actually influencing people to shop grocery items through Internet. This paper aims to explore the factors such as social influences, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivations, perceived risk and perceived trust that influence the consumer intention to purchase grocery online. Questionnaires will be the main instrument of the study and they will be distributed to target respondents using Internet survey. Respondents of the study will be selected using convenience sampling. After data collection, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be employed for data analysis. Overall, the result of the study is important to retailers to identify the important factors in increasing their customers’ intention to purchase grocery online.

  7. Evaluation of Midwater Trawl Selectivity and its Influence on Acoustic-Based Fish Population Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kresimir

    , and the condition factor of the fish caught. Ambient water temperature, time of day, and the proportion of fish in spawning condition influenced model-derived estimates of catchability. Finally, the effect of trawl selectivity on the acoustic-based survey abundance estimate and Gulf of Alaska pollock assessment was evaluated. Survey biomass estimates were overestimated by up to 40 % as abundance of juvenile fish increased and adult abundance decreased. The increase in uncertainty in survey abundance estimates due to trawl selectivity had a measurable impact on the stock assessment, changing model estimates of fishing mortality, spawning biomass and recruitment by more than 10 %. The studies provide new methods for assessing selectivity, catchability and for observing fish behavior in midwater trawls, which can be used to evaluate midwater trawls used in other surveys.

  8. Shorebird roost-site selection at two temporal scales: Is human disturbance a factor?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.A.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    1. Roost-site selection in shorebirds is governed by ambient factors, including environmental conditions and human disturbance. Determination of the extent to which these factors affect roost use and the associated implications for shorebird habitat protection is important for conservation strategies and informed management of human recreational use of these habitats. Shorebird conservation as a whole is a high priority world-wide because a large proportion of shorebird species is in decline. However, little is understood about the consistency of roost use by different species, what conditions affect species-specific roost-site selection, and at what spatial and temporal scales conditions influence selection. 2. We studied high-tide roost-site selection by eight species of non-breeding shorebirds on a critically important stopover and wintering refuge. We calculated spatial and temporal variability in roost use for each species based on counts and consistency of incidence. We then examined roost-site selection in relation to structural, environmental and human disturbance factors, and how this varied across spatial and temporal scales. 3. Most roosts were used less than 50% of the time, although larger roosts were used more consistently. This varied among species, with red knot Calidris canutus tending to concentrate at a few roosts and American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, dowitcher Limnodromus griseus and Limnodromus scolopaceus and ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres more diffusely distributed among roosts. 4. At an annual scale, the principal factors affecting shorebird presence at roosts were roost length (size), local region, substrate and aspect. The extent and direction of these effects varied among species. Among years, red knots avoided roosts that had high average boat activity within 1000 m, but disturbance did not appear to be a factor for other species. 5. Daily roost use was influenced primarily by wind speed and the ability of roosts to

  9. The good, the bad, and the timely: how temporal order and moral judgment influence causal selection.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kevin; Kirfel, Lara; van Riel, Raphael; Barlassina, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent to be the actual cause. Second, the impact of temporal location on causal selection is almost canceled out if the later agent did not violate a norm while the former did. We argue that this is due to the impact that judgments of norm violation have on causal selection-even if the violated norm has nothing to do with the obtaining effect. Third, moral judgments about the effect influence causal selection even in the case in which agents could not have foreseen the effect and did not intend to bring it about. We discuss our findings in connection to recent theories of the role of moral judgment in causal reasoning, on the one hand, and to probabilistic models of temporal location, on the other.

  10. An investigation of selected factors that influence hardwood wettability

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Wan H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Wettability of sanded and non-sanded transverse and tangential sections of 22 southern hardwoods species was judged by measurement of contact angles using phenol formaldehyde resins. As expected, contact angle values on transverse sections were higher than those on tangential sections for both sanded and non-sanded surfaces. On sanded surfaces, hackberry had the...

  11. PERSONALITY FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE CLOTHING FABRIC SELECTION BY DELINQUENT GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMPTON, NORMA H.

    PHYSICAL AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS WERE EXAMINED IN RELATION TO CLOTHING CHOICES IN AN EFFORT TO MORE FULLY UNDERSTAND THE REASONS BEHIND THE PERSONAL BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS OF DELINQUENT GIRLS. AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 22 DELINQUENT GIRLS AND A CONTROL GROUP OF THE SAME NUMBER OF NONDELINQUENTS (MATCHED TO AGE, IQ, AND…

  12. Factors influencing return to work after illness in France.

    PubMed

    Pélissier, C; Fontana, L; Chauvin, F

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been published about the factors influencing return to work after sickness absence. To identify medical and occupational factors influencing the type of fitness certificate given by occupational physicians before employees return to work after sickness absence. A cross-sectional study was undertaken over 3 months in several health services in France. Workers undergoing a medical examination before returning to work after a period of sickness absence of at least 3 weeks were included. Medical and occupational factors were collected using a questionnaire. The relationship between different factors and certification of fitness was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 402 workers included, 64% were considered fit to return to work. Being older, strenuous work, prolonged sick leave and fear of returning to work appeared to be negative factors influencing the return to a previous job. In contrast, having an education level higher than secondary school, being satisfied at work, perception of very good health and benefitting from satisfactory professional relationships appeared to favour return to work. We developed a predictive score of not being fit to return to work after illness. Our study highlighted the relationship between medical and occupational factors with problems returning to work. The predictive score may be used by occupational physicians as a screening tool to identify those who are likely to have difficulties returning to work after illness, so that their working conditions can be modified to take this into consideration.

  13. Prioritizing factors influencing nurses' satisfaction with hospital information systems: a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach.

    PubMed

    Kimiafar, Khalil; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sarbaz, Masoumeh

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach to prioritize the factors that influence nurses' satisfaction with a hospital information system. First, we reviewed the related literature to identify and select possible factors. Second, we developed an analytic hierarchy process framework with three main factors (quality of services, of systems, and of information) and 22 subfactors. Third, we developed a questionnaire based on pairwise comparisons and invited 10 experienced nurses who were identified through snowball sampling to rate these factors. Finally, we used Chang's fuzzy extent analysis method to compute the weights of these factors and prioritize them. We found that information quality was the most important factor (58%), followed by service quality (22%) and then system quality (19%). In conclusion, although their weights were not similar, all factors were important and should be considered in evaluating nurses' satisfaction.

  14. Selecting physician leaders for clinical service lines: critical success factors.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Andrew L; Bard, Marc A

    2008-03-01

    Clinical service lines and interdisciplinary centers have emerged as important strategic programs within academic health centers (AHCs). Effective physician leadership is significant to their success, but how these leaders are chosen has not been well studied. The authors conducted a study to identify current models for selecting the physician leaders of clinical service lines, determine critical success factors, and learn how the search process affected service line performance. In 2003 and 2004, the authors interviewed clinical and executive personnel involved in 14 programs to establish, or consider establishing, heart or cancer service lines, at 13 AHCs. The responses were coded to identify and analyze trends and themes. The key findings of the survey were (1) the goals and expectations that AHCs set for their service line leaders vary greatly, depending on both the strategic purpose of the service line in the AHC and the service line's stage of development, (2) the matrix organizational structure employed by most AHCs limits the leader's authority over necessary resources, and calls forth a variety of compensating strategies if the service line is to succeed, (3) the AHCs studied used relatively informal processes to identify, evaluate, and select service line leaders, and (4) the leader's job is vitally shaped by the AHC's strategic, structural, and political context, and selection criteria should be determined accordingly. Institutions should be explicit about the strategic purpose and stage of development of their clinical service lines and be clear about their expectations and requirements in hiring service line leaders.

  15. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Al Shawwa, Lana; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Abulaban, Abdulrhman A; Merdad, Anas; Baghlaf, Sara; Algethami, Ahmed; Abu-shanab, Joullanar; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA) ≥4.5 (out of 5) were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01). In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02), 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013), and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02). Conclusion Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. PMID:25674033

  16. Factors influencing marijuana self-administration by humans.

    PubMed

    Haney, M; Comer, S D; Ward, A S; Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W

    1997-06-01

    The self-administration of marijuana cigarettes varying in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content was measured by having participants choose between marijuana and an alternative reinforcer, i.e., snack food. Twelve marijuana users (eight men, four women), in groups of four, participated in a 16-day residential study. Each day, participants had the opportunity to choose repeatedly between a marijuana cigarette and a snack. The THC concentration of the cigarette changed each day (0.0, 2.2 or 3.9% delta 9-THC w/w), as did the number of snack items (one or two); each THC concentration was compared to each snack condition twice. Days were divided into a work period (09.15-16.45 h), comprising performance and subjective-effects tasks, and a recreation period (17.15-23.30 h). Each day at 10.00 h, participants "sampled" a marijuana cigarette containing the delta 9-THC concentration available that day, and selected the number of snack items available that day. Six "choice" trials occurred from 14.00-19.00 h, when participants responded under a modified progressive ratio schedule for either marijuana or snacks. At 18.15 h, participants could participate in a 10-min math task, in which each correct answer earned $1.00. Cigarettes containing 2.2 or 3.9% delta 9-THC were self-administered more often than placebo. The only other factor influencing marijuana choice was the opportunity to earn additional money, with participants choosing not to smoke immediately before the math task. By the end of the study, active marijuana had smaller effects on ratings of "high", "stimulated," and "good drug effect." These data demonstrate that: (a) delta 9-THC is an essential reinforcing component of marijuana; (b) marijuana use may be manipulated by monetary contingencies; and (c) tolerance may develop more readily to marijuana's subjective effects than its reinforcing effects.

  17. Exploring Factors Influencing International Students' Decision to Choose a Higher Education Institution: A Comparison between Chinese and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-MacEachern, Melissa; Yun, Dongkoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: There is little research into small higher education institutions and international students' choice in selecting these institutions. The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors that influence international student choices in selecting a small institution. In particular, this study compares the differences between Chinese…

  18. Factors influencing lesion formation during radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Eick, Olaf J

    2003-07-01

    In radiofrequency (RF) ablation, the heating of cardiac tissue is mainly resistive. RF current heats cardiac tissue and in turn the catheter electrode is being heated. Consequently, the catheter tip temperature is always lower--or ideally equal--than the superficial tissue temperature. The lesion size is influenced by many parameters such as delivered RF power, electrode length, electrode orientation, blood flow and tissue contact. This review describes the influence of these different parameters on lesion formation and provides recommendations for different catheter types on selectable parameters such as target temperatures, power limits and RF durations.

  19. Factors Influencing Lesion Formation During Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Eick, Olaf J

    2003-01-01

    In radiofrequency (RF) ablation, the heating of cardiac tissue is mainly resistive. RF current heats cardiac tissue and in turn the catheter electrode is being heated. Consequently, the catheter tip temperature is always lower - or ideally equal - than the superficial tissue temperature. The lesion size is influenced by many parameters such as delivered RF power, electrode length, electrode orientation, blood flow and tissue contact. This review describes the influence of these different parameters on lesion formation and provides recommendations for different catheter types on selectable parameters such as target temperatures, power limits and RF durations. PMID:16943910

  20. Key Factors that Influence Recruiting Young Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenmin

    2007-01-01

    The discussion in this paper is based on the assumption that international education is equated to recruiting and educating international students, even though its true concept goes far beyond this narrow understanding. The purpose of this research is to look at the key factors that influence recruiting young Chinese students, and make sure all…

  1. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  2. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  3. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  4. Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of Distance Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine actions that colleges and universities can take to institutionalize their distance education programs. Thirty factors found to influence the institutionalization of innovations were identified from the literature. These were rated by distance education faculty and leaders as to their importance for…

  5. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  6. Factors Influencing Role Behaviors by Professional Exemplars in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study explored factors that influenced the development of professional role behaviors of nurses, occupational and physical therapists who were characterized as exemplars in the acute hospital setting. The participants, four occupational therapists, four nurses, and four physical therapists were interviewed using a…

  7. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  8. Adolescents Who Drive Under the Influence: Correlates and Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; And Others

    This study was designed to determine the correlates or potential risk factors which predict whether an adolescent who drinks or uses drugs will refrain from driving under the influence, or will drive in this condition. A group of 426 rural high school seniors completed a questionnaire which assessed drug use patterns and previously identified risk…

  9. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  10. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  11. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  12. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  13. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  14. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  15. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  16. Factors Influencing the Development of PTSD in Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimino, Joseph J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    In this study an interactive conceptual model was utilized in an attempt to examine variables which contribute to, and influence, the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in battered women. This model considers the individual's response to trauma as being the product of the interaction between factors related to the characteristics…

  17. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  18. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  19. An Investigation of Factors Influencing a Relocation Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turban, Daniel B.; And Others

    The present study investigated factors influencing the decision of employees, who, faced with a facility relocation, either relocated to a new location or lost their current jobs. A large chemical company decided to close a research and development laboratory located in New England and to transfer employees to a laboratory located in the…

  20. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  1. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  2. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  3. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  4. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  5. Factors Influencing Faculty Engagement--Then, Now, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, author Barbara Holland reflects on her 1999 "Journal of Public Service & Outreach" article, "Factors and Strategies That Influence Faculty Involvement in Public Service" (EJ589785) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." In the late…

  6. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  7. Factors Influencing Secondary School Teachers' Adoption of Teaching Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hui-Min; Chen, Chin-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant proliferation in the number of teaching blogs; however, little has been explored about what motivates teachers to adopt teaching blogs. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors can significantly influence teacher decisions regarding their teaching blog adoption and the relative importance of…

  8. Factors that Influence Information Systems Undergraduates to Pursue IT Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, D. Scott; Smith, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    We identify factors that influence the intent of undergraduate information systems majors to pursue IT certification. Previous research has revealed that IT/IS hiring managers may use certification as a job requirement or to differentiate between job candidates with similar levels of education and experience. As well, salary surveys have shown…

  9. Factors Influencing Females' Access to the High School Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Rae Ann

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing females' access to the Oklahoma secondary school principalship. Although in the United States federal laws and policies are in place to promote equity, research indicates females are underrepresented in secondary school administration. Regardless of equity…

  10. Sickness Presenteeism of German Teachers: Prevalence and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudenhöffer, Sarah; Claus, Matthias; Schöne, Klaus; Letzel, Stephan; Rose, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate teachers' sickness presenteeism (SP). We examined the prevalence of SP in a sample of teachers as well as work-related and health-related influencing factors of teachers' SP. We used a cross-sectional study design. Teachers working at different types of schools in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany)…

  11. Factors Influencing the Vocational Aspirations of Victorian Year 9 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrom, Linda K.

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of family background and attitudinal factors on occupational aspirations of Year 9 students in Victoria, Australia. A survey was made of all Victorian Year 9 students and comparisons were made between groups of students who aspired to different occupations. Discriminant function analyses were…

  12. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  13. Factors Influencing Active Learning in Small Enterprises. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    The factors influencing active learning in small enterprises were examined. Data from earlier Australian studies were examined in an attempt to provide a framework that might inform the relationship between educational systems and small enterprises. Special attention was paid to a 1988 study of systematic differences between small businesses that…

  14. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  15. Factors influencing occupancy of nest cavities in recently burned forests

    Treesearch

    Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan Dudley; William L. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Recently burned forests in western North America provide nesting habitat for many species of cavity-nesting birds. However, little is understood about the time frame and the variables affecting occupancy of postfire habitats by these birds. We studied factors influencing the occupancy and reuse of nest cavities from 1–7 years after fire in two burned sites of western...

  16. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  17. Computer Visualizations: Factors that Influence Spatial Anatomy Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ngan; Nelson, Andrew J.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Computer visualizations are increasingly common in education across a range of subject disciplines, including anatomy. Despite optimism about their educational potential, students sometime have difficulty learning from these visualizations. The purpose of this study was to explore a range of factors that influence spatial anatomy comprehension…

  18. An Investigation of Classroom Factors That Influence Proof Construction Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrone, Sharon Soucy; Martin, Tami S.; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Wallace, Michelle L.

    This paper on classroom factors influencing students' proof construction ability reports findings from the data collected in the first two years of a three-year National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project. Four different classrooms, two from each participating school, were involved in the project. Data sources included videotaped classroom…

  19. Factors that Influence Children's Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terranova, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Children's responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment. Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children's responses to peer victimization. In a sample of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female,…

  20. Factors That Influence Alumni Major Giving at Doctoral Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of chief development officers about the influence of socio-demographic, alumni involvement, and student experience factors of alumni on major giving to higher education institutions. This study also involved the investigation of differences between institutions with respect to…