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Sample records for factors mouse sos1

  1. Human Sos1: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ras that binds to GRB2

    SciTech Connect

    Chardin, P. ); Camonis, J.; Gale, N.W.; Aelst, L. Van; Wigler, M.H.; Bar-Sagi, D. ); Schlessinger, J. )

    1993-05-28

    A human complementary DNA was isolated that encodes a widely expressed protein, hSos1, that is closely related to Sos, the product of the Drosophila son of sevenless gene. The hSos1 protein contains a region of significant sequence similarity to CDC25, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras from yeast. A fragment of hSos1 encoding the CDC25-related domain complemented loss of CDC25 function in yeast. This hSos1 domain specifically stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on mammalian Ras proteins in vitro. Mammalian cells overexpressing full-length hSos1 had increased guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Thus hSos1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras. The hSos1 interacted with growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) in vivo and in vitro. This interaction was mediated by the carboxyl-terminal domain of hSos1 and the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of GRB2. These results suggest that the coupling of receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras signaling is mediated by a molecular complex consisting of GRB2 and hSos1. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Functional Redundancy of Sos1 and Sos2 for Lymphopoiesis and Organismal Homeostasis and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Baltanás, Fernando C.; Pérez-Andrés, Martín; Ginel-Picardo, Alicia; Diaz, David; Jimeno, David; Liceras-Boillos, Pilar; Kortum, Robert L.; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Sos1 and Sos2 are ubiquitously expressed, universal Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ras-GEFs) acting in multiple signal transduction pathways activated by upstream cellular kinases. The embryonic lethality of Sos1 null mutants has hampered ascertaining the specific in vivo contributions of Sos1 and Sos2 to processes controlling adult organism survival or development of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic organs, tissues, and cell lineages. Here, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible Sos1-null mouse strain allowing analysis of the combined disruption of Sos1 and Sos2 (Sos1/2) during adulthood. Sos1/2 double-knockout (DKO) animals died precipitously, whereas individual Sos1 and Sos2 knockout (KO) mice were perfectly viable. A reduced percentage of total bone marrow precursors occurred in single-KO animals, but a dramatic depletion of B-cell progenitors was specifically detected in Sos1/2 DKO mice. We also confirmed a dominant role of Sos1 over Sos2 in early thymocyte maturation, with almost complete thymus disappearance and dramatically higher reduction of absolute thymocyte counts in Sos1/2 DKO animals. Absolute counts of mature B and T cells in spleen and peripheral blood were unchanged in single-KO mutants, while significantly reduced in Sos1/2 DKO mice. Our data demonstrate functional redundancy between Sos1 and Sos2 for homeostasis and survival of the full organism and for development and maturation of T and B lymphocytes. PMID:24043312

  3. Structural Landscape of the Proline-Rich Domain of Sos1 Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Caleb B.; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C.; Deegan, Brian J.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Lednev, Igor K.; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. PMID:23528987

  4. Structural landscape of the proline-rich domain of Sos1 nucleotide exchange factor.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Caleb B; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. PMID:23528987

  5. Rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Ras GEF, SOS1

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Duan, Xin; Biesiada, Jacek; Seibel, William L.; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ras GTPases regulate intracellular signaling involved in cell proliferation. Elevated Ras signaling activity has been associated with human cancers. Ras activation is catalyzed by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), of which SOS1 is a major member that transduces receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Ras. We have developed a rational approach coupling virtual screening with experimental screening in identifying small-molecule inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of SOS1 and SOS1-regulated Ras activity. A lead inhibitor, NSC-658497, is found to bind to SOS1, competitively suppresses SOS1-Ras interaction, and dose-dependently inhibits SOS1 GEF activity. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies map the NSC-658497 site of action to the SOS1 catalytic site, and define the chemical moieties in the inhibitor essential for the activity. NSC-658497 showed dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ras, downstream signaling activities, and associated cell proliferation. These studies establish a proof of principle for rational design of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Ras GEF enzymatic activity. PMID:25455859

  6. Rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Ras GEF, SOS1.

    PubMed

    Evelyn, Chris R; Duan, Xin; Biesiada, Jacek; Seibel, William L; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2014-12-18

    Ras GTPases regulate intracellular signaling involved in cell proliferation. Elevated Ras signaling activity has been associated with human cancers. Ras activation is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), of which SOS1 is a major member that transduces receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Ras. We have developed a rational approach coupling virtual screening with experimental screening in identifying small-molecule inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of SOS1 and SOS1-regulated Ras activity. A lead inhibitor, NSC-658497, was found to bind to SOS1, competitively suppress SOS1-Ras interaction, and dose-dependently inhibit SOS1 GEF activity. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies map the NSC-658497 site of action to the SOS1 catalytic site, and define the chemical moieties in the inhibitor essential for the activity. NSC-658497 showed dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting Ras, downstream signaling activities, and associated cell proliferation. These studies establish a proof of principle for rational design of small-molecule inhibitors targeting Ras GEF enzymatic activity.

  7. Gain-of-function SOS1 mutations cause a distinctive form of noonansyndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, Marco; Pennacchio, Len A.; Zhao, Chen; Yadav, KamleshK.; Fodale, Valentina; Sarkozy, Anna; Pandit, Bhaswati; Oishi, Kimihiko; Martinelli, Simone; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska, Anna; Martin, Joes; Bristow, James; Carta, Claudio; Lepri, Francesca; Neri, Cinzia; Vasta,Isabella; Gibson, Kate; Curry, Cynthia J.; Lopez Siguero, Juan Pedro; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Gelb, Brude D.

    2006-09-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disordercharacterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heartdefects and skeletal anomalies1. Increased RAS-mitogenactivated proteinkinase (MAPK) signaling due to PTPN11 and KRAS mutations cause 50 percentof NS2-6. Here, we report that 22 of 129 NS patients without PTPN11 orKRAS mutation (17 percent) have missense mutations in SOS1, which encodesa RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). SOS1 mutationscluster at residues implicated in the maintenance of SOS1 in itsautoinhibited form and ectopic expression of two NS-associated mutantsinduced enhanced RAS activation. The phenotype associated with SOS1defects is distinctive, although within NS spectrum, with a highprevalence of ectodermal abnormalities but generally normal developmentand linear growth. Our findings implicate for the first timegain-of-function mutations in a RAS GEF in inherited disease and define anew mechanism by which upregulation of the RAS pathway can profoundlychange human development.

  8. Assembly of the Sos1-Grb2-Gab1 Ternary Signaling Complex Is Under Allosteric Control

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Caleb B.; Seldeen, Kenneth L.; Deegan, Brian J.; Bhat, Vikas; Farooq, Amjad

    2009-01-01

    Allostery has evolved as a form of local communication between interacting protein partners allowing them to quickly sense changes in their immediate vicinity in response to external cues. Herein, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in conjunction with circular dichroism (CD) and macromolecular modeling (MM), we show that the binding of Grb2 adaptor — a key signaling molecule involved in the activation of Ras GTPase — to its downstream partners Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor and Gab1 docker is under tight allosteric regulation. Specifically, our findings reveal that the binding of one molecule of Sos1 to the nSH3 domain allosterically induces a conformational change within Grb2 such that the loading of a second molecule of Sos1 onto the cSH3 domain is blocked and, in so doing, allows Gab1 access to the cSH3 domain in an exclusively non-competitive manner to generate the Sos1-Grb2-Gab1 ternary signaling complex. PMID:20005866

  9. Loss of halophytism by interference with SOS1 expression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Ha; Leidi, Eduardo; Zhang, Quan; Hwang, Sung-Min; Li, Youzhi; Quintero, Francisco J; Jiang, Xingyu; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Lee, Sang Yeol; Zhao, Yanxiu; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Bressan, Ray A; Yun, Dae-Jin; Pardo, José M; Bohnert, Hans J

    2009-09-01

    The contribution of SOS1 (for Salt Overly Sensitive 1), encoding a sodium/proton antiporter, to plant salinity tolerance was analyzed in wild-type and RNA interference (RNAi) lines of the halophytic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)-relative Thellungiella salsuginea. Under all conditions, SOS1 mRNA abundance was higher in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of the Thellungiella homolog ThSOS1 suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking sodium ion (Na(+)) efflux transporters and increased salt tolerance of wild-type Arabidopsis. thsos1-RNAi lines of Thellungiella were highly salt sensitive. A representative line, thsos1-4, showed faster Na(+) accumulation, more severe water loss in shoots under salt stress, and slower removal of Na(+) from the root after removal of stress compared with the wild type. thsos1-4 showed drastically higher sodium-specific fluorescence visualized by CoroNa-Green, a sodium-specific fluorophore, than the wild type, inhibition of endocytosis in root tip cells, and cell death in the adjacent elongation zone. After prolonged stress, Na(+) accumulated inside the pericycle in thsos1-4, while sodium was confined in vacuoles of epidermis and cortex cells in the wild type. RNAi-based interference of SOS1 caused cell death in the root elongation zone, accompanied by fragmentation of vacuoles, inhibition of endocytosis, and apoplastic sodium influx into the stele and hence the shoot. Reduction in SOS1 expression changed Thellungiella that normally can grow in seawater-strength sodium chloride solutions into a plant as sensitive to Na(+) as Arabidopsis.

  10. A putative soybean GmsSOS1 confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis sos1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wang-Xing; Xu, Lin; Yu, Bing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The cDNA of GmsSOS1, a putative plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene isolated from Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid, was constructed into plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1300 and then transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens under the control of CaMV 35S promoter to Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and mutant (atsos1-1) plants. By hygromycin resistance detection and PCR analysis, transgenic plants (WT35S:GmsSOS1 and atsos1-1 35S:GmsSOS1) were obtained. Seed germination, seedling growth, and Na(+) contents in roots and shoots were analytically compared among WT, atsos1-1 mutant, and their transgenic lines under salt stress. The results showed that when GmsSOS1 was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana, the inhibitions of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth were all significantly improved, and enhanced salt tolerance was displayed, which may be attributed to the decrease of Na(+) absorption in roots and transportation in shoots of the transgenic lines, especially for that of atsos1-1 mutant.

  11. Absence of both Sos-1 and Sos-2 in peripheral CD4(+) T cells leads to PI3K pathway activation and defects in migration.

    PubMed

    Guittard, Geoffrey; Kortum, Robert L; Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Çuburu, Nicolas; Nguyen, Phan; Sommers, Connie L; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2015-08-01

    Sos-1 and Sos-2 are ubiquitously expressed Ras-guanine exchange factors involved in Erk-MAP kinase pathway activation. Using mice lacking genes encoding Sos-1 and Sos-2, we evaluated the role of these proteins in peripheral T-cell signaling and function. Our results confirmed that TCR-mediated Erk activation in peripheral CD4(+) T cells does not depend on Sos-1 and Sos-2, although IL-2-mediated Erk activation does. Unexpectedly, however, we show an increase in AKT phosphorylation in Sos-1/2dKO CD4(+) T cells upon TCR and IL-2 stimulation. Activation of AKT was likely a consequence of increased recruitment of PI3K to Grb2 upon TCR and/or IL-2 stimulation in Sos-1/2dKO CD4(+) T cells. The increased activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway led to downregulation of the surface receptor CD62L in Sos-1/2dKO T cells and a subsequent impairment in T-cell migration.

  12. Multivalent binding and facilitated diffusion account for the formation of the Grb2-Sos1 signaling complex in a cooperative manner.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Caleb B; Balke, Jordan E; Bhat, Vikas; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Farooq, Amjad

    2012-03-13

    Despite its key role in driving cellular growth and proliferation through receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, the Grb2-Sos1 macromolecular interaction remains poorly understood in mechanistic terms. Herein, using an array of biophysical methods, we provide evidence that although the Grb2 adaptor can potentially bind to all four PXψPXR motifs (designated herein S1-S4) located within the Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, the formation of the Grb2-Sos1 signaling complex occurs with a 2:1 stoichiometry. Strikingly, such bivalent binding appears to be driven by the association of the Grb2 homodimer to only two of four potential PXψPXR motifs within Sos1 at any one time. Of particular interest is the observation that of a possible six pairwise combinations in which S1-S4 motifs may act in concert for the docking of the Grb2 homodimer through bivalent binding, only S1 and S3, S1 and S4, S2 and S4, and S3 and S4 do so, while pairwise combinations of sites S1 and S2 and sites S2 and S3 appear to afford only monovalent binding. This salient observation implicates the role of local physical constraints in fine-tuning the conformational heterogeneity of the Grb2-Sos1 signaling complex. Importantly, the presence of multiple binding sites within Sos1 appears to provide a physical route for Grb2 to hop in a flip-flop manner from one site to the next through facilitated diffusion, and such rapid exchange forms the basis of positive cooperativity driving the bivalent binding of Grb2 to Sos1 with high affinity. Collectively, our study sheds new light on the assembly of a key macromolecular signaling complex central to cellular machinery in health and disease. PMID:22360309

  13. SUMOylation of Grb2 enhances the ERK activity by increasing its binding with Sos1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grb2 (Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) is a key adaptor protein in maintaining the ERK activity via linking Sos1 (Son of sevenless homolog 1) or other proteins to activated RTKs, such as EGFR. Currently, little knowledge is available concerning the post-translational modification (PTM) of Grb2 except for its phosphorylation. Since emerging evidences have highlighted the importance of SUMOylation (Small ubiquitin-related modifier), a reversible PTM, in modulating protein functions, we wondered if Grb2 could be SUMOylated and thereby influences its functions especially involved in the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway. Methods SUMOylation of Grb2 was analyzed with the in vivo SUMOylation assay using the Ni2+-NTA affinity pulldown and the in vitro E.coli-based SUMOylation assay. To test the ERK activity and cell transformation, the murine fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3 and the murine colon cancer cell line CMT-93 were used for the experiments including Grb2 knockdown, ectopic re-expression, cell transformation and migration. Immunoprecipitation (IP) was employed for seeking proteins that interact with SUMO modified Grb2. Xenograft tumor model in mice was conducted to verify that Grb2 SUMOylation regulated tumorigenesis in vivo. Results Grb2 can be SUMOylated by SUMO1 at lysine 56 (K56), which is located in the linker region between the N-terminal SH3 domain and the SH2 domain. Knockdown of Grb2 reduced the ERK activity and suppressed cell motility and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, which were all rescued by stable ectopic re-expression of wild-type Grb2 but not the mutant Grb2K56R. Furthermore, Grb2 SUMOylation at K56 increased the formation of Grb2-Sos1 complex, which sequentially leads to the activation of Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway. Conclusions Our results provide evidences that Grb2 is SUMOylated in vivo and this modification enhances ERK activities via increasing the formation of Grb2-Sos1 complex, and may consequently promote cell motility, transformation and

  14. Reduced Na+ uptake in the NaCl-hypersensitive sos1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, L; Zhu, J K

    1997-01-01

    Sos1 is an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with > 20 times higher sensitivity toward Na+ inhibition due to a defective high-affinity potassium-uptake system. We report here that sos1 accumulates less Na+ than the wild type in response to NaCl stress. The Na+ contents in sos1 seedlings exposed to 25 mM NaCl for 2 or more d are about 43% lower than those in the wild type. When assayed at 20 mM external NaCl, sos1 seedlings pretreated with low potassium have 32% lower Na+ uptake than the wild type. However, little difference in Na+ uptake could be measured when the seedlings were not pretreated with low potassium. Low-potassium treatment was shown to induce high-affinity potassium-uptake activity in Arabidopsis seedlings. No substantial difference in Na+ efflux between sos1 and the wild type was detected. The results show that the reduced Na+ accumulation in sos1 is due to a lower Na+ influx rate. Therefore, the sos1 mutation appears to disrupt low-affinity Na+ uptake in addition to its impairment of high-affinity K+ uptake. PMID:9085573

  15. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  16. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa. PMID:19767895

  17. Loss of Halophytism by Interference with SOS1 Expression1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dong-Ha; Leidi, Eduardo; Zhang, Quan; Hwang, Sung-Min; Li, Youzhi; Quintero, Francisco J.; Jiang, Xingyu; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Lee, Sang Yeol; Zhao, Yanxiu; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Bressan, Ray A.; Yun, Dae-Jin; Pardo, José M.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of SOS1 (for Salt Overly Sensitive 1), encoding a sodium/proton antiporter, to plant salinity tolerance was analyzed in wild-type and RNA interference (RNAi) lines of the halophytic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)-relative Thellungiella salsuginea. Under all conditions, SOS1 mRNA abundance was higher in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. Ectopic expression of the Thellungiella homolog ThSOS1 suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking sodium ion (Na+) efflux transporters and increased salt tolerance of wild-type Arabidopsis. thsos1-RNAi lines of Thellungiella were highly salt sensitive. A representative line, thsos1-4, showed faster Na+ accumulation, more severe water loss in shoots under salt stress, and slower removal of Na+ from the root after removal of stress compared with the wild type. thsos1-4 showed drastically higher sodium-specific fluorescence visualized by CoroNa-Green, a sodium-specific fluorophore, than the wild type, inhibition of endocytosis in root tip cells, and cell death in the adjacent elongation zone. After prolonged stress, Na+ accumulated inside the pericycle in thsos1-4, while sodium was confined in vacuoles of epidermis and cortex cells in the wild type. RNAi-based interference of SOS1 caused cell death in the root elongation zone, accompanied by fragmentation of vacuoles, inhibition of endocytosis, and apoplastic sodium influx into the stele and hence the shoot. Reduction in SOS1 expression changed Thellungiella that normally can grow in seawater-strength sodium chloride solutions into a plant as sensitive to Na+ as Arabidopsis. PMID:19571313

  18. Sequence analysis of the Ras-MAPK pathway genes SOS1, EGFR & GRB2 in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes): candidate genes for hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jo-Anna B J; Tully, Sara J; Dawn Marshall, H

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) is an autosomal recessive disease that presents with progressive gingival proliferation in farmed silver foxes. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an analogous condition in humans that is genetically heterogeneous with several known autosomal dominant loci. For one locus the causative mutation is in the Son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1) gene. For the remaining loci, the molecular mechanisms are unknown but Ras pathway involvement is suspected. Here we compare sequences for the SOS1 gene, and two adjacent genes in the Ras pathway, growth receptor bound protein 2 (GRB2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), between HHG-affected and unaffected foxes. We conclude that the known HGF causative mutation does not cause HHG in foxes, nor do the coding regions or intron-exon boundaries of these three genes contain any candidate mutations for fox gum disease. Patterns of molecular evolution among foxes and other mammals reflect high conservation and strong functional constraints for SOS1 and GRB2 but reveal a lineage-specific pattern of variability in EGFR consistent with mutational rate differences, relaxed functional constraints, and possibly positive selection.

  19. Nax loci affect SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchanger expression and activity in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Shabala, Lana; Cuin, Tracey A; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Meixue; Munns, Rana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress tolerance in durum wheat is strongly associated with a plant’s ability to control Na+ delivery to the shoot. Two loci, termed Nax1 and Nax2, were recently identified as being critical for this process and the sodium transporters HKT1;4 and HKT1;5 were identified as the respective candidate genes. These transporters retrieve Na+ from the xylem, thus limiting the rates of Na+ transport from the root to the shoot. In this work, we show that the Nax loci also affect activity and expression levels of the SOS1-like Na+/H+ exchanger in both root cortical and stelar tissues. Net Na+ efflux measured in isolated steles from salt-treated plants, using the non-invasive ion flux measuring MIFE technique, decreased in the sequence: Tamaroi (parental line)>Nax1=Nax2>Nax1:Nax2 lines. This efflux was sensitive to amiloride (a known inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger) and was mirrored by net H+ flux changes. TdSOS1 relative transcript levels were 6–10-fold lower in Nax lines compared with Tamaroi. Thus, it appears that Nax loci confer two highly complementary mechanisms, both of which contribute towards reducing the xylem Na+ content. One enhances the retrieval of Na+ back into the root stele via HKT1;4 or HKT1;5, whilst the other reduces the rate of Na+ loading into the xylem via SOS1. It is suggested that such duality plays an important adaptive role with greater versatility for responding to a changing environment and controlling Na+ delivery to the shoot. PMID:26585227

  20. Non-syndromic hereditary gingival fibromatosis in three Chinese families is not due to SOS1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanyan; Sun, Zheng; Hu, Ying; Liu, Yi; Jin, Lingling; Zhang, Fenqiu

    2014-12-01

    Non-syndromic hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition, characterized by a progressive gingival hyperplasia that occurs as an isolated disease. Hitherto, only one insertion (g.126,142-126,143insC) in son-of-sevenless-1 (SOS1) gene has been associated with non-syndromic HGF in a Brazilian family. The aim of the present study was to determine if SOS1 is the causative gene of non-syndromic HGF in the Chinese population. Peripheral blood samples were collected from six affected and seven unaffected individuals from three Chinese families with history of non-syndromic HGF. Genomic DNA was extracted and SOS1 gene exons were sequenced. Neither g.126,142-126,143insC nor any other novel mutation was detected in SOS1 gene. Our results suggest that the SOS1 may not be the gene responsible for HGF in these three Chinese families and, therefore, it is possible that other genes are involved in the manifestation of HGF in these Chinese HGF families.

  1. SOS1 Mutations in Noonan Syndrome: Molecular Spectrum, Structural Insights on Pathogenic Effects, and Genotype–Phenotype Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Lepri, Francesca; De Luca, Alessandro; Stella, Lorenzo; Rossi, Cesare; Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Cordeddu, Viviana; Williams, Bradley J; Dentici, Maria L; Caputo, Viviana; Venanzi, Serenella; Bonaguro, Michela; Kavamura, Ines; Faienza, Maria F; Pilotta, Alba; Stanzial, Franco; Faravelli, Francesca; Gabrielli, Orazio; Marino, Bruno; Neri, Giovanni; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Ferrero, Giovanni B; Torrrente, Isabella; Selicorni, Angelo; Mazzanti, Laura; Digilio, Maria C; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D; Tartaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is among the most common nonchromosomal disorders affecting development and growth. NS is caused by aberrant RAS-MAPK signaling and is genetically heterogeneous, which explains, in part, the marked clinical variability documented for this Mendelian trait. Recently, we and others identified SOS1 as a major gene underlying NS. Here, we explored further the spectrum of SOS1 mutations and their associated phenotypic features. Mutation scanning of the entire SOS1 coding sequence allowed the identification of 33 different variants deemed to be of pathological significance, including 16 novel missense changes and in-frame indels. Various mutation clusters destabilizing or altering orientation of regions of the protein predicted to contribute structurally to the maintenance of autoinhibition were identified. Two previously unappreciated clusters predicted to enhance SOS1's recruitment to the plasma membrane, thus promoting a spatial reorientation of domains contributing to inhibition, were also recognized. Genotype–phenotype analysis confirmed our previous observations, establishing a high frequency of ectodermal anomalies and a low prevalence of cognitive impairment and reduced growth. Finally, mutation analysis performed on cohorts of individuals with nonsyndromic pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects, and ventricular septal defects excluded a major contribution of germline SOS1 lesions to the isolated occurrence of these cardiac anomalies. Hum Mutat 32:760–772, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21387466

  2. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  3. SOS1 and PTPN11 mutations in five cases of Noonan syndrome with multiple giant cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Beneteau, Claire; Cavé, Hélène; Moncla, Anne; Dorison, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Verloes, Alain; Leheup, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    We report five cases of multiple giant cell lesions in patients with typical Noonan syndrome. Such association has frequently been referred to as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell (NL/MGCL) syndrome before the molecular definition of Noonan syndrome. Two patients show mutations in PTPN11 (p.Tyr62Asp and p.Asn308Asp) and three in SOS1 (p.Arg552Ser and p.Arg552Thr). The latter are the first SOS1 mutations reported outside PTPN11 in NL/MGCL syndrome. MGCL lesions were observed in jaws (‘cherubism') and joints (‘pigmented villonodular synovitis'). We show through those patients that both types of MGCL are not PTPN11-specific, but rather represent a low penetrant (or perhaps overlooked) complication of the dysregulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We recommend discarding NL/MGCL syndrome from the nosology, as this presentation is neither gene-nor allele-specific of Noonan syndrome; these patients should be described as Noonan syndrome with MGCL (of the mandible, the long bone…). The term cherubism should be used only when multiple giant cell lesions occur without any other clinical and molecular evidence of Noonan syndrome, with or without mutations of the SH3BP2 gene. PMID:19352411

  4. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  5. Constitutive high-level SOS1 expression and absence of HKT1;1 expression in the salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya.

    PubMed

    Katschnig, D; Bliek, T; Rozema, J; Schat, H

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity on ion accumulation and expression of candidate salt tolerance genes in the highly tolerant salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya and the taxonomically related glycophytic Spinacia oleracea. S. dolichostachya, in comparison with S. oleracea, constitutively expressed SOS1 at a high level, but did not detectably express HKT1;1. These findings suggest that the constitutive high level of shoot salt accumulation in S. dolichostachya is accomplished through enhancement of SOS1-mediated Na(+) xylem loading, in combination with complete suppression of HKT1;1-mediated Na(+) retrieval from the xylem. Our findings demonstrate the importance of gene expression comparisons between highly tolerant halophytes and taxonomically related glycophytes to improve the understanding of mechanisms of Na(+) movement and salt tolerance in plants. PMID:25804817

  6. Effect of transcription factor ZBTB20 on mouse pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Dong, Q; Chen, X Y; Li, G M

    2015-12-21

    Pituitary, a critical component in the neuroendocrine system, plays an indispensable role in the regulation of body growth. The transcriptional factor ZBTB20 is widely expressed in brain tissues and participates in hippocampal development; however, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ZBTB20 on mouse pituitary development and related mechanisms in ZBTB20 gene knockout mice. The expressional profiles of ZBTB20 in various neuroendocrinal cells during the different developmental stages (from E10 to P0) were described by immunofluorescence staining. A ZBTB20 gene knockout mouse model was then generated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays were used to detect the levels of five hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). ZBTB20 protein expression was identified from E14 until birth. A majority of the pituitary endocrinal cells were ZBTB20-positive. In ZBTB20 knockout mice, the level of GH decreased by half and PRL expression was eliminated. No significant change was observed in the other three hormones (LH, FSH, and TSH). ZBTB20, an important transcriptional factor in pituitary development, is mainly responsible for the terminal differentiation of prolactin-secreting cells, thereby regulating the secretion of the pituitary hormones.

  7. An anaphylaxis inhibitory factor present in mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Astorquiza, M I; Droguett, M A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously described that normal mouse serum inhibits the PCA reaction mediated by IgE. The present study attempts to characterize this PCA inhibitory factor from the biologically active fraction of the serum. The physicochemical properties of this glycoprotein are the following: it is inactivated at 55 degrees C; it has a molecular weight between 182 kD and 240 kD, determined by gel filtration; it shows affinity to concanavalin A and lentil lectin but not to peanut agglutin; it demonstrates affinity to IgE and, apparently, its carbohydrate moiety is not required for its biological activity. Two bands corresponding to 64.5 kD and 48. 1 kD, which are likely to constitute the biologically active molecule, are observed by SDS-PAGE. These properties are different from those found in factors with IgE affinity involved in IgE synthesis.

  8. Invariance of Factors of Mouse Emotionality With Changed Experimental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Royce, J R; Poley, W

    1975-10-01

    Six factors of mouse emotionality (autonomic balance, motor discharge, acrophobia, territoriality, tunneling-1, and tunneling-2) were compared across three separate studies. Each study included 19 measures from five tests of emotionality: open field, straightaway, pole, cell, and hole-in-wall. However, conditions of testing differed significantly in each study. In the first study, the measures taken were part of a large test battery. In the second study, a reduced test battery included only the 19 measures. In the third study, this reduced battery was used again, but subjects were injected with psychoactive drugs prior to testing. In addition to these changes, different genotypes were used across studies. Subjects in the first study were tested as part of a 6 × 6 diallel table. In the second and third studies, two emotionally contrasted strains (SWR and SJL) were tested. Each population was refactored by alpha factoring with varimax, followed by promax rotations. Factors obtained were compared by quantitative means using S-index and r[SUBc] coefficients of factor matching. Although support was obtained for the invariance of all six factors, the results indicate invariance as being strongest for motor discharge and acrophobia and weakest for tunneling-1 and tunneling-2 factors.

  9. Factors affecting the cryosurvival of mouse two-cell embryos.

    PubMed

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1988-01-01

    A series of 4 experiments was conducted to examine factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed 2-cell mouse embryos. Rapid addition of 1.5 M-DMSO (20 min equilibration at 25 degrees C) and immediate, rapid removal using 0.5 M-sucrose did not alter the frequency (mean +/- s.e.m.) of blastocyst development in vitro when compared to untreated controls (90.5 +/- 2.7% vs 95.3 +/- 2.8%). There was an interaction between the temperature at which slow cooling was terminated and thawing rate. Termination of slow cooling (-0.3 degrees C/min) at -40 degrees C with subsequent rapid thawing (approximately 1500 degrees C/min) resulted in a lower frequency of blastocyst development than did termination of slow cooling at -80 degrees C with subsequent slow thawing (+8 degrees C/min) (36.8 +/- 5.6% vs 63.9 +/- 5.7%). When slow cooling was terminated between -40 and -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were achieved with rapid thawing. When slow cooling was terminated below -60 degrees C, higher survival rates were obtained with slow thawing rates. In these comparisons absolute survival rates were highest among embryos cooled below -60 degrees C and thawed slowly. However, when slow cooling was terminated at -32 degrees C, with subsequent rapid warming, survival rates were not different from those obtained when embryos were cooled to -80 degrees C and thawed slowly (52.4 +/- 9.5%, 59.5 +/- 8.6%). These results suggest that optimal cryosurvival rates may be obtained from 2-cell mouse embryos by a rapid or slow thawing procedure, as has been found for mouse preimplantation embryos at later stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Development of a mouse-feline chimeric antibody against feline tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    PubMed Central

    DOKI, Tomoyoshi; TAKANO, Tomomi; HOHDATSU, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2–4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2–4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2–4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2–4 to the constant region of feline antibody. The chimeric mAb 2–4 was confirmed to have fTNF-alpha neutralization activity. Purified mouse mAb 2–4 and chimeric mAb 2–4 were repeatedly administered to cats, and the changes in the ability to induce feline anti-mouse antibody response were investigated. In the serum of cats treated with mouse mAb 2–4, feline anti-mouse antibody production was induced, and the fTNF-alpha neutralization effect of mouse mAb 2–4 was reduced. In contrast, in cats treated with chimeric mAb 2–4, the feline anti-mouse antibody response was decreased compared to that of mouse mAb 2–4-treated cats. PMID:27264736

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor is a mouse fetal Leydig cell terminal differentiation factor.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giulia; Guglielmo, Maria Cristina; Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Canipari, Rita; Galdieri, Michela; Catizone, Angela

    2012-06-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a well-known regulator of mouse embryonic organogenesis. In previous papers, we have shown the expression pattern of HGF and its receptor, C-MET, during the different stages of testis prenatal development. We demonstrated that C-MET is expressed in fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and that HGF stimulates testosterone secretion in organ culture of late fetal testes. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation rate, apoptotic index, and differentiation of FLCs in testicular organ culture of 17.5 days postcoitum (17.5 dpc) embryos to clarify the physiological role of HGF in late testis organogenesis. Based on our data, we conclude the following: 1) HGF acts as an antiapoptotic factor that is able to reduce the number of apoptotic FLCs and testicular caspase-3 active fragment; 2) HGF does not affect FLC proliferation; 3) HGF significantly increases expression of insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a marker of Leydig cell terminal differentiation, without affecting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) expression; 4) HGF significantly decreases the expression of nestin, a marker of Leydig cell progenitors; and 5) HGF significantly increases the number of fully developed FLCs. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that HGF is able to act in vitro as a survival and differentiation factor in FLC population.

  12. Generation and gene expression profiling of 48 transcription-factor-inducible mouse embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Nishiyama, Akira; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into a wide range – and possibly all cell types in vitro, and thus provide an ideal platform to study systematically the action of transcription factors (TFs) in cell differentiation. Previously, we have generated and analyzed 137 TF-inducible mouse ESC lines. As an extension of this “NIA Mouse ESC Bank,” we generated and characterized 48 additional mouse ESC lines, in which single TFs in each line could be induced in a doxycycline-controllable manner. Together, with the previous ESC lines, the bank now comprises 185 TF-manipulable ESC lines (>10% of all mouse TFs). Global gene expression (transcriptome) profiling revealed that the induction of individual TFs in mouse ESCs for 48 hours shifts their transcriptomes toward specific differentiation fates (e.g., neural lineages by Myt1 Isl1, and St18; mesodermal lineages by Pitx1, Pitx2, Barhl2, and Lmx1a; white blood cells by Myb, Etv2, and Tbx6, and ovary by Pitx1, Pitx2, and Dmrtc2). These data also provide and lists of inferred target genes of each TF and possible functions of these TFs. The results demonstrate the utility of mouse ESC lines and their transcriptome data for understanding the mechanism of cell differentiation and the function of TFs. PMID:27150017

  13. Simultaneous synthesis of human-, mouse- and chimeric epidermal growth factor genes via 'hybrid gene synthesis' approach.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, W L; Zahab, D M; Yao, F L; Wu, R; Narang, S A

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous synthesis of two DNA duplexes encoding human and mouse epidermal growth factors (EGF) was accomplished in a single step. A 174 b.p. DNA heteroduplex, with 16 single and double base pair mismatches, was designed. One strand encoded the human EGF, and the opposite strand indirectly encoded the mouse EGF. The heteroduplex DNA was synthesized by ligation of seven overlapping oligodeoxyribonucleotides with a linearized plasmid. After transformation in E. coli HB101 (recA 13), the resulting heteroduplex plasmid served as the template in plasmid replication. Two different plasmid progenies bearing either the human or mouse EGF-coding sequence were identified by colony hybridization using the appropriate probes. However, in E. coli JM103, the same process yielded plasmid progenies encoding different chimeric EGF molecules, presumably due to crossover of human and mouse EGF gene sequences. Images PMID:3529034

  14. Frequent trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpression and promoter hypomethylation in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Okada, Haruhiko; Kimura, Makoto T; Tan, Dongfeng; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Igarashi, Jun; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Hui, Ai-Min; Tsurumaru, Masahiko; Nagase, Hiroki

    2005-02-01

    Expression profiling analysis revealed ectopic high expression of mouse TFF3 in non-tumor liver tissues from the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptible PWK/Rbrc strain. TFF3 is a member of the trefoil factor family peptides, which are small secreted proteins regulating mucosal regeneration and repair, and which are overexpressed during inflammatory processes and cancer progression. We, therefore, analyzed the TFF3 expression extensively in mouse and human HCCs. Expression of the mouse TFF3 gene was significantly increased in 6 out of 7 HCCs from a PWK spontaneous tumor model and in all 7 HCCs from an SV40T antigen-induced transgenic MT-D2C57BL/6 model. In humans, 8 of 20 HCCs (40%) had overexpression of TFF3 in both mRNA level and protein level. We then analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the TFF3 promoter region to evaluate expression regulation of promoter methylation. In mouse HCCs, we demonstrated that two CpGs, at positions -992 and +109, were hypomethylated in 13 of 14 mouse HCCs. In human HCCs, hypomethylation at CpG -260 was associated with TFF3 overexpression (p=0.04). These results indicate that TFF3 overexpression may be a critical process in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and the specific promoter CpG hypomethylation may be one of the regulation mechanisms of TFF3 overexpression in HCCs.

  15. Frequent trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpression and promoter hypomethylation in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, HARUHIKO; KIMURA, MAKOTO T.; TAN, DONGFENG; FUJIWARA, KYOKO; IGARASHI, JUN; MAKUUCHI, MASATOSHI; HUI, AI-MIN; TSURUMARU, MASAHIKO; NAGASE, HIROKI

    2008-01-01

    Expression profiling analysis revealed ectopic high expression of mouse TFF3 in non-tumor liver tissues from the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptible PWK/Rbrc strain. TFF3 is a member of the trefoil factor family peptides, which are small secreted proteins regulating mucosal regeneration and repair, and which are overexpressed during inflammatory processes and cancer progression. We, therefore, analyzed the TFF3 expression extensively in mouse and human HCCs. Expression of the mouse TFF3 gene was significantly increased in 6 out of 7 HCCs from a PWK spontaneous tumor model and in all 7 HCCs from an SV40T antigen-induced transgenic MT-D2C57BL/6 model. In humans, 8 of 20 HCCs (40%) had overexpression of TFF3 in both mRNA level and protein level. We then analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the TFF3 promoter region to evaluate expression regulation of promoter methylation. In mouse HCCs, we demonstrated that two CpGs, at positions −992 and +109, were hypomethylated in 13 of 14 mouse HCCs. In human HCCs, hypomethylation at CpG −260 was associated with TFF3 overexpression (p=0.04). These results indicate that TFF3 overexpression may be a critical process in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and the specific promoter CpG hypomethylation may be one of the regulation mechanisms of TFF3 overexpression in HCCs. PMID:15645121

  16. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J.

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  17. The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E.D.; Meek, J.

    1984-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the role(s) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo during murine development, we have examined the /sup 125/I-EGF binding characteristics of EGF-receptors in membrane preparations of tissues from the 12th day of gestation to parturition. Using autoradiography, the earliest time that we could detect EGF-receptors was on trophoblast cells cultured for 3 days as blastocyst outgrowths. Trophoblast eventually forms a large portion of the placenta, where EGF-receptors have long been recognized. We measured the number and affinity of EGF-receptors on tissues dissected from conceptuses from the 12th day of gestation in order to identify a stage when tissues may be most sensitive to EGF. Whereas the number of EGF receptors increases during gestation for all tissues examined, the affinity of the receptors declines for carcass and placenta and remains relatively unchanged for brain and liver. This suggests that EGF may function differently throughout development. Our hypothesis is that EGF (or its embryonic equivalent) initially stimulates proliferation in embryonic cells and then stimulates differentiation as the tissues mature. In the adult, its main role could be to stimulate tissue repair after damage.

  18. Chromosomal locations of the human and mouse genes for precursors of epidermal growth factor and the. beta. subunit of nerve growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, B.U.; Eddy, R.L.; Lalley, P.A.; Scott, J.; Bell, G.I.; Shows, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA probes for pre-pro-epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the precursor of the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGF) were used to chromosomally map human and mouse EGF and NGF genes in panels of human-mouse and mouse-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. The EGF and NGF genes were mapped to human chromosomes 4 and 1, respectively, by using human-mouse cell hybrids. A combination of regional mapping using a chromosome 1 translocation and comparative gene mapping suggests that the human NGF gene is in the p21-p22.1 region of chromosome 1. In mouse-Chinese hamster cell hybrids, both genes were assigned to mouse chromosome 3. A knowledge of the chromosomal assignment of these genes should help in our understanding of their regulation and role in development and disease.

  19. Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Oltjen, Sharon L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Estep, Jason; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Gong, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC. Results Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh−/− eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh−/− mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh−/− eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results. Conclusions Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC. PMID:25684976

  20. Small molecules enable cardiac reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts with a single factor, Oct4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixia; Cao, Nan; Spencer, C Ian; Nie, Baoming; Ma, Tianhua; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaojing; Srivastava, Deepak; Ding, Sheng

    2014-03-13

    It was recently shown that mouse fibroblasts could be reprogrammed into cells of a cardiac fate by forced expression of multiple transcription factors and microRNAs. For ultimate application of such a reprogramming strategy for cell-based therapy or in vivo cardiac regeneration, reducing or eliminating the genetic manipulations by small molecules would be highly desirable. Here, we report the identification of a defined small-molecule cocktail that enables the highly efficient conversion of mouse fibroblasts into cardiac cells with only one transcription factor, Oct4, without any evidence of entrance into the pluripotent state. Small-molecule-induced cardiomyocytes spontaneously contract and exhibit a ventricular phenotype. Furthermore, these induced cardiomyocytes pass through a cardiac progenitor stage. This study lays the foundation for future pharmacological reprogramming approaches and provides a small-molecule condition for investigation of the mechanisms underlying the cardiac reprogramming process. PMID:24561253

  1. A functionally conserved Polycomb response element from mouse HoxD complex responds to heterochromatin factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthi, Dasari; Nagabhushan, A.; Matharu, Navneet Kaur; Mishra, Rakesh K.

    2013-10-01

    Anterior-posterior body axis in all bilaterians is determined by the Hox gene clusters that are activated in a spatio-temporal order. This expression pattern of Hox genes is established and maintained by regulatory mechanisms that involve higher order chromatin structure and Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins. We identified earlier a Polycomb response element (PRE) in the mouse HoxD complex that is functionally conserved in flies. We analyzed the molecular and genetic interactions of mouse PRE using Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrate cell culture as the model systems. We demonstrate that the repressive activity of this PRE depends on PcG/trxG genes as well as the heterochromatin components. Our findings indicate that a wide range of factors interact with the HoxD PRE that can contribute to establishing the expression pattern of homeotic genes in the complex early during development and maintain that pattern at subsequent stages.

  2. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor 8 rescues development of mouse diastemal vestigial tooth ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Yuan, Guohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Chen, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Regression of vestigial tooth buds results in the formation of the toothless diastema, a unique feature of the mouse dentition. Revitalization of the diastemal vestigial tooth bud provides an excellent model for studying tooth regeneration and replacement. It has been previously shown that suppression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the diastema results in vestigial tooth bud regression. In this study, we report that application of exogenous FGF8 to the mouse embryonic diastemal region rescues diastemal tooth development. However, this rescue of diastemal tooth development occurs only in an isolated diastemal regions and not in the mandibular quadrant, which includes the incisor and molar germs. FGF8 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in diastemal tooth epithelium, and revitalizes the tooth developmental program, as evidenced by the expression of genes critical for normal tooth development. Our results also support the idea that the adjacent tooth germs contribute to the suppression of diastemal vestigial tooth buds by means of multiple signals.

  3. A genome-scale study of transcription factor expression in the branching mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Herriges, John C.; Yi, Lan; Hines, Elizabeth A.; Harvey, Julie F.; Xu, Guoliang; Gray, Paul; Ma, Qiufu; Sun, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammalian lung development consists of a series of precisely choreographed events that drive the progression from simple lung buds to the elaborately branched organ that fulfills the vital function of gas exchange. Strict transcriptional control is essential for lung development. Among the large number of transcription factors encoded in the mouse genome, only a small portion of them are known to be expressed and function in the developing lung. Thus a systematic investigation of transcription factors expressed in the lung is warranted. Results To enrich for genes that may be responsible for regional growth and patterning, we performed a screen using RNA in situ hybridization to identify genes that show restricted expression patterns in the embryonic lung. We focused on the pseudoglandular stage during which the lung undergoes branching morphogenesis, a cardinal event of lung development. Using a genome-scale probe set that represents over 90% of the transcription factors encoded in the mouse genome, we identified sixty-two transcription factor genes with localized expression in the epithelium, mesenchyme or both. Many of these genes have not been previously implicated in lung development. Conclusions Our findings provide new starting points for the elucidation of the transcriptional circuitry that controls lung development. PMID:22711520

  4. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr.

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pluripotent State Induction in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Using mRNAs of Reprogramming Factors

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ahmed Kamel; Zhang, Zhentao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Zhiyong; Abbott, Louise C.; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells has great potential to provide therapeutic treatments for a number of diseases as well as provide insight into mechanisms underlying early embryonic development. Improvement of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) generation through mRNA-based methods is currently an area of intense research. This approach provides a number of advantages over previously used methods such as DNA integration and insertional mutagenesis. Using transfection of specifically synthesized mRNAs of various pluripotency factors, we generated iPSCs from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. The genetic, epigenetic and functional properties of the iPSCs were evaluated at different times during the reprogramming process. We successfully introduced synthesized mRNAs, which localized correctly inside the cells and exhibited efficient and stable translation into proteins. Our work demonstrated a robust up-regulation and a gradual promoter de-methylation of the pluripotency markers, including non-transfected factors such as Nanog, SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and Rex-1 (ZFP-42, zinc finger protein 42). Using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) conditions to culture the iPS cells resulted in formation of ES-like colonies after approximately 12 days with only five daily repeated transfections. The colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency-specific markers associated with ESCs. This study revealed the ability of pluripotency induction and generation of mouse mRNA induced pluripotent stem cells (mRNA iPSCs) using transfection of specifically synthesized mRNAs of various pluripotency factors into mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. These generated iPSCs exhibited molecular and functional properties similar to ESCs, which indicate that this method is an efficient and viable alternative to ESCs and can be used for further biological, developmental and therapeutic investigations. PMID:25437916

  6. Mouse mammary tumors display Stat3 activation dependent on leukemia inhibitory factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quaglino, Ana; Schere-Levy, Carolina; Romorini, Leonardo; Meiss, Roberto P; Kordon, Edith C

    2007-01-01

    Introduction It has been demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induces epithelium apoptosis through Stat3 activation during mouse mammary gland involution. In contrast, it has been shown that this transcription factor is commonly activated in breast cancer cells, although what causes this effect remains unknown. Here we have tested the hypothesis that locally produced LIF can be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. Methods The studies were performed in different tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary cells. The expression of LIF and LIF receptor was tested by RT-PCR analysis. In tumors, LIF and Stat3 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, whereas Stat3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 expression and phosphorylation were studied by Western blot analysis. A LIF-specific blocking antibody was used to determine whether this cytokine was responsible for Stat3 phosphorylation induced by conditioned medium. Specific pharmacological inhibitors (PD98059 and Stat3ip) that affect ERK1/2 and Stat3 activation were used to study their involvement in LIF-induced effects. To analyze cell survival, assays with crystal violet were performed. Results High levels of LIF expression and activated Stat3 were found in mammary tumors growing in vivo and in their primary cultures. We found a single mouse mammary tumor cell line, LM3, that showed low levels of activated Stat3. Incidentally, these cells also showed very little expression of LIF receptor. This suggested that autocrine/paracrine LIF would be responsible for Stat3 activation in mouse mammary tumors. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of conditioned medium of mammary tumor primary cultures to induce Stat3 phosphorylation, activity that was prevented by pretreatment with LIF-blocking antibody. Besides, we found that LIF increased tumor cell viability. Interestingly, blocking Stat3 activation enhanced this effect in mammary tumor cells. Conclusion LIF is

  7. Regulation of factor IXa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. Role of the endothelium and the plasma proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, H.E.; Trapp, H.G.; Griffith, M.J.; Roberts, H.R.; Pizzo, S.V.

    1984-06-01

    The regulation of human Factor IXa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. In human plasma, approximately 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to antithrombin III (ATIII) by 2 h, with no binding to alpha 2-macroglobulin or alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, as assessed by gel electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose beads. In the presence of heparin, virtually 100% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII by 1 min. The distribution of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was rapid (50% clearance in 2 min) and biphasic and was inhibited by large molar excesses of ATIII-thrombin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, but not alpha 2-macro-globulin-trypsin; it was also inhibited by large molar excesses of diisopropylphosphoryl - (DIP-) Factor Xa, DIP-thrombin, and Factor IX, but not by prothrombin or Factor X. The clearance of Factor IX was also rapid (50% clearance in 2.5 min) and was inhibited by a large molar excess of Factor IX, but not by large molar excesses of Factor X, prothrombin, DIP-Factor Xa, or DIP-thrombin. Electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose bead studies confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII. Organ distribution studies with /sup 125/I-Factor IXa demonstrated that most of the radioactivity was in the liver. These studies suggest that Factor IXa binds to at least two classes of binding sites on endothelial cells. One site apparently recognizes both Factors IX and IXa, but not Factor X, Factor Xa, prothrombin, or thrombin. The other site recognizes thrombin, Factor Xa, and Factor IXa, but not the zymogen forms of these clotting factors. After this binding, Factor IXa is bound to ATIII and the complex is cleared from the circulation by hepatocytes.

  8. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and chromosomal localization of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, C J; Conley, P B; Hsieh, C L; Francke, U; Crabtree, G R

    1990-01-01

    The homeodomain-containing transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1) most likely plays an essential role during liver organogenesis by transactivating a family of greater than 15 predominantly hepatic genes. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding mouse HNF-1 and expressed them in monkey COS cells and in the human T-cell line Jurkat, producing HNF-1 DNA-binding activity as well as transactivation of reporter constructs containing multimerized HNF-1 binding sites. In addition, the HNF-1 gene was assigned by somatic cell hybrids and recombinant inbred strain mapping to mouse chromosome 5 near Bcd-1 and to human chromosome 12 region q22-qter, revealing a homologous chromosome region in these two species. The presence of HNF-1 mRNA in multiple endodermal tissues (liver, stomach, intestine) suggests that HNF-1 may constitute an early marker for endodermal, rather than hepatocyte, differentiation. Further, that HNF-1 DNA-binding and transcriptional activity can be conferred by transfecting the HNF-1 cDNA into several cell lines indicates that it is sufficient to activate transcription in the context of ubiquitously expressed factors. Images PMID:2263635

  9. Influence of some methodological factors on the radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, P.; Grinfeld, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The experiments reported here were undertaken to investigate the influence of some methodological factors on the radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote. The following factors were studied: (1) the use of natural or hormone-stimulated ovulation; (2) the procedure followed for fertilization:mating overnight, or only during a short period in the morning after all oocytes have been ovulated, in vitro fertilization; (3) the type of irradiation, i.e., in vivo or in vitro irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the zygotes was estimated under the different experimental conditions by measuring the ability of the irradiated embryos to cleave and to develop further to the blastocyst stage. Our results suggest that the protocols used for mating and fertilization probably have a greater influence on embryonic survival following irradiation than the use of gonadotropins to stimulate ovulation. The highest degree of synchrony in the development of the embryos is achieved by restricting mating to a short period or by using in vitro fertilization. The very low LD50s obtained under such synchronous conditions confirm the high radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote at the early pronuclear stage. Comparison between the effects of in vivo and in vitro irradiation does not indicate a greater radiosensitivity of the embryo irradiated in vitro in comparison to the embryo irradiated in vivo.

  10. Direct conversion of mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes by defined factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ling; Liu, Shujing; Burrows, Michelle; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Herlyn, Meenhard; Cui, Rutao; Guo, Wei; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Direct reprogramming provides a fundamentally new approach for the generation of patient-specific cells. Here, by screening a pool of candidate transcription factors, we identify that a combination of the three factors, MITF, SOX10 and PAX3, directly converts mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes. Induced melanocytes (iMels) activate melanocyte-specific networks, express components of pigment production and delivery system and produce melanosomes. Human iMels properly integrate into the dermal-epidermal junction and produce and deliver melanin pigment to surrounding keratinocytes in a 3D organotypic skin reconstruct. Human iMels generate pigmented epidermis and hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays in vivo. The generation of iMels has important implications for studies of melanocyte lineage commitment, pigmentation disorders and cell replacement therapies. PMID:25510211

  11. Leonurus sibiricus induces nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Rim, Hong-Kun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Suh, Se-Eun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Na-Hyung; Choi, In-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Il Kwang; Lee, Ju-Young; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Um, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2008-10-01

    Using mouse peritoneal macrophages, we have examined the mechanism by which Leonurus sibiricus (LS) regulates nitric oxide (NO) production. When LS was used in combination with recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma), there was a marked cooperative induction of NO production; however, LS by itself had no effect on NO production. The increased production of NO from rIFN-gamma plus LS-stimulated cells was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB. Furthermore, treatment of peritoneal macrophages with rIFN-gamma plus LS caused a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. PDTC also decreased the effect of LS on TNF-alpha production significantly. Because NO and TNF-alpha play an important role in immune function and host defense, LS treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms as a result of stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  12. Tgif1 Counterbalances the Activity of Core Pluripotency Factors in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Kyu; Shen, Wenwen; Lee, Jiwoon; Rhee, Catherine; Chung, Haewon; Kim, Kun-Yong; Park, In-Hyun; Kim, Jonghwan

    2015-10-01

    Core pluripotency factors, such as Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, play important roles in maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity by autoregulatory feedforward loops. Nevertheless, the mechanism that provides precise control of the levels of the ESC core factors without indefinite amplification has remained elusive. Here, we report the direct repression of core pluripotency factors by Tgif1, a previously known terminal repressor of TGFβ/activin/nodal signaling. Overexpression of Tgif1 reduces the levels of ESC core factors, whereas its depletion leads to the induction of the pluripotency factors. We confirm the existence of physical associations between Tgif1 and Oct4, Nanog, and HDAC1/2 and further show the level of Tgif1 is not significantly altered by treatment with an activator/inhibitor of the TGFβ/activin/nodal signaling. Collectively, our findings establish Tgif1 as an integral member of the core regulatory circuitry of mouse ESCs that counterbalances the levels of the core pluripotency factors in a TGFβ/activin/nodal-independent manner. PMID:26411691

  13. Tumor necrosis factor: receptor binding and expression of receptors in cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Adamson, G M; Billings, R E

    1994-04-01

    Recombinant murine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) was labeled with 125I and used to determine the binding characteristics, internalization and intracellular degradation in cultured mouse hepatocytes. [125I]TNF-alpha bound specifically to hepatocytes and Scatchard analysis of the data indicated binding to both a low-affinity (Kd = 20 nM) high capacity (51225 sites/cell) component and high-affinity component (Kd = 4 pM), with low capacity (290 sites/cell). The extent of TNF-alpha binding to hepatocytes correlated closely with its biological activity in hepatocytes, as indexed by depletion of intracellular ATP. At concentrations lower than 0.06 nM there was minimal binding and no effect on cellular ATP, whereas maximal binding at concentrations greater than 45 nM caused 80% depletion (in comparison to controls) of hepatocyte ATP. Incubation at 37 degrees C resulted in rapid uptake, internalization and degradation of [125I]TNF-alpha. This was followed by release of degraded material from hepatocytes. Examination, by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction technology, of hepatocyte RNA extracted after the 4-hr adherence period revealed that mouse hepatocytes expressed mRNA for both TNF-alpha receptor 1 and TNF-alpha receptor 2, and that the relative abundance of TNF-alpha receptor 1 was approximately 7-fold greater than that for TNF-alpha receptor 2. Because it has been shown that these receptors have different affinities for TNF-alpha, this may explain the high- and low-affinity binding sites present on cultured mouse hepatocytes.

  14. Recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 activates satellite cells in the mouse urethral rhabdosphincter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of urinary incontinence by stimulation of urethral rhabdosphincter satellite cells. We show that satellite cells do exist in the sphincter muscle of retired male mice breeders by staining for c-Met, a satellite cell specific protein. Once activated by recombinant mouse Insulin-like Growth Factor-1(rIgf-1), the satellite cells develop into muscle cells within the rhabdosphincter thereby potentially strengthening it. Methods 20 μl (1 μg/μl) of rIgf-1 was surgically injected directly into the urethral wall of retired male mouse breeders. Mice injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used as controls. 4 weeks later, urethras were harvested and serially-sectioned through the sphincter for routine hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as immunohistochemical staining with satellite cell specific anti-c-Met antibody and proliferation specific anti-Ki-67 antibody. Results Anti-c-Met antibody positive cells (c-Met+) were identified in the rhabdosphincter. c-Met+ cells increased by 161.8% relative to controls four weeks after rIGF-1 injection. Anti- Ki-67 antibody positive cells were identified and characterized as cells with centrally located nuclei in striated muscle bundles of rIGF-1 treated animals. Conclusions Satellite cells in the mouse rhabdosphincter can be activated by rIGF-1 treatment, which subsequently are incorporated into existing skeletal muscle bundles. Using this approach, the rhabdosphincter can be induced to regenerate and potentially strengthen via satellite cell activation and likely improve urinary continence. PMID:24279352

  15. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factor-{beta} responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Lyons, Karen M.

    2008-03-10

    Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-{beta}, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-{beta}. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-{beta}-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2{sup -/-}) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-{beta} signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-{beta}-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2{sup -/-} MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-{beta}-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts.

  16. Inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling promotes epiblast formation in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Sabitri; Heindryckx, Björn; Van der Jeught, Margot; Neupane, Jitesh; O'Leary, Thomas; Lierman, Sylvie; De Vos, Winnok H; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Deroo, Tom; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-02-15

    Early lineage segregation in preimplantation embryos and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are both regulated by specific signaling pathways. Small molecules have been shown to modulate these signaling pathways. We examined the influence of several small molecules and growth factors on second-lineage segregation of the inner cell mass toward hypoblast and epiblast lineage during mouse embryonic preimplantation development. We found that the second-lineage segregation is influenced by activation or inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)β pathway. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway from the two-cell, four-cell, and morula stages onward up to the blastocyst stage significantly increased the epiblast cell proliferation. The epiblast formed in the embryos in which TGFβ signaling was inhibited was fully functional as demonstrated by the potential of these epiblast cells to give rise to pluripotent ESCs. Conversely, activating the TGFβ pathway reduced epiblast formation. Inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 pathway and activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling reduced the formation of both epiblast and hypoblast cells. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway and of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway did not influence the second-lineage segregation in mouse embryos. The simultaneous inhibition of three pathways--TGFβ, GSK3β, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)--significantly enhanced the proliferation of epiblast cells than that caused by inhibition of either TGFβ pathway alone or by combined inhibition of the GSK3β and FGF/Erk pathways only.

  17. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Promotes Epiblast Formation in Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Sabitri; Heindryckx, Björn; Van der Jeught, Margot; Neupane, Jitesh; O'Leary, Thomas; Lierman, Sylvie; De Vos, Winnok H.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Deroo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Early lineage segregation in preimplantation embryos and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are both regulated by specific signaling pathways. Small molecules have been shown to modulate these signaling pathways. We examined the influence of several small molecules and growth factors on second-lineage segregation of the inner cell mass toward hypoblast and epiblast lineage during mouse embryonic preimplantation development. We found that the second-lineage segregation is influenced by activation or inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)β pathway. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway from the two-cell, four-cell, and morula stages onward up to the blastocyst stage significantly increased the epiblast cell proliferation. The epiblast formed in the embryos in which TGFβ signaling was inhibited was fully functional as demonstrated by the potential of these epiblast cells to give rise to pluripotent ESCs. Conversely, activating the TGFβ pathway reduced epiblast formation. Inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 pathway and activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling reduced the formation of both epiblast and hypoblast cells. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway and of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway did not influence the second-lineage segregation in mouse embryos. The simultaneous inhibition of three pathways—TGFβ, GSK3β, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)—significantly enhanced the proliferation of epiblast cells than that caused by inhibition of either TGFβ pathway alone or by combined inhibition of the GSK3β and FGF/Erk pathways only. PMID:25245024

  18. Differential pathlength factor informs evoked stimulus response in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alexander J; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Durkin, Anthony J; Venugopalan, Vasan; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    Baseline optical properties are typically assumed in calculating the differential pathlength factor (DPF) of mouse brains, a value used in the modified Beer-Lambert law to characterize an evoked stimulus response. We used spatial frequency domain imaging to measure in vivo baseline optical properties in 20-month-old control ([Formula: see text]) and triple transgenic APP/PS1/tau (3xTg-AD) ([Formula: see text]) mouse brains. Average [Formula: see text] for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 530 nm. Average [Formula: see text] for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 530 nm. The calculated DPF for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] OD mm, respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] OD mm, respectively, at 530 nm. In hindpaw stimulation experiments, the hemodynamic increase in brain tissue concentration of oxyhemoglobin was threefold larger and two times longer in the control mice compared to 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, the washout of deoxyhemoglobin from increased brain perfusion was seven times larger in controls compared to 3xTg-AD mice ([Formula: see text]).

  19. Gene expression based mouse brain parcellation using Markov random field regularized non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Sayan D.; Haynor, David R.; Thompson, Carol L.; Lein, Ed; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the geography of genetic expression in the mouse brain has opened previously unexplored avenues in neuroinformatics. The Allen Brain Atlas (www.brain-map.org) (ABA) provides genome-wide colorimetric in situ hybridization (ISH) gene expression images at high spatial resolution, all mapped to a common three-dimensional 200μm3 spatial framework defined by the Allen Reference Atlas (ARA) and is a unique data set for studying expression based structural and functional organization of the brain. The goal of this study was to facilitate an unbiased data-driven structural partitioning of the major structures in the mouse brain. We have developed an algorithm that uses nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to perform parts based analysis of ISH gene expression images. The standard NMF approach and its variants are limited in their ability to flexibly integrate prior knowledge, in the context of spatial data. In this paper, we introduce spatial connectivity as an additional regularization in NMF decomposition via the use of Markov Random Fields (mNMF). The mNMF algorithm alternates neighborhood updates with iterations of the standard NMF algorithm to exploit spatial correlations in the data. We present the algorithm and show the sub-divisions of hippocampus and somatosensory-cortex obtained via this approach. The results are compared with established neuroanatomic knowledge. We also highlight novel gene expression based sub divisions of the hippocampus identified by using the mNMF algorithm.

  20. Epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in the mouse reproductive tract during development

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, N.L.; Nelson, K.G.; Ross, K.A.; Takahashi, T.; McLachlan, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The ontogeny of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the different cell types in the neonatal and immature mouse uterus and vagina was examined. Immunohistochemical examination of prenatal and neonatal reproductive tracts with a polyclonal antibody to the EGF receptor shows immunoreactive EGF receptors as early as Day 13 of gestation. Autoradiographic analysis of tissue sections at 3 to 17 days of age (the day of birth is Day 1) demonstrates that both uterine and vaginal epithelial and stromal cells are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF. Both the 125I-labeled EGF autoradiography and immunohistochemistry in whole tissue show higher EGF receptor levels in the uterine epithelium than the uterine stroma. The presence of EGF receptors was also confirmed by affinity labeling and Scatchard analysis of isolated uterine cell types at 7 and/or 17 days of age. However, in contrast to the autoradiography and immunohistochemistry data of intact tissue, the affinity labeling and Scatchard data of isolated cells indicate that the uterine stroma contains higher levels of EGF receptor than that of the uterine epithelium. The reason for this discrepancy between the different techniques is, as yet, unknown. Regardless of the differences in the actual numbers of EGF receptors obtained, our data demonstrate that the developing mouse reproductive tract contains immunoreactive EGF receptors that are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF.

  1. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A; Drutskaya, Marina S; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Garcia, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF.

  2. Role of tissue factor in a mouse model of thrombotic microangiopathy induced by antiphospholipid antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Seshan, Surya V.; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Redecha, Patricia; Monestier, Marc; Mackman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Using different mouse monoclonal and human antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies, we developed a new animal model of renal injury that shares many features with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We found that more than 1 mechanism/signaling pathway is involved in glomerular injury induced by aPL antibodies in this model. Both complement-dependent and complement-independent pathways were identified that lead to glomerular endothelial cell damage and renal function impairment. We also found that C5a-C5aR interaction is a crucial step for the activation of the coagulation cascade and glomerular injury induced by complement-activating antibodies. In addition, our studies demonstrated complement-independent mechanisms in which reactivity with β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) plays an important role in aPL-induced glomerular damage and renal failure. Independently of the mechanism responsible for aPL-induced TMA, mice that express low levels of tissue factor (TF) were protected from glomerular injury. That genetic reduction of TF prevents renal injury induced by different aPL antibodies indicates that TF is a common mediator of glomerular damage and a possible target for selective pharmacologic intervention. Treatment with pravastatin, which down-regulates glomerular TF synthesis, prevents aPL-induced TMA in this mouse model, thus emphasizing that targeting TF might be a good therapeutic intervention in patients with TMA. PMID:19535796

  3. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  4. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1 regulates mouse development as a homodimer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Scott, Ian C; Snider, Fran; Geary-Joo, Colleen; Zhao, Xiang; Simmons, David G; Cross, James C

    2013-10-15

    Hand1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is essential for development of the placenta, yolk sac and heart during mouse development. While Hand1 is essential for trophoblast giant cell (TGC) differentiation, its potential heterodimer partners are not co-expressed in TGCs. To test the hypothesis that Hand1 functions as homodimer, we generated knock-in mice in which the Hand1 gene was altered to encode a tethered homodimer (TH). Some Hand1(TH/-) conceptuses in which the only form of Hand1 is Hand1(TH) are viable and fertile, indicating that homodimer Hand1 is sufficient for mouse survival. ~2/3 of Hand1(TH/-) and all Hand1(TH/TH) mice died in utero and displayed severe placental defects and variable cardial and cranial-facial abnormalities, indicating a dosage-dependent effect of Hand1(TH). Meanwhile, expression of the Hand1(TH) protein did not have negative effects on viability or fertility in all Hand1(TH/+) mice. These data imply that Hand1 homodimer plays a dominant role during development and its expression dosage is critical for survival, whereas Hand1 heterodimers can be either dispensable or play a regulatory role to modulate the activity of Hand1 homodimer in vivo.

  5. Transcription Factors Expressed in Mouse Cochlear Inner and Outer Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Huizhan; Barta, Cody L.; Judge, Paul D.; Zhao, Lidong; Zhang, Weiping J.; Gong, Shusheng; Beisel, Kirk W.; He, David Z. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is essential to determining the functional complexity and morphological diversity seen among different cells. Transcriptional regulation is a crucial step in gene expression regulation because the genetic information is directly read from DNA by sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). Although several mouse TF databases created from genome sequences and transcriptomes are available, a cell type-specific TF database from any normal cell populations is still lacking. We identify cell type-specific TF genes expressed in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) using hair cell-specific transcriptomes from adult mice. IHCs and OHCs are the two types of sensory receptor cells in the mammalian cochlea. We show that 1,563 and 1,616 TF genes are respectively expressed in IHCs and OHCs among 2,230 putative mouse TF genes. While 1,536 are commonly expressed in both populations, 73 genes are differentially expressed (with at least a twofold difference) in IHCs and 13 are differentially expressed in OHCs. Our datasets represent the first cell type-specific TF databases for two populations of sensory receptor cells and are key informational resources for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the biological properties and phenotypical differences of these cells. PMID:26974322

  6. Transcription Factors Expressed in Mouse Cochlear Inner and Outer Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Huizhan; Barta, Cody L; Judge, Paul D; Zhao, Lidong; Zhang, Weiping J; Gong, Shusheng; Beisel, Kirk W; He, David Z Z

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is essential to determining the functional complexity and morphological diversity seen among different cells. Transcriptional regulation is a crucial step in gene expression regulation because the genetic information is directly read from DNA by sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs). Although several mouse TF databases created from genome sequences and transcriptomes are available, a cell type-specific TF database from any normal cell populations is still lacking. We identify cell type-specific TF genes expressed in cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) using hair cell-specific transcriptomes from adult mice. IHCs and OHCs are the two types of sensory receptor cells in the mammalian cochlea. We show that 1,563 and 1,616 TF genes are respectively expressed in IHCs and OHCs among 2,230 putative mouse TF genes. While 1,536 are commonly expressed in both populations, 73 genes are differentially expressed (with at least a twofold difference) in IHCs and 13 are differentially expressed in OHCs. Our datasets represent the first cell type-specific TF databases for two populations of sensory receptor cells and are key informational resources for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the biological properties and phenotypical differences of these cells. PMID:26974322

  7. Identification of a mouse TBP-like protein (TLP) distantly related to the drosophila TBP-related factor.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, T; Makino, Y; Tamura, T A

    1999-02-01

    TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an essential factor for eukaryotic transcription. In this study, we demonstrated a mouse cDNA encoding a 21 kDa TBP-like protein (TLP). The TLP ORF, carrying 186 amino acids, covered the entire 180 amino acids of the C-terminal conserved domain of mouse TBP with 39% identity and 76% similarity. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that TLP mRNAs were expressed in various mammalian tissues ubiquitously and that their distribution pattern was analogous to that of TBP. By using anti-TLP antibody, we demonstrated the existence of TLP proteins in various mammalian cells and tissues. The Drosophila TBP-related factor (TRF) is a neurogenesis-related transcription factor that binds to the TATA-box and activates transcription. TLP did not bind to the TATA-box nor direct transcription initiation. Multiple amino acids critical for TBP function were deleted or substituted in TLP, while amino acids in Drosophila TRF much resembled those in TBP. Similarity between Drosophila TRF and mouse TLP was considerably lower (alignment score 35) than that between Drosophila TBP and mouse TBP (alignment score 88). Identity of nucleotide sequences between mouse and putative human TLPs (94%) was higher than that between TBPs (91%) in these two animals. Expression of TLP was nearly constant throughout the P19 differentiation process. Accordingly, we suggest that, even if higher eukaryotes generally contain multiple tbp -related genes, TLP is not a bona fide mammalian counterpart of Drosophila TRF.

  8. Erlotinib resistance in mouse models of epidermal growth factor receptor-induced lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Katerina; Fan, Pang-Dian; Shen, Ronglai; Zakowski, Maureen; Varmus, Harold

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Seventy-five percent of lung adenocarcinomas with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations respond to treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib; however, drug-resistant tumors eventually emerge. In 60% of cases, resistant tumors carry a secondary mutation in EGFR (T790M), amplification of MET, or both. Here, we describe the establishment of erlotinib resistance in lung tumors, which were induced by mutant EGFR, in transgenic mice after multiple cycles of drug treatment; we detect the T790M mutation in five out of 24 tumors or Met amplification in one out of 11 tumors in these mice. This preclinical mouse model, therefore, recapitulates the molecular changes responsible for resistance to TKIs in human tumors and holds promise for the discovery of additional mechanisms of drug resistance in lung cancer. PMID:20007486

  9. Erlotinib resistance in mouse models of epidermal growth factor receptor-induced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Politi, Katerina; Fan, Pang-Dian; Shen, Ronglai; Zakowski, Maureen; Varmus, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of lung adenocarcinomas with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations respond to treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib; however, drug-resistant tumors eventually emerge. In 60% of cases, resistant tumors carry a secondary mutation in EGFR (T790M), amplification of MET, or both. Here, we describe the establishment of erlotinib resistance in lung tumors, which were induced by mutant EGFR, in transgenic mice after multiple cycles of drug treatment; we detect the T790M mutation in five out of 24 tumors or Met amplification in one out of 11 tumors in these mice. This preclinical mouse model, therefore, recapitulates the molecular changes responsible for resistance to TKIs in human tumors and holds promise for the discovery of additional mechanisms of drug resistance in lung cancer.

  10. Transcription factor access is mediated by accurately positioned nucleosomes on the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, T K; Cordingley, M G; Wolford, R G; Hager, G L

    1991-01-01

    A fragment of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter was reconstituted from pure histones into a dinucleosome with uniquely positioned octamer cores. Core boundaries for the in vitro-assembled dinucleosome corresponded to the observed in vivo phasing pattern for long terminal repeat nucleosomes A and B. Nuclear factor 1 (NF1), a constituent of the MMTV transcription initiation complex, was excluded from the assembled dinucleosome, whereas the glucocorticoid receptor was able to bind. During transcription of MMTV in vivo, displacement of nucleosome B was necessary to permit assembly of the initiation complex. These results indicate that the nucleoprotein structure of the promoter can provide differential access to sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins and that active chromatin remodeling can occur during transcription activation. Images PMID:1846670

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor numbers in male and female mouse primary hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Benveniste, R; Danoff, T M; Ilekis, J; Craig, H R

    1988-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) were measured in adult male and female mouse primary hepatocyte cultures. On culture day 1, female hepatocytes had significantly fewer EGF-R than male hepatocytes (1.3 x 10(4) versus 6.2 x 10(5) per cell). Over the next three days, morphological changes consistent with progressive heptocyte dedifferentiation were observed. During this period, EGF-R numbers progressively increased in female cultures and decreased in male cultures, and by day 4 the sexual difference in EGF-R numbers was obliterated. These results indicate that a relationship exists between the degree of differentiation in hepatocyte cultures and the expression of EGF-R on the cell surface.

  12. Role of Testicular Luminal Factors on Basal Cell Elongation and Proliferation in the Mouse Epididymis1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongki; Roy, Jeremy; Shum, Winnie W.C.; Da Silva, Nicolas; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A subset of basal cells (BCs) in the initial segment (IS) of the mouse epididymis has a slender body projection between adjacent epithelial cells. We show here that these projections occasionally cross the apical tight junctions and are in contact with the luminal environment. Luminal testicular factors are critical for the establishment of the IS epithelium, and we investigated their role in the regulation of this luminal sensing property. Efferent duct ligation (EDL) was performed to block luminal flow from the testis without affecting blood flow. Cytokeratin 5 (KRT5) labeling showed a time-dependent reduction of the percentage of BCs with intercellular projections from 1 to 5 days after EDL, compared to controls. Double labeling for caspase-3 and KRT5 showed that a subset of BCs undergoes apoptosis 1 day after EDL. Ki67/KRT5 double labeling showed a low rate of BC proliferation under basal conditions. However, EDL induced a marked increase in the proliferation rate of a subset of BCs 2 days after EDL. A 2-wk treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide did not affect the number of BCs with intercellular projections, but reduced BC proliferation. Flutamide treatment also reduced the increase in BC proliferation induced 2 days after EDL. We conclude that, in the adult mouse IS, 1) luminal testicular factors play an important role in the ability of BCs to extend their body projection towards the lumen, and are essential for the survival of a subset of BCs; 2) androgens play an important role in the proliferation of some of the BCs that survive the initial insult induced by EDL; and 3) the formation and elongation of BC intercellular projections do not depend on androgens. PMID:25411392

  13. Overexpression of gankyrin in mouse hepatocytes induces hemangioma by suppressing factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (FIH-1) and activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Higashitsuji, Hisako; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kiichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Fujita, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Gankyrin (also called p28 or PSMD10) is an oncoprotein commonly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. It consists of 7 ankyrin repeats and interacts with multiple proteins including Rb, Cdk4, MDM2 and NF-κB. To assess the oncogenic activity in vivo, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress gankyrin specifically in the hepatocytes. Unexpectedly, 5 of 7 F2 transgenic mice overexpressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) promoter-driven gankyrin, and one of 3 founder mice overexpressing serum amyloid P component (SAP) promoter-driven gankyrin developed hepatic vascular neoplasms (hemangioma/hemangiosarcomas) whereas none of the wild-type mice did. Endothelial overgrowth was more frequent in the livers of diethylnitrosamine-treated transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Mouse hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells overexpressing gankyrin formed tumors with more vascularity than parental Hepa1-6 cells in the transplanted mouse skin. We found that gankyrin binds to and sequester factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (FIH-1), which results in decreased interaction between FIH-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and increased activity of HIF-1 to promote VEGF production. The effects of gankyrin were more prominent under 3% O2 than 1% or 20% O2 conditions. Thus, the present study clarified, at least partly, mechanisms of vascular tumorigenesis, and suggests that gankyrin might play a physiological role in hypoxic responses besides its roles as an oncoprotein. PMID:23376718

  14. Compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture with an application to cluster mouse transcription factor DNA binding data.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Charnigo, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Modeling correlation structures is a challenge in bioinformatics, especially when dealing with high throughput genomic data. A compound hierarchical correlated beta mixture (CBM) with an exchangeable correlation structure is proposed to cluster genetic vectors into mixture components. The correlation coefficient, [Formula: see text], is homogenous within a mixture component and heterogeneous between mixture components. A random CBM with [Formula: see text] brings more flexibility in explaining correlation variations among genetic variables. Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and Stochastic Expectation-Maximization (SEM) algorithm are used to estimate parameters of CBM. The number of mixture components can be determined using model selection criteria such as AIC, BIC and ICL-BIC. Extensive simulation studies were conducted to compare EM, SEM and model selection criteria. Simulation results suggest that CBM outperforms the traditional beta mixture model with lower estimation bias and higher classification accuracy. The proposed method is applied to cluster transcription factor-DNA binding probability in mouse genome data generated by Lahdesmaki and others (2008, Probabilistic inference of transcription factor binding from multiple data sources. PLoS One, 3: , e1820). The results reveal distinct clusters of transcription factors when binding to promoter regions of genes in JAK-STAT, MAPK and other two pathways.

  15. Differential pathlength factor informs evoked stimulus response in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Alexander J; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Durkin, Anthony J; Venugopalan, Vasan; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    Baseline optical properties are typically assumed in calculating the differential pathlength factor (DPF) of mouse brains, a value used in the modified Beer-Lambert law to characterize an evoked stimulus response. We used spatial frequency domain imaging to measure in vivo baseline optical properties in 20-month-old control ([Formula: see text]) and triple transgenic APP/PS1/tau (3xTg-AD) ([Formula: see text]) mouse brains. Average [Formula: see text] for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 530 nm. Average [Formula: see text] for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, at 530 nm. The calculated DPF for control and 3xTg-AD mice was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] OD mm, respectively, at 460 nm; and [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] OD mm, respectively, at 530 nm. In hindpaw stimulation experiments, the hemodynamic increase in brain tissue concentration of oxyhemoglobin was threefold larger and two times longer in the control mice compared to 3xTg-AD mice. Furthermore, the washout of deoxyhemoglobin from increased brain perfusion was seven times larger in controls compared to 3xTg-AD mice ([Formula: see text]). PMID:26835482

  16. Methallothionein-3 contributes to vascular endothelial growth factor induction in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong A; Hwang, Jong-uk; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated possible roles of the zinc (Zn)-binding protein metallothionein-3 (MT3) and cellular Zn in a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using wild-type (WT) and MT3-knockout (KO) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR was used for the detection of MT3 mRNA. CNV was induced in mice between 8 and 12 weeks of age by disrupting the Bruch's membrane using an argon laser. Fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed 2 weeks following laser photocoagulation. The possible connection between MT3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was explored by quantifying VEGF levels in WT and MT3-KO mouse retinas by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The role of Zn in VEGF expression was tested in WT and MT3-KO cells treated with pyrithione, with or without additional Zn, using immunoblotting and fluorescence photomicrography. Following laser-treatment, MT3-KO mice exhibited substantially smaller areas of CNV compared to WT mice. In addition, retinal angiograms revealed less severe fluorescein leakage in MT3-KO mice than in WT mice. On day 14 following the induction of CNV, VEGF expression was markedly increased in WT mice, but remained unchanged in MT3-KO mice. Consistent with the possible involvement of Zn released from MT3, raising intracellular Zn levels increased VEGF levels and activated its receptor, Flk-1, in both WT and MT3-KO retinal cells. Present results demonstrated that neural retinal cells express high levels of MT3, which might play a role in the process of CNV development. Moreover, Zn released from MT3 may contribute to VEGF induction. PMID:23962989

  17. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  18. The epidermal growth factor receptor decreases Stathmin 1 and triggers catagen entry in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Hammiller, Brianna; Trempus, Carol S; Li, Yanhua; Hansen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary for normal involution of hair follicles after the growth phase of anagen, although the mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood. In this report, we used transcriptional profiling of microdissected hair follicles from mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr to investigate how EGFR activation triggers catagen. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR in mouse skin revealed increased activation of EGFR in follicular keratinocytes at catagen onset. Consistent with other models of EGFR deficiency, mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr (Krt14-Cre(+) /Egfr(fl/fl) ) exhibited a delayed and asynchronous catagen entry. Transcriptional profiling at the time of normal catagen onset at post-natal day (P) 17 revealed increased expression of the mitotic regulator Rcc2 in hair follicles lacking EGFR. Rcc2 protein was strongly immunopositive in the nuclei of control follicular keratinocytes at P16 then rapidly decreased until it was undetectable between P18 and 21. In contrast, Rcc2 expression continued in Egfr mutant follicles throughout this period. Proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also significantly increased in Egfr mutant follicular keratinocytes compared to controls at P18-21. Similarly, Rcc2-regulated mitotic regulator Stathmin 1 was strikingly reduced in control but not Egfr mutant follicles between P17 and P19. Deletion of Stmn1, in turn, accelerated catagen entry associated with premature cessation of proliferation in the hair follicles. These data reveal EGFR suppression of mitotic regulators including Rcc2 and Stathmin 1 as a mechanism for catagen induction in mouse skin.

  19. Targeting tissue factor on tumor vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells for immunotherapy in mouse models of prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Garen, A

    2001-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of an immunoconjugate (icon) molecule, composed of a mutated mouse factor VII (mfVII) targeting domain and the Fc effector domain of an IgG1 Ig (mfVII/Fc icon), was tested with a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human prostatic cancer and an immunocompetent mouse model of mouse prostatic cancer. The SCID mice were first injected s.c. with a human prostatic tumor line, forming a skin tumor that produces a high blood titer of prostate-specific antigen and metastasizes to bone. The icon was encoded in a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector that was injected directly into the skin tumor. The tumor cells infected by the vector synthesize and secrete the icon into the blood, and the blood-borne icon binds with high affinity and specificity to mouse tissue factor expressed on endothelial cells lining the lumen of the tumor vasculature and to human tissue factor expressed on the tumor cells. The Fc domain of the icon activates a cytolytic immune attack against cells that bind the icon. The immunotherapy tests in SCID mice demonstrated that intratumoral injections of the adenoviral vector encoding the mfVII/human Fc icon resulted in long-term regression of the injected human prostatic tumor and also of a distant uninjected tumor, without associated toxicity to the mice. Comparable results were obtained with a SCID mouse model of human melanoma. At the end of the experiments the mice appeared to be free of viable tumor cells. This protocol also could be efficacious for treating cancer patients who have vascularized tumors.

  20. Targeting tissue factor on tumor vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells for immunotherapy in mouse models of prostatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Garen, A

    2001-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of an immunoconjugate (icon) molecule, composed of a mutated mouse factor VII (mfVII) targeting domain and the Fc effector domain of an IgG1 Ig (mfVII/Fc icon), was tested with a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human prostatic cancer and an immunocompetent mouse model of mouse prostatic cancer. The SCID mice were first injected s.c. with a human prostatic tumor line, forming a skin tumor that produces a high blood titer of prostate-specific antigen and metastasizes to bone. The icon was encoded in a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector that was injected directly into the skin tumor. The tumor cells infected by the vector synthesize and secrete the icon into the blood, and the blood-borne icon binds with high affinity and specificity to mouse tissue factor expressed on endothelial cells lining the lumen of the tumor vasculature and to human tissue factor expressed on the tumor cells. The Fc domain of the icon activates a cytolytic immune attack against cells that bind the icon. The immunotherapy tests in SCID mice demonstrated that intratumoral injections of the adenoviral vector encoding the mfVII/human Fc icon resulted in long-term regression of the injected human prostatic tumor and also of a distant uninjected tumor, without associated toxicity to the mice. Comparable results were obtained with a SCID mouse model of human melanoma. At the end of the experiments the mice appeared to be free of viable tumor cells. This protocol also could be efficacious for treating cancer patients who have vascularized tumors. PMID:11593034

  1. Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor in mouse embryonic stem cell culture and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Laura C; Fitzsimmons, Ross; Lee, Poh; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E; Uludağ, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells are actively explored as a cell source in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving bone repair. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been a valuable growth factor to support the culture of human stem cells as well as their osteogenic differentiation, but the influence of bFGF on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells is not known. Towards this goal, D3 cells were treated with bFGF during maintenance conditions and during spontaneous and osteogenic differentiation. In feeder-free monolayers, up to 40 ng/ml of exogenous bFGF did not support self-renewal of mES without LIF during cell expansion. During spontaneous differentiation in high-density cultures, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation under certain conditions but did not influence differentiation, as judged by stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression. The addition of bFGF reduced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity associated with osteoblast activity during differentiation induced by osteogenic supplements, although the extent of mineralization was unaffected by bFGF. The bFGF increased the mesenchymal stem cell marker Sca-1 in an mES cell population and led to an enhanced increase in osteocalcin and runx2 expression in combination with BMP-2. These results suggest that bFGF could be utilized to expand the cell population in high-density cultures in addition to enriching the BMP-2 responsiveness of mES cells. PMID:22674886

  2. Colony stimulating factor 1 is an extrinsic stimulator of mouse spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Oatley, Jon M.; Oatley, Melissa J.; Avarbock, Mary R.; Tobias, John W.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation for testis homeostasis, yet mechanisms that control their functions in mammals are poorly defined. We used microarray transcript profiling to identify specific genes whose expressions are augmented in the SSC-enriched Thy1+ germ cell fraction of mouse pup testes. Comparisons of gene expression in the Thy1+ germ cell fraction with the Thy1-depleted testis cell population identified 202 genes that are expressed 10-fold or higher in Thy1+ cells. This database provided a mining tool to investigate specific characteristics of SSCs and identify novel mechanisms that potentially influence their functions. These analyses revealed that colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r) gene expression is enriched in Thy1+ germ cells. Addition of recombinant colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), the specific ligand for Csf1r, to culture media significantly enhanced the self-renewal of SSCs in heterogeneous Thy1+ spermatogonial cultures over a 63-day period without affecting total germ cell expansion. In vivo, expression of Csf1 in both pre-pubertal and adult testes was localized to clusters of Leydig cells and select peritubular myoid cells. Collectively, these results identify Csf1 as an extrinsic stimulator of SSC self-renewal and implicate Leydig and myoid cells as contributors of the testicular stem cell niche in mammals. PMID:19270176

  3. Developmental and degenerative modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcript variants in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwook; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Juhwan; Song, Lina; Lee, Sueun; Son, Yeonghoon; Kang, Sohi; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Shin, Taekyun; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is regarded as an important factor for neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal network organization in brain circuits. However, little is known about the regulation of BDNF transcript variants in the hippocampus during postnatal development and following chemically induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the expression of individual BDNF transcript variants in the mouse hippocampus on postnatal day (PD) 3, 7, 14, 21, and 56, as well as in the adult hippocampus 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after trimethyltin (TMT) treatment. During postnatal development, the expression levels of common BDNF-coding transcripts and BDNF transcript variants increased gradually in the hippocampus, but the temporal patterns of each exon transcript showed significant differences. In the TMT-treated hippocampus, the levels of common BDNF-coding transcripts and exon I, IIC, III, VII, VIII, and IXA transcripts were significantly increased 1 day post-treatment. These observations suggest that the differential regulation of BDNF exon transcripts may be associated with neuronal and synaptic maturation during postnatal development, and neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in chemically induced neurodegeneration.

  4. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibiting factor on oxytocin and vasopressin magnocellular neuron survival in rat and mouse hypothalamic organotypic cultures

    PubMed Central

    House, Shirley B.; Li, Congyu; Yue, Chunmei; Gainer, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Organotypic cultures of mouse and rat magnocellular neurons (MCNs) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) have served as important experimental models for the molecular and physiological study of this neuronal phenotype. However, it has been difficult to maintain significant numbers of the MCNs, particularly vasopressin MCNs, in these cultures for long periods. In this paper, we describe the use of the neurotrophic factors, leukemia inhibiting factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to rescue rat vasopressin (Avp)- and oxytocin (Oxt) – MCNs from axotomy-induced, programmed cell death in vitro. Quantitative data are presented for the efficacy of the LIF family of neurotrophic factors on the survival of MCNs in three nuclei, the paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei in the mouse and rat hypothalamus. PMID:19118574

  5. Structure of the chromosomal gene for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: comparison of the mouse and human genes.

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, S; Otsuka, T; Yokota, T; Lee, F; Arai, K

    1985-01-01

    A cDNA clone that expresses granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activity in COS-7 cells has been isolated from a pcD library prepared from mRNA derived from concanavalin A-activated mouse helper T cell clones. Based on homology with the mouse GM-CSF cDNA sequence, the mouse GM-CSF gene was isolated. The human GM-CSF gene was also isolated based on homology with the human GM-CSF cDNA sequence. The nucleotide sequences determined for the genes and their flanking regions revealed that both the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are composed of three introns and four exons. The organization of the mouse and human GM-CSF genes are highly homologous and strong sequence homology between the two genes is found both in the coding and non-coding regions. A 'TATA'-like sequence was found 20-25 bp upstream from the transcription initiation site. In the 5'-flanking region, there is a highly homologous region extending 330 bp upstream of the putative TATA box. This sequence may play a role in regulation of expression of the GM-CSF gene. These structures are compared with those of different lymphokine genes and their regulatory regions. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3876930

  6. Transcription factors link mouse WAP-T mammary tumors with human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Streichert, Thomas; Wegwitz, Florian; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Klätschke, Kristin; Wagener, Christoph; Deppert, Wolfgang; Tolstonog, Genrich V

    2013-03-15

    Mouse models are important tools to decipher the molecular mechanisms of mammary carcinogenesis and to mimic the respective human disease. Despite sharing common phenotypic and genetic features, the proper translation of murine models to human breast cancer remains a challenging task. In a previous study we showed that in the SV40 transgenic WAP-T mice an active Met-pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal characteristics distinguish low- and high-grade mammary carcinoma. To assign these murine tumors to corresponding human tumors we here incorporated the analysis of expression of transcription factor (TF) coding genes and show that thereby a more accurate interspecies translation can be achieved. We describe a novel cross-species translation procedure and demonstrate that expression of unsupervised selected TFs, such as ELF5, HOXA5 and TFCP2L1, can clearly distinguish between the human molecular breast cancer subtypes--or as, for example, expression of TFAP2B between yet unclassified subgroups. By integrating different levels of information like histology, gene set enrichment, expression of differentiation markers and TFs we conclude that tumors in WAP-T mice exhibit similarities to both, human basal-like and non-basal-like subtypes. We furthermore suggest that the low- and high-grade WAP-T tumor phenotypes might arise from distinct cells of tumor origin. Our results underscore the importance of TFs as common cross-species denominators in the regulatory networks underlying mammary carcinogenesis.

  7. von Willebrand factor contributes to poor outcome in a mouse model of intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ximin; Cao, Yongliang; Wei, Lixiang; Cai, Ping; Xu, Haochen; Luo, Haiyu; Bai, Xiaofei; Lu, Lu; Liu, Jian-Ren; Fan, Wenying; Zhao, Bing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype and has no proven treatment. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has recently been demonstrated to promote inflammation processes. The present study investigated the pathophysiological role of VWF after experimental ICH. Functional outcomes, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral inflammation and levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured in a mouse model of ICH induced by autologous blood injection. We show that VWF were increased in the plasma and was accumulated in the perihematomal regions of mice subjected to ICH. Injection of VWF resulted in incerased expression of proinflammatory mediators and activation of ICAM-1 and MMP-9, associated with elevated myeloperoxidase, recruitment of neutrophils and microglia. Moreover, mice treated with VWF showed dramatically decreased pericyte coverage, more severe BBB damage and edema formation, and neuronal injury was increased compared with controls. In contrast, blocking antibodies against VWF reduced BBB damage and edema formation and improved neurological function. Together, these data identify a critical role for VWF in cerebral inflammation and BBB damage after ICH. The therapeutic interventions targeting VWF may be a novel strategy to reduce ICH-related injury. PMID:27782211

  8. Role of transforming growth factor-beta in the development of the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical methods, we have investigated the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the development of the mouse embryo. For detection of TGF-beta in 11-18-d-old embryos, we have used a polyclonal antibody specific for TGF-beta type 1 and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique. Staining of TGF-beta is closely associated with mesenchyme per se or with tissues derived from mesenchyme, such as connective tissue, cartilage, and bone. TGF-beta is conspicuous in tissues derived from neural crest mesenchyme, such as the palate, larynx, facial mesenchyme, nasal sinuses, meninges, and teeth. Staining of all of these tissues is greatest during periods of morphogenesis. In many instances, intense staining is seen in mesenchyme when critical interactions with adjacent epithelium occur, as in the development of hair follicles, teeth, and the submandibular gland. Marked staining is also seen when remodeling of mesenchyme or mesoderm occurs, as during formation of digits from limb buds, formation of the palate, and formation of the heart valves. The presence of TGF-beta is often coupled with pronounced angiogenic activity. The histochemical results are discussed in terms of the known biochemical actions of TGF-beta, especially its ability to control both synthesis and degradation of both structural and adhesion molecules of the extracellular matrix. PMID:3320058

  9. mReg2 inhibits nuclear entry of apoptosis-inducing factor in mouse insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Chowdhury, Subrata; Uppal, Sadaf; Fang, Xin; Liu, Jun-Li; Srikant, Coimbatore B

    2015-02-01

    We have reported earlier that murine-regenerating gene mReg2 protects MIN6 mouse insulinoma cells from ER stress and caspase-mediated apoptosis. In apoptotic cells, DNA damage is induced by the nuclear translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Here we tested the hypothesis that mReg2 may regulate Scythe and/or hsp70 which influence the nuclear import of AIF. Treatment with thapsigargin (Tg) or doxorubicin induced an increase in nuclear AIF in MIN6 cells carrying the empty transfection vector (MIN6-VC) but not in cells overexpressing mReg2 (MIN6-mReg2). On one hand, nuclear Scythe was higher in the nucleus of MIN6-mReg2 compared with that in MIN6-VC cells. mReg2 did not alter the expression of AIF or Scythe. On the other hand, mReg2 induced the expression of hsp70 which is known to promote cytosolic retention of AIF. We conclude that mReg2 inhibits AIF-mediated apoptosis by promoting the nuclear presence of Scythe and inducing hsp70.

  10. Sources and biology of regulatory factors active on mouse myeloid leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, D.

    1982-01-01

    The action of serum or cells in enforcing differentiation in mouse myelomonocytic leukemic cells was monitored in agar cultures of WEHI-3B leukemic cells. The repeated intravenous injection of 5 ..mu..g endotoxin initially increased serum differentiating activity but after the third injection responses to further injections decreased markedly. Congenitally athymic (nude) mice exhibited normal rises in serum differentiating activity when injected with endotoxin but C3H HeJ mice failed to respond to challenge with purified lipid A. Whole body irradiation up to 1,200 rads did not increase serum differentiating activity but did not suppress responses to challenge injection of endotoxin. Coculture of WEHI-3B cells with peritoneal cells from normal or irradiated BALB/c mice caused marked granulocytic differentiation in WEHI-3B colonies. This effect was not seen if leukemic cells were cultured with thymus, spleen, or bone marrow cells. The serum halflife of the factor in postendotoxin serum enforcing differentiation of WEHI-3B cells was shown to be 1.5-2.3 hr.

  11. The pluripotency factor Nanog regulates pericentromeric heterochromatin organization in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Novo, Clara Lopes; Tang, Calvin; Ahmed, Kashif; Djuric, Ugljesa; Fussner, Eden; Mullin, Nicholas P; Morgan, Natasha P; Hayre, Jasvinder; Sienerth, Arnold R; Elderkin, Sarah; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Chambers, Ian; Ellis, James; Bazett-Jones, David P; Rugg-Gunn, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    An open and decondensed chromatin organization is a defining property of pluripotency. Several epigenetic regulators have been implicated in maintaining an open chromatin organization, but how these processes are connected to the pluripotency network is unknown. Here, we identified a new role for the transcription factor NANOG as a key regulator connecting the pluripotency network with constitutive heterochromatin organization in mouse embryonic stem cells. Deletion of Nanog leads to chromatin compaction and the remodeling of heterochromatin domains. Forced expression of NANOG in epiblast stem cells is sufficient to decompact chromatin. NANOG associates with satellite repeats within heterochromatin domains, contributing to an architecture characterized by highly dispersed chromatin fibers, low levels of H3K9me3, and high major satellite transcription, and the strong transactivation domain of NANOG is required for this organization. The heterochromatin-associated protein SALL1 is a direct cofactor for NANOG, and loss of Sall1 recapitulates the Nanog-null phenotype, but the loss of Sall1 can be circumvented through direct recruitment of the NANOG transactivation domain to major satellites. These results establish a direct connection between the pluripotency network and chromatin organization and emphasize that maintaining an open heterochromatin architecture is a highly regulated process in embryonic stem cells. PMID:27125671

  12. Connective tissue growth factor production by activated pancreatic stellate cells in mouse alcoholic chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Alyssa; Brigstock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is characterized by pancreatic necrosis, inflammation, and scarring, the latter of which is due to excessive collagen deposition by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). The aim of this study was to establish a model of ACP in mice, a species that is usually resistant to the toxic effects of alcohol, and to identify the cell type(s) responsible for production of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a pro-fibrotic molecule. C57Bl/6 male mice received intraperitoneal ethanol injections for three weeks against a background of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Peak blood alcohol levels remained consistently high in ethanol-treated mice as compared to control mice. In mice receiving ethanol plus cerulein, there was increased collagen deposition as compared to other treatment groups as well as increased frequency of α-smooth muscle actin and desmin-positive PSC which also demonstrated significantly enhanced CTGF protein production. Expression of mRNA for collagen α1(I), α-smooth muscle actin or CTGF were all increased and co-localized exclusively to activated PSC in ACP. Pancreatic expression of mRNA for key profibrotic markers were all increased in ACP. In conclusion, a mouse model of ACP has been developed that mimics key pathophysiological features of the disease in humans and which shows that activated PSC are the principal producers of collagen and CTGF. PSC-derived CTGF is thus a candidate therapeutic target in anti-fibrotic strategies for ACP. PMID:20368699

  13. Antibodies That Block or Activate Mouse B Cell Activating Factor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Family (BAFF), Respectively, Induce B Cell Depletion or B Cell Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Vigolo, Michele; Willen, Laure; Tardivel, Aubry; Smulski, Cristian R; Zheng, Timothy S; Gommerman, Jennifer; Hess, Henry; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mackay, Fabienne; Donzé, Olivier; Schneider, Pascal

    2016-09-16

    B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), also known as B lymphocyte stimulator, is a ligand required for the generation and maintenance of B lymphocytes. In this study, the ability of different monoclonal antibodies to recognize, inhibit, or activate mouse BAFF was investigated. One of them, a mouse IgG1 named Sandy-2, prevented the binding of BAFF to all of its receptors, BAFF receptor, transmembrane activator and calcium modulating ligand interactor, and B cell maturation antigen, at a stoichiometric ratio; blocked the activity of mouse BAFF on a variety of cell-based reporter assays; and antagonized the prosurvival action of BAFF on primary mouse B cells in vitro A single administration of Sandy-2 in mice induced B cell depletion within 2 weeks, down to levels close to those observed in BAFF-deficient mice. This depletion could then be maintained with a chronic treatment. Sandy-2 and a previously described rat IgG1 antibody, 5A8, also formed a pair suitable for the sensitive detection of endogenous circulating BAFF by ELISA or using a homogenous assay. Interestingly, 5A8 and Sandy-5 displayed activities opposite to that of Sandy-2 by stimulating recombinant BAFF in vitro and endogenous BAFF in vivo These tools will prove useful for the detection and functional manipulation of endogenous mouse BAFF and provide an alternative to the widely used BAFF receptor-Fc decoy receptor for the specific depletion of BAFF in mice. PMID:27451394

  14. Haploinsufficiency of interferon regulatory factor 6 alters brain morphology in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Andrea; DeVolder, Ian; Weinberg, Seth M; Thedens, Dan; Dunnwald, Martine; Schutte, Brian C; Nopoulos, Peg

    2014-03-01

    Orofacial clefts are among the commonest birth defects. Among many genetic contributors to orofacial clefting, Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is unique since mutations in this gene cause Van der Woude (VWS), the most common clefting syndrome. Furthermore, variants in IRF6 contribute to increased risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Our previous work shows that individuals with either VWS or NSCL/P may have cerebral anomalies (larger anterior, smaller posterior regions), and a smaller cerebellum. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that disrupting Irf6 in the mouse will result in quantitative brain changes similar to those reported for humans with VWS and NSCL/P. Male mice heterozygous for Irf6 (Irf6(gt1/+); n = 9) and wild-type (Irf6(+/+) ; n = 6) mice at comparable age underwent a 4.7-T MRI scan to obtain quantitative measures of cortical and subcortical brain structures. There was no difference in total brain volume between groups. However, the frontal cortex was enlarged in the Irf6(gt1/+) mice compared to that of wild types (P = 0.028) while the posterior cortex did not differ. In addition, the volume of the cerebellum of Irf6(gt1/+) mice was decreased (P = 0.004). Mice that were heterozygous for Irf6 showed a similar pattern of brain anomalies previously reported in humans with VWS and NSCL/P. These structural differences were present in the absence of overt oral clefts. These results support a role for IRF6 in brain morphometry and provide evidence for a potential genetic link to abnormal brain development in orofacial clefting. PMID:24357509

  15. Fibroblast growth factor 21 prevents glycemic deterioration in insulin deficient mouse models of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Omar, Bilal A; Rakipovski, Günaj; Raun, Kirsten; Ahrén, Bo

    2015-10-01

    In type 1 diabetes, there is a rapid loss of glycemic control immediately after onset of the disease. We aimed to determine if the deterioration of glycemic control that occurs early after the onset of insulin-deficient diabetes could be blunted by treatment with recombinant fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Normal C57BL/6J mice made diabetic by a single high dose injection of streptozotocin (STZ) were randomized to receive twice daily subcutaneous injection of vehicle or recombinant human FGF21 at doses of 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg for 10 days. Body weight was recorded daily and 5 h fasted glucose, insulin, glucagon, free fatty acids and ketones were determined at 6 and 10 days post-randomization. The increase in fasting plasma glucose induced by STZ in untreated mice was prevented with FGF21 at 0.3 mg/kg BID. In contrast, at 1.0 mg/kg BID, FGF21 did not prevent the rise in plasma glucose after STZ. At the end of the study, plasma glucagon was significantly higher in the diabetic group treated with FGF21 1.0 mg/kg BID than in the untreated group. This was not seen for the group treated with FGF21 0.3 mg/kg BID. There were significant dose dependent reductions in plasma free fatty acids with FGF21 treatment but no significant change in plasma ketones (β-hydroxybutyrate). FGF21 treatment did not have significant effects on body weight in lean insulin deficient mice. In conclusion, FGF21 prevents increases in glycaemia and has lipid lowering properties in mouse models of insulin deficient diabetes, although by increasing the dose increased glucagon levels are seen and hyperglycemia persists.

  16. Action of Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Mouse Dorsal Vagal Complex.

    PubMed

    Senzacqua, Martina; Severi, Ilenia; Perugini, Jessica; Acciarini, Samantha; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces weight loss in obese rodents and humans through activation of the hypothalamic Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CNTF also affects the brainstem centers involved in feeding and energy balance regulation. To this end, wild-type and leptin-deficient (ob/ob and db/db) obese mice were acutely treated with intraperitoneal recombinant CNTF. Coronal brainstem sections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of STAT3, STAT1, STAT5 phosphorylation and c-Fos. In wild-type mice, CNTF treatment for 45 min induced STAT3, STAT1, and STAT5 phosphorylation in neurons as well as glial cells of the area postrema; here, the majority of CNTF-responsive cells activated multiple STAT isoforms, and a significant proportion of CNTF-responsive glial cells bore the immaturity and plasticity markers nestin and vimentin. After 120 min CNTF treatment, c-Fos expression was intense in glial cells and weak in neurons of the area postrema, it was intense in several neurons of the rostral and caudal solitary tract nucleus (NTS), and weak in some cholinergic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. In the ob/ob and db/db mice, Jak-STAT activation and c-Fos expression were similar to those induced in wild-type mouse brainstem. Treatment with CNTF (120 min, to induce c-Fos expression) and leptin (25 min, to induce STAT3 phosphorylation) demonstrated the co-localization of the two transcription factors in a small neuron population in the caudal NTS portion. Finally, weak immunohistochemical CNTF staining, detected in funiculus separans, and meningeal glial cells, matched the modest amount of CNTF found by RT-qPCR in micropunched area postrema tissue, which in contrast exhibited a very high amount of CNTF receptor. Collectively, the present findings show that the area postrema and the NTS exhibit high, distinctive responsiveness to circulating

  17. Action of Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Mouse Dorsal Vagal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Senzacqua, Martina; Severi, Ilenia; Perugini, Jessica; Acciarini, Samantha; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces weight loss in obese rodents and humans through activation of the hypothalamic Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CNTF also affects the brainstem centers involved in feeding and energy balance regulation. To this end, wild-type and leptin-deficient (ob/ob and db/db) obese mice were acutely treated with intraperitoneal recombinant CNTF. Coronal brainstem sections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of STAT3, STAT1, STAT5 phosphorylation and c-Fos. In wild-type mice, CNTF treatment for 45 min induced STAT3, STAT1, and STAT5 phosphorylation in neurons as well as glial cells of the area postrema; here, the majority of CNTF-responsive cells activated multiple STAT isoforms, and a significant proportion of CNTF-responsive glial cells bore the immaturity and plasticity markers nestin and vimentin. After 120 min CNTF treatment, c-Fos expression was intense in glial cells and weak in neurons of the area postrema, it was intense in several neurons of the rostral and caudal solitary tract nucleus (NTS), and weak in some cholinergic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. In the ob/ob and db/db mice, Jak-STAT activation and c-Fos expression were similar to those induced in wild-type mouse brainstem. Treatment with CNTF (120 min, to induce c-Fos expression) and leptin (25 min, to induce STAT3 phosphorylation) demonstrated the co-localization of the two transcription factors in a small neuron population in the caudal NTS portion. Finally, weak immunohistochemical CNTF staining, detected in funiculus separans, and meningeal glial cells, matched the modest amount of CNTF found by RT-qPCR in micropunched area postrema tissue, which in contrast exhibited a very high amount of CNTF receptor. Collectively, the present findings show that the area postrema and the NTS exhibit high, distinctive responsiveness to circulating

  18. Functional and structural characterization of P40, a mouse glycoprotein with T-cell growth factor activity.

    PubMed Central

    Uyttenhove, C; Simpson, R J; Van Snick, J

    1988-01-01

    Antigen-independent cell lines were derived from mouse helper T-cell clones by culture in autologous supernatant obtained after stimulation with concanavalin A. A factor, termed P40, supporting the growth of these lines was purified and characterized as a basic 32- to 39-kDa single-chain glycoprotein functionally distinct from previously identified T-cell growth factors and apparently unrelated structurally to any known protein. Of a number of cell lines, only helper T cells responded to P40, and this response was not mediated by either interleukin 2 or interleukin 4. Images PMID:3137580

  19. Integrating Factor Analysis and a Transgenic Mouse Model to Reveal a Peripheral Blood Predictor of Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transgenic mouse tumor models have the advantage of facilitating controlled in vivo oncogenic perturbations in a common genetic background. This provides an idealized context for generating transcriptome-based diagnostic models while minimizing the inherent noisiness of high-throughput technologies. However, the question remains whether models developed in such a setting are suitable prototypes for useful human diagnostics. We show that latent factor modeling of the peripheral blood transcriptome in a mouse model of breast cancer provides the basis for using computational methods to link a mouse model to a prototype human diagnostic based on a common underlying biological response to the presence of a tumor. Methods We used gene expression data from mouse peripheral blood cell (PBC) samples to identify significantly differentially expressed genes using supervised classification and sparse ANOVA. We employed these transcriptome data as the starting point for developing a breast tumor predictor from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by using a factor modeling approach. Results The predictor distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals in a cohort of patients independent from that used to build the factors and train the model with 89% sensitivity, 100% specificity and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 using Youden's J-statistic to objectively select the model's classification threshold. Both permutation testing of the model and evaluating the model strategy by swapping the training and validation sets highlight its stability. Conclusions We describe a human breast tumor predictor based on the gene expression of mouse PBCs. This strategy overcomes many of the limitations of earlier studies by using the model system to reduce noise and identify transcripts associated with the presence of a breast tumor over other potentially confounding factors. Our results serve as a proof-of-concept for using an animal model to develop a

  20. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on muscle in mouse models of human growth disorders.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ryan P; Schuenke, Mark; Keeton, Stephanie M; Staron, Robert S; Kopchick, John J

    2006-01-01

    The precise effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on muscle development and physiology are relatively unknown. Furthermore, there have been conflicting reports on the effects of GH/IGF-I on muscle. Distinguishing the direct effects of GH versus those of IGF-I is problematic, but animal models with altered GH/IGF-I action could help to alleviate some of the conflicting results and help to determine the independent actions of GH and IGF-I. The phenotypes of several mouse models, namely the GH receptor-gene-disrupted (GHR -/-) mouse and a variety of IGF-I -/- mice, are summarized, which ultimately will aid our understanding of this complex area. PMID:17259718

  1. Characterisation of cisplatin-induced transcriptomics responses in primary mouse hepatocytes, HepG2 cells and mouse embryonic stem cells shows conservation of regulating transcription factor networks.

    PubMed

    Rieswijk, Linda; Lizarraga, Daneida; Brauers, Karen J J; Kleinjans, Jos C S; van Delft, Joost H M

    2014-01-01

    The toxic mechanisms of cisplatin have been frequently studied in many species and in vitro cell models. The Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre focuses on developing in vitro alternatives using genomics technologies for animal-based assays on, e.g. genotoxic hazards. Models such as human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells, mouse primary hepatocytes (PMH) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) are used. Our aim was to identify possibly robust conserved mechanisms between these models using cisplatin as model genotoxic agent. Transcriptomic data newly generated from HepG2 cells and PMH exposed to 7 µM cisplatin for 12, 24 and 48h and 24 and 48h, respectively, were compared with published data from mESC exposed to 5 µM cisplatin for 2-24h. Due to differences in response time between models and marginal changes after shorter exposure periods, we focused on 24 and 48h. At gene level, 44 conserved differentially expressed genes (DEG), involved in processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle, DNA damage response and DNA repair, were found. Functional analysis shows that limited numbers of pathways are conserved. Transcription factor (TF) network analysis indicates 12 common TF networks responding among all models and time points. Four TF, HNF4-α, SP1, c-MYC and p53, capable of regulating ±50% of all DEG, seem of equal importance in all models and exposure periods. Here we showed that transcriptomic responses across several in vitro cell models following exposure to cisplatin are mainly determined by a conserved complex network of 4 TFs. These conserved responses are hypothesised to provide most relevant information for human toxicity prediction and may form the basis for new in vitro alternatives of risk assessment.

  2. Tissue distribution of products of the mouse decay-accelerating factor (DAF) genes. Exploitation of a Daf1 knock-out mouse and site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Fukuoka, Y; Spicer, A; Ohta, R; Okada, N; Harris, C L; Emancipator, S N; Medof, M E

    2001-10-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a membrane regulator of C3 activation that protects self cells from autologous complement attack. In humans, DAF is uniformly expressed as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecule. In mice, both GPI-anchored and transmembrane-anchored DAF proteins are produced, each of which can be derived from two different genes (Daf1 and Daf2). In this report, we describe a Daf1 gene knock-out mouse arising as the first product of a strategy for targeting one or both Daf genes. As part of the work, we characterize recently described monoclonal antibodies against murine DAF protein using deletion mutants synthesized in yeast, and then employ the monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with wild-type and the Daf1 knock-out mice to determine the tissue distribution of the mouse Daf1 and Daf2 gene products. To enhance the immunohistochemical detection of murine DAF protein, we utilized the sensitive tyramide fluorescence method. In wild-type mice, we found strong DAF labelling of glomeruli, airway and gut epithelium, the spleen, vascular endothelium throughout all tissues, and seminiferous tubules of the testis. In Daf1 knock-out mice, DAF labelling was ablated in most tissues, but strong labelling of the testis and splenic dendritic cells remained. In both sites, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses identified both GPI and transmembrane forms of Daf2 gene-derived protein. The results have relevance for studies of in vivo murine DAF function and of murine DAF structure.

  3. Transforming growth factor-beta1 upregulates myostatin expression in mouse C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Budasz-Rwiderska, M; Jank, M; Motyl, T

    2005-06-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) belong to the same TGF-beta superfamily of proteins. They are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle growth and development as well as muscle catabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between MSTN and TGF-beta1 expression in proliferating and differentiating mouse C2C12 myoblasts cultured in normal and catabolic conditions and to evaluate the effect of exogenous TGF-beta1 as well as "knock down" of TGF-beta1 receptor type II on MSTN expression in proliferating and differentiating myogenic cells. The direct effect of TGF-beta1 on myostatin was also examined. Myostatin expression increased gradually with cell confluency in proliferating cultures, while the level of TGF-beta1, detected in the form of a 100 kDa small latent complex diminished. Myostatin expression was accompanied by a partial cell cycle arrest. Three forms of myostatin were found: a 52 kDa precursor, a 40 kDa latency associated propeptide, and a 26 kDa active peptide. A decrease in myostatin and TGF-beta1 levels was observed during the first three days of differentiation, which was subsequently followed by significant increase of their expression during next three to four days of differentiation. Catabolic state induced by dexamethasone significantly increased the level of all forms of myostatin as well as latent (100 kDa) and active (25 kDa) forms of TGF-beta1 in differentiating myoblasts in a dose dependent manner. Exogenous TGF-beta1 (2 ng/ml) significantly increased myostatin levels both in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, whereas silencing of the TGF-beta1 receptor II gene significantly lowered myostatin level in examined cells. The presented results indicate that TGF-beta1 may control myostatin-related regulation of myogenesis through up-regulation of myostatin, predominantly in the course of terminal differentiation and glucocorticoid-dependent catabolic stimulation.

  4. Accelerated phagocytosis of amyloid-beta by mouse and human microglia overexpressing the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Mitrasinovic, Olivera M; Murphy, Greer M

    2002-08-16

    Microglia surrounding A beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease and in the APPV717F transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease have enhanced immunoreactivity for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), encoded by the proto-oncogene c-fms. Increased expression of M-CSFR on cultured microglia results in proliferation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase. We transfected mouse BV-2 and human SV-A3 microglia to overexpress M-CSFR and examined microglial phagocytosis of fluorescein-conjugated A beta. Flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy showed accelerated phagocytosis of A beta in mouse and human microglia because of M-CSFR overexpression that was time- and concentration-dependent. In contrast, microglial uptake of 1-microm diameter polystyrene microspheres was not enhanced by M-CSFR overexpression. Microglial uptake of A beta was blocked by cytochalasin D, which inhibits phagocytosis. M-CSFR overexpression increased the mRNA for macrophage scavenger receptor A, and fucoidan blocking of macrophage scavenger receptors inhibited uptake of A beta. M-CSFR antibody blocking experiments demonstrated that increased A beta uptake depended on the interaction of the M-CSFR with its ligand. These results suggest that overexpression of M-CSFR in APPV717F mice may prime microglia for phagocytosis of A beta after immunization.

  5. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function.

  6. Mouse Y-Encoded Transcription Factor Zfy2 Is Essential for Sperm Head Remodelling and Sperm Tail Development

    PubMed Central

    Vernet, Nadege; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Longepied, Guy; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Burgoyne, Paul S.; Mitchell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A previous study indicated that genetic information encoded on the mouse Y chromosome short arm (Yp) is required for efficient completion of the second meiotic division (that generates haploid round spermatids), restructuring of the sperm head, and development of the sperm tail. Using mouse models lacking a Y chromosome but with varying Yp gene complements provided by Yp chromosomal derivatives or transgenes, we recently identified the Y-encoded zinc finger transcription factors Zfy1 and Zfy2 as the Yp genes promoting the second meiotic division. Using the same mouse models we here show that Zfy2 (but not Zfy1) contributes to the restructuring of the sperm head and is required for the development of the sperm tail. The preferential involvement of Zfy2 is consistent with the presence of an additional strong spermatid-specific promotor that has been acquired by this gene. This is further supported by the fact that promotion of sperm morphogenesis is also seen in one of the two markedly Yp gene deficient models in which a Yp deletion has created a Zfy2/1 fusion gene that is driven by the strong Zfy2 spermatid-specific promotor, but encodes a protein almost identical to that encoded by Zfy1. Our results point to there being further genetic information on Yp that also has a role in restructuring the sperm head. PMID:26765744

  7. Mouse Y-Encoded Transcription Factor Zfy2 Is Essential for Sperm Head Remodelling and Sperm Tail Development.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Nadege; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Longepied, Guy; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Mitchell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    A previous study indicated that genetic information encoded on the mouse Y chromosome short arm (Yp) is required for efficient completion of the second meiotic division (that generates haploid round spermatids), restructuring of the sperm head, and development of the sperm tail. Using mouse models lacking a Y chromosome but with varying Yp gene complements provided by Yp chromosomal derivatives or transgenes, we recently identified the Y-encoded zinc finger transcription factors Zfy1 and Zfy2 as the Yp genes promoting the second meiotic division. Using the same mouse models we here show that Zfy2 (but not Zfy1) contributes to the restructuring of the sperm head and is required for the development of the sperm tail. The preferential involvement of Zfy2 is consistent with the presence of an additional strong spermatid-specific promotor that has been acquired by this gene. This is further supported by the fact that promotion of sperm morphogenesis is also seen in one of the two markedly Yp gene deficient models in which a Yp deletion has created a Zfy2/1 fusion gene that is driven by the strong Zfy2 spermatid-specific promotor, but encodes a protein almost identical to that encoded by Zfy1. Our results point to there being further genetic information on Yp that also has a role in restructuring the sperm head. PMID:26765744

  8. Constitutive Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 1 in the Mouse Uterus Impairs Uterine Morphology and Function1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bayless, Kayla J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

  9. Trefoil factor family peptides TFF1 and TFF3 in the nervous tissues of developing mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Belovari, Tatjana; Bijelić, Nikola; Tolušić Levak, Maja; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor family peptides (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) are predominantly found in mucous epithelia of various organs. However, they have also been reported in the nervous tissue, particularly mouse, rat, porcine, and human brain. The aim of this research was to determine the presence of TFF1 and TFF3 in the nervous system of developing mouse embryo. Mouse embryos, at the stages E15 to E17 were isolated, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin blocks. Sagittal 6µm sections were made, processed for immunohistochemistry, and incubated with anti-TFF1 or anti-TFF3 primary polyclonal rabbit antibodies. Labeled streptavidin-biotin method was used for TFF detection. TFF1 and 3 were found in the cytoplasm of ganglion cell somata, while TFF3 staining was also visible in the cytoplasm of neurons in different areas and nuclei of brain and medulla oblongata. Neurons in the gray matter of spinal cord were also TFF1 and TFF3 positive, and signal for both peptides was found in the choroid plexus. TFF peptides might be involved in the complex processes of nervous system development and differentiation and brain plasticity.

  10. [Expression of TGFbeta family factors and FGF2 in mouse and human embryonic stem cells maintained in different culture systems].

    PubMed

    Lifantseva, N V; Kol'tsova, A M; Polianskaia, G G; Gordeeva, O F

    2013-01-01

    Mouse and human embryonic stem cells are in different states of pluripotency (naive/ground and primed states). Mechanisms of signaling regulation in cells with ground and primed states of pluripotency are considerably different. In order to understand the contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors in the maintenance of a metastable state of the cells in different phases ofpluripotency, we examined the expression of TGFbeta family factors (ActivinA, Nodal, Leftyl, TGFbeta1, GDF3, BMP4) and FGF2 initiating the appropriate signaling pathways in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (mESCs, hESCs) and supporting feeder cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression showed that the expression patterns of endogenous factors studied were considerably different in mESCs and hESCs. The most significant differences were found in the levels of endogenous expression of TGFbeta1, BMP4 and ActivinA. The sources of exogenous factors ActivnA, TGFbeta1, and FGF2 for hESCs are feeder cells (mouse and human embryonic fibroblasts) expressing high levels of these factors, as well as low levels of BMP4. Thus, our data demonstrated that the in vitro maintenance of metastable state of undifferentiated pluripotent cells is achieved in mESCs and hESCs using different schemes of the regulations of ActivinA/Nodal/Lefty/Smad2/3BMP/Smad1/5/8 endogenous branches of TGFbeta signaling. The requirement for exogenous stimulation or inhibition of these signaling pathways is due to different patterns of endogenous expression of TGFbeta family factors and FGF2 in the mESCs and hESCs. For the hESCs, enhanced activity of ActivinA/Nodal/Lefty/Smad2/3 signaling by exogenous factor stimulation is necessary to mitigate the effects of BMP/Smadl/5/8 signaling pathways that promote cell differentiation into the extraembryonic structures. Significant differences in endogenous FGF2 expression in the cells in the ground and primary states of pluripotency demonstrate diverse involvement of this

  11. Effects of transforming growth factor type beta on expression of cytoskeletal proteins in endosteal mouse osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lomri, A.; Marie, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many cell types in vitro. We have examined the effects of TGF beta on cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization in relation to parameters of cell proliferation and differentiation in endosteal osteoblastic cells isolated from mouse caudal vertebrae. Treatment of mouse osteoblastic cells cultured in serum free medium for 24 hours with TGF beta (1.5-30 ng/mL) slightly (-23%) inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. In parallel, TGF beta (0.5-30 ng/mL, 24 hours) greatly increased cell replication as evaluated by (3H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA (157% to 325% of controls). At a median dose (1.5 ng/mL) that affected both alkaline phosphatase and DNA synthesis (235% of controls) TGF beta induced rapid (six hours) cell respreading of quiescent mouse osteoblastic cells. This effect was associated with increased polymerization of actin, alpha actinin, and tubulins, as evaluated by both biochemical and immunofluorescence methods. In addition, TGF beta (1.5 ng/mL) increased the de novo biosynthesis of actin, alpha actinin, vimentin, and tubulins, as determined by {sup 35}S methionine labeling and fractionation of cytoskeletal proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These effects were rapid and transient, as they occurred at six hours and were reversed after 24 hours of TGF beta exposure. The results indicate that the stimulatory effect of TGF beta on DNA synthesis in endosteal mouse osteoblastic cells is associated with a transient increase in cell spreading associated with enhanced polymerization and synthesis of cytoskeletal proteins.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 10 alters the balance between goblet and Paneth cells in the adult mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Al Alam, Denise; Danopoulos, Soula; Schall, Kathy; Sala, Frederic G; Almohazey, Dana; Fernandez, G Esteban; Georgia, Senta; Frey, Mark R; Ford, Henri R; Grikscheit, Tracy; Bellusci, Saverio

    2015-04-15

    Intestinal epithelial cell renewal relies on the right balance of epithelial cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells consist of absorptive and secretory lineage. The latter is comprised of goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) plays a central role in epithelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in several organs. The expression pattern of FGF10 and its receptors in both human and mouse intestine and their role in small intestine have yet to be investigated. First, we analyzed the expression of FGF10, FGFR1, and FGFR2, in the human ileum and throughout the adult mouse small intestine. We found that FGF10, FGFR1b, and FGFR2b are expressed in the human ileum as well as in the mouse small intestine. We then used transgenic mouse models to overexpress Fgf10 and a soluble form of Fgfr2b, to study the impact of gain or loss of Fgf signaling in the adult small intestine. We demonstrated that overexpression of Fgf10 in vivo and in vitro induces goblet cell differentiation while decreasing Paneth cells. Moreover, FGF10 decreases stem cell markers such as Lgr5, Lrig1, Hopx, Ascl2, and Sox9. FGF10 inhibited Hes1 expression in vitro, suggesting that FGF10 induces goblet cell differentiation likely through the inhibition of Notch signaling. Interestingly, Fgf10 overexpression for 3 days in vivo and in vitro increased the number of Mmp7/Muc2 double-positive cells, suggesting that goblet cells replace Paneth cells. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which Fgf10 alters cell differentiation in the small intestine.

  13. What's wrong with my mouse cage? Methodological considerations for modeling lifestyle factors and gene-environment interactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-05-30

    The mechanistic understanding of lifestyle contributions to disease has been largely driven by work in laboratory rodent models using environmental interventions. These interventions show an array of methodologies and sometimes unclear collective conclusions, hampering clinical interpretations. Here we discuss environmental enrichment, exercise and stress interventions to illustrate how different protocols can affect the interpretations of environmental factors in disease. We use Huntington's disease (HD) as an example because its mouse models exhibit excellent validity and HD was the first genetic animal model in which environmental stimulation was found to be beneficial. We make a number of observations and recommendations. Firstly, environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise generally show benefits across laboratories and mouse models. However, the extent to which these environmental interventions have beneficial effects depends on parameters such as the structural complexity of the cage in the case of enrichment, the timing of the intervention and the nature of the control conditions. In particular, clinical interpretations should consider deprived control living conditions and the ethological relevance of the enrichment. Secondly, stress can have negative effects on the phenotype in mouse models of HD and other brain disorders. When modeling stress, the effects of more than one type of experimental stressor should be investigated due to the heterogeneity and complexity of stress responses. With stress in particular, but ideally in all studies, both sexes should be used and the randomized group sizes need to be sufficiently powered to detect any sex effects. Opportunities for clinical translation will be guided by the 'environmental construct validity' of the preclinical data, including the culmination of complementary protocols across multiple animal models. Environmental interventions in mouse models of HD provide illustrative examples of how valid

  14. What's wrong with my mouse cage? Methodological considerations for modeling lifestyle factors and gene-environment interactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-05-30

    The mechanistic understanding of lifestyle contributions to disease has been largely driven by work in laboratory rodent models using environmental interventions. These interventions show an array of methodologies and sometimes unclear collective conclusions, hampering clinical interpretations. Here we discuss environmental enrichment, exercise and stress interventions to illustrate how different protocols can affect the interpretations of environmental factors in disease. We use Huntington's disease (HD) as an example because its mouse models exhibit excellent validity and HD was the first genetic animal model in which environmental stimulation was found to be beneficial. We make a number of observations and recommendations. Firstly, environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise generally show benefits across laboratories and mouse models. However, the extent to which these environmental interventions have beneficial effects depends on parameters such as the structural complexity of the cage in the case of enrichment, the timing of the intervention and the nature of the control conditions. In particular, clinical interpretations should consider deprived control living conditions and the ethological relevance of the enrichment. Secondly, stress can have negative effects on the phenotype in mouse models of HD and other brain disorders. When modeling stress, the effects of more than one type of experimental stressor should be investigated due to the heterogeneity and complexity of stress responses. With stress in particular, but ideally in all studies, both sexes should be used and the randomized group sizes need to be sufficiently powered to detect any sex effects. Opportunities for clinical translation will be guided by the 'environmental construct validity' of the preclinical data, including the culmination of complementary protocols across multiple animal models. Environmental interventions in mouse models of HD provide illustrative examples of how valid

  15. Chromatin-related proteins in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells are downregulated after removal of leukemia inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Kurisaki, Akira; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S; Okabayashi, Koji; Iida, Tetsuo; Nishine, Tsutomu; Chonan, Ritsu; Kido, Hiroshi; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Nishimura, Osamu; Asashima, Makoto; Sugino, Hiromu

    2005-09-30

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have generated enormous interest due to their capacity to self-renew and the potential for growing many different cell types in vitro. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), bone morphogenetic proteins, octamer-binding protein 3 or 4, and Nanog are important factors in the maintenance of pluripotency in mouse ES cells. However, the mechanisms by which these factors regulate the pluripotency remain poorly understood. To identify other proteins involved in this process, we did a proteomic analysis of mouse ES cells that were cultured in the presence or absence of LIF. More than 100 proteins were found to be involved specifically in either the differentiation process or the maintenance of undifferentiated state. Among these, chromatin-related proteins were identified as the major proteins in nuclear extracts of undifferentiated cells. Analysis with real-time RT-PCR revealed that enrichment of these proteins in pluripotent ES cells was regulated at the transcriptional levels. These results suggest that specific chromatin-related proteins may be involved in maintaining the unique properties of pluripotent ES cells.

  16. Cell Signaling and Transcription Factors Regulating Cell Fate During Formation of the Mouse Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Frum, Tristan; Ralston, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The first cell fate decisions during mammalian development establish tissues essential for healthy pregnancy. The mouse has served as a valuable model for discovering pathways regulating the first cell fate decisions, because of the ease with which early embryos can be recovered and an arsenal of classical and emerging methods for manipulating gene expression. Here we summarize the major pathways that govern the first cell fate decisions in mouse development. This knowledge serves as a paradigm for exploring how emergent properties of a self-organizing system can dynamically regulate gene expression and cell fate plasticity. Moreover, it brings to light the processes that establish healthy pregnancy and embryonic stem (ES) cells. We also describe unsolved mysteries and new technologies that could help overcome experimental challenges in the field. PMID:25999217

  17. Factor VIIa binding to endothelial cell protein C receptor: Differences between mouse and human systems

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Prosenjit; Clark, Curtis A.; Gopalakrishnan, Ramakrishnan; Hedner, Ulla; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Recent in vitro studies have shown that the zymogen and activated form of FVII bind to endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). At present, there is no evidence that FVIIa binds to EPCR on vascular endothelium in vivo in the presence of circulating protein C, a primary ligand for EPCR. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of murine and human ligands with murine EPCR both in vivo and in vitro. Measurement of endogenous plasma levels of FVII in wild-type, EPCR-deficient and EPCR-over expressing mice showed slightly lower levels of FVII in EPCR-over expressing mice. However, infusion of high concentrations of competing ligands, either human APCi or FVIIai, to EPCR-over expressing mice failed to increase plasma levels of mouse FVII whereas they increased the plasma levels of protein C by 2 to 3-fold. Examining the association of exogenously administered mouse FVIIa or human FVIIa by immunohistochemistry revealed that human, but not murine FVIIa, binds to the murine endothelium in an EPCR-dependent manner. In vitro binding studies performed using surface plasmon resonance and endothelial cells revealed that murine FVIIa binds murine EPCR negligibly. Human FVIIa binding to EPCR, particularly to mouse EPCR, is markedly enhanced by availability of Mg2+ ions. In summary, our data show that murine FVIIa binds poorly to murine EPCR, whereas human FVIIa binds efficiently to both murine and human EPCR. Our data suggest that one should consider the use of human FVIIa in mouse models to investigate the significance of FVIIa and EPCR interaction. PMID:22370814

  18. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α accelerates disease progression in mouse models of leukemia and lymphoma but is not a poor prognosis factor in human AML.

    PubMed

    Forristal, C E; Brown, A L; Helwani, F M; Winkler, I G; Nowlan, B; Barbier, V; Powell, R J; Engler, G A; Diakiw, S M; Zannettino, A C W; Martin, S; Pattabiraman, D; D'Andrea, R J; Lewis, I D; Levesque, J P

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α accumulation promotes hematopoietic stem cells' quiescence and is necessary to maintain their self-renewal. However, the role of HIF-2α in hematopoietic cells is less clear. We investigated the role of HIF-2α in leukemia and lymphoma cells. HIF-2α expression was high in subsets of human and mouse leukemia and lymphoma cells, whereas it was low in normal bone marrow leukocytes. To investigate the role of HIF-2α, we transduced human HIF-2α cDNA in mouse syngeneic models of myeloid preleukemia and a transgenic model of B lymphoma. Ectopic expression of HIF-2α accelerated leukemia cell proliferation in vitro. Mice transplanted with cells transduced with HIF-2α died significantly faster of leukemia or B lymphoma than control mice transplanted with empty vector-transduced cells. Conversely, HIF-2α knockdown in human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells decreased proliferation in vitro and significantly prolonged animal survival following transplantation. In human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), HIF-2α mRNA was significantly elevated in several subsets such as the t(15;17), inv(16), complex karyotype and favorable cytogenetic groups. However, patients with high HIF-2α expression had a trend to higher disease-free survival in univariate analysis. The different effects of HIF-2α overexpression in mouse models of leukemia and human AML illustrates the complexity of this mutliclonal disease.

  19. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  20. Multipotential stem cells from the adult mouse brain proliferate and self-renew in response to basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gritti, A; Parati, E A; Cova, L; Frolichsthal, P; Galli, R; Wanke, E; Faravelli, L; Morassutti, D J; Roisen, F; Nickel, D D; Vescovi, A L

    1996-02-01

    It has been established that the adult mouse forebrain contains multipotential (neuronal/glial) progenitor cells that can be induced to proliferate in vitro when epidermal growth factor is provided. These cells are found within the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, together with other progenitor cell populations, whose requirements for proliferation remain undefined. Using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), we have isolated multipotential progenitors from adult mouse striatum. These progenitors proliferate and can differentiate into cells displaying the antigenic properties of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. The neuron-like cells possess neuronal features, exhibit neuronal electrophysiological properties, and are immunoreactive for GABA, substance P, choline acetyl-transferase, and glutamate. Clonal analysis confirmed the multipotency of these bFGF-dependent cells. Most significantly, subcloning experiments demonstrated that they were capable of self-renewal, which led to a progressive increase in population size over serial passaging. These results demonstrate that bFGF is mitogenic for multipotential cells from adult mammalian forebrain that possess stem cell properties. PMID:8558238

  1. Alteration of T cell maturation and proliferation in the mouse thymus induced by serum factors from patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Aiso, S; Hibi, T; Watanabe, N; Iwao, Y; Yoshida, T; Asakura, H; Tsuru, S; Tsuchiya, M

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) often have thymus abnormalities, although the precise mechanisms which induce those abnormalities remain unclear. We have examined the effect of serum fractions from patients with UC and other colonic diseases on mouse thymus to clarify the possible existence of factors which have thymus growth activity. These fractions were separated from sera of patients with UC by gel filtration and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography. In mice given UC serum fractions; (i) remarkable increases in weight and total cell number of the thymus were observed from day 4 to day 9; (ii) a significant increase in the number of peanut agglutinin (PNA)+ thymus cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry on day 9; (iii) on quantitative analysis of surface antigens the percentage of Lyt-2+ thymus cells decreased and that of L3T4+ thymus cells increased remarkably on day 13; the number of bright Thy-1.2+ cells and of dull Lyt-1+ cells increased. In contrast, the serum fractions from patients with other colonic diseases and from normal persons caused little change in mouse thymus throughout the study. The results suggest that factors fractionated from the serum of patients with UC disturb intra-thymic T cell maturation and enhance the proliferation of thymus cells. PMID:3498579

  2. Serotonin Is a Key Factor for Mouse Red Blood Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Amireault, Pascal; Bayard, Elisa; Launay, Jean-Marie; Sibon, David; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Colin, Yves; Dy, Michel; Hermine, Olivier; Côté, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine originally purified from blood as a vasoactive agent. In nonneuronal tissues, its presence is linked with the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of its synthesis. Targeted disruption in mice of the TPH1 gene results in very low levels of circulating 5-HT. Previous analysis of the TPH1 knockout (TPH1−/−) mouse revealed that they develop a phenotype of macrocytic anemia with a reduced half-life of their circulating red blood cells (RBC). In this study, to establish whether the observed reduced half-life of TPH1−/− RBC is an intrinsic or an extrinsic characteristic, we compared their survival to RBC isolated from wild-type mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data converge to demonstrate an extrinsic protective effect of 5-HT since presence of 5-HT in the RBC environment protects RBC from senescence. The protective effect played by 5-HT is not mediated through activation of a classical pharmacological pathway as no 5-HT receptors were detected on isolated RBC. Rather, 5-HT acts as an effective antioxidant since reduction of 5-HT circulating levels are associated with a decrease in the plasma antioxidant capacity. We further demonstrate a link between oxidation and the removal of damaged RBC following transfusion, as supplementation with 5-HT improves RBC post-transfusion survival in a mouse model of blood banking. PMID:24358245

  3. Direct activation of human and mouse Oct4 genes using engineered TALE and Cas9 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiabiao; Lei, Yong; Wong, Wing-Ki; Liu, Senquan; Lee, Kai-Chuen; He, Xiangjun; You, Wenxing; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jun-Tao; Chen, Xiongfong; Peng, Xianlu; Sun, Hao; Huang, He; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo

    2014-04-01

    The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around -120 to -80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from -147 to -89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells.

  4. Direct activation of human and mouse Oct4 genes using engineered TALE and Cas9 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiabiao; Lei, Yong; Wong, Wing-Ki; Liu, Senquan; Lee, Kai-Chuen; He, Xiangjun; You, Wenxing; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jun-Tao; Chen, Xiongfong; Peng, Xianlu; Sun, Hao; Huang, He; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo

    2014-04-01

    The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around -120 to -80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from -147 to -89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24500196

  5. Prediction of Pathway Activation by Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobioticresponsive transcription factors (TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  6. Long-term and tight control of gene expression in mouse skeletal muscle by a new hybrid human transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Roscilli, Giuseppe; Rinaudo, Cira Daniela; Cimino, Monica; Sporeno, Elisabetta; Lamartina, Stefania; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Toniatti, Carlo

    2002-11-01

    Diseases requiring frequent and lifelong injections of recombinant proteins would be more efficaciously treated by intramuscular delivery of genes encoding secretable proteins. However, the success of this approach largely depends on our capability to temporally regulate transcription of delivered genes. Therefore, we sought to generate a humanized transcription factor to regulate transgene expression in muscle. A novel 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT)-dependent transcriptional regulator (called HEA-3) was constructed by fusing in-frame the DNA binding domain of the human hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha), which is not expressed in muscle cells, a G(521)R mutant of the ligand binding domain of human estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and the activation domain derived from human nuclear factor-kappaB p65 subunit (NF-kappaB p65). We demonstrate that an artificial promoter containing multimeric HNF1alpha binding sites is silent in muscles and in cell lines that lack endogenous HNF1alpha. HEA-3 stimulated transcription from this target promoter in a stringent 4-OHT-dependent manner. The dynamic range of transgene regulation was high, because of the low basal activity and high inducibility of the system. Ex vivo, HEA-3 increased expression of the transfected reporter gene by more than 1000-fold in a ligand-dependent manner. In vivo, HEA-3 stimulated by more than 100-fold, the expression of secreted alkaline phosphatase after delivery as plasmid DNA into mouse muscles. Moreover, long-term modulation of the expression of intramuscularly delivered mouse erythropoietin was achieved in immunocompetent mice.

  7. Characterization of specific high affinity receptors for human tumor necrosis factor on mouse fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, P.E.; Hotchkiss, A.; Mohler, M.; Aggarwal, B.B.

    1985-10-05

    Mouse L-929 fibroblasts, an established line of cells, are very sensitive to lysis by human lymphotoxin (hTNF-beta). Specific binding of a highly purified preparation of hTNF-beta to these cells was examined. Recombinant DNA-derived hTNF-beta was radiolabeled with (TH)propionyl succinimidate at the lysine residues of the molecule to a specific activity of 200 microCi/nmol of protein. (TH)hTNF-beta was purified by high performance gel permeation chromatography and the major fraction was found to be monomeric by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The labeled hTNF-beta was fully active in causing lysis of L-929 fibroblasts and bound specifically to high affinity binding sites on these cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity receptors with an apparent Kd of 6.7 X 10(-11) M and a capacity of 3200 binding sites/cell. Unlabeled recombinant DNA-derived hTNF-beta was found to be approximately 5-fold more effective competitive inhibitor of binding than the natural hTNF-beta. The binding of hTNF-beta to these mouse fibroblasts was also correlated with the ultimate cell lysis. Neutralizing polyclonal antibodies to hTNF-beta efficiently inhibited the binding of (TH)hTNF-beta to the cells. The authors conclude that the specific high affinity binding site is the receptor for hTNF-beta and may be involved in lysis of cells.

  8. Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor Upregulates MCP-1 Expression in an Autocrine Manner in Hepatocytes during Acute Mouse Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jieshi; Yang, Le; Tian, Lei; Li, Weiyang; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitor factor (MIF), a multipotent innate immune mediator, is an upstream component of the inflammatory cascade in diseases such as liver disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a highly representative chemokine, is critical in liver disease pathogenesis. We investigated the role of MIF in regulating hepatocytic MCP-1 expression. MIF and MCP-1 expression were characterized by immunochemistry, RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting in CCl4-treated mouse liver and isolated hepatocytes. MIF was primarily distributed in hepatocytes, and its expression increased upon acute liver injury. Its expression was also increased in injured hepatocytes, induced by LPS or CCl4, which mimic liver injury in vitro. MIF was expressed earlier than MCP-1, strongly inducing hepatocytic MCP-1 expression. Moreover, the increase in MCP-1 expression induced by MIF was inhibited by CD74- or CD44-specific siRNAs and SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Further, CD74 or CD44 deficiency effectively inhibited MIF-induced p38 activation. MIF inhibitor ISO-1 reduced MCP-1 expression and p38 phosphorylation in CCl4-treated mouse liver. Our results showed that MIF regulates MCP-1 expression in hepatocytes of injured liver via CD74, CD44, and p38 MAPK in an autocrine manner, providing compelling information on the role of MIF in liver injury, and implying a new regulatory mechanism for liver inflammation. PMID:27273604

  9. SNPs in putative regulatory regions identified by human mouse comparative sequencing and transcription factor binding site data

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Poulabi; Bahlo, Melanie; Schwartz, Jody R.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Houston, Kathryn A.; Dubchak, Inna; Speed, Terence P.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-01-01

    Genome wide disease association analysis using SNPs is being explored as a method for dissecting complex genetic traits and a vast number of SNPs have been generated for this purpose. As there are cost and throughput limitations of genotyping large numbers of SNPs and statistical issues regarding the large number of dependent tests on the same data set, to make association analysis practical it has been proposed that SNPs should be prioritized based on likely functional importance. The most easily identifiable functional SNPs are coding SNPs (cSNPs) and accordingly cSNPs have been screened in a number of studies. SNPs in gene regulatory sequences embedded in noncoding DNA are another class of SNPs suggested for prioritization due to their predicted quantitative impact on gene expression. The main challenge in evaluating these SNPs, in contrast to cSNPs is a lack of robust algorithms and databases for recognizing regulatory sequences in noncoding DNA. Approaches that have been previously used to delineate noncoding sequences with gene regulatory activity include cross-species sequence comparisons and the search for sequences recognized by transcription factors. We combined these two methods to sift through mouse human genomic sequences to identify putative gene regulatory elements and subsequently localized SNPs within these sequences in a 1 Megabase (Mb) region of human chromosome 5q31, orthologous to mouse chromosome 11 containing the Interleukin cluster.

  10. Ex Vivo Expansion and Differentiation of Human and Mouse Fetal Pancreatic Progenitors Are Modulated by Epidermal Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Paola; Nobecourt, Estelle; Oshima, Masaya; Albagli-Curiel, Olivier; Laurysens, Veerle; Stangé, Geert; Sojoodi, Mozhdeh; Heremans, Yves; Heimberg, Harry; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2015-08-01

    A comparative analysis of mouse and human pancreatic development may reveal common mechanisms that control key steps as organ morphogenesis and cell proliferation and differentiation. More specifically, understanding beta cell development remains an issue, despite recent progress related to their generation from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this study, we use an integrated approach, including prospective isolation, organ culture, and characterization of intermediate stages, and report that cells from human and mouse fetal pancreas can be expanded in the long term and give rise to hollow duct-like structures in 3D cultures. The expanded cells express a combination of markers (E-cadherin, PDX1, NKX6-1, SOX9, and HNF1β) that reveals pancreatic progenitor identity. Proliferation of embryonic progenitors was stimulated by the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 (RSPO1), FGF10, and EGF. This combination of growth factors allowed maintaining human fetal pancreatic progenitors in culture for many passages, a finding not reported previously. Importantly, in the absence of EGF, proliferation was reduced, while endocrine differentiation was significantly enhanced. We conclude that modulation of EGF signaling affects in vitro expansion and differentiation of progenitors from embryonic pancreas of both mice and man.

  11. Involvement of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury in early-stage embryonic mouse salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kouhei; Ikari, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Goro; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Ohyama, Yukiko; Kumamaru, Wataru; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu; Mori, Yoshihide

    2016-09-01

    The mouse submandibular gland (SMG) is important organ for embryonic development, and branching morphogenesis is regulated by many molecules containing transcription factors. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of Brachyury increased in the SMG and peaked between E12.5-E13.5, concomitant with the early stage of branching morphogenesis. The expression of Brachyury in SMG rudiments between E12.5-E13.5 was confirmed by western blotting. In addition, fibronectin and Btbd7 (regulated by fibronectin), which are both essential for cleft formation, were expressed strongly during the same period. The Sox2 and Wnt3a, which regulate cell growth, were also expressed strongly during E12.5-E13.5. On the other hand, cleft formation and branching morphogenesis was suppressed by knockdown of Brachyury gene, suggesting that Brachyury plays a central role in regulating cell growth and cleft formation in early-stage embryonic mouse salivary gland development. PMID:27369076

  12. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  13. Short-lived mammals (shrew, mouse) have a less robust metal-responsive transcription factor than humans and bats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Steiner, Kurt; Petrov, Boyan; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Non-essential "heavy" metals such as cadmium tend to accumulate in an organism and thus are a particular threat for long-lived animals. Here we show that two unrelated, short-lived groups of mammals (rodents and shrews, separated by 100 Mio years of evolution) each have independently acquired mutations in their metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) in a domain relevant for robust transcriptional induction by zinc and cadmium. While key amino acids are mutated in rodents, in shrews an entire exon is skipped. Rodents and especially shrews are unique regarding the alterations of this region. To investigate the biological relevance of these alterations, MTF-1s from the common shrew (Sorex araneus), the mouse, humans and a bat (Myotis blythii), were tested by cotransfection with a reporter gene into cells lacking MTF-1. Whereas shrews only live for 1.5-2.5 years, bats, although living on a very similar insect diet, have a lifespan of several decades. We find that bat MTF-1 is similarly metal-responsive as its human counterpart, while shrew MTF-1 is less responsive, similar to mouse MTF-1. We propose that in comparison to most other mammals, the short-lived shrews and rodents can afford a "lower-quality" system for heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. PMID:27067444

  14. Expression of human epidermal growth factor precursor cDNA in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mroczkowski, B; Reich, M; Whittaker, J; Bell, G I; Cohen, S

    1988-01-01

    Stable cell lines expressing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have been prepared by transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a bovine papillomavirus-based vector in which the human kidney EGF precursor cDNA has been placed under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein I promoter. Synthesis of the EGF precursor can be induced by culturing the cells in 5 mM butyric acid or 100 microM ZnCl2. The EGF precursor synthesized by these cells appears to be membrane associated; none is detectable in the cytoplasm. The size of the EGF precursor expressed by these cells is approximately 150-180 kDa, which is larger than expected from its amino acid sequence, suggesting that it is posttranslationally modified, presumably by glycosylation. The EGF precursor was also detected in the conditioned medium from these cells, indicating that some fraction of the EGF precursor synthesized by these transfected cells may be secreted. Preliminary data suggest that this soluble form of the EGF precursor may compete with 125I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor. These cell lines should be useful for studying the processing of the EGF precursor to EGF as well as determining the properties and possible functions of the EGF precursor itself. Images PMID:3257563

  15. Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is present in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the developing mouse fetus.

    PubMed

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2013-04-01

    Trefoil factor family protein 3 (TFF3) is found in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis, whereas no TFF3 presence is observed in healthy cartilage. During endochondral ossification, bone tissue replaces degenerating cartilage. There is no data about the role of TFF3 in this process. Our aim was to study the localization of TFF3 in cartilage during endochondral ossification in the mouse fetus. CD1 mouse fetuses, days 14-17, were isolated, fixed, and paraffin embedded. Fetuses were cut into 6μm sections, and processed for immunohistochemical staining with affinity purified polyclonal rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody. TFF3 was present in cartilage chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification, particularly in zone of proliferation, hypertrophy and calcification as well as in zone of cartilage degeneration during the monitored fetal period. Resting cartilage showed no presence of TFF3, while during endochondral ossification TFF3 localization showed an analogous pattern to that reported in cartilage affected by osteoarthritis and septic arthritis. Our data indicate that the role of TFF3 in these pathological conditions is similar to its role in the physiological process of endochondral ossification.

  16. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V; Parry, R Mitchell; Gaul, David A; Wang, May D; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  17. Expression of human epidermal growth factor pressures cDNA in transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mroczkowski, B.; Reich, M.; Whittaker, J.; Bell, G.I.; Cohen, S.

    1988-01-01

    Stable cell lines expressing the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) precursor have been prepared by transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with a bovine papillomavirus-based vector in which the human kidney EGF precursor cDNA has been placed under the control of the inducible mouse metallothionein I promoter. Synthesis of the EGF precursor can be induced by culturing the cells in 5 mM butyric acid or 100 ..mu..M ZnCl/sub 2/. The EGF precursor synthesized by these cells appears to be membrane associated; none is detectable in the cytoplasm. The size of the EGF precursor expressed by these cells is approx. = 150-180 kDa, which is larger than expected from its amino acid sequence, suggesting that it is posttranslationally modified, presumably by glycosylation. The EGF precursor was also detected in the conditioned medium from these cells, indicating that some fraction of the EGF precursor synthesized by these transfected cells may be secreted. Preliminary data suggest that this soluble form of the EGF precursor may compete with /sup 125/I-labeled EGF for binding to the EGF receptor. These cell lines should be useful for studying the processing of the EGF precursor to EGF as well as determining the properties and possible functions of the EGF precursor itself.

  18. Time Course of Behavioral Alteration and mRNA Levels of Neurotrophic Factor Following Stress Exposure in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hashikawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Takumi; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Ogawa, Mami; Matsuo, Yumi; Zamami, Yoshito; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi

    2015-08-01

    Stress is known to affect neurotrophic factor expression, which induces depression-like behavior. However, whether there are time-dependent changes in neurotrophic factor mRNA expression following stress remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether chronic stress exposure induces long-term changes in depression-related behavior, serum corticosterone, and hippocampal proliferation as well as neurotrophic factor family mRNA levels, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), in the mouse hippocampus. The mRNA level of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and CNTF) was measured using the real-time PCR. The serum corticosterone level was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, for each subject, the hippocampal proliferation was examined by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Mice exhibited depression-like behavior in the forced-swim test (FST) and decreased BDNF mRNA and hippocampal proliferation in the middle of the stress exposure. After 15 days of stress exposure, we observed increased immobility in the FST, serum corticosterone levels, and BDNF mRNA levels and degenerated hippocampal proliferation, maintained for at least 2 weeks. Anhedonia-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and NGF mRNA levels were decreased following 15 days of stress. NGF mRNA levels were significantly higher 1 week after stress exposure. The current data demonstrate that chronic stress exposure induces prolonged BDNF and NGF mRNA changes and increases corticosterone levels and depression-like behavior in the FST, but does not alter other neurotrophic factors or performance in the sucrose preference test.

  19. Host and Bacterial Factors Involved in the Innate Ability of Mouse Macrophages To Eliminate Internalized Unopsonized Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Terri S.; Havell, Edward A.; Horton, John R.; Orndorff, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to better understand genetic and cellular factors that influence innate immunity, we examined host and bacterial factors involved in the nonopsonic phagocytosis and killing of Escherichia coli K-12 by mouse macrophages. Unelicited (resident) peritoneal macrophages from five different mouse strains, BALB/c, C57BL/6, CD-1, C3H/HeJ, and C3H/HeN, were employed. Additional macrophage populations were obtained from CD-1 mice (bone marrow-derived macrophages). Also, for BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, peritoneal macrophages elicited with either thioglycolate or proteose peptone, bone marrow-derived macrophages, and macrophage-like cell lines derived from the two strains were employed. Two E. coli K-12 strains that differed specifically in their abilities to produce type 1 pili containing the adhesive protein FimH were examined. The parameters used to assess macrophage bacteriocidal activity were (i) the killing of internalized (gentamicin-protected) E. coli during the approximately 4-h assay and (ii) the initial rate at which internalized E. coli were eliminated. Data on these parameters allowed the following conclusions: (i) unelicited or proteose peptone-elicited peritoneal macrophages were significantly better at eliminating internalized bacteria than thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages, or macrophage cell lines; (ii) the host genetic background had no significant effect upon the ability of unelicited peritoneal macrophages to kill E. coli (even though the mouse strains differ widely in their in vivo susceptibilities to bacterial infection); and (iii) the FimH phenotype had no significant effect upon E. coli survival once the bacterium was inside a macrophage. Additionally, there was no correlation between the bacteriocidal effectiveness of a macrophage population and the number of bacteria bound per macrophage. However, macrophage populations that were the least bacteriocidal tended to bind higher ratios of FimH+ to Fim

  20. The forkhead transcription factor Foxl2 is sumoylated in both human and mouse: sumoylation affects its stability, localization, and activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Mara; Deiana, Manila; Meloni, Alessandra; Marcia, Loredana; Puddu, Alessandro; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Crisponi, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The FOXL2 forkhead transcription factor is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and mutated FOXL2 causes the blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) and predisposes to premature ovarian failure. Inactivation of Foxl2 in mice demonstrated its indispensability for female gonadal sex determination and ovary development and revealed its antagonism of Sox9, the effector of male testis development. To help to define the regulatory activities of FOXL2, we looked for interacting proteins. Based on yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that FOXL2 interacts with PIAS1 and UBC9, both parts of the sumoylation machinery. We showed that human FOXL2 is sumoylated in transfected cell lines, and that endogenous mouse Foxl2 is comparably sumoylated. This modification changes its cellular localization, stability and transcriptional activity. It is intriguing that similar sumoylation and regulatory consequences have also been reported for SOX9, the male counterpart of FOXL2 in somatic gonadal tissues. PMID:20209145

  1. Over-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in inferior olivary neurons of rolling mouse Nagoya.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Kawano, Michihiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Hisano, Setsuji; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2003-10-01

    Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA was examined in the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of an ataxic mutant, rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN) by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. The most marked difference in the level of CRF mRNA signals between RMN and non-ataxic littermates (control mice) was observed in the beta-subnucleus and ventrolateral protrusion of the ION. The level of signals in these subnuclei was about twofold higher in RMN than in the controls. Signal levels in the dorsal nucleus, principal nucleus and subnucleus A were slightly but significantly higher in RMN than in the controls. In the other subnuclei, there were no differences in signal level between RMN and controls. These results suggest a region-related over-expression of CRF mRNA in the ION of RMN. This may be responsible for the increased sensitivity of some Purkinje cells to glutamate, resulting in ataxic symptoms of RMN.

  2. Factors affecting meiotic and developmental competence of primary spermatocyte nuclei injected into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Tateno, H; Handel, M A; Yanagimachi, R

    1998-10-01

    Mature mouse oocytes that have received the nuclei of pachytene primary spermatocytes (or metaphase I chromosomes of primary spermatocytes) can develop into fertile offspring. However, success rate in this study was low. No more than 3.8% of transferred 2-cell embryos arising from spermatocyte-injected oocytes developed to full term. Nevertheless, the birth of normal offspring seems to suggest that at least in some primary spermatocytes the functional genomic imprinting is complete before transfer and/or consolidated after the transfer. Although injected spermatocyte nuclei could undergo two successive meiotic divisions within oocytes, abnormalities of both divisions were commonly observed, and sister chromatids often separated prematurely during the second meiotic division. Chromosome breakage/rearrangements were also frequently seen before the first cleavage. Such abnormalities of chromosome behavior are probably the major causes of the poor preimplantation development of zygotes arising from primary spermatocyte-injected oocytes. Thus, clinical use of primary spermatocytes as substitutes for spermatozoa in assisted fertilization is not advisable until the causes of chromosomal abnormalities are better understood through extensive animal studies. PMID:9746737

  3. Effect of ascorbate on fibrinolytic factors in septic mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Swarbreck, Scott; Secor, Dan; Li, Fuyan; Gross, Peter L; Ellis, Christopher G; Sharpe, Michael D; Wilson, John X; Tyml, Karel

    2014-10-01

    Plugging of the capillary bed in tissues correlates with organ failure during sepsis. In septic mouse skeletal muscle, we showed that blood in capillaries becomes hypercoagulable and that ascorbate injection inhibits capillary plugging. In the present study, we hypothesized that ascorbate promotes fibrinolysis, reversing this plugging. Sepsis in mice was induced by fecal injection into peritoneum. Mice were injected intravenously with a bolus of streptokinase (fibrinolytic agent) or ascorbate at 5-6 h. Both agents reversed capillary plugging in muscle at 7 h. Sepsis increased mRNA expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) (profibrinolytic) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) (antifibrinolytic) in muscle and liver homogenates at 7 h. Ascorbate did not affect u-PA mRNA in either tissue, but it inhibited PAI-1 mRNA in muscle, suggesting enhanced fibrinolysis in this tissue. However, ascorbate did not affect increased PAI-1 mRNA in the liver (dominant source of soluble PAI-1 in systemic blood). Consistently, ascorbate affected neither elevated PAI-1 protein/enzymatic activity in septic liver nor lowered plasmin antiplasmin level in septic blood. Furthermore, hypocoagulability of septic blood revealed by thrombelastography and thrombin-induced PAI-1 release from isolated platelets (ex-vivo model of sepsis) were not affected by ascorbate. Based on the PAI-1 protein data, the present study does not support the hypothesis that ascorbate promotes fibrinolysis in sepsis. PMID:24824492

  4. The combination of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta induces novel phenotypic changes in mouse liver stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Isfort, R J; Cody, D B; Stuard, S B; Randall, C J; Miller, C; Ridder, G M; Doersen, C J; Richards, W G; Yoder, B K; Wilkinson, J E; Woychik, R P

    1997-12-01

    Mouse liver stem cell (oval cell) lines were investigated in order to determine the role which two families of growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, play in liver regeneration. EGF family members, including EGF, amphiregulin, betacellulin, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, and TGF-alpha, were mitogenic for oval cell lines while TGF-beta family members, including TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3, inhibited mitogenesis and induced apoptosis in oval cell lines. Surprisingly, the combination of EGF family members and TGF-ss family members resulted in neither proliferation nor apoptosis but instead in a novel cellular response, cellular scattering in tissue culture and morphological differentiation in Matrigel. Analysis of the signal transduction pathways activated by exposure of oval cell lines to either EGF, EGF+TGF-beta, or TGF-beta indicated that novel combinations of intracellular signals result following stimulation of the cells with the combination of EGF+TGF-beta. These data reveal that the dynamics of synergistic GDF action following tissue injury and regeneration results in a new level of complexity not obvious from the study of individual GDFs.

  5. Adenoviral modification of mouse brain derived endothelial cells, bEnd3, to induce apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mitsuuchi, Y; Powell, D R; Gallo, J M

    2006-02-01

    A second generation genetically-engineered cell-based drug delivery system, referred to as apoptotic-induced drug delivery (AIDD), was developed using endothelial cells (ECs) that undergo apoptosis upon binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a Flk-1:Fas fusion protein (FF). This new AIDD was redesigned using mouse brain derived ECs, bEnd3 cells, and an adenovirus vector in order to enhance and control the expression of FF. The FF was tagged with a HA epitope (FFHA) and designed to be coexpressed with green fluorescence protein (GFP) by the regulation of cytomegalovirus promoters in the adenovirus vector. bEnd3 cells showed favorable coexpression of FFHA and GFP consistent with the multiplicity of infection of the adenovirus. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that FFHA was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas GFP was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of ECs. Cell death was induced by VEGF, but not by platelet derived growth factor or fibroblast growth factor in a dose-dependent manner (range 2-20 ng/ml), and revealed caspase-dependent apoptotic profiles. The FFHA expressing bEnd3 cells underwent apoptosis when cocultured with a glioma cell (SF188V+) line able to overexpress VEGF. The combined data indicated that the FFHA adenovirus system can induce apoptotic signaling in ECs in response to VEGF, and thus, is an instrumental modification to the development of AIDD.

  6. Astrocyte-Secreted Factors Selectively Alter Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Fragile X Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that astrocytes contribute to the governance and fine tuning of stem and progenitor cell production during brain development. The effect of astrocyte function in cell production in neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. We used the Neural Colony Forming Cell assay to determine the effect of astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) on the generation of neurospheres originating from either progenitor cells or functional stem cells in the knock out (KO) Fragile X mouse model. ACM from both normal and Fmr1-KO mice generated higher percentages of smaller neurospheres indicative of restricted proliferation of the progenitor cell population in Fmr1-KO brains. Wild type (WT) neurospheres, but not KO neurospheres, showed enhanced responses to ACM from the Fmr1-KO mice. In particular, Fmr1-KO ACM increased the percentage of large neurospheres generated, representative of spheres produced from neural stem cells. We also used 2D DIGE to initiate identification of the astrocyte-secreted proteins with differential expression between Fmr1-KO and WT cortices and hippocampi. The results further support the critical role of astrocytes in governing neural cell production in brain development and point to significant alterations in neural cell proliferation due to astrocyte secreted factors from the Fragile X brain. Highlights: • We studied the proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells in Fragile X. • We examined the role of astrocyte-secreted factors in neural precursor cell biology. • Astrocyte-secreted factors with differential expression in Fragile X identified. PMID:27242437

  7. Adenoviral modification of mouse brain derived endothelial cells, bEnd3, to induce apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mitsuuchi, Y; Powell, D R; Gallo, J M

    2006-02-01

    A second generation genetically-engineered cell-based drug delivery system, referred to as apoptotic-induced drug delivery (AIDD), was developed using endothelial cells (ECs) that undergo apoptosis upon binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a Flk-1:Fas fusion protein (FF). This new AIDD was redesigned using mouse brain derived ECs, bEnd3 cells, and an adenovirus vector in order to enhance and control the expression of FF. The FF was tagged with a HA epitope (FFHA) and designed to be coexpressed with green fluorescence protein (GFP) by the regulation of cytomegalovirus promoters in the adenovirus vector. bEnd3 cells showed favorable coexpression of FFHA and GFP consistent with the multiplicity of infection of the adenovirus. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that FFHA was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas GFP was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of ECs. Cell death was induced by VEGF, but not by platelet derived growth factor or fibroblast growth factor in a dose-dependent manner (range 2-20 ng/ml), and revealed caspase-dependent apoptotic profiles. The FFHA expressing bEnd3 cells underwent apoptosis when cocultured with a glioma cell (SF188V+) line able to overexpress VEGF. The combined data indicated that the FFHA adenovirus system can induce apoptotic signaling in ECs in response to VEGF, and thus, is an instrumental modification to the development of AIDD. PMID:16247462

  8. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  9. IFN Regulatory Factors 4 and 8 Expression in the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Besin, Gilles; Gaudreau, Simon; Dumont-Blanchette, Émilie; Ménard, Michael; Guindi, Chantal; Dupuis, Gilles; Amrani, Abdelaziz

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to islet inflammation and its progression to diabetes in NOD mouse model and human. DCs play a crucial role in the presentation of autoantigen and activation of diabetogenic T cells, and IRF4 and IRF8 are crucial genes involved in the development of DCs. We have therefore investigated the expression of these genes in splenic DCs during diabetes progression in NOD mice. We found that IRF4 expression was upregulated in splenocytes and in splenic CD11c+ DCs of NOD mice as compared to BALB/c mice. In contrast, IRF8 gene expression was higher in splenocytes of NOD mice whereas its expression was similar in splenic CD11c+ DCs of NOD and BALB/c mice. Importantly, levels of IRF4 and IRF8 expression were lower in tolerogenic bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) generated with GM-CSF as compared to immunogenic BMDCs generated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Analysis of splenic DCs subsets indicated that high expression of IRF4 was associated with increased levels of CD4+CD8α−IRF4+CD11c+ DCs but not CD4−CD8α+IRF8+CD11c+ DCs in NOD mice. Our results showed that IRF4 expression was up-regulated in NOD mice and correlated with the increased levels of CD4+CD8α− DCs, suggesting that IRF4 may be involved in abnormal DC functions in type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:21647406

  10. The effects of triclosan on pluripotency factors and development of mouse embryonic stem cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Han, Xiumei; Mao, Zhilei; Chen, Minjian; Du, Guizhen; Talbot, Prue; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan (TCS) poses potential risks to reproduction and development due to its endocrine-disrupting properties. However, the mechanism of TCS's effects on early embryonic development is little known. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and zebrafish embryos provide valuable models for testing the toxic effects of environmental chemicals on early embryogenesis. In this study, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) were acutely exposed to TCS for 24 h, and general cytotoxicity and the effect of TCS on pluripotency were then evaluated. In addition, zebrafish embryos were exposed to TCS from 2- to 24-h post-fertilization (hpf), and their morphology was evaluated. In mESC, alkaline phosphatase staining was significantly decreased after treatment with the highest concentration of TCS (50 μM). Although the expression levels of Sox2 mRNA were not changed, the mRNA levels of Oct4 and Nanog in TCS-treated groups were significantly decreased compared to controls. In addition, the protein levels of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were significantly reduced in response to TCS treatment. MicroRNA (miR)-134, an expression inhibitor of pluripotency markers, was significantly increased in TCS-treated mESC. In zebrafish experiments, after 24 hpf of treatment, the controls had developed to the late stage of somitogenesis, while embryos exposed to 300 μg/L of TCS were still at the early stage of somitogenesis, and three genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) were upregulated in treated groups when compared with the controls. The two models demonstrated that TCS may affect early embryonic development by disturbing the expression of the pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog). PMID:24879426

  11. Identification of a cell-type-specific transcriptional repressor in the promoter region of the mouse hepatocyte growth factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Beedle, A B; Lin, L; Bell, A W; Zarnegar, R

    1994-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a cytokine with multiple functions, exhibits cell-type-specific as well as cytokine- and steroid hormone-regulated expression. The HGF gene is known to be expressed predominately in mesenchymal but not in epithelial cells. In this study, we report the identification of a cell-type-specific transcriptional repressor in the promoter region of the mouse HGF gene, which is evidently responsible for the suppression of HGF expression in epithelial cells. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting studies revealed that a 27-bp element (-16 to +11) around the transcription initiation site is responsible for the binding of a nuclear protein which is present in epithelial but not in mesenchymally derived cells. Further analysis of the binding activity of the DNA region with nuclear protein revealed that an approximately 19-bp sequence containing a unique palindromic structure (5'-AACCGACCGGTT-3') overlapped by a CAP box is essential for binding. Substitution of a single base (the contact site) within this region by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in total abrogation of the binding of the nuclear protein and a concomitant increase in the transcriptional activity of various lengths of HGF-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fused genes when transfected into the epithelial cell line RL95-2 but not the mesenchymal cell line NIH 3T3. Southwestern (DNA-protein) analyses revealed that the nuclear protein which binds to this repressor element is a single polypeptide of approximately 70 kDa. Analysis of the nuclear extract prepared from regenerating mouse liver at various times after two-thirds partial hepatectomy by gel mobility shift assay revealed a substantial reduction (more than 75% within 3 h) in the binding of the repressor to its cognate binding site. Our results suggest that a cis-acting transcriptional repressor in the promoter region of the mouse HGF gene is involved in cell-type-specific regulation through binding to its cognate

  12. Dynamic expression of transcription factor Brn3b during mouse cranial nerve development.

    PubMed

    Sajgo, Szilard; Ali, Seid; Popescu, Octavian; Badea, Tudor Constantin

    2016-04-01

    During development, transcription factor combinatorial codes define a large variety of morphologically and physiologically distinct neurons. Such a combinatorial code has been proposed for the differentiation of projection neurons of the somatic and visceral components of cranial nerves. It is possible that individual neuronal cell types are not specified by unique transcription factors but rather emerge through the intersection of their expression domains. Brn3a, Brn3b, and Brn3c, in combination with each other and/or transcription factors of other families, can define subgroups of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), spiral and vestibular ganglia, inner ear and vestibular hair cell neurons in the vestibuloacoustic system, and groups of somatosensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The present study investigates the expression and potential role of the Brn3b transcription factor in cranial nerves and associated nuclei of the brainstem. We report the dynamic expression of Brn3b in the somatosensory component of cranial nerves II, V, VII, and VIII and visceromotor nuclei of nerves VII, IX, and X as well as other brainstem nuclei during different stages of development into adult stage. We find that genetically identified Brn3b(KO) RGC axons show correct but delayed pathfinding during the early stages of embryonic development. However, loss of Brn3b does not affect the anatomy of the other cranial nerves normally expressing this transcription factor.

  13. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-10-12

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers.

  14. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model. PMID:26267363

  15. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor reduces necrosis and enhances hepatocyte regeneration in a mouse model of acetaminophen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Donahower, Brian C; McCullough, Sandra S; Hennings, Leah; Simpson, Pippa M; Stowe, Cindy D; Saad, Ali G; Kurten, Richard C; Hinson, Jack A; James, Laura P

    2010-07-01

    We reported previously that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice and treatment with a VEGF receptor inhibitor reduced hepatocyte regeneration. The effect of human recombinant VEGF (hrVEGF) on APAP toxicity in the mouse was examined. In early toxicity studies, B6C3F1 mice received hrVEGF (50 microg s.c.) or vehicle 30 min before receiving APAP (200 mg/kg i.p.) and were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 h. Toxicity was comparable at 2 and 4 h, but reduced in the APAP/hrVEGF mice at 8 h (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) and APAP protein adduct levels were comparable between the two groups of mice, with the exception that GSH was higher at 8 h in the hrVEGF-treated mice. Subsequently, mice received two doses (before and 10 h) or three doses (before and 10 and 24 h) of hrVEGF; alanine aminotransferase values and necrosis were reduced at 24 and 36 h, respectively, in the APAP/hrVEGF mice (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression was enhanced, and interleukin-6 expression was reduced in the mice that received hrVEGF (p < 0.05) compared with the APAP/vehicle mice. In addition, treatment with hrVEGF lowered plasma hyaluronic acid levels and neutrophil counts at 36 h. Cumulatively, the data show that treatment with hrVEGF reduced toxicity and increased hepatocyte regeneration in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Attenuation of sinusoidal cell endothelial dysfunction and changes in neutrophil dynamics may be operant mechanisms in the hepatoprotection mediated by hrVEGF in APAP toxicity.

  16. Cortical Granule Exocytosis Is Mediated by Alpha-SNAP and N-Ethilmaleimide Sensitive Factor in Mouse Oocytes.

    PubMed

    de Paola, Matilde; Bello, Oscar Daniel; Michaut, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), also known as cortical reaction, is a calcium- regulated secretion that represents a membrane fusion process during meiotic cell division of oocytes. The molecular mechanism of membrane fusion during CGE is still poorly understood and is thought to be mediated by the SNARE pathway; nevertheless, it is unkown if SNAP (acronym for soluble NSF attachment protein) and NSF (acronym for N-ethilmaleimide sensitive factor), two key proteins in the SNARE pathway, mediate CGE in any oocyte model. In this paper, we documented the gene expression of α-SNAP, γ-SNAP and NSF in mouse oocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of these proteins maintains a similar level during oocyte maturation and early activation. Their localization was mainly observed at the cortical region of metaphase II oocytes, which is enriched in cortical granules. To evaluate the function of these proteins in CGE we set up a functional assay based on the quantification of cortical granules metaphase II oocytes activated parthenogenetically with strontium. Endogenous α-SNAP and NSF proteins were perturbed by microinjection of recombinant proteins or antibodies prior to CGE activation. The microinjection of wild type α-SNAP and the negative mutant of α-SNAP L294A in metaphase II oocytes inhibited CGE stimulated by strontium. NEM, an irreversibly inhibitor of NSF, and the microinjection of the negative mutant NSF D1EQ inhibited cortical reaction. The microinjection of anti-α-SNAP and anti-NSF antibodies was able to abolish CGE in activated metaphase II oocytes. The microinjection of anti-γ SNAP antibody had no effect on CGE. Our findings indicate, for the first time in any oocyte model, that α-SNAP, γ-SNAP, and NSF are expressed in mouse oocytes. We demonstrate that α-SNAP and NSF have an active role in CGE and propose a working model.

  17. Tunicamycin-induced cell death in the trigeminal ganglion is suppressed by nerve growth factor in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Zhao, Bing-Ran; Kano, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Terayama, Ruji; Matsuo, Saburo; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2010-04-01

    The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on tunicamycin (Tm)-treated neurons in the trigeminal ganglion was investigated by use of caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. In intact embryos at embryonic day 16.5, only a few caspase-3-immunoreactivity were detected in the ganglion neurons. Mean +/- SE of the density of the immunoreactivity was 0.22 +/- 0.03%. In contrast, the number of the immunoreactive neurons was increased at 24 h after injection of 0.5 microg Tm in 1 microl of 0.05 N NaOH solution into mouse embryos at embryonic day 15.5. The density of immunoreactivity was also increased (mean +/- SE = 1.44 +/- 0.11%) compared to intact and 0.05 N NaOH-treated embryos (mean +/- SE = 0.35 +/- 0.03%). The Tm treatment caused increase of the number of trigeminal neurons representing apoptotic profiles (intact, mean +/- SE = 79.3 +/- 8.5; 0.05 N NaOH, mean +/- SE = 132 +/- 11.5; 0.5 microg Tm, mean +/- SE = 370.2 +/- 64.8). In addition, NGF significantly prevented the increase of density of the immunoreactivity (mean +/- SE = 0.54 +/- 0.16%) and the number of apoptotic cells (mean +/- SE = 146.2 +/- 11.3). Saline application (without NGF) had no effect on Tm-induced increase of the immunoreactivity (mean +/- SE = 1.78 +/- 0.23%) or the apoptotic profiles (mean +/- SE = 431.9 +/- 80.5). These results indicate that Tm-induced cell death in the trigeminal ganglion is suppressed by NGF in the mouse embryo.

  18. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. {yields} HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1{sup +/0}) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1{sup +/0} mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1{sup +/0} cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1{sup +/0} cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  19. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate. PMID:25691247

  20. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate.

  1. Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and retinoid signalling pathways promote pancreatic exocrine gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Skoudy, Anouchka; Rovira, Meritxell; Savatier, Pierre; Martin, Franz; León-Quinto, Trinidad; Soria, Bernat; Real, Francisco X

    2004-01-01

    Extracellular signalling cues play a major role in the activation of differentiation programmes. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into a wide variety of specialized cells. Recently, protocols designed to induce endocrine pancreatic differentiation in vitro have been designed but little information is currently available concerning the potential of ES cells to differentiate into acinar pancreatic cells. By using conditioned media of cultured foetal pancreatic rudiments, we demonstrate that ES cells can respond in vitro to signalling pathways involved in exocrine development and differentiation. In particular, modulation of the hedgehog, transforming growth factor beta, retinoid, and fibroblast growth factor pathways in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies (EB) resulted in increased levels of transcripts encoding pancreatic transcription factors and cytodifferentiation markers, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. In EB undergoing spontaneous differentiation, expression of the majority of the acinar genes (i.e. amylase, carboxypeptidase A and elastase) was induced after the expression of endocrine genes, as occurs in vivo during development. These data indicate that ES cells can undergo exocrine pancreatic differentiation with a kinetic pattern of expression reminiscent of pancreas development in vivo and that ES cells can be coaxed to express an acinar phenotype by activation of signalling pathways known to play a role in pancreatic development and differentiation. PMID:14733613

  2. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes is an important way to provide a steady source of materials for research and practice of parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization, and nuclear transfer. However, oocytes cryopreservation has not been common used, as there still are some problems waiting to be solved on the repeatability, safety, and validity. Then, it is necessary to investigate the damage occurred from vitrification and find a way to avoid or repair it. In this study, mouse mature oocytes were firstly pretreated in different equilibrium media, such as 5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 10% EG + 10% DMSO, and 15% EG + 15% DMSO in TCM199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively, and then oocytes were transferred into vitrification solution (20% EG, 20% DMSO, 0.3 M sucrose, and 20% FCS in TCM199, M2, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, and 0.9% saline medium, respectively) and immediately loaded into glass capillaries to be plunged into liquid nitrogen. After storage from 1 h to 1 wk, they were diluted in stepwise sucrose solutions. The surviving oocytes were stained for cortical granule, meiotic spindles, and chromosomes. Oocytes without treatments were used as controls. The results showed that oocytes pretreated in 5% EG +5% DMSO group for 3-5 min or in 10% EG + 10% DMSO group for 1-3 min were better than other treatments. Oocytes vitrified in TCM199 as basic medium showed higher survival and better subsequent embryonic development than other groups. When the concentration of FCS in vitrification solution reduced below 15%, the rates of survival, fertilization, and developing to blastocyst declined dramatically. The inner diameter (0.6 mm) of glass capillaries and amount of vitrification solution (1-3 microl) achieved more rapid cooling and warming and so reduce the injury to oocytes. Cropreservation led to the exocytosis of cortical granule of oocytes (about 10%) and serious disturbance of

  3. Factors affecting the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of mouse oocytes after vitrification using glass capillaries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; You, Wei; Wan, Fachun

    2009-09-01

    Cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes is an important way to provide a steady source of materials for research and practice of parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization, and nuclear transfer. However, oocytes cryopreservation has not been common used, as there still are some problems waiting to be solved on the repeatability, safety, and validity. Then, it is necessary to investigate the damage occurred from vitrification and find a way to avoid or repair it. In this study, mouse mature oocytes were firstly pretreated in different equilibrium media, such as 5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 10% EG + 10% DMSO, and 15% EG + 15% DMSO in TCM199 supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively, and then oocytes were transferred into vitrification solution (20% EG, 20% DMSO, 0.3 M sucrose, and 20% FCS in TCM199, M2, Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline, and 0.9% saline medium, respectively) and immediately loaded into glass capillaries to be plunged into liquid nitrogen. After storage from 1 h to 1 wk, they were diluted in stepwise sucrose solutions. The surviving oocytes were stained for cortical granule, meiotic spindles, and chromosomes. Oocytes without treatments were used as controls. The results showed that oocytes pretreated in 5% EG +5% DMSO group for 3-5 min or in 10% EG + 10% DMSO group for 1-3 min were better than other treatments. Oocytes vitrified in TCM199 as basic medium showed higher survival and better subsequent embryonic development than other groups. When the concentration of FCS in vitrification solution reduced below 15%, the rates of survival, fertilization, and developing to blastocyst declined dramatically. The inner diameter (0.6 mm) of glass capillaries and amount of vitrification solution (1-3 microl) achieved more rapid cooling and warming and so reduce the injury to oocytes. Cropreservation led to the exocytosis of cortical granule of oocytes (about 10%) and serious disturbance of

  4. Music exposure differentially alters the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in the mouse hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-12-18

    It has been reported that music may have physiological effects on blood pressure, cardiac heartbeat, respiration, and improve mood state in people affected by anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, the physiological bases of these phenomena are not clear. Hypothalamus is a brain region involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression through the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hypothalamic functions are also influenced by the presence of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music exposure in mice on hypothalamic levels of BDNF and NGF. We exposed young adult mice to slow rhythm music (6h per day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 dB) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment mice were sacrificed and BDNF and NGF levels in the hypothalamus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that music exposure significantly enhanced BDNF levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we observed that music-exposed mice had decreased NGF hypothalamic levels. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music in mice can influence neurotrophin production in the hypothalamus. Our findings also suggest that physiological effects of music might be in part mediated by modulation of neurotrophins.

  5. Genes expressed in mouse cortical progenitors are enriched in Pax, Lhx, and Sox transcription factor putative binding sites.

    PubMed

    Bery, Amandine; Mérot, Yohann; Rétaux, Sylvie

    2016-02-15

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling the development of the mammalian cortex. The proliferative and neurogenic properties of cortical progenitors located in the ventricular germinal zone start being understood. Little is known however on the cis-regulatory control that finely tunes gene expression in these progenitors. Here, we undertook an in silico-based approach to address this question, followed by some functional validation. Using the Eurexpress database, we established a list of 30 genes specifically expressed in the cortical germinal zone, we selected mouse/human conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) around these genes and we performed motif-enrichment search in these CNEs. We found an over-representation of motifs corresponding to binding sites for Pax, Sox, and Lhx transcription factors, often found as pairs and located within 100bp windows. A small subset of CNEs (n=7) was tested for enhancer activity, by ex-vivo and in utero electroporation assays. Two showed strong enhancer activity in the germinal zone progenitors. Mutagenesis experiments on a selected CNE showed the functional importance of the Pax, Sox, and Lhx TFBS for conferring enhancer activity to the CNE. Overall, from a cis-regulatory viewpoint, our data suggest an input from Pax, Sox and Lhx transcription factors to orchestrate corticogenesis. These results are discussed with regards to the known functional roles of Pax6, Sox2 and Lhx2 in cortical development. PMID:26721689

  6. An Ancient Transcription Factor Initiates the Burst of piRNA Production During Early Meiosis in Mouse Testes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin Zhiguo; Roy, Christian K.; Dong, Xianjun; Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina; Wang, Jie; Han, Bo W.; Xu, Jia; Moore, Melissa J.; Schimenti, John C.; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal germ cells produce PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small silencing RNAs that suppress transposons and enable gamete maturation. Mammalian transposon-silencing piRNAs accumulate early in spermatogenesis, whereas pachytene piRNAs are produced later during post-natal spermatogenesis and account for >95% of all piRNAs in the adult mouse testis. Mutants defective for pachytene piRNA pathway proteins fail to produce mature sperm, but neither the piRNA precursor transcripts nor the trigger for pachytene piRNA production is known. Here, we show that the transcription factor A-MYB initiates pachytene piRNA production. A-MYB drives transcription of both pachytene piRNA precursor RNAs and the mRNAs for core piRNA biogenesis factors, including MIWI, the protein through which pachytene piRNAs function. A-MYB regulation of piRNA pathway proteins and piRNA genes creates a coherent feed-forward loop that ensures the robust accumulation of pachytene piRNAs. This regulatory circuit, which can be detected in rooster testes, likely predates the divergence of birds and mammals. PMID:23523368

  7. The Candida albicans Pho4 Transcription Factor Mediates Susceptibility to Stress and Influences Fitness in a Mouse Commensalism Model

    PubMed Central

    Urrialde, Verónica; Prieto, Daniel; Pla, Jesús; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    The Pho4 transcription factor is required for growth under low environmental phosphate concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A characterization of Candida albicans pho4 mutants revealed that these cells are more susceptible to both osmotic and oxidative stress and that this effect is diminished in the presence of 5% CO2 or anaerobiosis, reflecting the relevance of oxygen metabolism in the Pho4-mediated response. A pho4 mutant was as virulent as wild type strain when assayed in the Galleria mellonella infection model and was even more resistant to murine macrophages in ex vivo killing assays. The lack of Pho4 neither impairs the ability to colonize the murine gut nor alters the localization in the gastrointestinal tract. However, we found that Pho4 influenced the colonization of C. albicans in the mouse gut in competition assays; pho4 mutants were unable to attain high colonization levels when inoculated simultaneously with an isogenic wild type strain. Moreover, pho4 mutants displayed a reduced adherence to the intestinal mucosa in a competitive ex vivo assays with wild type cells. In vitro competitive assays also revealed defects in fitness for this mutant compared to the wild type strain. Thus, Pho4, a transcription factor involved in phosphate metabolism, is required for adaptation to stress and fitness in C. albicans. PMID:27458452

  8. Regulation by vascular endothelial growth factor of human colon cancer tumorigenesis in a mouse model of experimental liver metastasis.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R S; Yuan, H; Matli, M R; Gillett, N A; Ferrara, N

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between angiogenesis and hepatic tumorigenesis, we examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 8 human colon carcinoma cell lines and in 30 human colorectal cancer liver metastases. Abundant message for VEGF was found in all tumors, localized to the malignant cells within each neoplasm. Two receptors for VEGF, KDR and flt1, were also demonstrated in most of the tumors examined. KDR and flt1 mRNA were limited to tumor endothelial cells and were more strongly expressed in the hepatic metastases than in the sinusoidal endothelium of the surrounding liver parenchyma. VEGF monoclonal antibody administration in tumor-bearing athymic mice led to a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of subcutaneous xenografts and to a marked reduction in the number and size of experimental liver metastases. In hepatic metastases of VEGF antibody-treated mice, neither blood vessels nor expression of the mouse KDR homologue flk-1 could be demonstrated. These data indicate that VEGF is a commonly expressed angiogenic factor in human colorectal cancer metastases, that VEGF receptors are up-regulated as a concomitant of hepatic tumorigenesis, and that modulation of VEGF gene expression or activity may represent a potentially effective antineoplastic therapy in colorectal cancer. Images PMID:7535799

  9. Protein Delivery of an Artificial Transcription Factor Restores Widespread Ube3a Expression in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Bailus, Barbara J; Pyles, Benjamin; McAlister, Michelle M; O'Geen, Henriette; Lockwood, Sarah H; Adams, Alexa N; Nguyen, Jennifer Trang T; Yu, Abigail; Berman, Robert F; Segal, David J

    2016-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological genetic disorder caused by loss of expression of the maternal copy of UBE3A in the brain. Due to brain-specific genetic imprinting at this locus, the paternal UBE3A is silenced by a long antisense transcript. Inhibition of the antisense transcript could lead to unsilencing of paternal UBE3A, thus providing a therapeutic approach for AS. However, widespread delivery of gene regulators to the brain remains challenging. Here, we report an engineered zinc finger-based artificial transcription factor (ATF) that, when injected i.p. or s.c., crossed the blood-brain barrier and increased Ube3a expression in the brain of an adult mouse model of AS. The factor displayed widespread distribution throughout the brain. Immunohistochemistry of both the hippocampus and cerebellum revealed an increase in Ube3a upon treatment. An ATF containing an alternative DNA-binding domain did not activate Ube3a. We believe this to be the first report of an injectable engineered zinc finger protein that can cause widespread activation of an endogenous gene in the brain. These observations have important implications for the study and treatment of AS and other neurological disorders. PMID:26727042

  10. The Candida albicans Pho4 Transcription Factor Mediates Susceptibility to Stress and Influences Fitness in a Mouse Commensalism Model.

    PubMed

    Urrialde, Verónica; Prieto, Daniel; Pla, Jesús; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    The Pho4 transcription factor is required for growth under low environmental phosphate concentrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A characterization of Candida albicans pho4 mutants revealed that these cells are more susceptible to both osmotic and oxidative stress and that this effect is diminished in the presence of 5% CO2 or anaerobiosis, reflecting the relevance of oxygen metabolism in the Pho4-mediated response. A pho4 mutant was as virulent as wild type strain when assayed in the Galleria mellonella infection model and was even more resistant to murine macrophages in ex vivo killing assays. The lack of Pho4 neither impairs the ability to colonize the murine gut nor alters the localization in the gastrointestinal tract. However, we found that Pho4 influenced the colonization of C. albicans in the mouse gut in competition assays; pho4 mutants were unable to attain high colonization levels when inoculated simultaneously with an isogenic wild type strain. Moreover, pho4 mutants displayed a reduced adherence to the intestinal mucosa in a competitive ex vivo assays with wild type cells. In vitro competitive assays also revealed defects in fitness for this mutant compared to the wild type strain. Thus, Pho4, a transcription factor involved in phosphate metabolism, is required for adaptation to stress and fitness in C. albicans.

  11. Hind Limb Unloading Model Alters Nuclear Factor kappa B and Activator Protein-1 Signaling in Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Vani, Vani; Renard, Renard; Vera, Vera; Wilosn, Wilosn; Ramesh, Govindarajan

    Microgravity induces inflammatory response and also modulates immune functions, which may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to the microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects. However, there is little research exploring the etiology of neurological effects of exposure to this environment. To explore this area we evaluated changes in Nuclear Factor kappa B, Activator Protein 1, MAPP kinase and N terminal c-Jun kinase in mouse brain exposed to a simulated microgravity environment using the hindlimb unloading model. BALB/c male mice were randomly assigned to hindlimb unloading group (n=12) and control group (n=12) to simulate a microgravity environment, for 7 days. Changes observed in NF-κB, AP- 1 DNA binding, MAPKK and N terminal c-Jun kinase were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analysis and compared to unexposed brain regions. Hindlimb unloading exposed mice showed significant increases in generated NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKK and Kinase in all regions of the brain exposed to hindlimb unloading as compared to the control brain regions. Results suggest that exposure to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors and protein kinases. This work was supported by funding from NASA NCC 9-165. 504b030414000600080000002100828abc13fa0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e78

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is a key factor related to depression and physiological homeostasis in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Doe, Nobutaka; Sumida, Miho; Watanabe, Yuko; Yoshida, Momoko; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Xu, Yunfeng; Li, Wen; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Okamura, Haruki; Matsunaga, Hisato

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that involves marked disabilities in global functioning, anorexia, and severe medical comorbidities. MDD is associated with not only psychological and sociocultural problems, but also pervasive physical dysfunctions such as metabolic, neurobiological and immunological abnormalities. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the interactions between these factors have yet to be determined in detail. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and dysregulation of physiological homeostasis, including immunological function as well as lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity in the brain. We generated depression-like behavior in mice using chronic mild stress (CMS) as a model of depression. We compared the gene expression profiles in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of CMS and control mice using microarrays. We subsequently categorized genes using two web-based bioinformatics applications: Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery. We then confirmed significant group-differences by analyzing mRNA and protein expression levels not only in the PFC, but also in the thalamus and hippocampus. These web tools revealed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a) may exert direct effects on various genes specifically associated with amine synthesis, such as genes involved in serotonin metabolism and related immunological functions. Moreover, these genes may influence lipid metabolism, coagulation, and hormonal activity. We also confirmed the significant effects of Hnf4a on both mRNA and protein expression levels in the brain. These results suggest that Hnf4a may have a critical influence on physiological homeostasis under depressive states, and may be associated with the mechanisms responsible for the interactions between MDD and the dysregulation of physiological homeostasis

  13. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-08-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ((/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM). Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status.

  14. The gene for transcription factor GATA-6 resides on mouse chromosome 18 and is expressed in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Narita, Naoko; Wilson, D.B.; Bielinska, M.

    1996-09-01

    We report the mapping and developmental expression pattern of the gene encoding mouse GATA-6, a member of a family of transcription factors involved in tissue-specific gene expression. Using backcross analysis, the Gata6 gene was localized to mouse chromosome 18, linked to the gene encoding transthyretin. RNase protection analysis showed that Gata6 is abundantly expressed in the heart, stomach, intestine, and ovaries of the adult mouse. The developmental expression patterns of Gata6 and the closely related gene Gata4 were directly compared using in situ hybridization. Both genes were found to be highly expressed in the myocardium, stomach epithelium, and small intestinal epithelium throughout mouse development. Of the two genes, however, only Gata6 was expressed in vascular smooth muscle. The overlapping distributions of GATA-4 and GATA-6 transcripts in the heart support the possibility of functional redundancy or interplay between these two transcription factors in this tissue. The presence of GATA-6 mRNA in vascular smooth muscle suggests that this transcription factor may play a distinctive role in gene expression in this cell type. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Analysis of Neurotrophic Factors in Limb and Extraocular Muscles of Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Vahid M.; Lindquist, Susanne; Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Brännström, Thomas; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3–5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs) from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients. PMID:25334047

  16. Analysis of neurotrophic factors in limb and extraocular muscles of mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Vahid M; Lindquist, Susanne; Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Brännström, Thomas; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently an incurable fatal motor neuron syndrome characterized by progressive weakness, muscle wasting and death ensuing 3-5 years after diagnosis. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be important in both nervous system development and maintenance. However, the attempt to translate the potential of NTFs into the therapeutic options remains limited despite substantial number of approaches, which have been tested clinically. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technique, the present study investigated mRNA expression of four different NTFs: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in limb muscles and extraocular muscles (EOMs) from SOD1G93A transgenic mice at early and terminal stages of ALS. General morphological examination revealed that muscle fibres were well preserved in both limb muscles and EOMs in early stage ALS mice. However, in terminal ALS mice, most muscle fibres were either atrophied or hypertrophied in limb muscles but unaffected in EOMs. qRT-PCR analysis showed that in early stage ALS mice, NT-4 was significantly down-regulated in limb muscles whereas NT-3 and GDNF were markedly up-regulated in EOMs. In terminal ALS mice, only GDNF was significantly up-regulated in limb muscles. We concluded that the early down-regulation of NT-4 in limb muscles is closely associated with muscle dystrophy and dysfunction at late stage, whereas the early up-regulations of GDNF and NT-3 in EOMs are closely associated with the relatively well-preserved muscle morphology at late stage. Collectively, the data suggested that comparing NTFs expression between limb muscles and EOMs from different stages of ALS animal models is a useful method in revealing the patho-physiology and progression of ALS, and eventually rescuing motor neuron in ALS patients. PMID:25334047

  17. Vitrification and Subsequent In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Preantral Follicles in Presence of Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oryan Abkenar, Zahra; Ganji, Roya; Eghbal Khajehrahimi, Amir; Bahadori, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue or follicles has been proposed as an alternative method for fertility preservation. Although successful vitrification of follicles has been reported in several mammalian species, the survival rate is generally low. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on in vitro preantral follicle development after vitrification. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, preantral follicles with diameter of 150-180 µm were mechanically isolated from ovaries of 18-21 days old NMRI mice. Follicles were vitrified and warmed, then cultured in a-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) without growth factor supplementation as control group (group I), while supplemented with 20 ng/ml FGF (group II), 20 ng/ml EGF (group III), and 20 ng/ml FGF +20 ng/ml EGF (group IV). After 12 days, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/EGF was added to culture medium, and after 18-20 hours, the presence of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and oocyte maturation were assessed. The chi-square (Χ2) test was used to analyze survival and ovulation rates of the follicles. Results Our results showed that the rate of metaphase II (MII) oocytes in FGF group increased in comparison with control and other treatment groups (p<0.027), but there was no difference between control with EGF and EGF+FGF groups in oocyte maturation rate (p>0.05). There was a significant decrease in survival rate of follicles in EGF+FGE group in comparison with other groups (p<0.008). After in vitro ovulation induction, the follicles in EGF group showed a higher ovulation rate (p<0.008) than those cultured in other groups. Conclusion FGF has beneficial effect on oocyte maturation, and EGF increases COCs number in vitro. Combination of EGF and FGE decreases the number of survived follicles. PMID:24611145

  18. Defects in subventricular zone pigmented epithelium-derived factor niche signaling in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8.

    PubMed

    Castro-Garcia, Paola; Díaz-Moreno, María; Gil-Gas, Carmen; Fernández-Gómez, Francisco J; Honrubia-Gómez, Paloma; Álvarez-Simón, Carmen Belén; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cano, Juan Carlos Castillo; Almeida, Francisco; Blanco, Vicente; Jordán, Joaquín; Mira, Helena; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    We studied potential changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAM-P8) aging model. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays with longtime survival revealed a lower number of label-retaining stem cells in the SAM-P8 SVZ compared with the SAM-Resistant 1 (SAM-R1) control strain. We also found that in SAM-P8 niche signaling is attenuated and the stem cell pool is less responsive to the self-renewal niche factor pigmented epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Protein analysis demonstrated stable amounts of the PEDF ligand in the SAM-P8 SVZ niche; however, SAM-P8 stem cells present a significant expression decrease of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2, a receptor for PEDF (PNPLA2-PEDF) receptor, but not of laminin receptor (LR), a receptor for PEDF (LR-PEDF) receptor. We observed changes in self-renewal related genes (hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes5), Sox2] and report that although these genes are down-regulated in SAM-P8, differentiation genes (Pax6) are up-regulated and neurogenesis is increased. Finally, sheltering mammalian telomere complexes might be also involved given a down-regulation of telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (Terf1) expression was observed in SAM-P8 at young age periods. Differences between these 2 models, SAM-P8 and SAM-R1 controls, have been previously detected at more advanced ages. We now describe alterations in the PEDF signaling pathway and stem cell self-renewal at a very young age, which could be involved in the premature senescence observed in the SAM-P8 model. PMID:25636741

  19. Expression and misexpression of members of the FGF and TGFbeta families of growth factors in the developing mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Dichmann, Darwin S; Miller, Christopher P; Jensen, Jan; Scott Heller, R; Serup, Palle

    2003-04-01

    We have performed a high-capacity, semiquantitative, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction screen for expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family genes as well as their cognate receptors. By using cDNA prepared from embryonic day 12 to postnatal day 0 embryonic mouse pancreas, we have identified several factors potentially involved in the development of the endocrine pancreas. We find high-level early expression of TGFbeta-1 and -2, and constitutive expression of TGFbeta-3 and their receptors. Of the Inhibin/Activin members, we found exclusively Inhibin-alpha and Activin-betaB to be expressed, and the BMP family was represented by BMP4, BMP5, and BMP7. The predominant forms of the BMP and Activin type II receptors were ActR-IIB and BMPR-II and of the type I receptors, BMPR-1A and -1B were the highest expressed. FGF1, FGF7, FGF9, FGF10, FGF11, and FGF18 were also expressed in the pancreas at varying time points and levels, as well as FGF receptor forms FGFR1b, FGFR1c, FGFR2b, FGFR2c, FGFR3b, and FGFR4. To gain insight into the biological function, we misexpressed members of these families in the pancreas by using the early pancreas promoter Pdx1. Misexpression of FGF4 results in disruption of the pancreas morphology with epithelial structures interspersed in stroma tissue. The endocrine compartment was reduced to scattered single cells, and the exocrine consisted of unbranched ductal epithelia with acinar structures budding off. In contrast, misexpression of BMP-6 resulted in complete agenesis of the pancreas and reduced the size of the stomach and spleen dramatically and caused fusion of the liver and duodenum.

  20. Defects in subventricular zone pigmented epithelium-derived factor niche signaling in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8.

    PubMed

    Castro-Garcia, Paola; Díaz-Moreno, María; Gil-Gas, Carmen; Fernández-Gómez, Francisco J; Honrubia-Gómez, Paloma; Álvarez-Simón, Carmen Belén; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cano, Juan Carlos Castillo; Almeida, Francisco; Blanco, Vicente; Jordán, Joaquín; Mira, Helena; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    We studied potential changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAM-P8) aging model. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assays with longtime survival revealed a lower number of label-retaining stem cells in the SAM-P8 SVZ compared with the SAM-Resistant 1 (SAM-R1) control strain. We also found that in SAM-P8 niche signaling is attenuated and the stem cell pool is less responsive to the self-renewal niche factor pigmented epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Protein analysis demonstrated stable amounts of the PEDF ligand in the SAM-P8 SVZ niche; however, SAM-P8 stem cells present a significant expression decrease of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2, a receptor for PEDF (PNPLA2-PEDF) receptor, but not of laminin receptor (LR), a receptor for PEDF (LR-PEDF) receptor. We observed changes in self-renewal related genes (hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes5), Sox2] and report that although these genes are down-regulated in SAM-P8, differentiation genes (Pax6) are up-regulated and neurogenesis is increased. Finally, sheltering mammalian telomere complexes might be also involved given a down-regulation of telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (Terf1) expression was observed in SAM-P8 at young age periods. Differences between these 2 models, SAM-P8 and SAM-R1 controls, have been previously detected at more advanced ages. We now describe alterations in the PEDF signaling pathway and stem cell self-renewal at a very young age, which could be involved in the premature senescence observed in the SAM-P8 model.

  1. Gene Expression in Mouse Thyrotrope Adenoma: Transcription Elongation Factor Stimulates Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gergics, Peter; Christian, Helen C; Choo, Monica S; Ajmal, Adnan; Camper, Sally A

    2016-09-01

    Thyrotrope hyperplasia and hypertrophy are common responses to primary hypothyroidism. To understand the genetic regulation of these processes, we studied gene expression changes in the pituitaries of Cga(-/-) mice, which are deficient in the common α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH. These mice have thyrotrope hypertrophy and hyperplasia and develop thyrotrope adenoma. We report that cell proliferation is increased, but the expression of most stem cell markers is unchanged. The α-subunit is required for secretion of the glycoprotein hormone β-subunits, and mutants exhibit elevated expression of many genes involved in the unfolded protein response, consistent with dilation and stress of the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutants have elevated expression of transcription factors that are important in thyrotrope function, such as Gata2 and Islet 1, and those that stimulate proliferation, including Nupr1, E2f1, and Etv5. We characterized the expression and function of a novel, overexpressed gene, transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 5 (Tceal5). Stable expression of Tceal5 in a pituitary progenitor cell line is sufficient to increase cell proliferation. Thus, Tceal5 may act as a proto-oncogene. This study provides a rich resource for comparing pituitary transcriptomes and an analysis of gene expression networks. PMID:27580811

  2. Ambroxol suppresses influenza-virus proliferation in the mouse airway by increasing antiviral factor levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Yao, D F; Ohuchi, M; Ide, M; Yano, M; Okumura, Y; Kido, H

    2002-05-01

    The protective effect of ambroxol, a mucolytic agent which has antioxidant properties and stimulates the release of pulmonary surfactant, against influenza-virus proliferation in the airway was investigated in mice. Ambroxol or the vehicle was administered intraperitoneally twice a day for 5-7 days to mice shortly after intranasal infection with a lethal dose of influenza A/Aichi/68 (H3N2) virus, and the survival rate, virus titre and levels of factors regulating virus proliferation in the airway fluid were analysed. Ambroxol significantly suppressed virus multiplication and improved the survival rate of mice. The effect of ambroxol reached a peak at 10 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), higher doses being less effective. Ambroxol stimulated the release of suppressors of influenza-virus multiplication, such as pulmonary surfactant, mucus protease inhibitor, immunoglobulin (Ig)-A and IgG, although it stimulated the release of a trypsin-type protease that potentiates virus proliferation. In addition, ambroxol transiently suppressed release of the cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma and interleukin-12, into airway fluid. Although ambroxol had several negative effects on the host defence system, overall it strikingly increased the concentrations of suppressors of influenza-virus multiplication in the airway.

  3. Deep proteomics of mouse skeletal muscle enables quantitation of protein isoforms, metabolic pathways, and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms.

  4. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  5. Factor Xa in mouse fibroblasts may induce fibrosis more than thrombin.

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Lisa; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Hashikata, Takehiro; Ishii, Sayaka; Kameda, Ryo; Shimohama, Takao; Tojo, Taiki; Ako, Junya

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation factors are known to play a role in wound healing by stimulating fibroblasts and might be associated with tissue fibrosis, however, only limited data exist. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), activated by thrombin or factor (F) Xa, and PAR2, activated by FXa, have recently been reported to play roles not only in the coagulation system, but also in cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, a previous report found that FX deficiency in mice led to the development of cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated cellular biological function under conditions of overexpressed thrombin and FXa in fibroblasts.Cell migration and proliferation with FXa (1U/mL) and thrombin (1U/mL) stimulation were evaluated. Cells incubated without FXa or thrombin were used as control. H2O2 and TGF-β1 production were measured using ELISA. Signal pathways were evaluated using a signal pathway reporter assay.Cell migration and proliferation were increased in FXa-stimulated cells (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation compared with control, respectively) and thrombin (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation as compared to control, respectively). H2O2 production was higher in FXa-stimulated cells compared to thrombin (1.3-fold increase) and control cells (1.4-fold increased). TGF-β1 production was up-regulated after FXa addition (12.6-fold increase compared with thrombin, 1.8-fold increase compared with control, respectively). In FXa-stimulated cells, AP-1 and NF-kB were increased compared to control (P < 0.05).These data suggest that FXa and thrombin play important roles in the fibrotic process that could also lead to cardiac fibrosis, and that at least some of these signalings are more accelerated with FXa compared to thrombin. PMID:24942638

  6. Age, Strain, and Gender as Factors for Increased Sensitivity of the Mouse Lung to Inhaled Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Vancza, Elizabeth M.; Galdanes, Karen; Gunnison, Al; Hatch, Gary; Gordon, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a respiratory irritant that leads to airway inflammation and pulmonary dysfunction. Animal studies show that neonates are more sensitive to O3 inhalation than adults, and children represent a potentially susceptible population. This latter notion is not well established, and biological mechanisms underlying a predisposition to pollution-induced pulmonary effects are unknown. We examined age and strain as interactive factors affecting differential pulmonary responses to inhaled O3. Male and female adult mice (15 weeks old) and neonates (15–16 days old) from eight genetically diverse inbred strains were exposed to 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h. Pulmonary injury and lung inflammation were quantified as total protein concentration and total polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) number in lavage fluid recovered 24-h postexposure. Dose-response and time-course curves were generated using SJL/J pups, and 18O lung burden dose was assessed in additional mice. Interstrain differences in response to O3 were seen in neonatal mice: Balb/cJ and SJL/J being most sensitive and A/J and 129x1/SvJ most resistant. The PMN response to O3 was greater in neonates than in adults, specifically for SJL/J and C3H/HeJ strains, independent of dose. Small gender differences were also observed in adult mice. Variation in protein concentrations and PMN counts between adults and pups were strain dependent, suggesting that genetic determinants do play a role in age-related sensitivity to O3. Further research will help to determine what genetic factors contribute to these heightened responses, and to quantify the relative contribution of genes vs. environment in O3-induced health effects. PMID:19066396

  7. Protective effects of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 on whole body heat stress-induced oxidative damage in the mouse testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whole body heat stress had detrimental effect on male reproductive function. It's known that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activates expression of cytoprotective genes to enable cell adaptation to protect against oxidative stress. However, it’s still unclear about the exactly effects of Nrf2 on the testis. Here, we investigate the protective effect of Nrf2 on whole body heat stress-induced oxidative damage in mouse testis. Methods Male mice were exposed to the elevated ambient temperature (42°C) daily for 2 h. During the period of twelve consecutive days, mice were sacrificed on days 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 immediately following heat exposure. Testes weight, enzymatic antioxidant activities and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in the testes were determined and immunohistochemical detection of Nrf2 protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed to assess the status of Nrf2-antioxidant system. Results Heat-exposed mice presented significant increases in rectal, scrotal surface and body surface temperature. The concentrations of cortisol and testosterone in serum fluctuated with the number of exposed days. There were significant decrease in testes weight and relative testes weight on day 12 compared with those on other days, but significant increases in catalase (CAT) activity on day 1 and GSH level on day 4 compared with control group. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and copper-zinc SOD (CuZn-SOD) increased significantly on days 8 and 12. Moreover, prominent nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 protein was observed in Leydig cells on day 2, accompanying with up-regulated mRNA levels of Nrf2-regulated genes such as Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCLC) and NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)) in heat-treated groups. Conclusions These results suggest that Nrf2 displayed nuclear accumulation and protective activity in the process of heat

  8. Insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 administration ameliorates disease manifestations in a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Bott, Laura C; Chen, Ke-lian; Harmison, George G; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Pennuto, Maria; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2012-12-06

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. Patients develop slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. No effective disease-modifying therapy is currently available for this disease. Our recent studies have demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 reduces the mutant androgen receptor toxicity through activation of Akt in vitro, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mice that also overexpress a noncirculating muscle isoform of IGF-1 have a less severe phenotype. Here we sought to establish the efficacy of daily intraperitoneal injections of mecasermin rinfabate, recombinant human IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein 3, in a transgenic mouse model expressing the mutant androgen receptor with an expanded 97 glutamine tract. The study was done in a controlled, randomized, blinded fashion, and, to reflect the clinical settings, the injections were started after the onset of disease manifestations. The treatment resulted in increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced mutant androgen receptor aggregation in muscle. In comparison to vehicle-treated controls, IGF-1-treated transgenic mice showed improved motor performance, attenuated weight loss and increased survival. Our results suggest that peripheral tissue can be targeted to improve the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype and indicate that IGF-1 warrants further investigation in clinical trials as a potential treatment for this disease.

  9. Dissecting mechanisms of mouse embryonic stem cells heterogeneity through a model-based analysis of transcription factor dynamics.

    PubMed

    Herberg, Maria; Glauche, Ingmar; Zerjatke, Thomas; Winzi, Maria; Buchholz, Frank; Roeder, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) show heterogeneous expression levels of transcription factors (TFs) involved in pluripotency regulation, among them Nanog and Rex1. The expression of both TFs can change dynamically between states of high and low activity, correlating with the cells' capacity for self-renewal. Stochastic fluctuations as well as sustained oscillations in gene expression are possible mechanisms to explain this behaviour, but the lack of suitable data hampered their clear distinction. Here, we present a systems biology approach in which novel experimental data on TF heterogeneity is complemented by an agent-based model of mESC self-renewal. Because the model accounts for intracellular interactions, cell divisions and heredity structures, it allows for evaluating the consistency of the proposed mechanisms with data on population growth and on TF dynamics after cell sorting. Our model-based analysis revealed that a bistable, noise-driven network model fulfils the minimal requirements to consistently explain Nanog and Rex1 expression dynamics in heterogeneous and sorted mESC populations. Moreover, we studied the impact of TF-related proliferation capacities on the frequency of state transitions and demonstrate that cellular genealogies can provide insights into the heredity structures of mESCs.

  10. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Methods Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Results Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn’t affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. Conclusion BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress. PMID:23284991

  11. Connective tissue growth factor regulates cardiac function and tissue remodeling in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Koshman, Yevgeniya E; Sternlicht, Mark D; Kim, Taehoon; O'Hara, Christopher P; Koczor, Christopher A; Lewis, William; Seeley, Todd W; Lipson, Kenneth E; Samarel, Allen M

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac structural changes associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) include cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been associated with tissue remodeling and is highly expressed in failing hearts. Our aim was to test if inhibition of CTGF would alter the course of cardiac remodeling and preserve cardiac function in the protein kinase Cε (PKCε) mouse model of DCM. Transgenic mice expressing constitutively active PKCε in cardiomyocytes develop cardiac dysfunction that was evident by 3 months of age, and that progressed to cardiac fibrosis, heart failure, and increased mortality. Beginning at 3 months of age, PKCε mice were treated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to CTGF (FG-3149) for an additional 3 months. CTGF inhibition significantly improved left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions in PKCε mice, and slowed the progression of LV dilatation. Using gene arrays and quantitative PCR, the expression of many genes associated with tissue remodeling was elevated in PKCε mice, but significantly decreased by CTGF inhibition. However total collagen deposition was not attenuated. The observation of significantly improved LV function by CTGF inhibition in PKCε mice suggests that CTGF inhibition may benefit patients with DCM. Additional studies to explore this potential are warranted.

  12. Reduced nasal transport of insulin-like growth factor-1 to the mouse cerebrum with olfactory bulb resection.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hideaki; Nagaoka, Mikiya; Washiyama, Kohshin; Yamamoto, Junpei; Yamada, Kentaro; Noda, Takuya; Harita, Masayuki; Amano, Ryohei; Miwa, Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Although the olfactory nerve is involved in nasal transport of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to the brain, to our knowledge there have been no direct assessments of the effects of olfactory nerve damage on this transport. To determine whether olfactory bulb resection resulted in reduced transport of nasally administered human recombinant IGF-1 (hIGF-1) to the cerebrum, we measured the uptake of nasally administered iodine-125 hIGF-1 ((125)I-hIGF-1) in the cerebrum as a percentage of that in the blood in male ICR mice subjected to left olfactory bulb resection (model mice) and in sham-operated male ICR mice (control mice). Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204)/(Thr185/Tyr187) as a percentage of total ERK 1/2 in the left cerebrum was also assessed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after nasal administration of hIGF-1. Uptake of nasally administered (125)I-hIGF-1 in the cerebrum as a percentage of that in the blood was significantly lower in the model group than in the control group 30min after nasal administration of hIGF-1. Unilateral olfactory bulb resection prevented nasally administered hIGF-1 from increasing the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the mouse cerebrum in vivo. These findings suggest that olfactory bulb damage reduces nasal transport of hIGF-1 to the brain in vivo.

  13. Insulinlike Growth Factor (IGF)-1 Administration Ameliorates Disease Manifestations in a Mouse Model of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Bott, Laura C; Chen, Ke-lian; Harmison, George G; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Pennuto, Maria; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2012-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. Patients develop slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. No effective disease-modifying therapy is currently available for this disease. Our recent studies have demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 reduces the mutant androgen receptor toxicity through activation of Akt in vitro, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mice that also overexpress a noncirculating muscle isoform of IGF-1 have a less severe phenotype. Here we sought to establish the efficacy of daily intraperitoneal injections of mecasermin rinfabate, recombinant human IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein 3, in a transgenic mouse model expressing the mutant androgen receptor with an expanded 97 glutamine tract. The study was done in a controlled, randomized, blinded fashion, and, to reflect the clinical settings, the injections were started after the onset of disease manifestations. The treatment resulted in increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced mutant androgen receptor aggregation in muscle. In comparison to vehicle-treated controls, IGF-1–treated transgenic mice showed improved motor performance, attenuated weight loss and increased survival. Our results suggest that peripheral tissue can be targeted to improve the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype and indicate that IGF-1 warrants further investigation in clinical trials as a potential treatment for this disease. PMID:22952056

  14. Study of the biological function and penetration pathways of the mouse epidermal growth factor ethosomal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Lang; You, Yi; Zhong, Bai-Yu; Song, Qiu-He; Deng, Jun; Hao, Fei

    2011-11-01

    Biological agents are becoming increasingly popular for therapeutic applications in epidermal diseases. Ethosomes facilitate the transdermal/topical delivery of biological macromolecules. The mouse epidermal growth factor (mEGF) was selected as the model biological agent. The aim of this experiment was to determine the penetration pathways and biological functions of the mEGF ethosomal delivery system after its topical application. The mEGF ethosomal delivery system was topically applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice at different time points. Freshly excised skin samples were obtained by skin biopsies and shock-frozen, and immunofluorescence was performed. The results showed that penetration of mEGF ethosomes was mainly through the pilosebaceous unit and partly through the intercellular domain. Biological agents encapsulated in the ethosomal delivery system could reach each site of the pilosebaceous unit. We also found that mEGF ethosomes had caused successful transition of the hair follicles from the telogen to the anagen phase of the hair cycle. PMID:21801235

  15. Heart and extra-embryonic mesodermal defects in mouse embryos lacking the bHLH transcription factor Hand1.

    PubMed

    Firulli, A B; McFadden, D G; Lin, Q; Srivastava, D; Olson, E N

    1998-03-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, Hand1 and Hand2 (refs 1,2), also called eHand/Hxt/Thing1 and dHand/Hed/Thing2 (refs 3,4), respectively, are expressed in the heart and certain neural-crest derivatives during embryogenesis. In addition, Hand1 is expressed in extraembryonic membranes, whereas Hand2 is expressed in the deciduum. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hand2 is required for formation of the right ventricle of the heart and the aortic arch arteries. We have generated a germline mutation in the mouse Hand1 gene by replacing the first coding exon with a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Embryos homozygous for the Hand1 null allele died between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5 and exhibited yolk sac abnormalities due to a deficiency in extraembryonic mesoderm. Heart development was also perturbed and did not progress beyond the cardiac-looping stage. Our results demonstrate important roles for Hand1 in extraembryonic mesodermal and heart development.

  16. Activation of the factor XII-driven contact system in Alzheimer’s disease patient and mouse model plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zamolodchikov, Daria; Chen, Zu-Lin; Conti, Brooke A.; Renné, Thomas; Strickland, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which likely contributes to disease via multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidence implicates inflammation in AD, the origins of which are not completely understood. We investigated whether circulating Aβ could initiate inflammation in AD via the plasma contact activation system. This proteolytic cascade is triggered by the activation of the plasma protein factor XII (FXII) and leads to kallikrein-mediated cleavage of high molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and release of proinflammatory bradykinin. Aβ has been shown to promote FXII-dependent cleavage of HK in vitro. In addition, increased cleavage of HK has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD. Here, we show increased activation of FXII, kallikrein activity, and HK cleavage in AD patient plasma. Increased contact system activation is also observed in AD mouse model plasma and in plasma from wild-type mice i.v. injected with Aβ42. Our results demonstrate that Aβ42-mediated contact system activation can occur in the AD circulation and suggest new pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic tests, and therapies for AD. PMID:25775543

  17. Expression of a synthetic gene encoding human insulin-like growth factor I in cultured mouse fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, M.L.; Cascieri, M.A.; Kelder, B.; Applebaum, J.; Chicchi, G.; Shapiro, J.A.; Pasleau, F.; Kopchick, J.J.

    1987-05-01

    A synthetic gene encoding human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) was assembled and inserted into an expression vector containing the cytomegalovirus immediate early (CMV-IE) transcriptional regulatory region and portions of the bovine growth hormone gene. The recombinant plasmid encodes a 97 amino acid fusion protein containing the first 27 amino acids of the bovine growth hormone precursor and the 70 amino acids of hIGF-I. This plasmid, when transiently introduced into cultured mouse fibroblasts, directs synthesis of the fusion protein, subsequent proteolytic removal of the bovine growth hormone signal peptide, and secretion of hIGF-I into the culture medium. Conditioned medium from transfected cells inhibits binding of /sup 125/I-labeled IGF-I to type I IGF receptors on human placental membranes and to acid-stable human serum carrier proteins. The recombinant hIGF-I produced is biologically active, as monitored by the stimulation of DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  18. Generation of Potent Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Neutralizing Antibodies from Mouse Phage Display Library for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yan-Da; Wu, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Jiue; Tsai, Yi-San; Lin, Yu-Ying; Lai, Szu-Liang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Lok, Ying-Yung; Hu, Chih-Yung; Lai, Jiann-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important stimulator for angiogenesis in solid tumors. Blocking VEGF activity is an effective therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Avastin, a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizes VEGF, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To generate potential VEGF-recognizing antibodies with better tumor regression ability than that of Avastin, we have designed a systematic antibody selection plan. From mice immunized with recombinant human VEGF, we generated three phage display libraries, scFv-M13KO7, Fab-M13KO7, and scFv-Hyperphage, in single-chain Fv (scFv) or Fab format, displayed using either M13KO7 helper phage or Hyperphage. Solid-phase and solution-phase selection strategies were then applied to each library, generating six panning combinations. A total of sixty-four antibodies recognizing VEGF were obtained. Based on the results of epitope mapping, binding affinity, and biological functions in tumor inhibition, eight antibodies were chosen to examine their abilities in tumor regression in a mouse xenograft model using human COLO 205 cancer cells. Three of them showed improvement in the inhibition of tumor growth (328%–347% tumor growth ratio (% of Day 0 tumor volume) on Day 21 vs. 435% with Avastin). This finding suggests a potential use of these three antibodies for VEGF-targeted therapy. PMID:26861297

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  20. Role of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Expression in the Injured Mouse Auditory Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Lauren A.; Zhu, Juhong; Lee, Fu-Shing; Lang, Hainan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The degeneration of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is an important pathologic process in the development of sensorineural hearing loss. In a murine model, predictable and reproducible damage to SGNs occurs through the application of ouabain to the round window. Recent evidence has shown that the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemoattractant of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and provides trophic support to injured tissues during development and maturation. The hypothesis for the current study is that expression of SDF-1 plays an important role in protecting SGNs and preventing further degeneration in the setting of cochlear injury. Study Design Prospective, controlled. Setting Academic research laboratory. Subject and Methods Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the expression of SDF-1 mRNA and protein were examined 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after application of ouabain in 35 adult mice. Results Following ouabain application, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for SDF demonstrates increased mRNA expression following ouabain injury in nontransplanted mice. A significant increase in SDF protein expression was also observed using immunolabeling techniques and Western blot analysis. Conclusions SDF-1 expression is increased in the auditory nerve following cochlear injury. Further knowledge about the cochlear microenvironment, including SDF-1, is critical to maximizing HSC engraftment in the injured cochlea and providing a therapeutic option for sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:21947792

  1. Enhanced clearance of silica from mouse lung after instillation of a leukocyte chemotactic factor.

    PubMed

    Adamson, I Y; Prieditis, H; Bowden, D H

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that increased recruitment of phagocytes and subsequent clearance of particles may follow instillation of a leukocyte chemoattractant to lungs containing silica. The present study quantitated serially the silica content in alveolar spaces, in lung tissue and in hilar lymph nodes of mice that received 2 mg silica only, compared to a group that also received 100 micrograms intratracheal chemotactic factor N-formyl-L-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) at 2 and 3 weeks after silica. These mice showed a supplemental increase in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils, and an increase in silica was measured in lavaged cells and fluid soon after FMLP injection. At all times to 16 weeks, the silica content of lung tissue was significantly lower in mice that also received FMLP, and in this group, pulmonary fibrosis was much reduced, as shown morphologically and biochemically. In addition, there was reduced translocation of silica to lymph nodes in FMLP-treated mice. The results indicate that induction of a controlled inflammatory response in the alveoli at a time when particles are present in the pulmonary interstitium can accelerate clearance by increasing phagocyte traffic to the alveoli. The subsequent reduction in particle content of the lung is associated with a lower level of pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Protective and detrimental effects of neuroectodermal cell–derived tissue factor in mouse models of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobin; Reeves, Brandi; Sparkenbaugh, Erica M.; Russell, Janice; Soltys, Zbigniew; Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E.; Key, Nigel S.; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Granger, D. Neil; Mackman, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Within the CNS, a dysregulated hemostatic response contributes to both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, plays an essential role in hemostasis and also contributes to thrombosis. Using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we characterized the contribution of neuroectodermal (NE) cell TF to the pathophysiology of stroke. We used mice with various levels of TF expression and found that astrocyte TF activity reduced to ~5% of WT levels was still sufficient to maintain hemostasis after hemorrhagic stroke but was also low enough to attenuate inflammation, reduce damage to the blood-brain barrier, and improve outcomes following ischemic stroke. Pharmacologic inhibition of TF during the reperfusion phase of ischemic stroke attenuated neuronal damage, improved behavioral deficit, and prevented mortality of mice. Our data demonstrate that NE cell TF limits bleeding complications associated with the transition from ischemic to hemorrhagic stroke and also contributes to the reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke. The high level of TF expression in the CNS is likely the result of selective pressure to limit intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after traumatic brain injury but, in the modern era, poses the additional risk of increased ischemia-reperfusion injury after ischemic stroke. PMID:27489885

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress.

  4. Trefoil factor 1 is required for the commitment programme of mouse oxyntic epithelial progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Karam, S M; Tomasetto, C; Rio, M-C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1/pS2) is a major secretory product of the stomach and TFF1 knockout mice constantly develop adenomas and occasional carcinomas in the pyloric antrum. Aim: To analyse the role of TFF1 in the differentiation of gastric epithelial cell lineages using oxyntic mucosae from normal and TFF1 knockout mice. Methods: The various cell lineages were labelled using specific markers of pit, neck, parietal, and enteroendocrine cells. Patterns of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 expressions were defined using western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and/or immunogold electron microscopy. Results: In normal mice, starting from postnatal day 1 (P1), TFF1 and TFF2 were produced by mucus secreting cells of the developing epithelium. At P7, TFF3 expression occurred in pit and parietal cells. When oxyntic glands were compartmentalised, at P21 and in older mice, TFF1 and TFF2 were expressed in pit and neck cells, respectively, and TFF3 was no longer in parietal cells but became a feature of zymogenic cells. In TFF1 deficient mice, alteration of oxyntic epithelial differentiation became obvious at P21, showing significant amplification of pit cells at the expense of parietal cells. At the molecular level, lack of TFF1 induced dramatic inhibition of TFF2 expression and more precocious TFF3 expression. Conclusion: In the oxyntic mucosa, all three TFFs are produced in a lineage specific manner and TFF1 is essential in maintaining the normal commitment programme of epithelial progenitors. PMID:15361486

  5. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Irx5 Establishes the Mouse Cardiac Ventricular Repolarization Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Danny L.; Arruda, Eric P.; Agarwal, Pooja; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Zhu, Yonghong; Zhu, Wei; Lebel, Melanie; Cheng, Chi Wa; Park, Chong Y.; Pierce, Stephanie A.; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Pollevick, Guido D.; Chan, Toby Y.; Kabir, M. Golam; Cheng, Shuk Han; Husain, Mansoor; Antzelevitch, Charles; Srivastava, Deepak; Gross, Gil J.; Hui, Chi-chung; Backx, Peter H.; Bruneau, Benoit G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Rhythmic cardiac contractions depend on the organized propagation of depolarizing and repolarizing wavefronts. Repolarization is spatially heterogeneous and depends largely on gradients of potassium currents. Gradient disruption in heart disease may underlie susceptibility to fatal arrhythmias, but it is not known how this gradient is established. We show that, in mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Irx5, the cardiac repolarization gradient is abolished due to increased Kv4.2 potassium-channel expression in endocardial myocardium, resulting in a selective increase of the major cardiac repolarization current, Ito,f, and increased susceptibility to arrhythmias. Myocardial Irx5 is expressed in a gradient opposite that of Kv4.2, and Irx5 represses Kv4.2 expression by recruiting mBop, a cardiac transcriptional repressor. Thus, an Irx5 repressor gradient negatively regulates potassium-channel-gene expression in the heart, forming an inverse Ito,f gradient that ensures coordinated cardiac repolarization while also preventing arrhythmias. PMID:16239150

  6. The Homeobox Transcription Factor RHOX10 Drives Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Establishment.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Won; Bettegowda, Anilkumar; Lake, Blue B; Zhao, Adrienne H; Skarbrevik, David; Babajanian, Eric; Sukhwani, Meena; Shum, Eleen Y; Phan, Mimi H; Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Richardson, Marcy E; Ramaiah, Madhuvanthi; Sridhar, Vaishnavi; de Rooij, Dirk G; Orwig, Kyle E; Zhang, Kun; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2016-09-27

    The developmental origins of most adult stem cells are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of a transcription factor-RHOX10-critical for the initial establishment of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Conditional loss of the entire 33-gene X-linked homeobox gene cluster that includes Rhox10 causes progressive spermatogenic decline, a phenotype indistinguishable from that caused by loss of only Rhox10. We demonstrate that this phenotype results from dramatically reduced SSC generation. By using a battery of approaches, including single-cell-RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis, we show that Rhox10 drives SSC generation by promoting pro-spermatogonia differentiation. Rhox10 also regulates batteries of migration genes and promotes the migration of pro-spermatogonia into the SSC niche. The identification of an X-linked homeobox gene that drives the initial generation of SSCs has implications for the evolution of X-linked gene clusters and sheds light on regulatory mechanisms influencing adult stem cell generation in general. PMID:27681428

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates dopaminergic deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pineda, José R; Canals, Josep M; Bosch, Miquel; Adell, Albert; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc; Ernfors, Patrik; Alberch, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons may contribute to motor impairment in Huntington's disease. Here, we study the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in alterations of the nigrostriatal system associated with transgenics carrying mutant huntingtin. Using huntingtin-BDNF+/- double-mutant mice, we analyzed the effects of reducing the levels of BDNF expression in a model of Huntington's disease (R6/1). When compared with R6/1 mice, these mice exhibit an increased number of aggregates in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In addition, reduction of BDNF expression exacerbates the dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction seen in mutant huntingtin mice, such as the decrease in retrograde labelling of dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content. However, mutant huntingtin mice with normal or lowered BDNF expression show the same decrease in the anterograde transport, number of dopaminergic neurons and nigral volume. In addition, reduced BDNF expression causes decreased dopamine receptor expression in mutant huntingtin mice. Examination of changes in locomotor activity induced by dopamine receptor agonists revealed that, in comparison with R6/1 mice, the double mutant mice exhibit lower activity in response to amphetamine, but not to apomorphine. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the decreased BDNF expression observed in Huntington's disease exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction, which may participate in the motor disturbances associated with this neurodegenerative disorder.

  8. Epidermal growth factor/TNF-α transactivation modulates epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis in a mouse model of parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling are critical for effective proliferative and apoptotic actions; however, little is known about the codependency of these signaling pathways in the intestinal epithelium. Because total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with loss of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation and increased apoptosis, we utilized a mouse model to explore these transactivation pathways in small bowel epithelium. Mice underwent intravenous cannulation and were given enteral nutrition or TPN for 7 days. Outcomes included IEC proliferation, apoptosis, and survival. To address transactivation or dependence of EGF and TNF on IEC physiology, TNF-α receptor knockout (KO) mice, TNFR1-KO, R2-KO, or R1R2-double KO, were used. Exogenous EGF and pharmacological blockade of ErbB1 were performed in other groups to examine the relevance of the ErB1 pathway. TPN increased IEC TNFR1 and decreased EGF and ErbB1 abundance. Loss of IEC proliferation was prevented by exogenous EGF or blockade of TNFR1. However, EGF action was prevented without effective TNFR2 signaling. Also, blockade of TNFR1 could not prevent loss of IEC proliferation without effective ErbB1 signaling. TPN increased IEC apoptosis and was due to increased TNFR1 signaling. Exogenous EGF or blockade of TNFR1 could prevent increased apoptosis, and both pathways were dependent on effective ErbB1 signaling. Exogenous EGF prevented increased apoptosis in mice lacking TNFR2 signaling. TPN mice had significantly decreased survival vs. controls, and this was associated with the TNFR1 signaling pathway. We concluded that these findings identify critical mechanisms that contribute to TPN-associated mucosal atrophy via altered TNF-α/EGF signaling. It emphasizes the importance of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 pathways, as well as the strong interdependence on an intact EGF/ErbB1 pathway. PMID:22075779

  9. Purification of a mouse nuclear factor that binds to both the A and B cores of the polyomavirus enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kamachi, Y; Ogawa, E; Asano, M; Ishida, S; Murakami, Y; Satake, M; Ito, Y; Shigesada, K

    1990-01-01

    We have previously identified a protein factor, PEBP2 (polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein), in the nuclear extract from mouse NIH 3T3 cells which binds to the sequence motif, PEA2, located within the polyomavirus enhancer A element. Upon cellular transformation with activated oncogene c-Ha-ras, this factor frequently undergoes drastic molecular modifications into an altered form having a considerably reduced molecular size. In this study, the altered form, PEBP3, was purified to near homogeneity. The purified PEBP3 comprised two sets of families of polypeptides, alpha-1 to alpha-4 and beta-1 to beta-2, which were 30 to 35 kilodaltons and 20 to 25 kilodaltons in size, respectively. Both kinds of polypeptides possessed DNA-binding activities with exactly the same sequence specificity. Individual alpha or beta polypeptides complexed with DNA showed faster gel mobilities than did PEBP3. However, the original gel retardation pattern was restored when alpha and beta polypeptides were mixed together in any arbitrary pair. These observation along with the results of UV- and chemical-cross-linking studies led us to conclude that PEBP3 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits, potentially having a divalent DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, PEBP3 was found to bind a second, hitherto-unnoticed site of the polyomavirus enhancer that is located within the B element and coincides with the sequence previously known as the simian virus 40 enhancer core homology. From comparison of this and the original binding sites, the consensus sequence for PEBP3 was defined to be PuACCPuCA. These findings provided new insights into the biological significance of PEBP3 and PEBP2. Images PMID:2168969

  10. Purification of a mouse nuclear factor that binds to both the A and B cores of the polyomavirus enhancer.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Y; Ogawa, E; Asano, M; Ishida, S; Murakami, Y; Satake, M; Ito, Y; Shigesada, K

    1990-10-01

    We have previously identified a protein factor, PEBP2 (polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein), in the nuclear extract from mouse NIH 3T3 cells which binds to the sequence motif, PEA2, located within the polyomavirus enhancer A element. Upon cellular transformation with activated oncogene c-Ha-ras, this factor frequently undergoes drastic molecular modifications into an altered form having a considerably reduced molecular size. In this study, the altered form, PEBP3, was purified to near homogeneity. The purified PEBP3 comprised two sets of families of polypeptides, alpha-1 to alpha-4 and beta-1 to beta-2, which were 30 to 35 kilodaltons and 20 to 25 kilodaltons in size, respectively. Both kinds of polypeptides possessed DNA-binding activities with exactly the same sequence specificity. Individual alpha or beta polypeptides complexed with DNA showed faster gel mobilities than did PEBP3. However, the original gel retardation pattern was restored when alpha and beta polypeptides were mixed together in any arbitrary pair. These observation along with the results of UV- and chemical-cross-linking studies led us to conclude that PEBP3 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits, potentially having a divalent DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, PEBP3 was found to bind a second, hitherto-unnoticed site of the polyomavirus enhancer that is located within the B element and coincides with the sequence previously known as the simian virus 40 enhancer core homology. From comparison of this and the original binding sites, the consensus sequence for PEBP3 was defined to be PuACCPuCA. These findings provided new insights into the biological significance of PEBP3 and PEBP2. PMID:2168969

  11. Colon cancer metastasis in mouse liver is not affected by hypercoagulability due to Factor V Leiden mutation

    PubMed Central

    Klerk, CPW; Smorenburg, SM; Spek, CA; Van Noorden, CJF

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Clinical trials have shown life-prolonging effects of antithrombotics in cancer patients, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown due to the multitude of their effects. We investigated in a mouse model whether one of the targets of antithrombotic therapy, fibrin deposition, stimulates tumour development. Fibrin may provide either protection of cancer cells in the circulation against mechanical stress and the immune system, or form a matrix for tumours and/or angiogenesis in tumours to develop. Mice homozygous for Factor V Leiden (FVL), a mutation in one of the coagulation factors that facilitates fibrin formation, were used to investigate whether hypercoagulability affects tumour development in an experimental metastasis model. Liver metastases of colon cancer were induced in mice with the FVL mutation and wild-type littermates. At day 21, number and size of tumours at the liver surface, fibrin/fibrinogen distribution, vessel density and the presence of newly formed vessels in tumours were analysed. Number and size of tumours did not differ between mice with and without the FVL mutation. Fibrin/fibrinogen was found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and cancer cells, in blood vessels in liver and tumour tissue and diffusely distributed outside vessels in tumours, indicating leaky vessels. Vessel density and angiogenesis varied widely between tumours, but a pre-dominance for vessel-rich or vessel-poor tumours or vessel formation could not be found in either genotype. In conclusion, the FVL mutation has no effect on the development of secondary tumours of colon cancer in livers of mice. Fibrin deposition and thus inhibition of fibrin formation by anticoagulants do not seem to affect tumour development in this model. PMID:17635646

  12. Context-specific function of the LIM homeobox 1 transcription factor in head formation of the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Fossat, Nicolas; Ip, Chi Kin; Jones, Vanessa J; Studdert, Joshua B; Khoo, Poh-Lynn; Lewis, Samara L; Power, Melinda; Tourle, Karin; Loebel, David A F; Kwan, Kin Ming; Behringer, Richard R; Tam, Patrick P L

    2015-06-01

    Lhx1 encodes a LIM homeobox transcription factor that is expressed in the primitive streak, mesoderm and anterior mesendoderm of the mouse embryo. Using a conditional Lhx1 flox mutation and three different Cre deleters, we demonstrated that LHX1 is required in the anterior mesendoderm, but not in the mesoderm, for formation of the head. LHX1 enables the morphogenetic movement of cells that accompanies the formation of the anterior mesendoderm, in part through regulation of Pcdh7 expression. LHX1 also regulates, in the anterior mesendoderm, the transcription of genes encoding negative regulators of WNT signalling, such as Dkk1, Hesx1, Cer1 and Gsc. Embryos carrying mutations in Pcdh7, generated using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, and embryos without Lhx1 function specifically in the anterior mesendoderm displayed head defects that partially phenocopied the truncation defects of Lhx1-null mutants. Therefore, disruption of Lhx1-dependent movement of the anterior mesendoderm cells and failure to modulate WNT signalling both resulted in the truncation of head structures. Compound mutants of Lhx1, Dkk1 and Ctnnb1 show an enhanced head truncation phenotype, pointing to a functional link between LHX1 transcriptional activity and the regulation of WNT signalling. Collectively, these results provide comprehensive insight into the context-specific function of LHX1 in head formation: LHX1 enables the formation of the anterior mesendoderm that is instrumental for mediating the inductive interaction with the anterior neuroectoderm and LHX1 also regulates the expression of factors in the signalling cascade that modulate the level of WNT activity.

  13. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4aΔH mice). Hnf4aΔH mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4aΔH mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. PMID:26527688

  14. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-12-25

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4a(ΔH) mice). Hnf4a(ΔH) mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4a(ΔH) mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis.

  15. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induces cell proliferation in the mouse urogenital sinus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Bolton, Eric C

    2015-02-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a TGFβ family member, and GDNF signals through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface receptor (GFRα1) and RET receptor tyrosine kinase. GDNF signaling plays crucial roles in urogenital processes, ranging from cell fate decisions in germline progenitors to ureteric bud outgrowth and renal branching morphogenesis. Gene ablation studies in mice have revealed essential roles for GDNF signaling in urogenital development, although its role in prostate development is unclear. We investigated the functional role of GDNF signaling in the urogenital sinus (UGS) and the developing prostate of mice. GDNF, GFRα1, and RET show time-specific and cell-specific expression during prostate development in vivo. In the UGS, GDNF and GFRα1 are expressed in the urethral mesenchyme (UrM) and epithelium (UrE), whereas RET is restricted to the UrM. In each lobe of the developing prostate, GDNF and GFRα1 expression declines in the epithelium and becomes restricted to the stroma. Using a well-established organ culture system, we determined that exogenous GDNF increases proliferation of UrM and UrE cells, altering UGS morphology. With regard to mechanism, GDNF signaling in the UrM increased RET expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, inhibition of RET kinase activity or ERK kinases suppressed GDNF-induced proliferation of UrM cells but not UrE cells. We therefore propose that GDNF signaling in the UGS increases proliferation of UrM and UrE cells by different mechanisms, which are distinguished by the role of RET receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK kinase signaling, thus implicating GDNF signaling in prostate development and growth.

  16. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART II: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS IN REGULATORY FACTORS AND OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Iommarini, Luisa; Peralta, Susana; Torraco, Alessandra; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are defined as defects that affect the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). They are characterized by a heterogeneous array of clinical presentations due in part to a wide variety of factors required for proper function of the components of the OXPHOS system. There is no cure for these disorders owing our poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of disease. To understand the mechanisms of human disease numerous mouse models have been developed in recent years. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to those factors affecting mtDNA maintenance, replication, transcription, translation as well to other proteins that are involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control which affect mitochondrial OXPHOS function without been intrinsic components of the system. We discuss how these models have contributed to our understanding of mitochondrial diseases and their pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25640959

  17. The leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene is located within a cluster of cytokine receptor loci on mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 5p12-p13

    SciTech Connect

    Gearing, D.P. ); Druck, T.; Huebner, K. ); Overhauser, J. ); Gilbert, D.J.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-10-01

    The leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene was localized to human chromosome 5p12-p13 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the murine locus was on chromosome 15 in a region of homology with human chromosome 5p. In both human and mouse genomes, the LIFR locus was linked to the genes encoding the receptors for interleukin-7, prolactin, and growth hormone. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates transforming growth factor-beta1 synthesis by mouse renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, T; Landolt, M; Booy, C; Wüthrich, R; Binswanger, U

    1999-01-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2 D3] is a secosteroid hormone with effects on cell growth, differentiation and immunoregulatory functions in a number of tissues not primarily involved in mineral metabolism. We recently demonstrated growth-regulating effects of 1, 25-(OH)2 D3 on human mesangial cells and proximal tubular cells. To investigate whether 1,25-(OH)2 D3 might also affect the synthesis of cytokines and growth factors in proximal tubular cells, we assessed in the present study the expression and secretion of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in a mouse proximal tubular cell line (MCT) in vitro. TGF-beta1 synthesis was measured by a monospecific ELISA in culture supernatant. The secreted TGF-beta1 was proven to be biologically active by means of a bioassay system (CCL-64 mink lung epithelial cell proliferation assay). TGF-beta1 gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. To analyze whether TGF-beta1 expression mediates the 1,25-(OH)2 D3-induced antiproliferative actions in MCT, proliferation studies in the absence or presence of a blocking monoclonal anti TGF-beta1-3 antibody were performed. 1, 25-(OH)2 D3 (10(-11) to 10(-7) M) specifically increased the TGF-beta1 protein secretion in MCT with a maximum at 10(-8) M. No detectable effect was found with 25 D3 at 10 times higher concentrations. A synthetic 20-epi analogue, MC 1288, increased TGF-beta1 secretion up to similar amounts at equimolar concentrations as the natural hormone 1,25-(OH)2 D3. Steady-state TGF-beta1 mRNA concentration in MCT was transiently increased by 1, 25-(OH)2 D3 between 12 and 24 h, returning to control values at 48 h. Blocking TGF-beta1 did not reduce or abrogate the antiproliferative effect of 1,25-(OH)2 D3. In conclusion, 1,25-(OH)2 D3 stimulates TGF-beta1 expression in renal proximal tubular cells, a growth factor with anti-inflammatory and profibrotic actions which plays an important role in the development and progression of nephrosclerosis. PMID:10394107

  19. An Extract from Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry) Effects Glycogenesis and Glycolysis Pathways in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Treated FL83B Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Chiao-Li

    2013-01-01

    FL83B mouse hepatocytes were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance to investigate the effect of a wax apple aqueous extract (WAE) in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2 NBDG), a fluorescent D-glucose derivative, was performed, and the metabolism of carbohydrates was evaluated by examining the expression of glycogenesis or glycolysis-related proteins in insulin-resistant hepatocytes. The results show that WAE significantly improves the uptake of glucose and enhances glycogen content in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The results from Western blot analysis also reveal that WAE increases the expression of glycogen synthase (GS), hexokinase (HXK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase in TNF-α treated cells, indicating that WAE may ameliorate glucose metabolism by promoting glycogen synthesis and the glycolysis pathways in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. PMID:23389304

  20. Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells using Yamanaka factors on engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda W.; Hoyne, Jake D.; Nguyen, Peter K.; McCreedy, Dylan A.; Aly, Haytham; Efimov, Igor R.; Rentschler, Stacey; Elbert, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Direct reprogramming strategies enable rapid conversion of somatic cells to cardiomyocytes or cardiomyocyte-like cells without going through the pluripotent state. A recently described protocol couples Yamanaka factor induction with pluripotency inhibition followed by BMP4 treatment to achieve rapid reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to beating cardiomyocyte-like cells. The original study was performed using Matrigel-coated tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a stiff material that also non-specifically adsorbs serum proteins. Protein adsorption-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) materials can be covalently modified to present precise concentrations of adhesion proteins or peptides without the unintended effects of non-specifically adsorbed proteins. Here, we describe an improved protocol that incorporates custom-engineered materials. We first reproduced the Efe et al. protocol on Matrigel-coated TCPS (the original material), reprogramming adult mouse tail tip mouse fibroblasts (TTF) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to cardiomyocyte-like cells that demonstrated striated sarcomeric α-actinin staining, spontaneous calcium transients, and visible beating. We then designed poly(ethylene glycol) culture substrates to promote MEF adhesion via laminin and RGD-binding integrins. PEG hydrogels improved proliferation and reprogramming efficiency (evidenced by beating patch number and area, gene expression, and flow cytometry), yielding almost twice the number of sarcomeric α-actinin positive cardiomyocyte-like cells as the originally described substrate. These results illustrate that cellular reprogramming may be enhanced using custom-engineered materials. PMID:23773820

  1. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. PMID:26962139

  2. Human HOXB cluster and the nerve growth factor receptor gene: Comparison with an orthologous chromosomal domain in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.L.; Bradshaw, M.S.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1995-11-01

    The structural organization and nucleotide sequence similarity of mammalian Antennapedia-class homeobox genes support the view that the four homeobox clusters (HOXA, B,C, and D on human chromosomes 7, 17, 12 and 2, respectively) arose through a combination of gene duplication and divergence to form a cluster, followed by several cluster duplications. The duplication events that gave rise to the four clusters appear to have involved chromosomal domains extending well beyond the borders of the clusters in either direction. This evidence arises from the observation that many genes closely linked to the homeobox clusters on different chromosomes show sequence similarity. Here, we present a continuation of physical mapping studies to determine the extent and organization of the duplicated regions surrounding the four homeobox clusters in human. Southern blots prepared from pulsed-field gels of human DNA were probed with cloned segments of human HOXB genes and the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene on chromosome 17q21-q22. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed the close physical linkage of these genes within 100 kb. Two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 220 and 380 kb in size, were isolated using oligonucleotide primers specific for NGFR. Both YACs contained the entire HOXB cluster. Restriction mapping of the clones indicated that the distance separating these loci could not be greater than 50 kb. This result confirms and extends previous information on the proximity of these genes as determined by genetic linkage analysis and closely parallels the orthologous loci in the mouse. 48 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures.

  4. A Mouse Model for Chikungunya: Young Age and Inefficient Type-I Interferon Signaling Are Risk Factors for Severe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Disson, Olivier; Brigitte, Madly; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Touret, Yasmina; Barau, Georges; Cayet, Nadège; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Desprès, Philippe; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Michault, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT) adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-α/βR+/−) or totally (IFN-α/βR−/−) abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates. PMID:18282093

  5. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Engineered to Overexpress Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Improve Outcomes in Huntington's Disease Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Kari; Dahlenburg, Heather; Nelson, Haley; Fink, Kyle D; Cary, Whitney; Hendrix, Kyle; Annett, Geralyn; Torrest, Audrey; Deng, Peter; Gutierrez, Joshua; Nacey, Catherine; Pepper, Karen; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; D Anderson, Johnathon; McGee, Jeannine; Gruenloh, William; Fury, Brian; Bauer, Gerhard; Duffy, Alexandria; Tempkin, Theresa; Wheelock, Vicki; Nolta, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal degenerative autosomal dominant neuropsychiatric disease that causes neuronal death and is characterized by progressive striatal and then widespread brain atrophy. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a lead candidate for the treatment of HD, as it has been shown to prevent cell death and to stimulate the growth and migration of new neurons in the brain in transgenic mouse models. BDNF levels are reduced in HD postmortem human brain. Previous studies have shown efficacy of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC)/BDNF using murine MSCs, and the present study used human MSCs to advance the therapeutic potential of the MSC/BDNF platform for clinical application. Double-blinded studies were performed to examine the effects of intrastriatally transplanted human MSC/BDNF on disease progression in two strains of immune-suppressed HD transgenic mice: YAC128 and R6/2. MSC/BDNF treatment decreased striatal atrophy in YAC128 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also significantly reduced anxiety as measured in the open-field assay. Both MSC and MSC/BDNF treatments induced a significant increase in neurogenesis-like activity in R6/2 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also increased the mean lifespan of the R6/2 mice. Our genetically modified MSC/BDNF cells set a precedent for stem cell-based neurotherapeutics and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease. These cells provide a platform delivery system for future studies involving corrective gene-editing strategies. PMID:26765769

  6. A mouse model for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-leucodystrophy reveals abnormal development of brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Geva, Michal; Cabilly, Yuval; Assaf, Yaniv; Mindroul, Nina; Marom, Liraz; Raini, Gali; Pinchasi, Dalia; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance.

  7. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Engineered to Overexpress Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Improve Outcomes in Huntington's Disease Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Kari; Dahlenburg, Heather; Nelson, Haley; Fink, Kyle D; Cary, Whitney; Hendrix, Kyle; Annett, Geralyn; Torrest, Audrey; Deng, Peter; Gutierrez, Joshua; Nacey, Catherine; Pepper, Karen; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; D Anderson, Johnathon; McGee, Jeannine; Gruenloh, William; Fury, Brian; Bauer, Gerhard; Duffy, Alexandria; Tempkin, Theresa; Wheelock, Vicki; Nolta, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal degenerative autosomal dominant neuropsychiatric disease that causes neuronal death and is characterized by progressive striatal and then widespread brain atrophy. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a lead candidate for the treatment of HD, as it has been shown to prevent cell death and to stimulate the growth and migration of new neurons in the brain in transgenic mouse models. BDNF levels are reduced in HD postmortem human brain. Previous studies have shown efficacy of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC)/BDNF using murine MSCs, and the present study used human MSCs to advance the therapeutic potential of the MSC/BDNF platform for clinical application. Double-blinded studies were performed to examine the effects of intrastriatally transplanted human MSC/BDNF on disease progression in two strains of immune-suppressed HD transgenic mice: YAC128 and R6/2. MSC/BDNF treatment decreased striatal atrophy in YAC128 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also significantly reduced anxiety as measured in the open-field assay. Both MSC and MSC/BDNF treatments induced a significant increase in neurogenesis-like activity in R6/2 mice. MSC/BDNF treatment also increased the mean lifespan of the R6/2 mice. Our genetically modified MSC/BDNF cells set a precedent for stem cell-based neurotherapeutics and could potentially be modified for other neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and some forms of Parkinson's disease. These cells provide a platform delivery system for future studies involving corrective gene-editing strategies. PMID:26765769

  8. Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance structures of mouse epidermal growth factor in acidic and physiological pH solutions.

    PubMed

    Kohda, D; Inagaki, F

    1992-12-01

    The three-dimensional structures of epidermal growth factors (EGF) previously reported were all in acidic solutions (pH 2.0-3.2), at which pHs EGF cannot bind to the receptor. Here we studied the structure of mouse EGF at pH 6.8, where EGF is physiologically active, and compared it with the structure at pH 2.0 by CD and NMR. From pH dependence of CD spectra and a comparison between the chemical shifts of the proton resonances at pH 6.8 and 2.0, the conformations at two pHs were found to be nearly identical except for the C-terminal tail region. The three-dimensional structures at pH 6.8 and 2.0 were determined independently by a combination of two-dimensional 1H NMR and stimulated annealing calculations using the program XPLOR. The calculations were based on 261 distance constraints at pH 6.8 and 355 distance and 24 torsion angle constraints at pH 2.0. The conformational difference of the C-terminal domain (residues 33-50) was detected between the two structures, which were supported by CD and the chemical shift comparison. The positions of the side chains of Leu47, Arg48, Trp49, and Trp50 are changed probably by the effect of the deprotonation of Asp46. Considering the fact that Leu47 is essential in EGF binding to the receptor, this conformational difference may be important in receptor recognition.

  9. Expression of E-Cadherin, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Progesterone Receptor in Mouse Blastocysts after Ovarian Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Movaghar, Bahar; Askarian, Saeedeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The appropriate interaction between a blastocyst and the endometrium is essential for successful implantation. Numerous factors, including hormone receptors (progesterone receptor), cytokines [leukemia inhibitory factors (LIF)], and adherence molecules such as E-cadherin are involved in the cross-talk that occurs between the embryo and endometrium. Studies show that a lack of these genes impact endometrial receptivity. In this study, we compare the expression levels of E-cadherin, LIF, and progesterone receptor (PgR) genes in blastocysts that have been obtained from superovulated mice to those obtained from natural cycles. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, for the experimental group, a total of 17 virgin female NMRI mice (6- 8 weeks old) were injected with 7.5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Their blastocysts (approximately n= 120) were flushed out after 3.5 days, following administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The control group consisted of blastocysts from 62 female mice that were mated with male mice. The natural cycle blastocysts were flushed out from the female mice uteri 3.5 days after mating. The expression levels of E-cadherin, LIF, t PgR genes were examined by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data were analyzed by the student’s t-test (one sample t-test). Results: Expression levels of all studied genes were significantly lower in the hormone-treated group compared to the natural cycle blastocysts (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although ovarian stimulation is utilized to obtain more oocytes in ART cycles, it seems that this could disadvantageous to implantation because of the decrease in expression levels of certain genes. Because of the important roles of E-cadherin, LIF, and progesterone receptor in the implantation process, we have shown lower expression levels of these genes in mouse blastocysts obtained from ovarian-stimulated mice than those derived from

  10. Transfer of three transcription factors via a lentiviral vector ameliorates spatial learning and memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin; Yan, Qing; Wang, Songtao; Wang, Cunzu; Zhao, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with observable memory impairment. The present study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of a combination of three transcription regulators, ABN (Ascl1, Brn2 and Ngn2), on learning and memory loss in a mouse model of AD. The AD model was established by injecting Aβ1-42 bilaterally into the mouse hippocampus. Lentiviral ABN was delivered bilaterally into the hippocampus of mice. Animals injected with LV-ABN showed significantly improved spatial learning and memory in the water maze test. Additionally, antibody array analysis indicated that intrahippocampal LV-ABN delivery significantly altered the expression levels of some proteins that were identified as inflammatory factors or neuroprotective and growth factors. In conclusion, our data suggest that LV-ABN delivery can ameliorate spatial learning and memory impairment in an AD mouse model, and the beneficial effect of ABN gene treatment could be linked to inhibition of the neuroinflammatory response and enhancement of neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Thus, these findings indicate that lentiviral ABN gene delivery has potential therapeutic applications for AD.

  11. IGF-1 deficiency causes atrophic changes associated with upregulation of VGluT1 and downregulation of MEF2 transcription factors in the mouse cochlear nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Santamaría, V; Alvarado, J C; Rodríguez-de la Rosa, L; Murillo-Cuesta, S; Contreras, J; Juiz, J M; Varela-Nieto, I

    2016-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic protein that plays a crucial role in modulating neuronal function and synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Mice lacking the Igf1 gene exhibit profound deafness and multiple anomalies in the inner ear and spiral ganglion. An issue that remains unknown is whether, in addition to these peripheral abnormalities, IGF-1 deficiency also results in structural changes along the central auditory pathway that may contribute to an imbalance between excitation and inhibition, which might be reflected in abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). To assess such a possibility, we evaluated the morphological and physiological alterations in the cochlear nucleus complex of the adult mouse. The expression and distribution of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) and the vesicular inhibitory transporter (VGAT), which were used as specific markers for labeling excitatory and inhibitory terminals, and the involvement of the activity-dependent myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors in regulating excitatory synapses were assessed in a 4-month-old mouse model of IGF-1 deficiency and neurosensorial deafness (Igf1 (-/-) homozygous null mice). The results demonstrate decreases in the cochlear nucleus area and cell size along with cell loss in the cochlear nuclei of the deficient mouse. Additionally, our results demonstrate that there is upregulation of VGluT1, but not VGAT, immunostaining and downregulation of MEF2 transcription factors together with increased wave II amplitude in the ABR recording. Our observations provide evidence of an abnormal neuronal cytoarchitecture in the cochlear nuclei of Igf1 (-/-) null mice and suggest that the increased efficacy of glutamatergic synapses might be mediated by MEF2 transcription factors.

  12. Functional coupling of transcription factor HiNF-P and histone H4 gene expression during pre- and post-natal mouse development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Jun; Xie, Ronglin; Hussain, Sadiq; Lian, Jane B; Rivera-Perez, Jaime; Jones, Stephen N; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2011-09-01

    Transcription factor Histone Nuclear Factor P (HiNF-P; gene symbol Hinfp) mediates cell cycle control of histone H4 gene expression to support the packaging of newly replicated DNA as chromatin. The HiNF-P/p220(NPAT) complex controls multiple H4 genes in established human cell lines and is critical for cell proliferation. The mouse Hinfp(LacZ) null allele causes early embryonic lethality due to a blastocyst defect. However, neither Hinfp function nor its temporal expression relative to histone H4 genes during fetal development has been explored. Here, we establish that expression of Hinfp is biologically coupled with expression of twelve functional mouse H4 genes during pre- and post-natal tissue-development. Both Hinfp and H4 genes are robustly expressed at multiple embryonic (E) days (from E5.5 to E15.5), coincident with ubiquitous LacZ staining driven by the Hinfp promoter. Five highly expressed mouse H4 genes (Hist1h4d, Histh4f, Hist1h4m and Hist2h4) account for >90% of total histone H4 mRNA throughout development. Post-natal expression of H4 genes in mice is most evident in lung, spleen, thymus and intestine, and with few exceptions (e.g., adult liver) correlates with Hinfp gene expression. Histone H4 gene expression decreases butHinfp levels remain constitutive upon cell growth inhibition in culture. The in vivo co-expression of Hinfp and histone H4 genes is consistent with the biological function of Hinfp as a principal transcriptional regulator of histone H4 gene expression during mouse development.

  13. Comprehensive Identification of Krüppel-Like Factor Family Members Contributing to the Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Cellular Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Takuya; Khoa, Le Tran Phuc; Yanagisawa, Jun; Takahashi, Satoru; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotency is maintained in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and is induced from somatic cells by the activation of appropriate transcriptional regulatory networks. Krüppel-like factor gene family members, such as Klf2, Klf4 and Klf5, have important roles in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mouse ES cells as well as in cellular reprogramming, yet it is not known whether other Klf family members exert self-renewal and reprogramming functions when overexpressed. In this study, we examined whether overexpression of any representative Klf family member, such as Klf1–Klf10, would be sufficient for the self-renewal of mouse ES cells. We found that only Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5 produced leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-independent self-renewal, although most KLF proteins, if not all, have the ability to occupy the regulatory regions of Nanog, a critical Klf target gene. We also examined whether overexpression of any of Klf1-Klf10 would be sufficient to convert epiblast stem cells into a naïve pluripotent state and found that Klf5 had such reprogramming ability, in addition to Klf2 and Klf4. We also delineated the functional domains of the Klf2 protein for LIF-independent self-renewal and reprogramming. Interestingly, we found that both the N-terminal transcriptional activation and C-terminal zinc finger domains were indispensable for this activity. Taken together, our comprehensive analysis provides new insight into the contribution of Klf family members to mouse ES self-renewal and cellular reprogramming. PMID:26943822

  14. The forkhead transcription factors, Foxp1 and Foxp2, identify different subpopulations of projection neurons in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka, T; Nakamura, Y; Senba, E; Morikawa, Y

    2010-03-17

    Foxp1 and Foxp2, which belong to the forkhead transcription factor family, are expressed in the developing and adult mouse brain, including the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Recent reports suggest that FOXP1 and FOXP2 are involved in the development of speech and language in humans. Although both Foxp1 and Foxp2 are expressed in the neural circuits that mediate speech and language, including the corticostriatal circuit, the functions of Foxp1 and Foxp2 in the cerebral cortex remain unclear. To gain insight into the functions of Foxp1 and Foxp2 in the cerebral cortex, we characterized Foxp1- and Foxp2-expressing cells in postnatal and adult mice using immunohistochemistry. In adult mice, Foxp1 was expressed in neurons of layers III-VIa in the neocortex, whereas the expression of Foxp2 was restricted to dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa (DARPP-32)(+) neurons of layer VI. In addition, Foxp2 was weakly expressed in the neurons of layer V of the motor cortex and hindlimb and forelimb regions of the primary somatosensory cortex. Both Foxp1 and Foxp2 were expressed in the ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) 2/3(+) neurons, and colocalized with none of GluR1, gamma-aminobutyric acid, calbindin, and parvalbumin, indicating that expression of Foxp1 and Foxp2 is restricted to projection neurons. During the postnatal stages, Foxp1 was predominantly expressed in Satb2(+)/Ctip2(-) corticocortical projection neurons of layers III-V and in Tbr1(+) corticothalamic projection neurons of layer VIa. Although Foxp2 was also expressed in Tbr1(+) corticothalamic projection neurons of layer VI, no colocalization of Foxp1 with Foxp2 was observed from postnatal day (P) 0 to P7. These findings suggest that Foxp1 and Foxp2 may be involved in the development of different cortical projection neurons during the early postnatal stages in addition to the establishment and maintenance of different cortical circuits from the late postnatal

  15. Chronic alterations in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I signaling lead to changes in mouse tendon structure.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, R H; Clausen, N M; Schjerling, P; Larsen, J O; Martinussen, T; List, E O; Kopchick, J J; Kjaer, M; Heinemeier, K M

    2014-02-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis is an important stimulator of collagen synthesis in connective tissue, but the effect of chronically altered GH/IGF-I levels on connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit is not known. We studied three groups of mice; 1) giant transgenic mice that expressed bovine GH (bGH) and had high circulating levels of GH and IGF-I, 2) dwarf mice with a disrupted GH receptor gene (GHR-/-) leading to GH resistance and low circulating IGF-I, and 3) a wild-type control group (CTRL). We measured the ultra-structure, collagen content and mRNA expression (targets: GAPDH, RPLP0, IGF-IEa, IGF-IR, COL1A1, COL3A1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, versican, scleraxis, tenascin C, fibronectin, fibromodulin, decorin) in the Achilles tendon, and the mRNA expression was also measured in calf muscle (same targets as tendon plus IGF-IEb, IGF-IEc). We found that GHR-/- mice had significantly lower collagen fibril volume fraction in Achilles tendon, as well as decreased mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagen types I and III in muscle compared to CTRL. In contrast, the mRNA expression of IGF-I isoforms and collagens in bGH mice was generally high in both tendon and muscle compared to CTRL. Mean collagen fibril diameter was significantly decreased with both high and low GH/IGF-I signaling, but the GHR-/- mouse tendons were most severely affected with a total loss of the normal bimodal diameter distribution. In conclusion, chronic manipulation of the GH/IGF-I axis influenced both morphology and mRNA levels of selected genes in the muscle-tendon unit of mice. Whereas only moderate structural changes were observed with up-regulation of GH/IGF-I axis, disruption of the GH receptor had pronounced effects upon tendon ultra-structure. PMID:24080228

  16. A comparative analysis of the structural, functional and biological differences between Mouse and Human Nerve Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Francesca; Malerba, Francesca; Ercole, Bruno Bruni; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-03-01

    NGF is the prototype member of the neurotrophin family of proteins that promote the survival and growth of selected neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. As for all neurotrophins, NGF is translated as a pre-pro-protein. Over the years, NGF and proNGF of either human or mouse origin, given their high degree of homology, have been exploited for numerous applications in biomedical sciences. The mouse NGF has been considered the golden-standard for bioactivity. Indeed, due to evolutionary relatedness to human NGF and to its ready availability and by assuming identical properties to its human counterpart, the mouse NGF, isolated and purified from sub-maxillary glands, has been tested not only in laboratory practice and in preclinical models, but it has also been evaluated in several human clinical trials. Aiming to validate this assumption, widely believed, we performed a comparative study of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the mouse and human counterparts of NGF and proNGF. The mature and the precursor proteins of either species strikingly differ in their biophysical profiles and, when tested for ligand binding to their receptors, in their in vitro biological activities. We provide a structural rationale that accounts for their different functional behaviors. Despite being highly conserved during evolution, NGF and proNGF of mouse and human origins show distinct properties and therefore special care must be taken in performing experiments with cross-species systems in the laboratory practice, in developing immunoassays, in clinical trials and in pharmacological treatments. PMID:25496838

  17. Ginsenoside Rg3 up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human dermal papilla cells and mouse hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Son, Chang-Gue; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

    2014-07-01

    Crude Panax ginseng has been documented to possess hair growth activity and is widely used to treat alopecia, but the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on hair growth have not to our knowledge been determined. The aim of the current study was to identify the molecules through which Rg3 stimulates hair growth. The thymidine incorporation for measuring cell proliferation was determined. We used DNA microarray analysis to measure gene expression levels in dermal papilla (DP) cells upon treatment with Rg3. The mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human DP cells were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We also used immunohistochemistry assays to detect in vivo changes in VEGF and 3-stemness marker expressions in mouse hair follicles. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed dose-dependent increases in VEGF mRNA levels on treatment with Rg3. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was significantly up-regulated by Rg3 in a dose-dependent manner in human DP cells and in mouse hair follicles. In addition, the CD8 and CD34 were also up-regulated by Rg3 in the mouse hair follicles. It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells and it has the potential to be used in hair growth products.

  18. Chromosomal localization of mouse and human genes encoding the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (SFRS1) and SC-35 (SFRS2)

    SciTech Connect

    Bermingham, J.R. Jr.; Arden, K.C.; Viars, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    The mammalian SR-type splicing factors ASF/SF2 and SC-35 play crucial roles in pre-mRNA splicing and have been shown to shift splice site choice in vitro. We have mapped the ASF/SF2 gene in mice and humans and the SC-35 gene in mice. Somatic cell hybrid mapping of the human ASF/SF2 gene (SFRS1 locus) reveals that it resides on chromosome 17, and fluorescence in situ hybridization refines this localization to 17q21.3-q22. Recombinant inbred mapping of the mouse ASF/ SF2 gene (Sfrs1 locus) and the mouse SC-35 gene (Sfrs2 locus) demonstrates that both genes are located in a part of mouse chromosome 11 that is homologous to human chromosome 17. Mapping of Sfrs1 using F{sub 1} hybrid backcross mice between the strains C57BL/6 and DDK places Sfrs1 very near the marker D11Mit38 and indicates that the ASF/SF2 gene is closely linked to the Ovum mutant locus. 59 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A cluster region of AP-1 responsive elements is required for transcriptional activity of mouse ODC gene by hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Laura; Tacchini, Lorenza; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2002-05-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is regulated by a variety of mechanisms including transcription, translation, and RNA and protein half-life. Since in mouse B16-F1 melanoma cells an early and remarkable (about 6-fold) increase in steady state mRNA levels was observed after hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of mouse ODC promoter. Transient transfection of various ODC-luciferase promoter constructs into the B16-Fl cells in combination with electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified the HGF-responsive element as a cluster of three AP-1 binding sites (-1660 to -1572). Even if each site differs from the canonical TPA responsive element for one nucleotide, only the first two AP-1 consensus sequences seemed to be functional since allowed DNA-binding activity of nuclear proteins after HGF treatment. Comparison of the results of transfection assays with the pOD2.5-luc (2.5 kb gene fragment) and with the construct deprived of the AP-1 cluster pOD-B-luc showed that this 50 bp region was required for ODC transactivating activity in response to HGF. Since in B16-F1 cells HGF increased AP-1 activity and the mRNA expression of various AP-1 subunits, we may conclude that HGF-induced transcription of mouse ODC was largely due to triggering of AP-1 pathway. PMID:12054494

  20. A novel rabbit anti-hepatocyte growth factor monoclonal neutralizing antibody inhibits tumor growth in prostate cancer cells and mouse xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yanlan; Chen, Yicheng; Ding, Guoqing; Wang, Mingchao; Wu, Haiyang; Xu, Liwei; Rui, Xuefang; Zhang, Zhigen

    2015-08-14

    The hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-Met are correlated with castration-resistance in prostate cancer. Although HGF has been considered as an attractive target for therapeutic antibodies, the lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human/mouse HGFs is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. We generated a panel of anti-HGF RabMAbs either blocking HGF/c-Met interaction or inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation. We selected one RabMAb with mouse cross-reactivity and demonstrated that it blocked HGF-stimulated downstream activation in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibited not only the growth of PC-3 cells but also HGF-dependent proliferation in HUVECs. We further demonstrated the efficacy and potency of the anti-HGF RabMAb in tumor xenograft mice models. Through these in vitro and in vivo experiments, we explored a novel therapeutic antibody for advanced prostate cancer. - Highlights: • HGF is an attractive target for castration-refractory prostate cancer. • We generated and characterized a panel of anti-HGF rabbit monoclonal antibodies. • More than half of these anti-HGF RabMAbs was cross-reactive with mouse HGF. • Anti-HGF RabMAb blocks HGF-stimulated phosphorylation and cell growth in vitro. • Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft mice.

  1. The chromosome localization and the HCF repeats of the human host cell factor gene (HCFC1) are conserved in the mouse homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Frattini, A.; Faranda, S.; Sacco, M.G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.

    1996-03-01

    The gene encoding the human host cell factor (HCFC1) has recently been cloned and mapped to Xq28. HCFC1 codes for a family of related polypeptides that apparently arise from posttranslational processing. Six extremely conserved 19-amino-acid (aa)-long motifs, unique to HCFC1 and located in the middle of the protein, could play a role in this processing or could be instrumental to the physiological role of the protein. Alternatively, these repeats could have arisen from recent duplications and may not have any specific function. To resolve this issue, we cloned the homologous region from the mouse Hcfc1 gene and demonstrated that the 19-aa motifs are extremely conserved in sequence, number, and genomic organization, while the {open_quotes}linker{close_quotes} region between the third and fourth repeat is not. This suggests an important function for these repeats. In addition, by RT-PCR analysis of human RNA and comparison to the human genomic sequence, an alternative transcript including a 44-aa in-frame insertion, driving from the 3{prime} nd of intron 18, was found. The significance of this alternative transcript is unknown, since it was not detectable in the mouse. The mouse Hcfc1 gene maps to a region syntenic to Xq28, and, as in human, is in close proximity to the Renin-binding protein gene, in a 100-kb region also including the L1cam and Vasopressin receptor type 2 genes. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induce collagenolysis and bone resorption by regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in mouse calvarial bone cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Park, Young-Guk; Cho, Jin-Young; Kim, June-Ki; Lee, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Gu, Yeun-Hwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-08-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) greatly induces osteoclast formation and stimulates bone resorption of mouse calvaria in culture. We examined the effects of the two cytokines on the collagenolysis and bone resorption by induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The cells were analyzed using zymographic analysis. It was shown that the mouse calvarial osteoblasts constitutively synthesize progelatinase-A (MMP-2). Interleukin-1beta markedly enhanced the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression of MMP-2 (gelatinase A), but slightly MMP-9 (gelatinase B), which associated with increases in bone matrix degradation. Both pro- and active-forms of MMP-2 were detected in the conditioned medium collected from calvarial cultures, and IL-1beta markedly stimulated both pro- and active-forms of the MMP-2. The expression of MMP-2 mRNAs could be detected, and they were markedly enhanced by IL-1beta on days 1 and 2. These results demonstrate that the potency of induction of MMP-2 by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha is closely linked to the respective bone-resorbing activity, suggesting that MMP-2-dependent degradation of bone matrix plays a key role in bone resorption induced by these cytokines. On the other hand, when the mouse osteoblasts were stimulated with parathyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3, mononuclear cell conditioned medium (MCM) and IL-1 as bone resorption agents, collagenolysis was increased by producing the active gelatinase. Interleukin-1 in stimulating bone resorption was examined using fetal mouse long bone organ culture. Interleukin-1 stimulated bone resorption and produced marked resorption when present simultaneously. Furthermore, treatment of indomethacin and dexamethasone clearly abolished the responses of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta.

  3. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, V S; Kondaurova, E M; Bazovkina, D V; Tsybko, A S; Tikhonova, M A; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2012-07-12

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depressive-like behavior and serotonin (5-HT) system in the brain of antidepressant sensitive cataleptics (ASC)/Icg mouse strain, characterized by depressive-like behavior, in comparison with the parental nondepressive CBA/Lac mouse strain was examined. Significant decrease of catalepsy and tail suspension test (TST) immobility was shown 17days after acute central BDNF administration (300ng i.c.v.) in ASC mice. In CBA mouse strain, BDNF moderately decreased catalepsy without any effect on TST immobility time. Significant difference between ASC and CBA mice in the effect of BDNF on 5-HT system was revealed. It was shown that central administration of BDNF led to increase of 5-HT(1A) receptor gene expression but not 5-HT(1A) functional activity in ASC mice. Increased tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes expression accompanied by 5-HT(2A) receptor sensitization was shown in BDNF-treated ASC but not in CBA mouse strain, suggesting BDNF-induced increase of the brain 5-HT system functional activity and activation of neurogenesis in "depressive" ASC mice. There were no changes found in the 5-HT transporter mRNA level in BDNF-treated ASC and CBA mice. In conclusion, central administration of BDNF produced prolonged ameliorative effect on depressive-like behavior accompanied by increase of the Tph-2, 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) genes expression and 5-HT(2A) receptor functional activity in animal model of hereditary behavior disorders.

  4. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor {kappa}B and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Srivastava, Smita; George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-{kappa}B expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-{kappa}B by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-{kappa}B-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects.

  5. Divergent mechanisms of action of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β and tumour necrosis factor-α in mouse cremasteric venules

    PubMed Central

    Young, R E; Thompson, R D; Nourshargh, S

    2002-01-01

    Protein synthesis dependency and the role of endogenously generated platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in leukocyte migration through interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-stimulated mouse cremasteric venules was investigated using established pharmacological interventions and the technique of intravital microscopy. Based on previously obtained dose-response data, 30 ng rmIL-1β and 300 ng rmTNFα were injected intrascrotally (4 h test period) to induce comparable levels of leukocyte firm adhesion and transmigration in mouse cremasteric venules. Co-injection of the mRNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D (0.2 mg kg−1), with the cytokines significantly inhibited firm adhesion (49±13.6%) and transmigration (67.2±4.2%) induced by IL-1β, but not TNFα. In vitro, TNFα (1–100 ng ml−1), but not IL-1β, stimulated L-selectin shedding and increased β2 integrin expression on mouse neutrophils, as quantified by flow cytometry. The PAF receptor antagonist, UK-74,505 (modipafant, 0.5 mg kg−1, i.v.), had no effect on adhesion induced by either cytokine, but significantly inhibited transmigration induced by IL-1β (66.5±4.5%). The LTB4 receptor antagonist, CP-105,696 (100 mg kg−1, p.o.), significantly inhibited both IL-1β induced adhesion (81.4±15.2%) and transmigration (58.7±7.2%), but had no effect on responses elicited by TNFα. Combined administration of the two antagonists had no enhanced inhibitory effects on responses induced by either cytokine. The data indicate that firm adhesion and transmigration in mouse cremasteric venules stimulated by IL-1β, but not TNFα, is protein synthesis dependent and mediated by endogenous generation of PAF and LTB4. Additionally, TNFα but not IL-1β, can directly stimulate mouse neutrophils in vitro. The findings provide further evidence to suggest divergent mechanisms of actions of IL-1β and TNFα, two cytokines often considered to act via common molecular

  6. Perinatal Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Blockade Prevents Peripheral Nerve Disruption in a Mouse Model Reminiscent of Benign World Health Organization Grade I Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Crimmins, Jason T.; Monk, Kelly R.; Williams, Jon P.; Fitzgerald, Maureen E.; Tedesco, Susan; Ratner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Benign peripheral nerve tumors called neurofibromas are a major source of morbidity for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In a mouse model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of human EGFR in Schwann cells, nerves develop hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, collagen deposition, disruption of axon-glial interactions, characteristics of neurofibroma and are hypoalgesic. Administration of the EGFR antagonist cetuximab (IMC-C225) for 2 weeks beginning at birth in CNPase-hEGFR mice normalized all pathologies at 3 months of age as evaluated by hotplate testing or histology and by electron microscopy. Mast cell chemoattractants brain-derived neurotrophic factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-β1, which may account for mast cell accumulation and fibrosis, were reduced by cetuximab. Later treatment was much less effective. A birth to 2-week pulse of cetuximab blocked hEGFR phosphorylation and Schwann cell proliferation in perinatal mutant nerve, so CNPase-hEGFR Schwann cell numbers correlate with the cetuximab effect. A >250-fold enlarged population of EGFR+/p75+ cells was detected in newborn Nf1+/− mouse nerves. These results suggest the existence of an EGFR+ cell enriched in the perinatal period capable of driving complex changes characteristic of neurofibroma formation. PMID:16651634

  7. The Production and Characteristics of a Mouse's Embryonic Stem Cell Lineage, Transfected by the Glia Neurotrophic Factor and Gene Fused with the Green Fluorescent Protein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Arsenieva, E. L.; Kuzmin, I. V.; Manuilova, E. S.; Novosadova, E. V.; Murkin, E. V.; Pavlova, G. V.; Tarantul, V. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The influence that the expression of the human (glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)) neurotrophic factor has on the morphology and proliferative activity of embryonic stem cells (SC) of a mouse with R1 lineage, as well as their ability to form embroid bodies (EB), has been studied. Before that, using a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) coupled with reverse transcription, it was shown that, in this very lineage of the embryonic SC, the expression of the receptors' genes is being fulfilled for the neurotropfic RET and GFRα1 glia factor. The mouse's embryonic SC lineage has been obtained, transfected by the human GDNF gene, and has been fused with the "green" fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The presence of the expression of the human GDNF gene in the cells was shown by northern hybridization and the synthesis of its albuminous product by immunocitochemical coloration with the use of specific antibodies. The reliable slowing-down of the embriod-body formation by the embryonic SC transfected by the GDNF gene has been shown. No significant influence of the expression of the GDNF gene on the morphology and the proliferative activity of the transfected embryonic SCs has been found when compared with the control ones. PMID:22649595

  8. Mouse Y-Encoded Transcription Factor Zfy2 Is Essential for Sperm Formation and Function in Assisted Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M.; Ruthig, Victor; Ward, Monika A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spermatogenesis is a key developmental process allowing for a formation of a mature male gamete. During its final phase, spermiogenesis, haploid round spermatids undergo cellular differentiation into spermatozoa, which involves extensive restructuring of cell morphology, DNA, and epigenome. Using mouse models with abrogated Y chromosome gene complements and Y-derived transgene we identified Y chromosome encoded Zfy2 as the gene responsible for sperm formation and function. In the presence of a Zfy2 transgene, mice lacking the Y chromosome and transgenic for two other Y-derived genes, Sry driving sex determination and Eif2s3y initiating spermatogenesis, are capable of producing sperm which when injected into the oocytes yield live offspring. Therefore, only three Y chromosome genes, Sry, Eif2s3y and Zfy2, constitute the minimum Y chromosome complement compatible with successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the mouse. PMID:26719889

  9. The isolation and characterization of growth regulatory factors produced by a herpes simplex virus Type 2 transformed mouse tumor cell line, H238

    SciTech Connect

    Stagg, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to associate HSV-2-transformation with specific growth factors in order to develop a testable model for HSV-2-transformation. We report here the isolation and characterization of four growth regulatory factors produced by H238, an HSV-2-transformed mouse tumor cell line. These factors were separated from the H238-CM by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography into three peaks of mitogenic activity and a fourth containing inhibitory activity for splenocytes. The three peaks of mitogenic activity have been identified based on physiochemical characteristics: the first supported the anchorage-independent growth of EGF treated NRK-c-49 cells and resembles transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}); the second bound to lectin-coated sepharose beads and was sensitive to trypsin, neuroaminidase, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and, resembled a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like factor; and the third displaced ({sup 125}I)-labeled basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a dose-dependent fashion when tested with a radioimmune assay. The fourth peak was inhibitory for a variety of splenocyte function assays. A model for the interaction of these factors in vivo is presented with an emphasis on testability.

  10. Effect of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor (rHuKGF, Palifermin) on Radiation-Induced Mouse Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaal, Jana Doerr, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of Palifermin (rHuKGF) on acute and late radiation effects in mouse urinary bladder. Methods and Materials: Graded radiation doses were applied on day 0. Single subcutaneous injections of Palifermin (15 mg/kg) were given on day -2 or day +2. Changes in bladder function (i.e., a reduction in bladder volume by {>=}50% of the individual preirradiation value) were assessed by cystometry. Results: Early changes in mouse bladder after irradiation occur in two phases. In the first early phase, a single injection of Palifermin on day -2 increased the ED{sub 50} (dose associated with a positive bladder response in 50% of the mice) from 20.0 {+-} 3.3 Gy to 27.1 {+-} 6.9 Gy (p < .0051). Palifermin given on day +2 was not beneficial. No significant effects of Palifermin were seen in the second early phase. However, Palifermin administration before, but not after, irradiation, also modified late radiation effects, with an ED{sub 50} of 22.2 {+-} 4.8 Gy compared with 16.2 {+-} 4.9 Gy in control animals (p < .0187). Conclusions: Initial early functional changes in the mouse urinary bladder after irradiation as well as late effects can be significantly reduced by a single administration of Palifermin before irradiation.

  11. The transforming growth factor-beta 3 knock-out mouse: an animal model for cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Koo, S H; Cunningham, M C; Arabshahi, B; Gruss, J S; Grant, J H

    2001-09-15

    The recent report of a transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) knock-out mouse in which 100 percent of the homozygous pups have cleft palate raised the question as to the potential usefulness of these animals as a model for cleft palate research. The specific aim in this study was to carefully document the anatomy of the cleft palate in the TGF-beta 3 knock-out mice as compared with wild type controls. Special attention was paid to the levator veli palatini muscle, the tensor veli palatini muscle, and their respective innervation. Because the TGF-beta 3 knock-out is lethal in the early perinatal period and because the heterozygotes are phenotypically normal, polymerase chain reaction was required to genotype the animals before mating. Time-mated pregnancies between proven heterozygotes were then delivered by cesarean section at gestational day 18.5 to prevent maternal cannibalism of homozygote pups. All delivered pups were killed and their tails processed by polymerase chain reaction to verify genotype. The heads were then fixed and sectioned in axial, coronal, or sagittal planes. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or processed for immunohistochemistry with nerve specific protein gene product 9.5 and calcitonin gene-related peptide antibodies. Sections were analyzed in a serial fashion. Nine wild type control animals were analyzed along with nine TGF-beta 3 knock-out homozygotes. Time matings between proven heterozygotes yielded wild type pups, heterozygote pups, and homozygote knock-out pups in the expected mendelian ratios (28 percent to 46 percent to 26 percent; n = 43). The results demonstrated 100 percent clefting in the homozygous TGF-beta 3 knock-out pups. Complete clefting of the secondary palate was seen in four of nine and incomplete clefting was seen in five of nine. The levator veli palatini and tensor veli palatini muscles were demonstrated coursing parallel to the cleft margin in all cleft mice. The orientation of these muscles

  12. Enhanced regenerative healing efficacy of a highly skin-permeable growth factor nanocomplex in a full-thickness excisional mouse wound model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous administration of growth factors has potential benefits in wound healing; however, limited percutaneous absorption, inconsistent efficacy, and the need for high doses have hampered successful clinical use. To overcome these restrictions, we focused on the development of a topical formulation composed of highly skin-permeable multimeric nanocomplex of growth factors. In the present study, we fused low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP) with epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and platelet-derived growth factor A ligand (PDGF-A) (producing recombinant [r]LMWP-EGF, rLMWP-IGF-I, and rLMWP-PDGF-A, respectively) via genetic modification. Then, we used in vitro cell proliferation studies to assess the biological activity and the benefits of the combination. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were complexed with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and formulated with Poloxamer 188 as a delivery vehicle. After confirming the enhanced skin permeability, in vivo studies were performed to assess whether the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex formulations accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in mice. The LMWP-conjugated growth factors were biologically equivalent to their native forms, and their combination induced greater fibroblast proliferation. rLMWP-EGF showed significantly enhanced permeability and cumulative permeation, and the rates for rLMWP-IGF-I and rLMWP-PDGF-A, across excised mouse skin, were 124% and 164% higher, respectively, than for the native forms. The LMWP-fused growth factors resulted in formation of nanocomplexes (23.51±1.12 nm in diameter) in combination with LMWH. Topical delivery of growth factors fused with LMWP accelerated wound re-epithelialization significantly, accompanied by the formation of healthy granulation tissue within 9 days compared with a free–growth factor complex or vehicle. Thus, the LMWP-conjugated growth factor nanocomplex can induce rapid, comprehensive healing and may

  13. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-Prostaglandin J{sub 2} regulates leukemia inhibitory factor signaling through JAK-STAT pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasingh, Johnson; Bright, John J. . E-mail: jbright1@clarian.org

    2006-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are genetically normal, pluripotent cells, capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all cell lineages. While leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains pluripotency in mouse ES cells, retinoic acid and other nuclear hormones induce neuro-glial differentiation in mouse and human ES cells in culture. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptor transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. However, the role of PPARs in the regulation of ES cell growth and differentiation is not known. In this study, we show that LIF induces proliferation and self-renewal of mouse D3-ES cells in culture. However, treatment with 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-Prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand for PPAR{gamma}, or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) results in a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and self-renewal in D3-ES cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses showed that LIF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, TYK2 and STAT3 in 30 min and treatment with 15d-PGJ2 or ATRA results in a dose-dependent decrease in LIF-induced phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3 in D3-ES cells. However, treatment of D3-ES cells with Ciglitazone or 15d-PGJ2 for 48 h in culture resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPAR{gamma} protein expression. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} agonists regulate LIF signaling through JAK-STAT pathway leading to growth and self-renewal of ES cells.

  14. Compound mouse mutants of bZIP transcription factors Mafg and Mafk reveal a regulatory network of non-crystallin genes associated with cataract.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Smriti A; Anand, Deepti; Siddam, Archana D; Kakrana, Atul; Dash, Soma; Scheiblin, David A; Dang, Christine A; Terrell, Anne M; Waters, Stephanie M; Singh, Abhyudai; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Lachke, Salil A

    2015-07-01

    Although majority of the genes linked to early-onset cataract exhibit lens fiber cell-enriched expression, our understanding of gene regulation in these cells is limited to function of just eight transcription factors and largely in the context of crystallins. We report on small Maf transcription factors Mafg and Mafk as regulators of several non-crystallin human cataract-associated genes in fiber cells and establish their significance to this disease. We applied a bioinformatics tool for cataract gene discovery iSyTE to identify Mafg and its co-regulators in the lens, and generated various null-allelic combinations of Mafg:Mafk mouse mutants for phenotypic and molecular analysis. By age 4 months, Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mutants exhibit lens defects that progressively develop into cataract. High-resolution phenotypic characterization of Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mouse lens reveals severely disorganized fiber cells, while microarray-based expression profiling identifies 97 differentially regulated genes (DRGs). Integrative analysis of Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- lens-DRGs with (1) binding motifs and genomic targets of small Mafs and their regulatory partners, (2) iSyTE lens expression data, and (3) interactions between DRGs in the String database, unravel a detailed small Maf regulatory network in the lens, several nodes of which are linked to cataract. This approach identifies 36 high-priority candidates from the original 97 DRGs. Significantly, 8/36 (22%) DRGs are associated with cataracts in human (GSTO1, MGST1, SC4MOL, UCHL1) or mouse (Aldh3a1, Crygf, Hspb1, Pcbd1), suggesting a multifactorial etiology that includes oxidative stress and misregulation of sterol synthesis. These data identify Mafg and Mafk as new cataract-associated candidates and define their function in regulating largely non-crystallin genes linked to human cataract. PMID:25896808

  15. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on behavior and key members of the brain serotonin system in mouse strains genetically predisposed to behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Vladimir S; Bazovkina, Daria V; Semenova, Alina A; Tsybko, Anton S; Il'chibaeva, Tatyana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Popova, Nina K

    2013-12-01

    The effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on behavior and on the serotonin (5-HT) system of a mouse strain predisposed to depressive-like behavior, ASC/Icg (Antidepressant Sensitive Cataleptics), in comparison with the parental "nondepressive" CBA/Lac mice was studied. Within 7 days after acute administration, GDNF (800 ng, i.c.v.) decreased cataleptic immobility but increased depressive-like behavioral traits in both investigated mouse strains and produced anxiolytic effects in ASC mice. The expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph-2), and 5-HT1A receptor gene in the midbrain as well as 5-HT2A receptor gene in the frontal cortex were increased in GDNF-treated ASC mice. At the same time, GDNF decreased 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hippocampus of ASC mice. GDNF failed to change Tph2, 5-HT1A , or 5-HT2A receptor mRNA levels in CBA mice as well as 5-HT transporter gene expression and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor functional activity in both investigated mouse strains. The results show 1) a GDNF-induced increase in the expression of key genes of the brain 5-HT system, Tph2, 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors, and 2) significant genotype-dependent differences in the 5-HT system response to GDNF treatment. The data suggest that genetically defined cross-talk between neurotrophic factors and the brain 5-HT system underlies the variability in behavioral response to GDNF.

  16. High-throughput, signature-tagged mutagenic approach to identify novel virulence factors of Yersinia pestis CO92 in a mouse model of infection.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Kirtley, Michelle L; Tiner, Bethany L; Andersson, Jourdan A; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-05-01

    The identification of new virulence factors in Yersinia pestis and understanding their molecular mechanisms during an infection process are necessary in designing a better vaccine or to formulate an appropriate therapeutic intervention. By using a high-throughput, signature-tagged mutagenic approach, we created 5,088 mutants of Y. pestis strain CO92 and screened them in a mouse model of pneumonic plague at a dose equivalent to 5 50% lethal doses (LD50) of wild-type (WT) CO92. From this screen, we obtained 118 clones showing impairment in disseminating to the spleen, based on hybridization of input versus output DNA from mutant pools with 53 unique signature tags. In the subsequent screen, 20/118 mutants exhibited attenuation at 8 LD50 when tested in a mouse model of bubonic plague, with infection by 10/20 of the aforementioned mutants resulting in 40% or higher survival rates at an infectious dose of 40 LD50. Upon sequencing, six of the attenuated mutants were found to carry interruptions in genes encoding hypothetical proteins or proteins with putative functions. Mutants with in-frame deletion mutations of two of the genes identified from the screen, namely, rbsA, which codes for a putative sugar transport system ATP-binding protein, and vasK, a component of the type VI secretion system, were also found to exhibit some attenuation at 11 or 12 LD50 in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. Likewise, among the remaining 18 signature-tagged mutants, 9 were also attenuated (40 to 100%) at 12 LD50 in a pneumonic plague mouse model. Previously, we found that deleting genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and acyltransferase (MsbB), the latter of which modifies lipopolysaccharide function, reduced the virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Deletion of rbsA and vasK genes from either the Δlpp single or the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant augmented the attenuation to provide 90 to 100% survivability to mice in a pneumonic plague model at 20

  17. High-Throughput, Signature-Tagged Mutagenic Approach To Identify Novel Virulence Factors of Yersinia pestis CO92 in a Mouse Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Fitts, Eric C.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Kozlova, Elena V.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Tiner, Bethany L.; Andersson, Jourdan A.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of new virulence factors in Yersinia pestis and understanding their molecular mechanisms during an infection process are necessary in designing a better vaccine or to formulate an appropriate therapeutic intervention. By using a high-throughput, signature-tagged mutagenic approach, we created 5,088 mutants of Y. pestis strain CO92 and screened them in a mouse model of pneumonic plague at a dose equivalent to 5 50% lethal doses (LD50) of wild-type (WT) CO92. From this screen, we obtained 118 clones showing impairment in disseminating to the spleen, based on hybridization of input versus output DNA from mutant pools with 53 unique signature tags. In the subsequent screen, 20/118 mutants exhibited attenuation at 8 LD50 when tested in a mouse model of bubonic plague, with infection by 10/20 of the aforementioned mutants resulting in 40% or higher survival rates at an infectious dose of 40 LD50. Upon sequencing, six of the attenuated mutants were found to carry interruptions in genes encoding hypothetical proteins or proteins with putative functions. Mutants with in-frame deletion mutations of two of the genes identified from the screen, namely, rbsA, which codes for a putative sugar transport system ATP-binding protein, and vasK, a component of the type VI secretion system, were also found to exhibit some attenuation at 11 or 12 LD50 in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. Likewise, among the remaining 18 signature-tagged mutants, 9 were also attenuated (40 to 100%) at 12 LD50 in a pneumonic plague mouse model. Previously, we found that deleting genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and acyltransferase (MsbB), the latter of which modifies lipopolysaccharide function, reduced the virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Deletion of rbsA and vasK genes from either the Δlpp single or the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant augmented the attenuation to provide 90 to 100% survivability to mice in a pneumonic plague model at 20

  18. Application of Recombinant Human Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) Produced in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Maintenance of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Bradford A.; Alfano, Randall; Pettit, Steve C.; Zhang, Deshui; Dallmann, H. Garry; Huang, Ning; MacDonald, Clinton C.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any somatic cell type, and thus have potential to treat a number of diseases that are currently incurable. Application of these cells for clinical or industrial uses would require an increase in production to yield adequate numbers of viable cells. However, the relatively high costs of cytokines and growth factors required for maintenance of stem cells in the undifferentiated state have the potential to limit translational research. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a key regulator in the maintenance of naïve states for both human and mouse stem cells. In this study, we describe a new recombinant human LIF (rhLIF) using a plant-based (rice) expression system. We found that rice-derived rhLIF possessed the same specific activity as commercial E. coli-derived LIF and was capable of supporting mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation in the undifferentiated state as evidenced from pluripotency marker level analysis. Retention of the pluripotent state was found to be indistinguishable between rice-derived rhLIF and other recombinant LIF proteins currently on the market. PMID:24380819

  19. Basic fibroblast growth factor supports expansion of mouse compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and regeneration of bone from MSC in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamachika, Eiki; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Matsubara, Masakazu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Kita, Kenichiro; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Kaneda, Yoshihiro; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Iida, Seiji

    2012-04-01

    Some progress has been made in development of methods to regenerate bone from cultured cells, however no method is put to practical use. Here, we developed methods to isolate, purify, and expand mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from mouse compact bone that may be used to regenerate bone in vivo. These cells were maintained in long-term culture and were capable of differentiating along multiple lineages, including chondrocyte, osteocyte, and adipocyte trajectories. We used standard cell isolation and culture methods to establish cell cultures from mouse compact bone and bone marrow. Cultures were grown in four distinct media to determine the optimal composition of culture medium for bone-derived MSCs. Putative MSCs were subjected to flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase assays, immunohistochemical staining, and several differentiation assays to assess cell identity, protein expression, and developmental potential. Finally, we used an in vivo bone formation assay to determine whether putative MSCs were capable of regenerating bone. We found that compact bone of mice was a better source of MCSs than the bone marrow, that growth in plastic flasks served to purify MSCs from hematopoietic cells, and that MSCs grown in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-conditioned medium were, based on multiple criteria, superior to those grown in leukemia inhibitory factor-conditioned medium. Moreover, we found that the MSCs isolated from compact bone and grown in bFGF-conditioned medium were capable of supporting bone formation in vivo. The methods and results described here have implications for understanding MSC biology and for clinical purpose.

  20. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor alters the growth characteristics and genomic imprinting of mouse multipotent adult germline stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yoon Hee

    2010-03-10

    This study evaluated the essentiality of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for in vitro culture of established mouse multipotent adult germline stem (maGS) cell lines by culturing them in the presence of GDNF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or both. We show that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF slows the proliferation of maGS cells and result in smaller sized colonies without any change in distribution of cells to different cell-cycle stages, expression of pluripotency genes and in vitro differentiation potential. Furthermore, in the absence of LIF, GDNF increased the expression of male germ-line genes and repopulated the empty seminiferous tubule of W/W{sup v} mutant mouse without the formation of teratoma. GDNF also altered the genomic imprinting of Igf2, Peg1, and H19 genes but had no effect on DNA methylation of Oct4, Nanog and Stra8 genes. However, these effects of GDNF were masked in the presence of LIF. GDNF also did not interfere with the multipotency of maGS cells if they are cultured in the presence of LIF. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF alters the growth characteristics of maGS cells and partially impart them some of the germline stem (GS) cell-like characteristics.

  1. Intranasal Delivery of Plasma and Platelet Growth Factors Using PRGF-Endoret System Enhances Neurogenesis in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pascual, Consuelo; Pérez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Antequera, Desiree; Padilla, Sabino; Orive, Gorka; Carro, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration together with a reduction in neurogenesis are cardinal features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) induced by a combination of toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and a loss of trophic factor support. Amelioration of these was assessed with diverse neurotrophins in experimental therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intranasal delivery of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret), an autologous pool of morphogens and proteins, could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mouse model. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions were firstly evident in primary neuronal cultures, where cell proliferation and survival were augmented by Endoret treatment. Translation of these effects in vivo was assessed in wild type and APP/PS1 mice, where neurogenesis was evaluated using 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BdrU), doublecortin (DCX), and NeuN immunostaining 5 weeks after Endoret administration. The number of BrdU, DCX, and NeuN positive cell was increased after chronic treatment. The number of degenerating neurons, detected with fluoro Jade-B staining was reduced in Endoret-treated APP/PS1 mice at 5 week after intranasal administration. In conclusion, Endoret was able to activate neuronal progenitor cells, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis, and to reduce Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in a mouse model of AD. PMID:24069173

  2. Genomic organization and expression analysis of mouse kynurenine aminotransferase II, a possible factor in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, P; Mosbrook, D M; Tagle, D A

    1999-09-01

    Decreased levels of the endogenous neuroprotectant kynurenic acid (KYNA) have been observed in the brain of Huntington's Disease (HD) patients and may be related to neuronal loss in this disorder. This reduction may be caused by a dysfunction of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the major enzyme responsible for the synthesis of KYNA in the brain. Towards understanding the role of KAT II in HD, we isolated and characterized the cDNA sequence and determined the genomic organization of mouse KAT II (mKat-2). The full length mKat-2 cDNA is 1812 bp, encoding 425 amino acids, and shares 89.9% amino acid similarity with the rat Kat-2 sequence. The gene for mKat-2 is composed of 13 exons divided by 12 intronic sequences. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that mKat-2 mRNA is mainly expressed in kidney and liver. RT-PCR showed mKat-2 expression in the brain starting from at least d11 of embryonic development. An alternative isoform mKat-2beta, derived from the usage of novel exons, shows a different expression pattern from mKat-2. Western blot analysis of various mouse tissues shows a 40-kDa protein in brain, heart, kidney, and liver. In the kidney and liver an additional 45-kDa isoform was detected. Use of the BSS chromosomal mapping panel from The Jackson Laboratory indicates that the mKat-2 gene co-segregates with polymorphic markers D8Mit129 and D8Mit128 on mouse Chr 8. Knowledge of the genomic organization, the isoform tissue-specific expression patterns, the chromosomal localization of mKat-2, and the reagents generated here, will provide the tools for further studies and allow generation and characterization of mice that are nullizygous for mKat-2.

  3. Rescue of failed oocyte activation after ICSI in a mouse model of male factor infertility by recombinant phospholipase Cζ.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Randa; Yu, Yuansong; Nomikos, Michail; Lai, F Anthony; Swann, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Artificial oocyte activation to overcome failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in human oocytes typically employs Ca(2+) ionophores to produce a single cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. In contrast, recombinant phospholipase Czeta (PLCζ) causes Ca(2+) oscillations indistinguishable from those occurring during fertilization, but remains untested for its efficacy in a scenario of ICSI fertilization failure. Here, we compare PLCζ with other activation stimuli in a mouse model of failed oocyte activation after ICSI, in which heat-treated sperm are injected into mouse oocytes. We show that increasing periods of 56 °C exposure of sperm produces a progressive loss of Ca(2+) oscillations after ICSI. The decrease in Ca(2+) oscillations produces a reduction in oocyte activation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage. We treated such oocytes that failed to activate after ICSI either with Ca(2+) ionophore, or with Sr(2+) media which causes Ca(2+) oscillations, or we injected them with recombinant human PLCζ. All these treatments rescued oocyte activation, although Sr(2+) and PLCζ gave the highest rates of development to blastocyst. When recombinant PLCζ was given to oocytes previously injected with control sperm, they developed normally to the blastocyst stage at rates similar to that after control ICSI. The data suggest that recombinant human PLCζ protein is an efficient means of rescuing oocyte activation after ICSI failure and that it can be effectively used even if the sperm already contains endogenous Ca(2+) releasing activity.

  4. Dissociation of c-Met phosphotyrosine sites in human cells in response to mouse hepatocyte growth factor but not human hepatocyte growth factor: the possible roles of different amino acids in different species.

    PubMed

    Ikebuchi, Fumie; Oka, Kiyomasa; Mizuno, Shinya; Fukuta, Kazuhiro; Hayata, Daichika; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is essential for embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and tumour malignancy through the activation of its receptor, c-Met. We previously demonstrated that HGF α-chain hairpin-loop, K1 domain and β-chain are required for c-Met signalling. The sequential phosphorylation of tyrosine residues, from c-Met kinase domain to multidocking regions, is required for HGF-signalling transduction. Herein, we provide evidence that the disconcerted activation of c-Met tyrosine regions fails to induce biological functions. When human cells were incubated with 'mouse HGF', kinase domain activation (i.e. phospho-Tyr-1230/34/35) became evident, but the multidocking site (i.e. Tyr-1349) was not phosphorylated, resulting in unsuccessful induction of migration and mitogenesis. The binding ability of mouse HGF α-chain, or of β-chain, to human c-Met was lower than that of human HGF, as evidenced by HGF-chimera assay. Notably, only four amino acid positions in HGF α-chain hairpin-loop and K1 domain and six positions in β-chain differed between human HGF and mouse HGF. The human-specific amino acids (such as Gln-95 in hairpin-loop, Arg-134 in K1 domain and Cys-561 in β-chain) may be important for accurate c-Met assembly and signalling transduction.

  5. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Nihata, Yuma; Satoh, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling. PMID:27163697

  6. Downregulation of miR-219 enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in mouse dorsal root ganglia to mediate morphine analgesic tolerance by upregulating CaMKIIγ

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xue-Ming; Cao, Shou-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Long; Lyu, Dong-Mei; Chen, Li-Ping; Xu, Heng; Pan, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs are functionally involved in the initiation and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, including chronic morphine analgesic tolerance, through the posttranscriptional regulation of pain-related genes. We have previously demonstrated that miR-219 regulates inflammatory pain in the spinal cord by targeting calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CaMKIIγ). However, whether miR-219 regulates CaMKIIγ expression in the dorsal root ganglia to mediate morphine tolerance remains unclear. Results MiR-219 expression was downregulated and CaMKIIγ expression was upregulated in mouse dorsal root ganglia following chronic morphine treatment. The changes in miR-219 and CaMKIIγ expression closely correlated with the development of morphine tolerance, which was measured using the reduction of percentage of maximum potential efficiency to thermal stimuli. Morphine tolerance was markedly delayed by upregulating miR-219 expression using miR-219 mimics or downregulating CaMKIIγ expression using CaMKIIγ small interfering RNA. The protein and mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were also induced in dorsal root ganglia by prolonged morphine exposure in a time-dependent manner, which were transcriptionally regulated by miR-219 and CaMKIIγ. Scavenging brain-derived neurotrophic factor via tyrosine receptor kinase B-Fc partially attenuated morphine tolerance. Moreover, functional inhibition of miR-219 via miR-219-sponge in naive mice elicited thermal hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal sensitization, which were both suppressed by CaMKIIγ small interfering RNA or tyrosine receptor kinase B-Fc. Conclusions These results demonstrate that miR-219 contributes to the development of chronic tolerance to morphine analgesia in mouse dorsal root ganglia by targeting CaMKIIγ and enhancing CaMKIIγ-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. PMID:27599867

  7. Involvement of atypical transcription factor E2F8 in the polyploidization during mouse and human decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian-Rong; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Zuo, Ru-Juan; Wang, Tong-Song; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid decidual cells are specifically differentiated cells during mouse uterine decidualization. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism and physiological significance of polyploidization in pregnancy. Here we report a novel role of E2F8 in the polyploidization of decidual cells in mice. E2F8 is highly expressed in decidual cells and regulated by progesterone through HB-EGF/EGFR/ERK/STAT3 signaling pathway. E2F8 transcriptionally suppresses CDK1, thus triggering the polyploidization of decidual cells. E2F8-mediated polyploidization is a response to stresses which are accompanied by decidualization. Interestingly, polyploidization is not detected during human decidualization with the down-regulation of E2F8, indicating differential expression of E2F8 may lead to the difference of decidual cell polyploidization between mice and humans. PMID:25892397

  8. Effect of periocular injection of celecoxib and propranolol on ocular level of vascular endothelial growth factor in a diabetic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Saman; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Feghhi, Mostafa; Kheirollah, Alireza; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Nassiri, Nariman

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of periocular injection of propranolol and celecoxib on ocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a diabetic mouse model. METHODS Forty 4-6wk BALB-C male mice weighing 20-25 g were used. The study groups included: non-diabetic control (group 1), diabetic control (group 2), diabetic propranolol (group 3), and diabetic celecoxib (group 4). After induction of type 1 diabetes by streptozotocin, propranolol (10 µg) and celecoxib (200 µg dissolved in carboxymethylcellulose 0.5%) were injected periocularly. The ocular level of VEGF was measured in all the study groups using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS Ocular VEGF level was significantly increased (1.25 fold) in the diabetic control group when compared to the non-diabetic group one week after induction with streptozotocin (P=0.002). Both periocular propranolol and celecoxib significantly reduced ocular VEGF levels (P=0.047 and P<0.001, respectively). The effect was more pronounced with celecoxib. CONCLUSION The periocular administration of propranolol and celecoxib can significantly reduce ocular VEGF levels in a diabetic mouse model. PMID:27366681

  9. Generation of functional insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells through 804G cell-derived extracellular matrix and protein transduction of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kubo, Takuya; Wei, Fan-Yan; Hakim, Farzana; Kume, Shoen; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential applications to regenerative medicine for diabetes; however, a useful and safe way to generate pancreatic β cells has not been developed. In this study, we tried to establish an effective method of differentiation through the protein transduction of three transcription factors (Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA) important to pancreatic β cell development. The method poses no risk of unexpected genetic modifications in target cells. Transduction of the three proteins induced the differentiation of mouse ES and mouse iPS cells into insulin-producing cells. Furthermore, a laminin-5-rich extracellular matrix efficiently induced differentiation under feeder-free conditions. Cell differentiation was confirmed with the expression of the insulin 1 gene in addition to marker genes in pancreatic β cells, the differentiated cells secreted glucose-responsive C-peptide, and their transplantation restored normoglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, Pdx1 protein transduction had facilitative effects on differentiation into pancreatic endocrine progenitors from human iPS cells. These results suggest the direct delivery of recombinant proteins and treatment with laminin-5-rich extracellular matrix to be useful for the generation of insulin-producing cells.

  10. Differential distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-beta (ARNT or ARNT2) in mouse substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Schmidt-Kastner, R; Stevens, J A A; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxia has been proposed as a mechanism underlying gene-environment interactions in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) could mediate the interactions. In the current study, we analyzed the HIF-1 beta subunit, as formed by aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) or ARNT2, in the mouse substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We performed immunohistochemical studies of ARNT and ARNT2 in the adult mouse brain, and colocalization analyses, with specific emphasis on dopaminergic cells, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells. Bioinformatic analyses identified shared protein partners for ARNT and ARNT2. ARNT immunoreactivity showed widespread neuronal labeling without overt regional specificity. We observed co-localization of ARNT and TH in the SN compacta and VTA. Nuclei strongly labeled for ARNT2 were observed in the SN reticulata, while only weak immunoreactivity for ARNT2 was found in TH-immunoreactive neurons in SN compacta and VTA. Stereological analysis showed that ARNT was preferentially expressed in dopaminergic neurons in SN compacta and VTA. Nuclei strongly labeled for ARNT2 were present in neocortex and CA1 of hippocampus. Differential expression of ARNT and ARNT2 in dopaminergic neurons may relate to the vulnerability of distinct dopaminergic projections to hypoxia and to functional vulnerability in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25017895

  11. The mouse gene for vascular endothelial growth factor. Genomic structure, definition of the transcriptional unit, and characterization of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Shima, D T; Kuroki, M; Deutsch, U; Ng, Y S; Adamis, A P; D'Amore, P A

    1996-02-16

    We describe the genomic organization and functional characterization of the mouse gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a polypeptide implicated in embryonic vascular development and postnatal angiogenesis. The coding region for mouse VEGF is interrupted by seven introns and encompasses approximately 14 kilobases. Organization of exons suggests that, similar to the human VEGF gene, alternative splicing generates the 120-, 164-, and 188-amino acid isoforms, but does not predict a fourth VEGF isoform corresponding to human VEGF206. Approximately 1. 2 kilobases of 5'-flanking region have been sequenced, and primer extension analysis identified a single major transcription initiation site, notably lacking TATA or CCAT consensus sequences. The 5'-flanking region is sufficient to promote a 7-fold induction of basal transcription. The genomic region encoding the 3'-untranslated region was determined by Northern and nuclease mapping analysis. Investigation of mRNA sequences responsible for the rapid turnover of VEGF mRNA (mRNA half-life, <1 h) (Shima, D. T. , Deutsch, U., and D'Amore, P. A. (1995) FEBS Lett. 370, 203-208) revealed that the 3'-untranslated region was sufficient to trigger the rapid turnover of a normally long-lived reporter mRNA in vitro. These data and reagents will allow the molecular and genetic analysis of mechanisms that control the developmental and pathological expression of VEGF.

  12. Functional improvement in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by PEGylated insulin-like growth factor I treatment depends on disease severity.

    PubMed

    Saenger, Stefanie; Holtmann, Bettina; Nilges, Mark R; Schroeder, Susanne; Hoeflich, Andreas; Kletzl, Heidemarie; Spooren, Will; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Hanania, Taleen; Sendtner, Michael; Metzger, Friedrich

    2012-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been successfully tested in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and proposed for clinical treatment. However, beneficial effects required gene therapy or intrathecal application. Circumventing the dosing issues we recently found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified IGF-I (PEG-IGF-I) modulated neuromuscular function after systemic application, and protected against disease progression in a motor neuron disease model. Here we investigated its effects in two SOD1-G93A mouse lines, the G1L with a milder and the G1H with a more severe phenotype. Results showed that in G1L mice, PEG-IGF-I treatment significantly improved muscle force, motor coordination and animal survival. In contrast, treatment of G1H mice with PEG-IGF-I or IGF-I even at high doses did not beneficially affect survival or functional outcomes despite increased signalling in brain and spinal cord by both agents. In conclusion, the data point towards further investigation of the therapeutic potential of PEG-IGF-I in ALS patients with less severe clinical phenotypes.

  13. The mouse ovarian surface epithelium contains a population of LY6A (SCA-1) expressing progenitor cells that are regulated by ovulation-associated factors.

    PubMed

    Gamwell, Lisa F; Collins, Olga; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2012-10-01

    The ovarian surface epithelium, a single layer of poorly differentiated epithelial cells, covers the surface of the ovary and is ruptured during ovulation. Little is known about the changes that occur in this layer before or during ovulation, and even less is known about the regenerative processes that occur after the surface is ruptured to release a mature oocyte. Recently, a population of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells that exhibit progenitor/stem cell characteristics has been identified, though neither a genetic marker nor how these cells are regulated has been determined. We have identified a defined population of MOSE cells with progenitor cell characteristics that express the stem cell marker lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A (LY6A; also known as stem cell antigen-1 [SCA-1]). By testing the effect of factors found in the follicular fluid at ovulation on proliferation, sphere formation, and LY6A expression, we have determined that the size of the LY6A-expressing (LY6A+) progenitor cell population is regulated by at least two ovulation-associated factors present in the follicular fluid: transforming growth factor beta 1 and leukemia-inhibitory factor. Our work has identified a population of LY6A+ MOSE progenitor cells on the surface of the ovary that may play a role in ovulatory wound healing.

  14. The expression of endothelin-1 and its binding sites in mouse skin increased after ultraviolet B irradiation or local injection of tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Ahn, G Y; Butt, K I; Jindo, T; Yaguchi, H; Tsuboi, R; Ogawa, H

    1998-02-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a 21-amino acid peptide which has vasoconstrictor and growth regulatory activity. Recently, cultured keratinocytes have been reported to express ET-1 and its receptor when irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) B. In order to further understand the role of ET-1 in vivo during UVB-induced inflammation, we examined the localization, intensity and time course of the expression levels of ET-1 and its binding sites in UVB-exposed BALB/c mouse skin. Frozen and paraffin sections prepared from mouse skin 48 h after treatment with UVB irradiation (0.36 or 0.72 J/cm2) or after injection with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (1.0 microgram) or interleukin (IL)-1 alpha (0.05 microgram) were incubated with monoclonal anti-ET-1 IgG and then visualized by peroxidase staining. In normal skin, faint ET-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the epidermis, pilosebaceous structures and blood vessels. Upon exposure to UVB irradiation or administration of TNF-alpha injection or IL-1 alpha injection, such immunoreactivity was found to be significantly enhanced. Subsequently, the frozen sections were incubated with 125I ET-1 for 30 min, and visualized by autoradiographic technique. In normal skin, ET-1 weakly bound to the skin, while UVB irradiation and TNF-alpha injection significantly enhanced ET-1 binding in the epidermis, pilosebaceous structures and blood vessels. Time course experiments (1, 2, 4 and 7 days) indicated that ET-1 immunoreactivity and ET-1 binding peaked 1 or 2 days after UVB irradiation or TNF-alpha injection. These results suggest that the up-regulated expression of ET-1 and its binding sites in the epidermis and pilosebaceous structures may act as an autocrine/paracrine factor during UVB-induced inflammation.

  15. Characterization of a novel fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) knock-in mouse line to target mesenchymal progenitors during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    El Agha, Elie; Al Alam, Denise; Carraro, Gianni; MacKenzie, Breanne; Goth, Kerstin; De Langhe, Stijn P; Voswinckel, Robert; Hajihosseini, Mohammad K; Rehan, Virender K; Bellusci, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) is a key regulator of diverse organogenetic programs during mouse development, particularly branching morphogenesis. Fgf10-null mice suffer from lung and limb agenesis as well as cecal and colonic atresia and are thus not viable. To date, the Mlcv1v-nLacZ-24 transgenic mouse strain (referred to as Fgf10(LacZ)), which carries a LacZ insertion 114 kb upstream of exon 1 of Fgf10 gene, has been the only strain to allow transient lineage tracing of Fgf10-positive cells. Here, we describe a novel Fgf10(Cre-ERT2) knock-in line (Fgf10(iCre)) in which a Cre-ERT2-IRES-YFP cassette has been introduced in frame with the ATG of exon 1 of Fgf10 gene. Our studies show that Cre-ERT2 insertion disrupts Fgf10 function. However, administration of tamoxifen to Fgf10(iCre); Tomato(flox) double transgenic embryos or adult mice results in specific labeling of Fgf10-positive cells, which can be lineage-traced temporally and spatially. Moreover, we show that the Fgf10(iCre) line can be used for conditional gene inactivation in an inducible fashion during early developmental stages. We also provide evidence that transcription factors located in the first intron of Fgf10 gene are critical for maintaining Fgf10 expression over time. Thus, the Fgf10(iCre) line should serve as a powerful tool to explore the functions of Fgf10 in a controlled and stage-specific manner. PMID:22719891

  16. Effects of Deletion of Mutant Huntingtin in Steroidogenic Factor 1 Neurons on the Psychiatric and Metabolic Phenotype in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petersén, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric and metabolic features appear several years before motor disturbances in the neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although the mechanisms leading to these aspects are unknown, dysfunction in the hypothalamus, a brain region controlling emotion and metabolism, has been suggested. A direct link between the expression of the disease causing protein, huntingtin (HTT), in the hypothalamus and the development of metabolic and psychiatric-like features have been shown in the BACHD mouse model of HD. However, precisely which circuitry in the hypothalamus is critical for these features is not known. We hypothesized that expression of mutant HTT in the ventromedial hypothalamus, an area involved in the regulation of metabolism and emotion would be important for the development of these non-motor aspects. Therefore, we inactivated mutant HTT in a specific neuronal population of the ventromedial hypothalamus expressing the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in the BACHD mouse using cross-breeding based on a Cre-loxP system. Effects on anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the elevated plus maze and novelty-induced suppressed feeding test. Depressive-like behavior was assessed using the Porsolt forced swim test. Effects on the metabolic phenotype were analyzed using measurements of body weight and body fat, as well as serum insulin and leptin levels. Interestingly, the inactivation of mutant HTT in SF1-expressing neurons exerted a partial positive effect on the depressive-like behavior in female BACHD mice at 4 months of age. In this cohort of mice, no anxiety-like behavior was detected. The deletion of mutant HTT in SF1 neurons did not have any effect on the development of metabolic features in BACHD mice. Taken together, our results indicate that mutant HTT regulates metabolic networks by affecting hypothalamic circuitries that do not involve the SF1 neurons of the

  17. A Global Genomic and Genetic Strategy to Predict Pathway Activation of Xenobiotic Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobiotic-responsive transcription factors(TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  18. The Transcription Factor CREB Enhances Interleukin-17A Production and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Heckle, Mark R.; Tigyi, Gabor J.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) plays a role in atherogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms were unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore the mechanisms of 15-LO role in atherogenesis. 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], the major 15-LO-dependent metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by monocytes through the xanthine oxidase–mediated activation of NADPH oxidase, which led to the Syk-, Pyk2-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)–, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein (CREB)–dependent production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A). In addition, this pathway was required for the 15(S)-HETE–dependent migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Consistent with these observations, we found that peritoneal macrophages from ApoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet (a mouse model of atherosclerosis) exhibited increased xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase activities, ROS production, phosphorylation of Syk, Pyk2, MAPK, and CREB, and enhanced IL-17A production compared to those from ApoE−/−:12/15-LO−/− mice. These events correlated with increased lipid deposits and numbers of monocytes and macrophages in the aortic arches of these mice, which resulted in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Together, these observations suggest that 15(S)-HETE exacerbates atherogenesis by enhancing CREB-dependent IL-17A production. PMID:24045154

  19. The Rho/Rac exchange factor Vav2 controls nitric oxide-dependent responses in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Montero, María J; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of arterial contractility is essential for blood pressure control. The GTPase RhoA promotes vasoconstriction by modulating the cytoskeleton of vascular smooth muscle cells. Whether other Rho/Rac pathways contribute to blood pressure regulation remains unknown. By studying a hypertensive knockout mouse lacking the Rho/Rac activator Vav2, we have discovered a new signaling pathway involving Vav2, the GTPase Rac1, and the serine/threonine kinase Pak that contributes to nitric oxide-triggered blood vessel relaxation and normotensia. This pathway mediated the Pak-dependent inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5, a process that favored RhoA inactivation and the subsequent depolymerization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in vascular smooth muscle cells. The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 required its physical interaction with autophosphorylated Pak1 but, unexpectedly, occurred without detectable transphosphorylation events between those 2 proteins. The administration of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors prevented the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Vav2-deficient animals, demonstrating the involvement of this new pathway in blood pressure regulation. Taken together, these results unveil one cause of the cardiovascular phenotype of Vav2-knockout mice, identify a new Rac1/Pak1 signaling pathway, and provide a mechanistic framework for better understanding blood pressure control in physiological and pathological states. PMID:20038798

  20. Development of a primary mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer culture system to evaluate factors that modulate IgA transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Clara; VanDussen, Kelli L.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in the use of primary intestinal epithelial cells in monolayer culture to model intestinal biology. However, it has proven to be challenging to create functional, differentiated monolayers using current culture methods, likely due to the difficulty in expanding these cells. Here, we adapted our recently developed method for the culture of intestinal epithelial spheroids to establish primary epithelial cell monolayers from the colon of multiple genetic mouse strains. These monolayers contained differentiated epithelial cells that displayed robust transepithelial electrical resistance. We then functionally tested them by examining IgA transcytosis across Transwells. IgA transcytosis required induction of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression, which could be stimulated by a combination of LPS and inhibition of γ-secretase. In agreement with previous studies using immortalized cell lines, we found that TNFα, IL-1β, IL-17 and heat-killed microbes also stimulated pIgR expression and IgA transcytosis. We used wild-type and knockout cells to establish that amongst these cytokines, IL-17 was the most potent inducer of pIgR expression/IgA transcytosis. IFNγ however did not induce pIgR expression, and instead led to cell death. This new method will allow the use of primary cells for studies of intestinal physiology. PMID:24220295

  1. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L; Raines, Elaine W; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Dempsey, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-α signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-α signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-α/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-α signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-α blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-α signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-α signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice.

  2. Tensile stress stimulates the expression of osteogenic cytokines/growth factors and matricellular proteins in the mouse cranial suture at the site of osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ikegame, Mika; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Kawai, Mariko; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Kondo, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stress promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although numerous growth factors and cytokines are known to regulate this process, information regarding the differentiation of mechanically stimulated osteoblasts from MSCs in in vivo microenvironment is limited. To determine the significant factors involved in this process, we performed a global analysis of differentially expressed genes, in response to tensile stress, in the mouse cranial suture wherein osteoblasts differentiate from MSCs. We found that the gene expression levels of several components involved in bone morphogenetic protein, Wnt, and epithelial growth factor signalings were elevated with tensile stress. Moreover gene expression of some extracellular matrices (ECMs), such as cysteine rich protein 61 (Cyr61)/CCN1 and galectin-9, were upregulated. These ECMs have the ability to modulate the activities of cytokines and are known as matricellular proteins. Cyr61/CCN1 expression was prominently increased in the fibroblastic cells and preosteoblasts in the suture. Thus, for the first time we demonstrated the mechanical stimulation of Cyr61/CCN1 expression in osteogenic cells in an ex vivo system. These results suggest the importance of matricellular proteins along with the cytokine-mediated signaling for the mechanical regulation of MSC proliferation and differentiation into osteoblastic cell lineage in vivo.

  3. Loss of ADAM17-Mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Intestinal Cells Attenuates Mucosal Atrophy in a Mouse Model of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Xiao, Weidong; Ralls, Matthew W.; Stoeck, Alex; Wilson, Carole L.; Raines, Elaine W.

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is commonly used clinically to sustain patients; however, TPN is associated with profound mucosal atrophy, which may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Using a mouse TPN model, removing enteral nutrition leads to decreased crypt proliferation, increased intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis and increased mucosal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression that ultimately produces mucosal atrophy. Upregulation of TNF-α signaling plays a central role in mediating TPN-induced mucosal atrophy without intact epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Currently, the mechanism and the tissue-specific contributions of TNF-α signaling to TPN-induced mucosal atrophy remain unclear. ADAM17 is an ectodomain sheddase that can modulate the signaling activity of several cytokine/growth factor receptor families, including the TNF-α/TNF receptor and ErbB ligand/EGFR pathways. Using TPN-treated IEC-specific ADAM17-deficient mice, the present study demonstrates that a loss of soluble TNF-α signaling from IECs attenuates TPN-induced mucosal atrophy. Importantly, this response remains dependent on the maintenance of functional EGFR signaling in IECs. TNF-α blockade in wild-type mice receiving TPN confirmed that soluble TNF-α signaling is responsible for downregulation of EGFR signaling in IECs. These results demonstrate that ADAM17-mediated TNF-α signaling from IECs has a significant role in the development of the proinflammatory state and mucosal atrophy observed in TPN-treated mice. PMID:26283731

  4. Differential Effects of Growth Hormone Versus Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on the Mouse Plasma Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; List, Edward O.; Bower, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The GH/IGF-I axis has both pre- and postpubertal metabolic effects. However, the differential effects of GH and/or IGF-I on animal physiology or the plasma proteome are still being unraveled. In this report, we analyzed several physiological effects along with the plasma proteome after treatment of mice with recombinant bovine GH or recombinant human IGF-I. GH and IGF-I showed similar effects in increasing body length, body weight, lean and fluid masses, and organ weights including muscle, kidney, and spleen. However, GH significantly increased serum total cholesterol, whereas IGF-I had no effect on it. Both acute and longer-term effects on the plasma proteome were determined. Proteins found to be significantly changed by recombinant bovine GH and/or recombinant human IGF-I injections were identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS. The identities of these proteins were further confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Isoforms of apolipoprotein A4, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid protein A-1, clusterin, transthyretin, and several albumin fragments were found to be differentially regulated by GH vs. IGF-I in mouse plasma. Thus, we have identified several plasma protein biomarkers that respond specifically and differentially to GH or IGF-I and may represent new physiological targets of these hormones. These findings may lead to better understanding of the independent biological effects of GH vs. IGF-I. In addition, these novel biomarkers may be useful for the development of tests to detect illicit use of GH or IGF-I. PMID:21791560

  5. Goblet-cell-specific transcription of mouse intestinal trefoil factor gene results from collaboration of complex series of positive and negative regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, H; Inoue, N; Podolsky, D K

    1999-01-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is expressed selectively in intestinal goblet cells. Previous studies of the rat ITF gene identified one cis-regulatory element, designated the goblet-cell-response element (GCRE), present in the proximal region of the promoter. To identify additional cis-regulatory elements responsible for goblet-cell-specific expression, a DNA fragment containing 6353 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse ITF gene was cloned and its promoter activity was examined extensively. In human and murine intestinal-derived cell lines (LS174T and CMT-93), the luciferase activities of a 6.3-kb construct were 5- and 2-fold greater than the smaller 1.8-kb construct, respectively. In contrast, the activity in non-intestinal cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa) was 2-4-fold lower than the smaller construct. In the region downstream from the 1.8-kb position, strong luciferase activities in LS174T and HepG2 cells were observed using a 201-bp construct. Interestingly, increased activity was almost completely suppressed in cells transfected with a 391-bp construct. Detailed analyses of this region revealed the existence of a 11-bp positive regulatory element (-181 to -170; ACCTCTTCCTG) and a 9-bp negative regulatory element (-208 to -200; ATTGACAGA) in addition to the GCRE. All three elements were well conserved among human, rat and mouse ITF gene promoters. In addition, a mutant 1.8-kb construct in which the negative regulatory region was deleted yielded the same approximate luciferase activity as a 6.3-kb construct, suggesting binding of a goblet-cell-specific silencer inhibitor (SI) between -6.3 and -1.8 kb. The SI present in goblet cells may block the silencers' binding to the pre-initiation complex and allow increased transcriptional activity driven by specific and non-specific enhancers. High-level expression of the mouse ITF gene specifically in intestinal goblet cells may be achieved through the combined effects of these regulatory elements. PMID:10393106

  6. Nerve growth factor exhibits an antioxidant and an autocrine activity in mouse liver that is modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, arsenic, and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, C; Gonsebatt, M E

    2013-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the several structurally related proteins, named neurotrophins (NTs), that regulate neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. Moreover, NGF is an important activator of antioxidant mechanisms. These NGF functions are mediated by tropomyosin-related kinase receptor A (TrkA). Although NTs and their receptors have been shown to be expressed in visceral tissues, the extent to which NTs are involved in the physiology of visceral tissues is less clear. NGF is the most expressed NT in adult mouse livers. Although NGF is an important modulator of antioxidant mechanisms in neural tissues, few studies describe the relationship between oxidative stress and NGF expression in the liver. In this study, we demonstrate that ngfb mRNA is positively modulated in mouse livers after oxidative injury via intraperitoneal injection of 14 mg/kg sodium arsenite, 6 mmol/kg L-buthionine-S-R-sulfoximine (BSO), or 300 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP). In addition to the upregulation of ngfb, we observed the phosphorylation of the NGF high-affinity receptor TrkA in the liver as well as the downstream phosphorylation of Akt, NF-kB nuclear migration and iκbα and tx-1 mRNA upregulation. These effects were abolished when a neutralizing anti-NGF antibody was used. Furthermore, this anti-NGF antibody alone induced oxidative stress in the liver by decreasing the reduced glutathione, increasing the oxidized glutathione, and downregulating tx-1 mRNA. Thus, NGF plays a critical role in liver protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotic injury as well as maintains a reduced thiol state.

  7. Nerve growth factor exhibits an antioxidant and an autocrine activity in mouse liver that is modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, arsenic, and acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, C; Gonsebatt, M E

    2013-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the several structurally related proteins, named neurotrophins (NTs), that regulate neuronal survival, development, function, and plasticity. Moreover, NGF is an important activator of antioxidant mechanisms. These NGF functions are mediated by tropomyosin-related kinase receptor A (TrkA). Although NTs and their receptors have been shown to be expressed in visceral tissues, the extent to which NTs are involved in the physiology of visceral tissues is less clear. NGF is the most expressed NT in adult mouse livers. Although NGF is an important modulator of antioxidant mechanisms in neural tissues, few studies describe the relationship between oxidative stress and NGF expression in the liver. In this study, we demonstrate that ngfb mRNA is positively modulated in mouse livers after oxidative injury via intraperitoneal injection of 14 mg/kg sodium arsenite, 6 mmol/kg L-buthionine-S-R-sulfoximine (BSO), or 300 mg/kg acetaminophen (APAP). In addition to the upregulation of ngfb, we observed the phosphorylation of the NGF high-affinity receptor TrkA in the liver as well as the downstream phosphorylation of Akt, NF-kB nuclear migration and iκbα and tx-1 mRNA upregulation. These effects were abolished when a neutralizing anti-NGF antibody was used. Furthermore, this anti-NGF antibody alone induced oxidative stress in the liver by decreasing the reduced glutathione, increasing the oxidized glutathione, and downregulating tx-1 mRNA. Thus, NGF plays a critical role in liver protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotic injury as well as maintains a reduced thiol state. PMID:23472850

  8. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: anummela@mappi.helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.

  9. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  10. Priming of long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampus by corticotropin-releasing factor and acute stress: implications for hippocampus-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Blank, Thomas; Nijholt, Ingrid; Eckart, Klaus; Spiess, Joachim

    2002-05-01

    In the present experiments, we characterized the action of human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) and acute stress (1 hr of immobilization) on hippocampus-dependent learning and on synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus. We first showed that h/rCRF application and acute stress facilitated (primed) long-term potentiation of population spikes (PS-LTP) in the mouse hippocampus and enhanced context-dependent fear conditioning. Both the priming of PS-LTP and the improvement of context-dependent fear conditioning were prevented by the CRF receptor antagonist [Glu(11,16)]astressin. PS-LTP priming and improved learning were also reduced by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Acute stress induced the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) 2 hr after the end of the stress session. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-62 antagonized the stress-mediated learning enhancement, however, with no effect on PS-LTP persistence. Thus, long-lasting increased neuronal excitability as reflected in PS-LTP priming appeared to be essential for the enhancement of learning in view of the observation that inhibition of PS-LTP priming was associated with impaired learning. Conversely, it was demonstrated that inhibition of CaMKII activity reduced contextual fear conditioning without affecting PS-LTP priming. This observation suggests that priming of PS-LTP and activation of CaMKII represent two essential mechanisms that may contribute independently to long-term memory.

  11. Lung dendritic cells undergo maturation and polarization towards a T helper type 2-stimulating phenotype in a mouse model of asthma: Role of nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    QIN, QINGWU; WANG, ZHAN; PAN, PINHUA; CAO, ZU; XIA, QING; TAN, HONGYI; HU, CHENGPING

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been hypothesized to modulate T cell responses in a mouse model of asthma. However, whether NGF plays a role in regulating the maturation and polarization of lung DCs remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of NGF inhibition on the maturation and phenotype of lung DCs was investigated in a mouse model of asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and subsequently received anti-NGF treatment. At 24 h following the last challenge, airway responsiveness and inflammation were examined. The concentrations of NGF, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 were analyzed. In addition, maturation and CD103 expression in the lung DCs were investigated. Anti-NGF treatment was found to significantly reduce airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in asthmatic mice. In addition, a subdued T helper 2 (Th2) response was observed, characterized by the downregulation of IL-4 and the upregulation of IFN-γ. Furthermore, the expression of the DC surface molecules, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II, as well as the proportion of lung CD103+ DCs, decreased in the OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The proportion of lung CD103+ DCs also exhibited a positive correlation with the levels of plasma NGF in the mice. These results may provide an explanation for the role of NGF in amplifying the Th2 response in allergic diseases. Therefore, NGF may promote the maturation and polarization towards a Th2-stimulating phenotype of activated DCs, contributing to an amplification of the Th2 response in asthma. PMID:25289030

  12. Organization and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the mouse acid labile subunit of the insulin-like growth factor binding complex.

    PubMed Central

    Boisclair, Y R; Seto, D; Hsieh, S; Hurst, K R; Ooi, G T

    1996-01-01

    After birth, most of insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGFs) circulate as a ternary complex formed by the association of IGF binding protein 3-IGF complexes with a serum protein called acid-labile subunit (ALS). ALS retains the IGF binding protein-3-IGF complexes in the vascular compartment and extends the t1/2 of IGFs in the circulation. Synthesis of ALS occurs mainly in liver after birth and is stimulated by growth hormone. To study the basis for this regulation, we cloned and characterized the mouse ALS gene. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences indicated that the gene is composed of two exons separated by a 1126-bp intron. Exon 1 encodes the first 5 amino acids of the signal peptide and contributes the first nucleotide of codon 6. Exon 2 contributes the last 2 nt of codon 6 and encodes the remaining 17 amino acids of the signal peptide as well as the 580 amino acids of the mature protein. The polyadenylylation signal, ATTAAA, is located 241 bp from the termination codon. The cDNA and genomic DNA diverge 16 bp downstream from this signal. Transcription initiation was mapped to 11 sites over a 140-bp TATA-less region. The DNA fragment extending from nt -805 to -11 (ATG, +1) directed basal and growth hormone-regulated expression of a luciferase reporter plasmid in the rat liver cell line H4-II-E. Finally, the ALS gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 17 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8816745

  13. Live Staphylococcus aureus Induces Expression and Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Terminally Differentiated Mouse Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Rönnberg, Elin; Guss, Bengt; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thereby implicating mast cells in pro-angiogenic processes. However, the mechanism of VEGF induction in mast cells and the possible expression of VEGF in fully mature mast cells have not been extensively studied. Here, we report that terminally differentiated peritoneal cell-derived mast cells can be induced to express VEGF in response to challenge with Staphylococcus aureus, thus identifying a mast cell-bacteria axis as a novel mechanism leading to VEGF release. Whereas live bacteria produced a robust upregulation of VEGF in mast cells, heat-inactivated bacteria failed to do so, and bacteria-conditioned media did not induce VEGF expression. The induction of VEGF was not critically dependent on direct cell-cell contact between bacteria and mast cells. Hence, these findings suggest that VEGF can be induced by soluble factors released during the co-culture conditions. Neither of a panel of bacterial cell-wall products known to activate toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling promoted VEGF expression in mast cells. In agreement with the latter, VEGF induction occurred independently of Myd88, an adaptor molecule that mediates the downstream events following TLR engagement. The VEGF induction was insensitive to nuclear factor of activated T-cells inhibition but was partly dependent on the nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells signaling pathway. Together, these findings identify bacterial challenge as a novel mechanism by which VEGF is induced in mast cells. PMID:27446077

  14. The Ets-1 transcription factor is required for Stat1-mediated T-bet expression and IgG2a class switching in mouse B cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Vu; Mouly, Enguerran; Chemin, Karine; Luinaud, Romain; Despres, Raymonde; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Arnulf, Bertrand; Bories, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-01

    In response to antigens and cytokines, mouse B cells undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) and differentiate into Ig-secreting cells. T-bet, a T-box transcription factor that is up-regulated in lymphocytes by IFN-γ or IL-27, was shown to regulate CSR to IgG2a after T cell-independent B-cell stimulations. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process remain unclear. In the present study, we show that inactivation of the Ets-1 transcription factor results in a severe decrease in IgG2a secretion in vivo and in vitro. No T-bet expression was observed in Ets-1-deficient (Ets-1(-/-)) B cells stimulated with IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide, and forced expression of T-bet in these cells rescued IgG2a secretion. Furthermore, we identified a transcriptional enhancer in the T-bet locus with an activity in B cells that relies on ETS-binding sites. After IFN-γ stimulation of Ets-1(-/-) B cells, activated Stat1, which forms a complex with Ets-1 in wild-type cells, no longer binds to the T-bet enhancer or promotes histone modifications at this site. These results demonstrate that Ets-1 is critical for IgG2a CSR and acts as an essential cofactor for Stat1 in the regulation of T-bet expression in B cells.

  15. Methoxychlor induces atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activity in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Karman, Bethany N; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in many countries against various species of insects that attack crops and domestic animals. MXC reduces fertility by increasing atresia (death) of antral follicles in vivo. MXC also induces atresia of antral follicles after 96 h in vitro. The current work tested the hypothesis that MXC induces morphological atresia at early time points (24 and 48 h) by altering pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bok, Casp3, and caspase activity) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 and Bcl-xL) factors in the follicles. The results indicate that at 24 h, MXC increased Bcl-xL and Bax mRNA levels and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl2. At 48-96 h, MXC induced morphological atresia. At 24-96 h, MXC increased caspase activities. These data suggest that MXC may induce atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activities in antral follicles.

  16. LncRNA analysis of mouse spermatogonial stem cells following glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Lufan; Wang, Min; Wang, Mei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Geng, Lei; Xue, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xiang; Jia, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Spermatonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with at least 200 bp in length, which play important roles in various biological processes. Growth factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), secreted from testis niches, is critical for self-renewal of SSCs in vitro and in vivo. Using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 high throughput sequencing, we found 55924 lncRNAs which were regulated by GDNF in SSCs in vitro; these included 21,929 known lncRNAs from NONCODE library (version 3.0) and 33,975 predicted lncRNAs which were identified using Coding Potential Calculator. Analyses of these data should provide new insights into regulated mechanism in SSC self-renewal and proliferation. The data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (series GSE66998).

  17. How precisely can data from transgenic mouse mutation-detection systems be extrapolated to humans?: lesions from the human factor IX gene.

    PubMed

    Sommer, S S; Ketterling, R P

    1994-06-01

    Transgenic mutation-detection systems have been pioneered in mice, but the approach is applicable to any species in which transgenic animals can be generated. The observed mutations seen in mutation-detection systems are influenced by the underlying pattern of mutation, i.e., the mutational pattern that occurs in wild-type organisms in endogenous segments of DNA that are not under selective pressure. Unfortunately, the biology of most genes and assays markedly skew the underlying pattern of mutation. Herein, we raise multiple issues that must be addressed in order to estimate the underlying pattern of spontaneous mutation from transgenic mouse mutation-detection systems. If these issues can be addressed, the underlying pattern of spontaneous mutation can then be deduced for multiple cell types and for transgenes integrated into different parts of the genome. Even though transgenic methodology cannot be applied directly to humans, it is likely that comparable data on the underlying pattern of spontaneous mutation will be available in humans. Such data are currently available for germline mutations in the factor IX gene. These data are reviewed because of their relevance to two of the multiple issues that must be addressed in transgenic mouse mutation-detection systems: (1) How can the underlying pattern of mutation be deduced from the observed pattern? and (2) How similar are the underlying patterns of mutation in humans and in mice? The analysis of recent germ-line mutation in the factor IX gene yield estimates of the mutation rates per base pair per generation. In brief, the mutation rates vary from 0.037 x 10(-10) for deletions (> 20 bp) to 360 x 10(-10) for transitions at the dinucleotide CpG. If these mutation rates are extrapolated to the entire genome, the aggregate mutation rate is estimated to be 36 x 10(-10). This implies that the diploid genome of each person contains about 21 de novo mutations. In the future, the underlying pattern of spontaneous

  18. Characterization of metal-responsive transcription factor (MTF-1) from the giant rodent capybara reveals features in common with human as well as with small rodents (mouse, rat). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Uschi; Leuzinger, Lucas; Steiner, Kurt; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-08-01

    From mammals to insects, metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) is essential for the activation of metallothionein genes upon heavy-metal load. We have previously found that human MTF-1 induces a stronger metal response than mouse MTF-1. The latter differs from the human one in a number of amino acid positions and is also shorter by 78 aa at its C-terminus. We reasoned that the weaker metal inducibility might be associated with a lesser demand for tight metal homeostasis in a low-weight, short-lived animal, and thus set out to determine the sequence of MTF-1 from the largest living rodent, the Brazilian capybara that can reach 65 kg and also has a considerably longer life span than smaller rodents. An expression clone for capybara MTF-1 was then tested for its activity in both mouse and human cells. Our analysis revealed three unexpected features: i) capybara MTF-1 in terms of amino acid sequence is much more closely related to human than to mouse MTF-1, suggesting an accelerated evolution of MTF-1 in the evolutionary branch leading to small rodents; ii) capybara MTF-1 is even 32 aa shorter at its C-terminus than mouse MTF-1, and iii) in an activity test, it is not more active than mouse MTF-1. The latter two findings might indicate that capybara has evolved in an environment with low heavy-metal load.

  19. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling networks inhibit mouse macrophage inflammatory responses by induction of microRNA-21.

    PubMed

    Caescu, Cristina I; Guo, Xingyi; Tesfa, Lydia; Bhagat, Tushar D; Verma, Amit; Zheng, Deyou; Stanley, E Richard

    2015-02-19

    Macrophage polarization between the M2 (repair, protumorigenic) and M1 (inflammatory) phenotypes is seen as a continuum of states. The detailed transcriptional events and signals downstream of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) that contributes to amplification of the M2 phenotype and suppression of the M1 phenotype are largely unknown. Macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling promotes cell motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Combining analysis of cellular systems for CSF-1R gain of function and loss of function with bioinformatic analysis of the macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721-regulated transcriptome, we uncovered microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a downstream molecular switch controlling macrophage activation and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB as CSF-1R pTyr-721-regulated signaling nodes. We show that CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling suppresses the inflammatory phenotype, predominantly by induction of miR-21. Profiling of the miR-21-regulated messenger RNAs revealed that 80% of the CSF-1-regulated canonical miR-21 targets are proinflammatory molecules. Additionally, miR-21 positively regulates M2 marker expression. Moreover, miR-21 feeds back to positively regulate its own expression and to limit CSF-1R-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory role of miRNA-21, intraperitoneal injection of mice with a miRNA-21 inhibitor increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and enhances the peritoneal monocyte/macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide. These results identify the CSF-1R-regulated miR-21 network that modulates macrophage polarization.

  20. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling networks inhibit mouse macrophage inflammatory responses by induction of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Caescu, Cristina I.; Guo, Xingyi; Tesfa, Lydia; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Verma, Amit; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage polarization between the M2 (repair, protumorigenic) and M1 (inflammatory) phenotypes is seen as a continuum of states. The detailed transcriptional events and signals downstream of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) that contributes to amplification of the M2 phenotype and suppression of the M1 phenotype are largely unknown. Macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling promotes cell motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Combining analysis of cellular systems for CSF-1R gain of function and loss of function with bioinformatic analysis of the macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated transcriptome, we uncovered microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a downstream molecular switch controlling macrophage activation and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB as CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated signaling nodes. We show that CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling suppresses the inflammatory phenotype, predominantly by induction of miR-21. Profiling of the miR-21–regulated messenger RNAs revealed that 80% of the CSF-1–regulated canonical miR-21 targets are proinflammatory molecules. Additionally, miR-21 positively regulates M2 marker expression. Moreover, miR-21 feeds back to positively regulate its own expression and to limit CSF-1R–mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory role of miRNA-21, intraperitoneal injection of mice with a miRNA-21 inhibitor increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and enhances the peritoneal monocyte/macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide. These results identify the CSF-1R–regulated miR-21 network that modulates macrophage polarization. PMID:25573988

  1. Structure of the mouse leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor gene: regulated expression of mRNA encoding a soluble receptor isoform from an alternative 5' untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, I; Cozens, A; Broadbent, J; Robertson, M; Lee, M; Li, M; Smith, A

    1997-01-01

    The low-affinity leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIF-R) is a component of cell-surface receptor complexes for the multifunctional cytokines leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, oncostatin M and cardiotrophin-1. Both soluble and transmembrane forms of the protein have been described and several LIF-R mRNAs have been reported previously. In order to determine the coding potential of LIF-R mRNAs we have isolated and characterized the mouse LIF-R gene. mRNA encoding soluble LIF-R (sLIF-R) is formed by inclusion of an exon in which polyadenylation signals are provided by a B2 repeat. This exon is located centrally within the LIF-R gene but is excluded from the transmembrane LIF-R mRNA by alternative splicing. The transmembrane receptor is encoded by 19 exons distributed over 38 kb. Two distinct 5' non-coding exons have been identified, indicating the existence of alternative promoters. One of these is G/C rich and possesses a consensus initiator sequence as well as potential Sp1 binding sites. Expression of exon 1 from this promoter occurs in a wide variety of tissues, whereas expression of the alternative 5' untranslated region (exon 1a) is normally restricted to liver, the principal source of sLIF-R. During pregnancy expression of exon 1a becomes detectable also in the uterus. Expression of exon 1a increases dramatically during gestation and is accompanied by a similar quantitative rise in expression of sLIF-R mRNA. These findings establish that expression of LIF-R is under complex transcriptional control and indicate that regulated expression of the soluble cytokine receptor isoform may be due principally to an increase in the activity of a dedicated promoter. PMID:9396734

  2. Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced loss of intestinal barrier function requires TNFR1 and TNFR2 signalling in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongjia; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2013-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been reported to play a central role in intestinal barrier dysfunction in many diseases; however, the precise role of the TNF-α receptors (TNFRs) has not been well defined using in vivo models. Our previous data showed that enteral nutrient deprivation or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) led to a loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function (EBF), with an associated upregulation of TNF-α and TNFR1. In this study, we hypothesized that TNF-α plays an important role in TPN-associated EBF dysfunction. Using a mouse TPN model, we explored the relative roles of TNFR1 vs. TNFR2 in mediating this barrier loss. C57/BL6 mice underwent intravenous cannulation and were given enteral nutrition or TPN for 7 days. Tumour necrosis factor-α receptor knockout (KO) mice, including TNFR1KO, TNFR2KO or TNFR1R2 double KO (DKO), were used. Outcomes included small intestine transepithelial resistance (TER) and tracer permeability, junctional protein zonula occludens-1, occludin, claudins and E-cadherin expression. In order to address the dependence of EBF on TNF-α further, exogenous TNF-α and pharmacological blockade of TNF-α (Etanercept) were also performed. Total parenteral nutrition led to a loss of EBF, and this was almost completely prevented in TNFR1R2DKO mice and partly prevented in TNFR1KO mice but not in TNFR2KO mice. The TPN-associated downregulation of junctional protein expression and junctional assembly was almost completely prevented in the TNFR1R2DKO group. Blockade of TNF-α also prevented dysfunction of the EBF and junctional protein losses in mice undergoing TPN. Administration of TPN upregulated the downstream nuclear factor-κB and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) signalling, and these changes were almost completely prevented in TNFR1R2DKO mice, as well as with TNF-α blockade, but not in TNFR1KO or TNFR2KO TPN groups. Tumour necrosis factor-α is a critical factor for TPN-associated epithelial barrier dysfunction, and

  3. Activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB in mouse brain induced by a simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kimberly C.; Manna, Sunil K.; Yamauchi, Keiko; Ramesh, Vani; Wilson, Bobby L.; Thomas, Renard L.; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Kulkarni, Anil D.; Pellis, Neil R.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity induces inflammatory responses and modulates immune functions that may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to a microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects; however, there is little research exploring the etiology of these effects resulting from exposure to such an environment. It is also known that spaceflight is associated with increase in oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has not been reproduced in land-based simulated microgravity models. In this study, an attempt has been made to show the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice brain, using ground-based microgravity simulator. Increased ROS was observed in brain stem and frontal cortex with concomitant decrease in glutathione, on exposing mice to simulated microgravity for 7 d. Oxidative stress-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB was observed in all the regions of the brain. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase was phosphorylated equally in all regions of the brain exposed to simulated microgravity. These results suggest that exposure of brain to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors, and these have been earlier argued to be oxidative stress dependent.

  4. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  5. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, M; Sharma, R P

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interferon gamma (IFNgamma), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNFalpha mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNFalpha mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNFalpha in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water.

  6. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model

    PubMed Central

    YUE, YINGYING; LI, PENG; SONG, NANNAN; LI, BINGQING; LI, ZHIHUI; GUO, YUQI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; WEI, MING Q.; GAI, ZHONGTAO; MENG, HONG; WANG, JIWEN; QIN, LIZENG

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post-inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  7. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  8. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is essential for osteoclastogenic mechanisms in vitro and in vivo mouse model of arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ran; Santos, Leilani L.; Ngo, Devi; Fan, HuaPeng; Singh, Preetinder P.; Fingerle-Rowson, Gunter; Bucala, Richard; Xu, Jiake; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Morand, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) enhances activation of leukocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A MIF promoter polymorphism in RA patients resulted in higher serum MIF concentration and worsens bone erosion; controversially current literature reported an inhibitory role of MIF in osteoclast formation. The controversial suggested that the precise role of MIF and its putative receptor CD74 in osteoclastogenesis and RA bone erosion, mediated by locally formed osteoclasts in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), is unclear. We reported that in an in vivo K/BxN serum transfer arthritis, reduced clinical and histological arthritis in MIF-/- and CD74-/- mice were accompanied by a virtual absence of osteoclasts at the synovium-bone interface and reduced osteoclast-related gene expression. Furthermore, in vitro osteoclast formation and osteoclast-related gene expression were significantly reduced in MIF-/- cells via decreasing RANKL-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 and ERK1/2. This was supported by a similar reduction of osteoclastogenesis observed in CD74-/- cells. Furthermore, a MIF blockade reduced RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via deregulating RANKL-mediated NF-κB and NFATc1 transcription factor activation. These data indicate that MIF and CD74 facilitate RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and suggest that MIF contributes directly to bone erosion, as well as inflammation, in RA. PMID:25647268

  9. Dexamethasone Induces Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells in a Mouse Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hirokazu; Kikuta, Tomohiro; Inoue, Tsutomu; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Ban, Shinichi; Sugaya, Takeshi; Takigawa, Masaharu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2006-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of transforming growth factor-β1, mediates mesangial cell/fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix production by renal cells. Here, we show that renal tubular epithelial cells from patients with minimal change nephritic syndrome produced CTGF after glucocorticoid treatment. In addition, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) increased CTGF mRNA levels in the kidneys of C57B6 but not SJL mice and produced intermediate CTGF mRNA levels in the kidneys of F1 (C57B6 × SJL) mice, midway between the levels found for parental strains. DEX also increased CTGF mRNA levels in cultured tubular epithelial cells derived from C57B6 (mProx24) but not SJL (MCT) mice via transcriptional up-regulation of CTGF mRNA. Transient transfection experiments using luciferase reporter constructs bearing CTGF promoter fragments revealed that the −897- to −628-bp fragment contained DEX-responsive positive regulatory elements, which were active in mProx24 but not MCT cells. Long-term DEX treatment resulted in fibronectin deposition in the kidneys of C57B6 but not SJL mice, and this effect was inhibited by co-administration of CTGF anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Thus, glucocorticoid-induced renal fibrogenesis seems to be influenced by genetic background, with the critical DEX-responsive elements in the −897- to −628-bp region of the CTGF promoter. PMID:16507889

  10. Chicken epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor: cDNA cloning, expression in mouse cells, and differential binding of EGF and transforming growth factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Lax, I; Johnson, A; Howk, R; Sap, J; Bellot, F; Winkler, M; Ullrich, A; Vennstrom, B; Schlessinger, J; Givol, D

    1988-01-01

    The primary structure of the chicken epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence and shown to be highly homologous to the human EGF receptor. NIH-3T3 cells devoid of endogenous EGF receptor were transfected with the appropriate cDNA constructs and shown to express either chicken or human EGF receptors. Like the human EGF receptor, the chicken EGF receptor is a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 170,000. Murine EGF bound to the chicken receptor with approximately 100-fold lower affinity than to the human receptor molecule. Surprisingly, human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) bound equally well or even better to the chicken EGF receptor than to the human EGF receptor. Moreover, TGF-alpha stimulated DNA synthesis 100-fold better than did EGF in NIH 3T3 cells that expressed the chicken EGF receptor. The differential binding and potency of mammalian EGF and TGF-alpha by the avian EGF receptor contrasts with the similar affinities of the mammalian receptor for the two growth factors. Images PMID:3260329

  11. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3α Plays a Critical Role in Alveolarization and Distal Epithelial Cell Differentiation during Mouse Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yadi; Kapere Ochieng, Joshua; Kempen, Marjon Buscop-van; Munck, Anne Boerema-de; Swagemakers, Sigrid; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Lung development occurs under relative hypoxia and the most important oxygen-sensitive response pathway is driven by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF). HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors of an oxygen-sensitive subunit, HIFα, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF1β. HIF1α and HIF2α, encoded by two separate genes, contribute to the activation of hypoxia inducible genes. A third HIFα gene, HIF3α, is subject to alternative promoter usage and splicing, leading to three major isoforms, HIF3α, NEPAS and IPAS. HIF3α gene products add to the complexity of the hypoxia response as they function as dominant negative inhibitors (IPAS) or weak transcriptional activators (HIF3α/NEPAS). Previously, we and others have shown the importance of the Hif1α and Hif2α factors in lung development, and here we investigated the role of Hif3α during pulmonary development. Therefore, HIF3α was conditionally expressed in airway epithelial cells during gestation and although HIF3α transgenic mice were born alive and appeared normal, their lungs showed clear abnormalities, including a post-pseudoglandular branching defect and a decreased number of alveoli. The HIF3α expressing lungs displayed reduced numbers of Clara cells, alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. As a result of HIF3α expression, the level of Hif2α was reduced, but that of Hif1α was not affected. Two regulatory genes, Rarβ, involved in alveologenesis, and Foxp2, a transcriptional repressor of the Clara cell specific Ccsp gene, were significantly upregulated in the HIF3α expressing lungs. In addition, aberrant basal cells were observed distally as determined by the expression of Sox2 and p63. We show that Hif3α binds a conserved HRE site in the Sox2 promoter and weakly transactivated a reporter construct containing the Sox2 promoter region. Moreover, Hif3α affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel function of Hif3

  12. A Novel Small-molecule Tumor Necrosis Factor α Inhibitor Attenuates Inflammation in a Hepatitis Mouse Model*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Gong, Haiyan; Zhu, Haiyan; Ji, Qing; Su, Pei; Liu, Peng; Cao, Shannan; Yao, Jianfeng; Jiang, Linlin; Han, Mingzhe; Ma, Xiaotong; Xiong, Dongsheng; Luo, Hongbo R.; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jiaxi; Xu, Yuanfu

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a hallmark of many inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and septic shock and hepatitis, making it a potential therapeutic target for clinical interventions. To explore chemical inhibitors against TNFα activity, we applied computer-aided drug design combined with in vitro and cell-based assays and identified a lead chemical compound, (E)-4-(2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl) (named as C87 thereafter), which directly binds to TNFα, potently inhibits TNFα-induced cytotoxicity (IC50 = 8.73 μm) and effectively blocks TNFα-triggered signaling activities. Furthermore, by using a murine acute hepatitis model, we showed that C87 attenuates TNFα-induced inflammation, thereby markedly reducing injuries to the liver and improving animal survival. Thus, our results lead to a novel and highly specific small-molecule TNFα inhibitor, which can be potentially used to treat TNFα-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24634219

  13. Transgenic overexpression of transforming growth factor alpha bypasses the need for c-Ha-ras mutations in mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vassar, R; Hutton, M E; Fuchs, E

    1992-01-01

    The induction of skin papillomas in mice can be divided into two different stages. Chemical initiation frequently elicits mutations in the Ha-ras gene, leading to the constitutive activation of ras. The second step, promotion, involves repetitive topical application of phorbol esters or wounding, leading to epidermal hyperproliferation and papilloma formation. We have found that overexpression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the basal epidermal layer of transgenic mice yielded papillomas directly upon wounding or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment without the need for an initiator. Moreover, papillomas from TGF-alpha mice did not exhibit mutations in the Ha-ras gene. Interestingly, TGF-alpha acted synergistically with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to enhance epidermal hyperproliferation. Our results demonstrate a central role for TGF-alpha overexpression in tumorigenesis and provide an important animal model for the study of skin tumorigenesis. Images PMID:1406654

  14. Effective treatment of steatosis and steatohepatitis by fibroblast growth factor 1 in mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weilin; Struik, Dicky; Nies, Vera J. M.; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Harkema, Liesbeth; de Bruin, Alain; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.; van Zutphen, Tim; Jonker, Johan W.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder and is strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for this disease, but improvement of insulin resistance using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), has been shown to reduce steatosis and steatohepatitis effectively and to improve liver function in patients with obesity-related NAFLD. However, this approach is limited by adverse effects of TZDs. Recently, we have identified fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a target of nuclear receptor PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue and as a critical factor in adipose remodeling. Because FGF1 is situated downstream of PPARγ, it is likely that therapeutic targeting of the FGF1 pathway will eliminate some of the serious adverse effects associated with TZDs. Here we show that pharmacological administration of recombinant FGF1 (rFGF1) effectively improves hepatic inflammation and damage in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and in choline-deficient mice, two etiologically different models of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis was effectively reduced only in ob/ob mice, suggesting that rFGF1 stimulates hepatic lipid catabolism. Potentially adverse effects such as fibrosis or proliferation were not observed in these models. Because the anti-inflammatory effects were observed in both the presence and absence of the antisteatotic effects, our findings further suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of rFGF1 is independent of its effect on lipid catabolism. Our current findings indicate that, in addition to its potent glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects, rFGF1 could be therapeutically effective in the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:26858440

  15. Effective treatment of steatosis and steatohepatitis by fibroblast growth factor 1 in mouse models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; Struik, Dicky; Nies, Vera J M; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Harkema, Liesbeth; de Bruin, Alain; Verkade, Henkjan J; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; van Zutphen, Tim; Jonker, Johan W

    2016-02-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder and is strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for this disease, but improvement of insulin resistance using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), has been shown to reduce steatosis and steatohepatitis effectively and to improve liver function in patients with obesity-related NAFLD. However, this approach is limited by adverse effects of TZDs. Recently, we have identified fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a target of nuclear receptor PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue and as a critical factor in adipose remodeling. Because FGF1 is situated downstream of PPARγ, it is likely that therapeutic targeting of the FGF1 pathway will eliminate some of the serious adverse effects associated with TZDs. Here we show that pharmacological administration of recombinant FGF1 (rFGF1) effectively improves hepatic inflammation and damage in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and in choline-deficient mice, two etiologically different models of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis was effectively reduced only in ob/ob mice, suggesting that rFGF1 stimulates hepatic lipid catabolism. Potentially adverse effects such as fibrosis or proliferation were not observed in these models. Because the anti-inflammatory effects were observed in both the presence and absence of the antisteatotic effects, our findings further suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of rFGF1 is independent of its effect on lipid catabolism. Our current findings indicate that, in addition to its potent glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects, rFGF1 could be therapeutically effective in the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:26858440

  16. Maintenance of Self-Renewal and Pluripotency in J1 Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells through Regulating Transcription Factor and MicroRNA Expression Induced by PD0325901

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhiying; Shao, Jingjing; Shi, Xinglong; Yu, Mengying; Wu, Yongyan; Du, Juan; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Zekun

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the ability to grow indefinitely and retain their pluripotency in culture, and this self-renewal capacity is governed by several crucial molecular pathways controlled by specific regulatory genes and epigenetic modifications. It is reported that multiple epigenetic regulators, such as miRNA and pluripotency factors, can be tightly integrated into molecular pathways and cooperate to maintain self-renewal of ESCs. However, mouse ESCs in serum-containing medium seem to be heterogeneous due to the self-activating differentiation signal of MEK/ERK. Thus, to seek for the crucial miRNA and key regulatory genes that establish ESC properties in MEK/ERK pathway, we performed microarray analysis and small RNA deep-sequencing of J1 mESCs treated with or without PD0325901 (PD), a well-known inhibitor of MEK/ERK signal pathway, followed by verification of western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR verification; we found that PD regulated the transcript expressions related to self-renewal and differentiation and antagonized the action of retinoic acid- (RA-) induced differentiation. Moreover, PD can significantly modulate the expressions of multiple miRNAs that have crucial functions in ESC development. Overall, our results demonstrate that PD could enhance ESC self-renewal capacity both by key regulatory genes and ES cell-specific miRNA, which in turn influences ESC self-renewal and cellular differentiation. PMID:26770202

  17. Expression of the CTCFL Gene during Mouse Embryogenesis Causes Growth Retardation, Postnatal Lethality, and Dysregulation of the Transforming Growth Factor β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Zeiss, Caroline; Yekkala, Krishna; Demir, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF, also known as BORIS (brother of regulator of imprinted sites), is a testis-expressed gene whose function is largely unknown. Its product is a cancer testis antigen (CTA), and it is often expressed in tumor cells and also seen in two benign human vascular malformations, juvenile angiofibromas and infantile hemangiomas. To understand the function of Ctcfl, we created tetracycline-inducible Ctcfl transgenic mice. We show that Ctcfl expression during embryogenesis results in growth retardation, eye malformations, multiorgan pathologies, vascular defects, and neonatal death. This phenotype resembles prior mouse models that perturb the transforming growth factor β (TGFB) pathway. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the Ctcfl transgene reproduce the phenotype in ES cell-tetraploid chimeras. Transcriptome sequencing of the Ctcfl ES cells revealed 14 genes deregulated by Ctcfl expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the TGFB pathway as most affected by embryonic Ctcfl expression. Understanding the consequence of Ctcfl expression in nontesticular cells and elucidating downstream targets of Ctcfl could explain the role of its product as a CTA and its involvement in two, if not more, human vascular malformations. PMID:26169830

  18. Factors influencing the promotion of transformation in chemically-initiated C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Frazelle, J H; Abernethy, D J; Boreiko, C J

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of low density asynchronous cultures of C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 mouse embryo fibroblasts with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) initiates the process of transformation and produces significant numbers of transformed foci only when treated cultures are subsequently exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Cell culture variables which influence the outcome of this initiation and promotion system were studied. A TPA concentration of 0.25 micrograms/ml was found to be optimal for the promotion of focus production and the presence of TPA was required both during logarithmic growth and throughout confluence. The lot of fetal calf serum used to cultivate the cells also played a determining role in focus production. Of nine serum lots purchased from four different suppliers, only two were suited for initiation and promotion studies with MNNG and TPA. In contrast, seven of these lots were adequate for transformation studies with 3-methylcholanthrene. Factors which adversely influenced focus production included the use of fungizone or the use of high passage stock cultures. These studies demonstrate that cell culture variables which influence promotion in these cells can be controlled and that this system can be successfully used in studies of the cellular mechanism of in vitro promotion and for the detection of genotoxic substances.

  19. Improvement of cold injury-induced mouse brain edema by endothelin ETB antagonists is accompanied by decreases in matrixmetalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Minami, Shizuho; Kimura, Akimasa; Hatanaka, Shunichi; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that often occurs after brain injuries such as ischemia and trauma. However, therapeutic agents that fundamentally treat brain edema have not yet been established. We previously found that endothelin ETB receptor antagonists attenuate the formation and maintenance of vasogenic brain edema after cold injury in mice. In this study, the effects of ETB antagonists on matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were examined in the cold injury model. Cold injury was performed in the left brain of male ddY mice (5-6 weeks old) for the induction of vasogenic edema. Expression of MMP9 and VEGF-A mRNA in the mouse cerebrum was increased by cold injury. Immunohistochemical observations showed that the MMP9 and VEGF-A were mainly produced in reactive astrocytes in the damaged cerebrum. Intracerebroventricular administration of BQ788 (10 μg) or IRL-2500 (10 μg) (selective ETB antagonists) attenuated brain edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier after cold injury. BQ788 and IRL-2500 reversed the cold injury-induced increases in MMP9 and VEGF-A expression. The induction of reactive astrocytes producing MMP9 and VEGF-A in the damaged cerebrum was attenuated by BQ788 and IRL-2500. These results suggest that attenuations of astrocytic MMP9 and VEGF-A expression by ETB antagonists may be involved in the amelioration of vasogenic brain edema.

  20. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1)-dependent recruitment of bone marrow-derived renal endothelium-like cells in a mouse model of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    OHNISHI, Hiroyuki; MIZUNO, Shinya; MIZUNO-HORIKAWA, Yoko; KATO, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most key pathological event for accelerating progression to chronic kidney disease through vascular endothelial injury or dysfunction. Thus, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanism of endothelial protection and regeneration. Emerging evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) contribute to tissue reconstitution in several types of organs post-injury, but little is known whether and how BMCs contribute to renal endothelial reconstitution, especially in an early-stage of AKI. Using a mouse model of ischemic AKI, we provide evidence that incorporation of BMCs in vascular components (such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells) becomes evident within four days after renal ischemia and reperfusion, associated with an increase in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) in endothelium and that in CXCR4/SDF1-receptor in BMCs. Notably, anti-CXCR4 antibody decreased the numbers of infiltrated BMCs and BMC-derived endothelium-like cells, but not of BMC-derived smooth muscle cell-like cells. These results suggest that reconstitution of renal endothelium post-ischemia partially depends on a paracrine loop of SDF1-CXCR4 between resident endothelium and BMCs. Such a chemokine ligand-receptor system may be attributable for selecting a cellular lineage (s), required for renal vascular protection, repair and homeostasis, even in an earlier phase of AKI. PMID:25833353

  1. Characterization of pH titration shifts for all the nonlabile proton resonances a protein by two-dimensional NMR: the case of mouse epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kohda, D; Sawada, T; Inagaki, F

    1991-05-21

    The pH titration shifts for all the nonlabile proton resonances in a 53-residue protein (mouse epidermal growth factor) were measured in the p2H range 1.5-9 with two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR. The 2D NMR pH titration experiment made it possible to determine the pK values for all the ionizable groups which were titrated in the pH range 1.5-9 in the protein. The pK values of the nine ionizable groups (alpha-amino group, four Asp, two Glu, one His, and alpha-carboxyl group) were found to be near their normal values. The 2D titration experiment also provided a detailed description of the pH-dependent behavior of the proton chemical shifts and enabled us to characterize the pH-dependent changes of protein conformation. Analysis of the pH-dependent shifts of ca. 200 proton resonances offered evidence of conformational changes in slightly basic pH solution: The deprotonation of the N-terminal alpha-amino group induced a widespread conformational change over the beta-sheet structure in the protein, while the effects of deprotonation of the His22 imidazole group were relatively localized. We found that the 2D NMR pH titration experiment is a powerful tool for investigating the structural and dynamic properties of proteins. PMID:2036358

  2. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor via upregulation of von Hippel-Lindau protein induces “angiogenic switch off” in a hepatoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hideki; Nakamura, Toru; Koga, Hironori; Izaguirre-Carbonell, Jesus; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Iwabata, Kazuki; Ikezono, Yu; Sakaue, Takahiko; Masuda, Atsutaka; Yano, Hirohisa; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakano, Masahito; Shimose, Shigeo; Shirono, Tomotake; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    “Angiogenic switch off” is one of the ideal therapeutic concepts in the treatment of cancer. However, the specific molecules which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in tumor have not been identified yet. In this study, we focused on von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effects of sulfoquinovosyl-acylpropanediol (SQAP), a novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid, for HCC. We examined mutation ratio of VHL gene in HCC using 30 HCC samples and we treated the HCC-implanted mice with SQAP. Thirty clinical samples showed no VHL genetic mutation in HCC. SQAP significantly inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis in a hepatoma mouse model. SQAP induced tumor “angiogenic switch off” by decreasing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, 2α protein via pVHL upregulation. pVHL upregulation decreased HIFα protein levels through different multiple mechanisms: (i) increasing pVHL-dependent HIFα protein degradation; (ii) decreasing HIFα synthesis with decrease of NF-κB expression; and (iii) decrease of tumor hypoxia by vascular normalization. We confirmed these antitumor effects of SQAP by the loss-of-function experiments. We found that SQAP directly bound to and inhibited transglutaminase 2. This study provides evidence that upregulation of tumor pVHL is a promising target, which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in HCC. PMID:27119112

  3. Isoform-Specific Modulation of Inflammation Induced by Adenoviral Mediated Delivery of Platelet-Derived Growth Factors in the Adult Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Betsholtz, Christer; Andrae, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are key regulators of mesenchymal cells in vertebrate development. To what extent PDGFs also exert beneficial homeostatic or reparative roles in adult organs, as opposed to adverse fibrogenic responses in pathology, are unclear. PDGF signaling plays critical roles during heart development, during which forced overexpression of PDGFs induces detrimental cardiac fibrosis; other studies have implicated PDGF signaling in post-infarct myocardial repair. Different PDGFs may exert different effects mediated through the two PDGF receptors (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) in different cell types. Here, we assessed responses induced by five known PDGF isoforms in the adult mouse heart in the context of adenovirus vector-mediated inflammation. Our results show that different PDGFs have different, in some cases even opposing, effects. Strikingly, whereas the major PDGFRα agonists (PDGF-A and -C) decreased the amount of scar tissue and increased the numbers of PDGFRα-positive fibroblasts, PDGFRβ agonists either induced large scars with extensive inflammation (PDGF-B) or dampened the adenovirus-induced inflammation and produced a small and dense scar (PDGF-D). These results provide evidence for PDGF isoform-specific inflammation-modulating functions that may have therapeutic implications. They also illustrate a surprising complexity in the PDGF-mediated pathophysiological responses. PMID:27513343

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates the expression of BMP-4 mRNA but inhibits chondrogenesis in mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, M; Akiyama, H; Ito, H; Shigeno, C; Nakamura, T

    2000-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha causes the degradation of articular cartilage in arthritis via direct actions on chondrocytes. However, it remains unknown whether TNF-alpha affects chondrogenesis in chondroprogenitors. In the present study, we assessed the effects of TNF-alpha in vitro on chondrogenesis using mouse clonal chondrogenic EC cells, ATDC5. TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation in undifferentiated ATDC5 cells, and suppressed cartilaginous nodule formation and the accumulation of cartilage-specific proteoglycan. We recently showed that undifferentiated ATDC5 cells express BMP-4 and that exogenously administered BMP-4 promotes chondrogenesis in these cells. Interestingly, TNF-alpha up-regulated the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in undifferentiated ATDC5 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. However, exogenously administered BMP-4 was not capable of reversing the inhibitory action of TNF-alpha on chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells. These results indicate that TNF-alpha stimulates both cell proliferation and BMP-4 expression but inhibits chondrogenesis in chondroprogenitor-like ATDC5 cells. PMID:10857772

  5. Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing actions of platelet-derived growth factor differ from those of bombesin and vasopressin in Swiss 3T3 mouse cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Rivas, A.; Mendoza, S.A.; Nanberg, E.; Sinnett-Smith, J.; Rozengurt, E.

    1987-08-01

    Addition of the mitogenic peptides bombesin and vasopressin to quiescent Swiss 3T3 mouse cells increased the cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration without any measurable delay. In contrast, there was a significant lag period (16 +/- 1.2 s) before platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration. This lag was not diminished at high concentrations of either porcine or human PDGF. Similar results were obtained in 3T3 cells loaded with quin-2 or fura-2. The differences in the effects of bombesin, vasopressin, and PDGF on Ca/sup 2 +/ movements were also substantiated by measurements of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux and of cellular /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ content. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters inhibited Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization induced by either bombesin or vasopressin. In contrast, phorbol esters had no effect on PDGF-induced cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration increase or acceleration of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. Finally, bombesin and vasopressin caused a rapid increase in the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, whereas PDGF, even at a saturating concentration, exerted only a small effect. These results indicate that the signal transduction pathway activated by PDGF that lead to Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization can be distinguished form those utilized by bombesin and vasopressin.

  6. Regional difference in corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactivity in mossy fiber terminals innervating calretinin-immunoreactive unipolar brush cells in vestibulocerebellum of rolling mouse Nagoya.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masahiro; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Jeong, Young-Gil; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2005-11-23

    Unipolar brush cells (UBCs), a class of interneurons in the vestibulocerebellum, play roles in amplifying excitatory inputs from vestibulocerebellar mossy fibers. This study aimed to clarify whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-positive mossy fiber innervation of calretinin (CR)-positive UBCs was altered in rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN). The distribution and the number of CR-positive UBCs in the vestibulocerebellum were not different between RMN and control mice. Double immunofluorescence revealed that some CRF-positive mossy fiber terminals were in close apposition to CR-positive UBCs. In the lobule X of vermis, such mossy fiber terminals were about 5-fold greater in number in RMN than in controls. In contrast, the number of CRF-positive mossy fiber terminals adjoining CR-positive UBCs in the flocculus was not significantly different between RMN and controls. The results suggest increased number of CRF-positive mossy fiber terminals innervating CR-positive UBCs in the lobule X but not in the flocculus of RMN. CRF may alter CR-positive UBC-mediated excitatory pathways in the lobule X of RMN and may disturb functions of the lobule X such as cerebellar adaptation for linear motion of the head.

  7. Targeting the insulin growth factor-1 receptor with fluorescent antibodies enables high resolution imaging of human pancreatic cancer in orthotopic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Youp; Lee, Jin Young; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies, conjugated with bright fluorophores, could enable visualization of pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models. IGF-1R antibody (clone 24-31) was conjugated with 550 nm or 650 nm fluorophores. Western blotting confirmed the expression of IGF-1R in Panc-1, BxPC3, and MIAPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Labeling with fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibody demonstrated fluorescent foci on the membrane of the pancreatic cancer cells. Subcutaneous Panc-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2 tumors became fluorescent after intravenous administration of fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies. Orthotopically-transplanted BxPC-3 tumors became fluorescent with the conjugated IGF-1R antibodies, and were easily visible with intravital imaging. Gross and microscopic ex vivo imaging of resected pancreatic tumor and normal pancreas confirmed that fluorescence indeed came from the membrane of cancer cells, and it was stronger from the tumor than the normal tissue. The present study demonstrates that fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibodies can visualize pancreatic cancer and it can be used with various imaging devices such as endoscopy and laparoscopy for diagnosis and fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26919100

  8. Reactive oxygen species and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway mediate high glucose-induced Pax-2 gene expression in mouse embryonic mesenchymal epithelial cells and kidney explants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-W; Liu, F; Tran, S; Zhu, Y; Hébert, M-J; Ingelfinger, J R; Zhang, S-L

    2006-11-01

    Diabetic mellitus confers a major risk of congenital malformations, and is associated with diabetic embryopathy, affecting multiple organs including the kidney. The DNA paired box-2 (Pax-2) gene is essential in nephrogenesis. We investigated whether high glucose alters Pax-2 gene expression and aimed to delineate its underlying mechanism(s) of action using both in vitro (mouse embryonic mesenchymal epithelial cells (MK4) and ex vivo (kidney explant from Hoxb7-green florescent protein (GFP) mice) approaches. Pax-2 gene expression was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining. A fusion gene containing the full-length 5'-flanking region of the human Pax-2 promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, pGL-2/hPax-2, was transfected into MK4 cells with or without dominant negative IkappaBalpha (DN IkappaBalpha) cotransfection. Fusion gene expression level was quantified by cellular luciferase activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by lucigenin assay. Embryonic kidneys from Hoxb7-GFP mice were cultured ex vivo. High D(+) glucose (25 mM), compared to normal glucose (5 mM), specifically induced Pax-2 gene expression in MK4 cells and kidney explants. High glucose-induced Pax-2 gene expression is mediated, at least in part, via ROS generation and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway, but not via protein kinase C, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p44/42 MAPK signaling.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Kevin K.; Sheema, S.; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.; Laughlin, Mary H.; Spence, Nathan E.; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exon III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD. PMID:18558427

  10. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a foodborne mycotoxin found in grain-based foods, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although induction of anorexia has been described as a hallmark of DON-induced toxicity in many animal species, the mechanistic basis for this adverse effect is not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the role of two proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in DON-induced anorexia. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, DON-induced anorectic response occurred at 1 hr and lasted up to 6 hr. Similar anorectic effects were observed following acute administration of exogenous TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral exposure to DON at 5 mg/kg bw stimulated splenic and hepatic mRNA and plasma protein elevations of TNF-α and IL-1β that corresponded to anorexia induction. Pretreatment with the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) antagonist R-7050 dose-dependently attenuated both TNF-α- and DON-induced anorexia. While, the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) antagonist IL-1RA dose-dependently attenuated both IL-1β- and DON-induced anorexia. Taken together, the results suggest that both TNF-α and IL-1β play contributory role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to DON.

  11. Hepatocyte Growth Factor and MET Support Mouse Enteric Nervous System Development, the Peristaltic Response, and Intestinal Epithelial Proliferation in Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Avetisyan, Marina; Wang, Hongtao; Schill, Ellen Merrick; Bery, Saya; Grider, John R.; Hassell, John A.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Factors providing trophic support to diverse enteric neuron subtypes remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the HGF receptor MET might support some types of enteric neurons. HGF and MET are expressed in fetal and adult enteric nervous system. In vitro, HGF increased enteric neuron differentiation and neurite length, but only if vanishingly small amounts (1 pg/ml) of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were included in culture media. HGF effects were blocked by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor and by MET-blocking antibody. Both of these inhibitors and MEK inhibition reduced neurite length. In adult mice, MET was restricted to a subset of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (IR) myenteric plexus neurons thought to be intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). Conditional MET kinase domain inactivation (Metfl/fl; Wnt1Cre+) caused a dramatic loss of myenteric plexus MET-IR neurites and 1–1′-dioctodecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyamine perchlorate (DiI) labeling suggested reduced MET-IR neurite length. In vitro, Metfl/fl; Wnt1Cre+ mouse bowel had markedly reduced peristalsis in response to mucosal deformation, but normal response to radial muscle stretch. However, whole-bowel transit, small-bowel transit, and colonic-bead expulsion were normal in Metfl/fl; Wnt1Cre+ mice. Finally, Metfl/fl; Wnt1Cre+ mice had more bowel injury and reduced epithelial cell proliferation compared with WT animals after dextran sodium sulfate treatment. These results suggest that HGF/MET signaling is important for development and function of a subset IPANs and that these cells regulate intestinal motility and epithelial cell proliferation in response to bowel injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The enteric nervous system has many neuronal subtypes that coordinate and control intestinal activity. Trophic factors that support these neuron types and enhance neurite growth after fetal development are not well

  12. Strain-dependent effects of transforming growth factor-β1 and 2 during mouse secondary palate development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiu-Zhen; Ding, Jixiang

    2014-12-01

    Cleft palate is a common birth defect affecting 1 in 700 births. Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) are important signaling molecules, and their functions in murine palate development have received great attention. TGF-β3 is expressed exclusively in palatal epithelial cells and mediates epithelial fusion, whereas the importance of TGF-β1 and 2 in palate have not yet been demonstrated in vivo, since inactivation of Tgf-β1 or Tgf-β2 genes in mice did not reveal significant palate defects. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 can compensate each other during palate formation. To test this, we generated Tgf-β1 and Tgf-β2 compound mutant mice and found that approximately 40% of [Tgf-β1(+/-); Tgf-β2(-/-)] compound mutant embryos display cleft palate on C57 background. In addition, 26% of Tgf-β2(-/-) embryos on 129 background, but not in C57 or Black Swiss, displayed cleft palate. TGF-β1 and 2 functions are required for murine palate development in strain-dependent manner.

  13. Genetic analysis of the homeodomain transcription factor Chx10 in the retina using a novel multifunctional BAC transgenic mouse reporter.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Sheldon; Cepko, Constance L

    2004-07-15

    Chx10 is a homeobox-containing transcription factor critical for progenitor cell proliferation and bipolar cell determination in the developing retina. Its expression in the retina has been reported to be restricted to these cell populations. To further understand Chx10 regulation and function, a multifunctional reporter construct consisting of GFP, alkaline phosphatase, and Cre recombinase was integrated into a BAC encoding Chx10. Stable lines of transgenic mice expressing this BAC were generated and analyzed. The reporter expression was faithful to the endogenous retinal Chx10 expression pattern and revealed a previously unappreciated locus of Chx10 expression in a subset of Müller glial cells. In addition, Chx10 reporter activity was identified in mature orJ-Chx10 mutant retinas, although these retinas lack Chx10-expressing bipolar cells. Reporter and molecular analysis showed that the reporter-expressing cells in the mutant had hallmarks of progenitor cells or partially differentiated Müller glial cells. These results strongly suggest that Chx10 promotes bipolar fate by affecting differentiation of late progenitor cells. Crosses of the Chx10 BAC reporter mice to R26R mice for fate-mapping experiments revealed that Chx10 reporter-expressing progenitor cells contribute to all mature cell types of the retina. These results demonstrate the utility of these lines for generation of mosaic or complete genetic manipulations of the retina.

  14. [The role of transcription factors in the response of mouse lymphocytes to low-level electromagnetic and laser radiations].

    PubMed

    Khrenov, M O; Cherenkov, D A; Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, T V; Lunin, S M; Parfeniuk, S B; Lysenko, E A; Novoselova, E G; Fesenko, E E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of low-intensity laser radiation (LILR, 632.8 nm, 0.2 mW/cm2) and low-intensity electromagnetic waves (LIEW, 8.15 - 18 GHz, 1 MW/cm2) on the production of transcription factors in lymphocytes from NMRI male mice were examined. The total level of NF-KB and its phosphorylated metabolite Phospho-NF-kappaB, as well as the regulatory protein IkappaB-alpha were determined in spleen lymphocytes subjected to laser or microwave radiations. The proteins were determined by immunoblotting. Laser light induced a lowering in the level of NF-kappaB and IkappaB-alpha. By contrast, irradiation with electromagnetic waves resulted in a significant increase in the amount of NF-kappaB and IkappaB-alpha. The phosphorylated form of NF-kappaB did not noticeably change under either of the two kinds of radiation. The results showed that electromagnetic waves activate the production of both NF-kappaB and the regulatory protein IkappaB-alpha and these data confirm the stress character of the response of spleen lymphocytes to low-level microwaves of the centimeter range. PMID:17969924

  15. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor-1 Antagonism Reduces Oxidative Damage in an Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Kuo, Ching-Chang; Moghadam, Setareh H; Monte, Louise; Rice, Kenner C; Rissman, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Reports from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker work have shown a strong link between oxidative stress and AD neuropathology. The nonenzymatic antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), plays a crucial role in defense against reactive oxygen species and maintenance of GSH redox homeostasis. In particular, our previous studies on GSH redox imbalance have implicated oxidative stress induced by excessive reactive oxygen species as a major mediator of AD-like events, with the presence of S- glutathionylated proteins (Pr-SSG) appearing prior to overt AD neuropathology. Furthermore, evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to activation of inflammatory pathways and increased production of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Therefore, to investigate whether oxidative insults can be attenuated by reduction of central CRF signaling, we administered the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1) selective antagonist, R121919, to AD-transgenic mice beginning in the preclinical/prepathologic period (30-day-old) for 150 days, a time point where behavioral impairments and pathologic progression should be measureable. Our results indicate that R121919 treatment can significantly reduce Pr-SSG levels and increase glutathione peroxide activity, suggesting that interference of CRFR1 signaling may be useful as a preventative therapy for combating oxidative stress in AD. PMID:25649650

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α regulates macrophage function in mouse models of acute and tumor inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Imtiyaz, Hongxia Z.; Williams, Emily P.; Hickey, Michele M.; Patel, Shetal A.; Durham, Amy C.; Yuan, Li-Jun; Hammond, Rachel; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Keith, Brian; Simon, M. Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α display unique and sometimes opposing activities in regulating cellular energy homeostasis, cell fate decisions, and oncogenesis. Macrophages exposed to hypoxia accumulate both HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and overexpression of HIF-2α in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is specifically correlated with high-grade human tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of HIF-2α during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses remains unclear. To fully characterize cellular hypoxic adaptations, distinct functions of HIF-1α versus HIF-2α must be elucidated. We demonstrate here that mice lacking HIF-2α in myeloid cells (Hif2aΔ/Δ mice) are resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and display a marked inability to mount inflammatory responses to cutaneous and peritoneal irritants. Furthermore, HIF-2α directly regulated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression in macrophages activated in vitro. Hif2aΔ/Δ mice displayed reduced TAM infiltration in independent murine hepatocellular and colitis-associated colon carcinoma models, and this was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and progression. Notably, HIF-2α modulated macrophage migration by regulating the expression of the cytokine receptor M-CSFR and the chemokine receptor CXCR4, without altering intracellular ATP levels. Collectively, our data identify HIF-2α as an important regulator of innate immunity, suggesting it may be a useful therapeutic target for treating inflammatory disorders and cancer. PMID:20644254

  17. Is dopamine a limiting factor of the antidepressant-like effect in the mouse forced swimming test?

    PubMed

    Renard, Caroline E; Dailly, Eric; Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd A; Hascoet, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2004-12-01

    To study the role of dopamine (DA) in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), the relationship between the magnitude of the antidepressant-like effect of drugs [citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), desipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), maprotiline (tetracyclic antidepressant), bupropion (DA reuptake inhibitor), and tranylcypromine (inhibitor of monoamine oxidase)] and the corresponding concentration of DA in the whole brain of mice was investigated. A trend for an inversely proportional linear relationship [(magnitude of the antidepressant-like effect) = -0.0145 x (concentration of DA in the whole brain) +34.773 (r = 0.276)] was observed between the magnitude of the antidepressant-like effect and the concentrations of DA in the whole brain, but this correlation was not significant. This result suggests that the high concentration of DA in the whole brain could be a limiting factor for the antidepressant-like effect of antidepressants such as tranylcypromine and seems to play a minor role in the antidepressant-like activity of another antidepressant such as bupropion in the FST.

  18. Treatment of Mouse Limb Ischemia with an Integrative Hypoxia-Responsive Vector Expressing the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yasumura, Eduardo Gallatti; Stilhano, Roberta Sessa; Samoto, Vívian Yochiko; Matsumoto, Priscila Keiko; de Carvalho, Leonardo Pinto; Valero Lapchik, Valderez Bastos; Han, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression systems have been extensively used to treat peripheral arterial diseases, but most of the results have not been satisfactory. In this study, we designed a plasmid vector with a hypoxia-responsive element sequence incorporated into it with the phiC31 integrative system (pVHAVI) to allow long-term VEGF gene expression and to be activated under hypoxia. Repeated activations of VEGF gene expression under hypoxia were confirmed in HEK293 and C2C12 cells transfected with pVHAVI. In limb ischemic mice, the local administration of pVHAVI promoted gastrocnemius mass and force recovery and ameliorated limb necrosis much better than the group treated with hypoxia-insensitive vector, even this last group had produced more VEGF in muscle. Histological analyses carried out after four weeks of gene therapy showed increased capillary density and matured vessels, and reduced number of necrotic cells and fibrosis in pVHAVI treated group. By our study, we demonstrate that the presence of high concentration of VEGF in ischemic tissue is not beneficial or is less beneficial than maintaining a lower but sufficient and long-term concentration of VEGF locally. PMID:22470498

  19. Critical function of RA-GEF-2/Rapgef6, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, in mouse spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Keisuke; Miyake, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Chiba, Koji; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Edamatsu, Hironori; Kataoka, Tohru; Fujisawa, Masato

    2014-02-28

    Small GTPase Rap1 has been implicated in the proper differentiation of testicular germ cells. In the present study, we investigated the functional significance of RA-GEF-2/Rapgef6, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1, in testicular differentiation using mice lacking RA-GEF-2. RA-GEF-2 was expressed predominantly on the luminal side of the seminiferous tubules in wild-type mice. No significant differences were observed in the body weights or hormonal parameters of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) and wild-type mice. However, the testes of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) male mice were significantly smaller than those of wild-type mice and were markedly atrophied as well as hypospermatogenic. The concentration and motility of epididymal sperm were also markedly reduced and frequently had an abnormal shape. The pregnancy rate and number of fetuses were markedly lower in wild-type females after they mated with RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) males than with wild-type males, which demonstrated the male infertility phenotype of RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) mice. Furthermore, a significant reduction and alteration were observed in the expression level and cell junctional localization of N-cadherin, respectively, in RA-GEF-2(-)(/)(-) testes, which may, at least in part, account for the defects in testicular differentiation and spermatogenesis in these mice. PMID:24491570

  20. The onset of adaptive immunity in the mouse model of tuberculosis and the factors that compromise its expression.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Richard T; Orme, Ian M; Cooper, Andrea M

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been evolving with its human host for over 50 000 years and is an exquisite manipulator of the human immune response. It induces both a strong inflammatory and a strong acquired immune response, and Mtb then actively regulates these responses to create an infectious lesion in the lung while maintaining a relatively ambulatory host. The CD4(+) T cell plays a critical yet contradictory role in this process by both controlling disseminated disease while promoting the development of the lesion in the lung that mediates transmission. In light of this manipulative relationship between Mtb and the human immune response, it is not surprising that our ability to vaccinate against tuberculosis (TB) has not been totally successful. To overcome the current impasse in vaccine development, we need to define the phenotype of CD4(+) T cells that mediate protection and to determine those bacterial and host factors that regulate the effective function of these cells. In this review, we describe the initiation and expression of T cells during TB as well as the fulminant inflammatory response that can compromise T-cell function and survival.

  1. Human and mouse brain-derived endothelial cells require high levels of growth factors medium for their isolation, in vitro maintenance and survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    human and mouse BMVECs, based on a newly formulated medium (EndoPM) with optimized concentration of growth factors (EGF, FGF-2 and Bovine Brain Extract-BBE). This procedure should facilitate the isolation and expansion of human and mouse BMVECs with extended lifetime, good viability and purity. This approach may provide an effective strategy to aid phenotypical and functional studies of brain vessels under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23672996

  2. Epigenetic regulation of connective tissue growth factor by microRNA-214 delivery in exosomes from mouse or human hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Charrier, Alyssa; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Ruju; Yu, Bo; Agarwal, Kitty; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Lee, L. James; Paulaitis, Michael E; Brigstock, David R

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) drives fibrogenesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Here we show that CCN2 up-regulation in fibrotic or steatotic livers, or in culture-activated or ethanol-treated primary mouse HSC is associated with a reciprocal down-regulation of microRNA-214 (miR-214). By using protector or reporter assays to investigate the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of CCN2 mRNA, we found that induction of CCN2 expression in HSC by fibrosis-inducing stimuli was due to reduced expression of miR-214 which otherwise inhibited CCN2 expression by directly binding to the CCN2 3′-UTR. Additionally, miR-214 was present in HSC exosomes, which were bi-membrane vesicles, 50–150nm in diameter, negatively charged (−26mV), and positive for CD9. MiR-214 levels in exosomes but not in cell lysates were reduced by pre-treatment of the cells with the exosome inhibitor, GW4869. Co-culture of miR-214-transfected donor HSC with CCN2 3′-UTR luciferase reporter-transfected recipient HSC resulted in miR-214- and exosome-dependent regulation of a wild type CCN2 3′-UTR reporter but not of a mutant CCN2 3′-UTR reporter lacking the miR-214 binding site. Exosomes from HSC were a conduit for uptake of miR-214 by primary mouse hepatocytes. Down-regulation of CCN2 expression by miR-214 also occurred in human LX-2 HSC, consistent with a conserved miR-214 binding site in the human CCN2 3′-UTR. MiR-214 in LX-2 cells was shuttled via exosomes to recipient LX-2 cells or human HepG2 hepatocytes, resulting in suppression of CCN2 3′-UTR activity or expression of CCN2 downstream targets, including αSMA or collagen. Experimental fibrosis in mice was associated with reduced circulating miR-214 levels. Conclusion Exosomal transfer of miR-214 is a paradigm for the regulation of CCN2-dependent fibrogenesis and identifies fibrotic pathways as targets of epigenetic regulation by exosomal miRs. PMID:24122827

  3. A new mouse model of Peyronie's disease: an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 target genes during the development of penile changes.

    PubMed

    Lucattelli, Monica; Lunghi, Benedetta; Fineschi, Silvia; Mirone, Vincenzo; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Longo, Nicola; Imbimbo, Ciro; De Palma, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is characterized by an inflammatory response beneath the tunica albuginea with fibroblast proliferation forming a thickened fibrous plaque that may cause pain, penile curvature and erectile dysfunction. The progression of the PD plaque may eventually lead to calcification or ossification. Current therapeutic success is often unsatisfactory because of limited insight into disease mechanisms. Research has been hampered by the lack of a universally accepted animal model. We describe an animal model of spontaneous PD in tight skin (Tsk) mice, a C57Bl/6J subline that reproduces with age important features of the human disease (fibrous plaque formation, penile bending and areas of chondroid metaplasia with heterotopic ossification). Histological analysis demonstrated an evident structural disorganization of the tunica albuginea with excessive accumulation of type I collagen. At 12 months of age, fibrous plaques with areas of chondroid metaplasia and heterotopic ossification characterized Tsk penises. The up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) leads to an increased downstream expression of HIF-1 target genes, such as TGFbeta and iNOS. These factors, together with some PDGF family members, can cause collagen deposition in Tsk penises. They can also influence chondrocyte differentiation and heterotopic bone formation. In conclusion, hypoxia, HIF-1 and HIF-1 target genes appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD in Tsk mice. This mouse model that is the first example of naturally occurring model of PD in laboratory animals may aid in the identification of signalling pathways crucial for PD and should facilitate the designing and testing of new therapeutic interventions.

  4. Long term environmental tobacco smoke activates nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and stress responsive kinases in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sunil K; Rangasamy, Thirumalai; Wise, Kimberly; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Shishodia, Shishir; Biswal, Shyam; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2006-05-28

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a key mediator of several diseases. Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of over 4700 chemical components many of which are toxic and have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson's disease, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke in the onset of these diseases is still largely unknown. Previous studies have revealed that the free radicals generated by cigarette smoke may contribute to many of these chronic health problems and this study sought to address the role of environmental tobacco smoke in oxidative stress related damage in different regions of the mouse brain. In this study, male mice were exposed for 7h/day, 7 days/week, for 6 months. Our results show that tobacco smoke led to increased generation of reactive oxygen species with an increase in NF-kappaB activation. Gel shift analysis also revealed the elevated level of the oxidative stress sensitive proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 in different regions of the brain of cigarette smoke exposed mice. Tobacco smoke led to activation of COX-2 in all the regions of the brain. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were also observed in various regions of brain of ETS exposed mice. Overall our results indicate that exposure to long-term cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress leading to activation of stress induced kinases and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors.

  5. Sodium arsenite delays the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells and alters methylation patterns on the transcription factor myogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, Amanda A.; Hong Giaming; Bain, Lisa J.

    2011-01-15

    Epidemiological studies have correlated arsenic exposure with cancer, skin diseases, and adverse developmental outcomes such as spontaneous abortions, neonatal mortality, low birth weight, and delays in the use of musculature. The current study used C2C12 mouse myoblast cells to examine whether low concentrations of arsenic could alter their differentiation into myotubes, indicating that arsenic can act as a developmental toxicant. Myoblast cells were exposed to 20 nM sodium arsenite, allowed to differentiate into myotubes, and expression of the muscle-specific transcription factor myogenin, along with the expression of tropomyosin, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3), prostaglandin I2 synthesis (Ptgis), and myocyte enhancer 2 (Mef2), was investigated using QPCR and immunofluorescence. Exposing C2C12 cells to 20 nM sodium arsenite delayed the differentiation process, as evidenced by a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated myotubes, a decrease in myogenin mRNA expression, and a decrease in the total number of nuclei expressing myogenin protein. The expression of mRNA involved in myotube formation, such as Ptgis and Mef2 mRNA, was also significantly reduced by 1.6-fold and 4-fold during differentiation. This was confirmed by immunofluorescence for Mef2, which showed a 2.6-fold reduction in nuclear translocation. Changes in methylation patterns in the promoter region of myogenin (-473 to + 90) were examined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing. Hypermethylated CpGs were found at -236 and -126 bp, whereas hypomethylated CpGs were found at -207 bp in arsenic-exposed cells. This study indicates that 20 nM sodium arsenite can alter myoblast differentiation by reducing the expression of the transcription factors myogenin and Mef2c, which is likely due to changes in promoter methylation patterns. The delay in muscle differentiation may lead to developmental abnormalities.

  6. Astragaloside IV suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 induced fibrosis of cultured mouse renal fibroblasts via inhibition of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Xiajing; Wang, Qin; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xu, Weijia; Shao, Xinghua; Mou, Shan Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-09-04

    Renal fibrosis, a progressive process characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to organ dysfunction, is a characteristic of chronic kidney diseases. Among fibrogenic factors known to regulate the renal fibrotic process, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role. In the present study, we examined the effect of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, on the processes associated with renal fibrosis in cultured mouse renal fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1. RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and collagen assays showed that AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced fibroblast proliferation, transdifferentiation, and ECM production in a dose-dependent manner. Examination of the underlying mechanisms showed that the effect of AS-IV on the inhibition of fibroblast differentiation and ECM formation were mediated by its modulation of the activity of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that AS-IV alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis via a mechanism involving the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS-IV for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. - Highlights: • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast proliferation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced renal fibroblast transdifferentiation. • AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced ECM production. • AS-IV alleviates renal fibrosis via the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  7. Endogenous macrophage migration inhibitory factor reduces the accumulation and toxicity of misfolded SOD1 in a mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Leyton-Jaimes, Marcel F; Benaim, Clara; Abu-Hamad, Salah; Kahn, Joy; Guetta, Amos; Bucala, Richard; Israelson, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has been suggested that the toxicity of mutant SOD1 results from its misfolding and accumulation on the cytoplasmic faces of intracellular organelles, including the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of ALS-affected tissues. Recently, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was shown to directly inhibit the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and its binding to intracellular membranes, but the role of endogenous MIF in modulating SOD1 misfolding in vivo remains unknown. To elucidate this role, we bred MIF-deficient mice with SOD1(G85R) mice, which express a dismutase-inactive mutant of SOD1 and are considered a model of familial ALS. We found that the accumulation of misfolded SOD1, its association with mitochondrial and ER membranes, and the levels of sedimentable insoluble SOD1 aggregates were significantly higher in the spinal cords of SOD1(G85R)-MIF(-/-) mice than in their SOD1(G85R)-MIF(+/+) littermates. Moreover, increasing MIF expression in neuronal cultures inhibited the accumulation of misfolded SOD1 and rescued from mutant SOD1-induced cell death. In contrast, the complete elimination of endogenous MIF accelerated disease onset and late disease progression and shortened the lifespan of the SOD1(G85R) mutant mice. These findings indicate that MIF plays a significant role in the folding and misfolding of SOD1 in vivo, and they have implications for the potential therapeutic role of up-regulating MIF within the nervous system to modulate the selective accumulation of misfolded SOD1. PMID:27551074

  8. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  9. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  10. Downstream signaling pathways in mouse adipose tissues following acute in vivo administration of fibroblast growth factor 21.

    PubMed

    Muise, Eric S; Souza, Sandra; Chi, An; Tan, Yejun; Zhao, Xuemei; Liu, Franklin; Dallas-Yang, Qing; Wu, Margaret; Sarr, Tim; Zhu, Lan; Guo, Hongbo; Li, Zhihua; Li, Wenyu; Hu, Weiwen; Jiang, Guoqiang; Paweletz, Cloud P; Hendrickson, Ronald C; Thompson, John R; Mu, James; Berger, Joel P; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream signaling events and target engagement biomarkers. Specifically, RNA profiling of adipose tissues and phosphoproteomic profiling of adipocytes, following FGF21 treatment revealed several specific changes in gene expression and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation, in several relevant proteins. Affymetrix microarray analysis of white adipose tissues isolated from both C57BL/6 (fed either regular chow or HFD) and db/db mice identified over 150 robust potential RNA transcripts and over 50 potential secreted proteins that were changed greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 acutely. Phosphoprofiling analysis identified over 130 phosphoproteins that were modulated greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the combined gene and phosphoprotein profiling data identified a number of known metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, insulin receptor signaling, Erk/Mapk signaling cascades, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, a number of novel events with hitherto unknown links to FGF21 signaling were observed at both the transcription and protein phosphorylation levels following treatment. We conclude that such a combined "omics" approach can be used not only to identify robust biomarkers for novel therapeutics but can also enhance our understanding of downstream signaling pathways; in the example presented here, novel FGF21-mediated signaling events in adipose tissue have been revealed that warrant further investigation.

  11. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST.

  12. Downstream Signaling Pathways in Mouse Adipose Tissues Following Acute In Vivo Administration of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21

    PubMed Central

    Chi, An; Tan, Yejun; Zhao, Xuemei; Liu, Franklin; Dallas-yang, Qing; Wu, Margaret; Sarr, Tim; Zhu, Lan; Guo, Hongbo; Li, Zhihua; Li, Wenyu; Hu, Weiwen; Jiang, Guoqiang; Paweletz, Cloud P.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.; Thompson, John R.; Mu, James; Berger, Joel P.; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream signaling events and target engagement biomarkers. Specifically, RNA profiling of adipose tissues and phosphoproteomic profiling of adipocytes, following FGF21 treatment revealed several specific changes in gene expression and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation, in several relevant proteins. Affymetrix microarray analysis of white adipose tissues isolated from both C57BL/6 (fed either regular chow or HFD) and db/db mice identified over 150 robust potential RNA transcripts and over 50 potential secreted proteins that were changed greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 acutely. Phosphoprofiling analysis identified over 130 phosphoproteins that were modulated greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the combined gene and phosphoprotein profiling data identified a number of known metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, insulin receptor signaling, Erk/Mapk signaling cascades, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, a number of novel events with hitherto unknown links to FGF21 signaling were observed at both the transcription and protein phosphorylation levels following treatment. We conclude that such a combined "omics" approach can be used not only to identify robust biomarkers for novel therapeutics but can also enhance our understanding of downstream signaling pathways; in the example presented here, novel FGF21-mediated signaling events in adipose tissue have been revealed that warrant further investigation. PMID:24039848

  13. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) Functions to Promote Uterine Decidual Angiogenesis during Early Pregnancy in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Nataki C.; Tang, Hongyan; Gomez, Raul; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Hicklin, Daniel J.; Sauer, Christopher M.; Kitajewski, Jan; Sauer, Mark V.; Zimmermann, Ralf C.

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of an embryo induces rapid proliferation and differentiation of uterine stromal cells, forming a new structure, the decidua. One salient feature of decidua formation is a marked increase in maternal angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent pathways are active in the ovary, uterus, and embryo, and inactivation of VEGF function in any of these structures might prevent normal pregnancy development. We hypothesized that decidual angiogenesis is regulated by VEGF acting through specific VEGF receptors (VEGFRs). To test this hypothesis, we developed a murine pregnancy model in which systemic administration of a receptor-blocking antibody would act specifically on uterine angiogenesis and not on ovarian or embryonic angiogenesis. In our model, ovarian function was replaced with exogenous progesterone, and blocking antibodies were administered prior to embryonic expression of VEGFRs. After administration of a single dose of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody during the peri-implantation period, no embryos were detected on embryonic d 10.5. The pregnancy was disrupted because of a significant reduction in decidual angiogenesis, which under physiological conditions peaks on embryonic d 5.5 and 6.5. Inactivation of VEGFR-3 reduced angiogenesis in the primary decidual zone, whereas administration of VEGFR-1 blocking antibodies had no effect. Pregnancy was not disrupted after administration of anti-VEGFR-3 or anti-VEGFR-1 antibodies. Thus, the VEGF/VEGFR-2 pathway plays a key role in the maintenance of early pregnancy through its regulation of peri-implantation angiogenesis in the uterine decidua. This newly formed decidual vasculature serves as the first exchange apparatus for the developing embryo until the placenta becomes functionally active. PMID:19406950

  15. The E1B 19,000-molecular-weight protein of group C adenoviruses prevents tumor necrosis factor cytolysis of human cells but not of mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, L R; Aquino, L; Duerksen-Hughes, P J; Day, D; Horton, T M; Yei, S P; Wold, W S

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional immunoregulatory protein that is secreted by activated macrophages and is believed to have antiviral activities. We reported earlier that when mouse C3HA fibroblasts are infected with human adenoviruses, the 289R and 243R proteins encoded by region E1A render the cells susceptible to lysis by TNF, and a 14,700-molecular-weight protein (14.7K protein) encoded by region E3 protects the cells against lysis by TNF. We now report that the 19,000-molecular-weight (19K) (176R) protein encoded by the E1B transcription unit can protect human HEL-299 fibroblasts and human ME-180 cervical carcinoma cells against lysis by TNF. This was determined by infecting cells with adenovirus double mutants that lack region E3 and do or do not express the E1B-19K protein and by measuring cytolysis by using a short-term (18-h) 51Cr-release assay. Under these assay conditions, the 51Cr release was specific to TNF and was not a consequence of the cyt phenotype associated with E1B-19K protein-negative mutants. Also, by using virus double mutants that lack E3 in combination with other early regions, we found that E1A, the E1B-55K protein-encoding gene, E3, and E4 are not required to protect HEL-299 cells against TNF cytolysis. Three additional human cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT8, and RC29) and a simian virus 40-transformed WI38 cell line (VA-13) also required E1B for protection against TNF cytolysis, indicating that the E1B-19K protein is required to protect many if not all human cell types against lysis by TNF when infected by adenovirus. The E1B-19K protein was not able to protect six different adenovirus-infected mouse cell lines against TNF lysis, even though the protein was shown to be efficiently expressed in one of the cell lines. HEL-299 or ME-180 cells infected by a mutant that lacks the E1B-19K protein but retains region E3 were not lysed by TNF, indicating that one or more of the E3 proteins can protect these cells against TNF lysis

  16. [The effect of in-situ nerve growth factor from different biological sources on the reinitiation of mouse oocyte meiotic maturation in culture and on parthenogenetic activation].

    PubMed

    Fedorushchenko, A N; Koval', T Iu; Khamidov, D Kh

    1999-01-01

    We studied the capacity of mouse oocytes to complete meiotic maturation in vitro and form the female pronucleus upon parthenogenetic activation by cycloheximide, in response to a single injection into the mouse ovaries in situ of a purified fraction of 2.5 S NGF from mouse submaxillary glands and beta-NGF from bovine sperm. Injection of NGF from both sources at 10 ng/ml with subsequent incubation of the ovaries for 1 h increased the capacity of matured oocytes for parthenogenetic formation of the pronucleus. The frequency of pronucleus formation in both "naked oocyte" and oocytes surrounded by the cumulus cells was four times that in the control. PMID:10624718

  17. ImmunoPET Imaging of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in a Subcutaneous Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in cancer tumorigenesis was established decades ago, yet there are limited studies evaluating the imaging and therapeutic properties of anti-IGF-1R antibodies. Noninvasive imaging of IGF-1R may allow for optimized patient stratification and monitoring of therapeutic response in patients. Herein, this study reports the development of a Zirconium-89 (89Zr)-labeled anti-IGF-1R antibody (89Zr-Df-1A2G11) for PET imaging of pancreatic cancer. Successful chelation and radiolabeling of the antibody resulted in a highly stable construct that could be used for imaging IGF-1R expressing tumors in vivo. Western blot and flow cytometry studies showed that MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3, and AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed high, moderate, and low levels of IGF-1R, respectively. These three pancreatic cancer cell lines were subcutaneously implanted into mice. By employing the PET imaging technique, the tumor accumulation of 89Zr-Df-1A2G11 was found to be dependent on the level of IGF-1R expression. Tumor accumulation of 89Zr-Df-1A2G11 was 8.24 ± 0.51, 5.80 ± 0.54, and 4.30 ± 0.42 percentage of the injected dose (%ID/g) in MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3, and AsPC-1-derived tumor models at 120 h postinjection, respectively (n = 4). Biodistribution studies and ex vivo immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings. In addition, 89Zr-labeled nonspecific human IgG (89Zr-Df-IgG) displayed minimal uptake in IGF-1R positive MIA PaCa-2 tumor xenografts (3.63 ± 0.95%ID/g at 120 h postinjection; n = 4), demonstrating that 89Zr-Df-1A2G11 accumulation was highly specific. This study provides initial evidence that our 89Zr-labeled IGF-1R-targeted antibody may be employed for imaging a wide range of malignancies. Antibodies may be tracked in vivo for several days to weeks with 89Zr, which may enhance image contrast due to decreased background signal. In addition, the principles outlined in this study can be employed for identifying patients

  18. FcRn Rescues Recombinant Factor VIII Fc Fusion Protein from a VWF Independent FVIII Clearance Pathway in Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    van der Flier, Arjan; Liu, Zhan; Tan, Siyuan; Chen, Kai; Drager, Douglas; Liu, Tongyao; Patarroyo-White, Susannah; Jiang, Haiyan; Light, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a longer lasting recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein, rFVIIIFc, to extend the half-life of replacement FVIII for the treatment of people with hemophilia A. In order to elucidate the biological mechanism for the elongated half-life of rFVIIIFc at a cellular level we delineated the roles of VWF and the tissue-specific expression of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the biodistribution, clearance and cycling of rFVIIIFc. We find the tissue biodistribution is similar for rFVIIIFc and rFVIII and that liver is the major clearance organ for both molecules. VWF reduces the clearance and the initial liver uptake of rFVIIIFc. Pharmacokinetic studies in FcRn chimeric mice show that FcRn expressed in somatic cells (hepatocytes or liver sinusoidal endothelial cells) mediates the decreased clearance of rFVIIIFc, but FcRn in hematopoietic cells (Kupffer cells) does not affect clearance. Immunohistochemical studies show that when rFVIII or rFVIIIFc is in dynamic equilibrium binding with VWF, they mostly co localize with VWF in Kupffer cells and macrophages, confirming a major role for liver macrophages in the internalization and clearance of the VWF-FVIII complex. In the absence of VWF a clear difference in cellular localization of VWF-free rFVIII and rFVIIIFc is observed and neither molecule is detected in Kupffer cells. Instead, rFVIII is observed in hepatocytes, indicating that free rFVIII is cleared by hepatocytes, while rFVIIIFc is observed as a diffuse liver sinusoidal staining, suggesting recycling of free-rFVIIIFc out of hepatocytes. These studies reveal two parallel linked clearance pathways, with a dominant pathway in which both rFVIIIFc and rFVIII complexed with VWF are cleared mainly by Kupffer cells without FcRn cycling. In contrast, the free fraction of rFVIII or rFVIIIFc unbound by VWF enters hepatocytes, where FcRn reduces the degradation and clearance of rFVIIIFc relative to rFVIII by cycling rFVIIIFc back to the liver sinusoid and

  19. cDNA cloning of a mouse mammary epithelial cell surface protein reveals the existence of epidermal growth factor-like domains linked to factor VIII-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.D.; Bui, A. San Francisco State Univ., CA ); Lekutis, C.; Singer, K.L.; Srinivasan, U.; Parry, G. ); Yuzuki, D. )

    1990-11-01

    A 2.1-kilobase cDNA coding for a surface protein of mammary epithelial cells has been isolated from a mouse mammary gland {lambda}gt11 cDNA library. Sequence analysis of this cDNA reveals an open reading frame of 1,389 base pairs that defines a protein with a molecular mass of 51.5 dKa. Structural analysis of the predicted sequence identifies two putative functional domains of the protein: (i) an N-terminal cysteine-rich region that is similar to epidermal growth factor-like domains of Drosophila Notch-1 protein and (ii) a large segment of the sequence that exhibited 54.5% identify with C-terminal domains of human coagulation factors VIII and V. These similarities in structure are used to predict the possible functions of the protein and its means of interaction with the cell surface. mRNA expression was detectable in mammary tissue from nonpregnant animals but was maximal in the lactating gland. In cultured cells, mRNA levels also correlated with the degree of cellular differentiation.

  20. Immunohistochemical examination of effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on platelet derived growth factor-c and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression in mouse liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Bakir, B; Sari, E K; Aydin, B D; Yildiz, S E

    2015-04-01

    We investigated using immunohistochemistry the effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on the expression of platelet derived growth factor-c (PDGF-C) and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α) in mouse liver and kidney. Mice were assigned to four groups: group 1 was given commercial probiotic capsules, group 2 was given kefir, group 3 was given koumiss and group 4 was untreated. After oral administration for 15 days, body weights were recorded and liver and kidney tissue samples were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to examine histology. PDGF-C and PDGFR-α in liver and kidney were localized using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex method (ABC). We found that the weights of the mice in the kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules groups increased compared to the control group. No differences in liver and kidney histology were observed in any of the experimental groups. Kefir, koumiss and the commercial probiotic preparation increased PDGF-C and PDGFR-α expression.

  1. Intrastriatal transplantation of neurotrophic factor-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells improves motor function and extends survival in R6/2 transgenic mouse model for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sadan, Ofer; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell-based treatment for Huntington's disease (HD) is an expanding field of research. Although various stem cells have been shown to be beneficial in vivo, no long standing clinical effect has been demonstrated. To address this issue, we are developing a stem cell-based therapy designed to improve the microenvironment of the diseased tissue via delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Previously, we established that bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be differentiated using medium based cues into NTF-secreting cells (NTF+ cells) that express astrocytic markers. NTF+ cells were shown to alleviate neurodegeneration symptoms in several disease models in vitro and in vivo, including the model for excitotoxicity. In the present study, we explored if the timing of intrastriatal transplantation of hNTF+ cells into the R6/2 transgenic mouse model for HD influences motor function and survival. One hundred thousand cells were transplanted bilaterally into the striatum of immune-suppressed mice at 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 weeks of age. Contrary to our expectations, early transplantation of NTF+ cells did not improve motor function or overall survival. However, late (6.5 weeks) transplantation resulted in a temporary improvement in motor function and an extension of life span relative to that observed for PBS treated mice. We conclude that late transplantation of NTF+ cells induces a beneficial effect in this transgenic model for HD. Since no transplanted NTF+ cells could be detected in vivo, we suspect that the temporary nature of the beneficial effect is due to poor survival of transplanted cells. In general, we submit that NTF+ cells should be further evaluated for the therapy of HD. PMID:22953237

  2. Overexpression of actin-depolymerizing factor blocks oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Lu; Si, Yan-Fang; Li, Bao-Min

    2012-12-01

    The aim of present work was to elucidate the role of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), an important regulator of actin cytoskeleton, in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to ox-LDL. Treatment with LDL served as control. It was found that ADF mRNA level and protein expression were decreased when exposed to ox-LDL in MBMECs. Then, we investigated the influence of ADF overexpression on ox-LDL-treated MBMECs. Structurally, overexpression of ADF inhibited ox-LDL-induced F-actin formation. Functionally, overexpression of ADF attenuated ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier marked by restoration of transendothelial electrical resistance, permeability of Evans Blue and expression of tight junction-associated proteins including ZO-1 and occludin, and blocked ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress marked by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activity of NADPH oxidase and Nox2 expression. However, overexpression of ADF in control cells had no significant effect on endothelial permeability and ROS formation. In conclusion, overexpression of ADF blocks ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of ADF expression aggravated ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier and ROS formation. These findings identify ADF as a key signaling molecule in the regulation of BBB integrity and suggest that ADF might be used as a target to modulate diseases accompanied by ox-LDL-induced BBB compromise.

  3. Efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells grown in a rotating bioreactor with exogenous growth factors and hormones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered a potentially advantageous source of hepatocytes for both transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers. However, the efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from ES cells remains a major challenge, especially for those methods compatible with clinical applications. Methods In this study, we investigated whether a large number of functional hepatocytes can be differentiated from mouse ES (mES) cells using a simulated microgravity bioreactor. mES cells were cultured in a rotating bioreactor in the presence of exogenous growth factors and hormones to form embryoid bodies (EBs), which then differentiated into hepatocytes. Results During the rotating culture, most of the EB-derived cells gradually showed the histologic characteristics of normal hepatocytes. More specifically, the expression of hepatic genes and proteins was detected at a higher level in the differentiated cells from the bioreactor culture than in cells from a static culture. On further growing, the EBs on tissue-culture plates, most of the EB-derived cells were found to display the morphologic features of hepatocytes, as well as albumin synthesis. In addition, the EB-derived cells grown in the rotating bioreactor exhibited higher levels of liver-specific functions, such as glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, low-density lipoprotein, and indocyanine green uptake, than did differentiated cells grown in static culture. When the EB-derived cells from day-14 EBs and the cells’ culture supernatant were injected into nude mice, the transplanted cells were engrafted into the recipient livers. Conclusions Large quantities of high-quality hepatocytes can be generated from mES cells in a rotating bioreactor via EB formation. This system may be useful in the large-scale generation of hepatocytes for both cell transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers. PMID:24294908

  4. Fluorescent-Antibody Targeting of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Visualizes Metastatic Human Colon Cancer in Orthotopic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Youp; Murakami, Takashi; Lee, Jin Young; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent-antibody targeting of metastatic cancer has been demonstrated by our laboratory to enable tumor visualization and effective fluorescence-guided surgery. The goal of the present study was to determine whether insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies, conjugated with bright fluorophores, could enable visualization of metastatic colon cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models. IGF-1R antibody (clone 24–31) was conjugated with 550 nm, 650 nm or PEGylated 650 nm fluorophores. Subcutaneous, orthotopic, and liver metastasis models of colon cancer in nude mice were targeted with the fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies. Western blotting confirmed the expression of IGF-1R in HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines, both expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Labeling with fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibody demonstrated fluorescent foci on the membrane of colon cancer cells. Subcutaneously- and orthotopically-transplanted HT-29-GFP and HCT 116-GFP tumors brightly fluoresced at the longer wavelengths after intravenous administration of fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies. Orthotopically-transplanted HCT 116-GFP tumors were brightly labeled by fluorescent IGF-1R antibodies such that they could be imaged non-invasively at the longer wavelengths. In an experimental liver metastasis model, IGF-1R antibodies conjugated with PEGylated 650 nm fluorophores selectively highlighted the liver metastases, which could then be non-invasively imaged. The IGF-1R fluorescent-antibody labeled liver metastases were very bright compared to the normal liver and the fluorescent-antibody label co-located with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression of the colon cancer cells. The present study thus demonstrates that fluorophore-conjugated IGF-1R antibodies selectively visualize metastatic colon cancer and have clinical potential for improved diagnosis and fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:26731105

  5. Mangiferin, a novel nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase inhibitor, suppresses metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tomoya; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Ichimura, Eri; Enomoto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuri; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu; Matsuda, Hideaki; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2016-09-01

    Advanced metastatic melanoma, one of the most aggressive malignancies, is currently without reliable therapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone and exerts many beneficial biological activities. However, the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth of metastatic melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model. We found that mangiferin inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and increases the expression of IκB protein in vivo. In addition, we found that mangiferin inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and very late antigens (VLAs) in vivo. Mangiferin treatment also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53, and phosphorylated p53 proteins, and decreased the expression of Survivin and Bcl-associated X (Bcl-xL) proteins in vivo. These results indicate that mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation, thereby inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth. Importantly, the number of reported NIK selective inhibitors is limited. Taken together, our data suggest that mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent with a new mechanism of targeting NIK for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27417526

  6. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins improve memory and enhance phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young A; Cho, Eun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako

    2010-02-01

    Senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8), a murine model of accelerated senescence, shows age-related deficits in learning and memory. We investigated the effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (oligomers) on memory impairment using the SAMP8 model involving the oral administration of oligomers for 5 weeks. To analyse memory improvement in SAMP8, we performed Morris water maze, object location and object recognition tests. The oral administration of oligomers improved spatial and object recognition impairment in SAMP8. Expressions of phosphorylated neurofilament-H (P-NF-H, axon marker), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) 2a and 2b (MAP2; dendrite marker) and synaptophysin were increased in the brains of SAMP8-administered oligomers. In particular, the expression of P-NF-H was significantly elevated in the hippocampal CA1. This indicates that oligomers result in an increase in the densities of axons, dendrites and synapses. To investigate the protective mechanisms of oligomers against brain dysfunction with ageing, we carried out a receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation antibody array, and clarified that the administration of oligomers led to an increase in the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, suggesting the neuroprotective role of oligomers. The phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 was more greatly increased in the hypothalamus and choroid plexus than in other brain regions of SAMP8. Memory in oligomer-treated mice was impaired by SU1498, a VEGFR-2-specific antagonist. Elucidating the relationship between memory impairment with ageing and VEGFR-2 signalling may provide new suggestions for protection against memory deficit in the ageing brain.

  7. Characterization of the cell of origin and propagation potential of the fibroblast growth factor 9-induced mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arai, Daisuke; Hegab, Ahmed E; Soejima, Kenzo; Kuroda, Aoi; Ishioka, Kota; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Naoki, Katsuhiko; Kagawa, Shizuko; Hamamoto, Junko; Yin, Yongjun; Ornitz, David M; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is essential for lung development and is highly expressed in a subset of human lung adenocarcinomas. We recently described a mouse model in which FGF9 expression in the lung epithelium caused proliferation of the airway epithelium at the terminal bronchioles and led to rapid development of adenocarcinoma. Here, we used this model to characterize the effects of prolonged FGF9 induction on the proximal and distal lung epithelia, and examined the propagation potential of FGF9-induced lung tumours. We showed that prolonged FGF9 over-expression in the lung resulted in the development of adenocarcinomas arising from both alveolar type II and airway secretory cells in the lung parenchyma and airways, respectively. We found that tumour cells harboured tumour-propagating cells that were able to form secondary tumours in recipient mice, regardless of FGF9 expression. However, the highest degree of tumour propagation was observed when unfractionated tumour cells were co-administered with autologous, tumour-associated mesenchymal cells. Although the initiation of lung adenocarcinomas was dependent on activation of the FGF9-FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) signalling axis, maintenance and propagation of the tumour was independent of this signalling. Activation of an alternative FGF-FGFR axis and the interaction with tumour stromal cells is likely to be responsible for the development of this independence. This study demonstrates the complex role of FGF-FGFR signalling in the initiation, growth and propagation of lung cancer. Our findings suggest that analysing the expressions of FGF-FGFRs in human lung cancer will be a useful tool for guiding customized therapy.

  8. IRF4 Transcription Factor-Dependent CD11b+ Dendritic Cells in Human and Mouse Control Mucosal IL-17 Cytokine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Schlitzer, Andreas; McGovern, Naomi; Teo, Pearline; Zelante, Teresa; Atarashi, Koji; Low, Donovan; Ho, Adrian W.S.; See, Peter; Shin, Amanda; Wasan, Pavandip Singh; Hoeffel, Guillaume; Malleret, Benoit; Heiseke, Alexander; Chew, Samantha; Jardine, Laura; Purvis, Harriet A.; Hilkens, Catharien M.U.; Tam, John; Poidinger, Michael; Stanley, E. Richard; Krug, Anne B.; Renia, Laurent; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Ng, Lai Guan; Collin, Matthew; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Honda, Kenya; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Ginhoux, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mouse and human dendritic cells (DCs) are composed of functionally specialized subsets, but precise interspecies correlation is currently incomplete. Here, we showed that murine lung and gut lamina propria CD11b+ DC populations were comprised of two subsets: FLT3- and IRF4-dependent CD24+CD64− DCs and contaminating CSF-1R-dependent CD24−CD64+ macrophages. Functionally, loss of CD24+CD11b+ DCs abrogated CD4+ T cell-mediated interleukin-17 (IL-17) production in steady state and after Aspergillus fumigatus challenge. Human CD1c+ DCs, the equivalent of murine CD24+CD11b+ DCs, also expressed IRF4, secreted IL-23, and promoted T helper 17 cell responses. Our data revealed heterogeneity in the mouse CD11b+ DC compartment and identifed mucosal tissues IRF4-expressing DCs specialized in instructing IL-17 responses in both mouse and human. The demonstration of mouse and human DC subsets specialized in driving IL-17 responses highlights the conservation of key immune functions across species and will facilitate the translation of mouse in vivo findings to advance DC-based clinical therapies. PMID:23706669

  9. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP) and their upstream signaling components undergo diurnal oscillation in the mouse hippocampus: implications for memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Amit; Luo, Jie; Morris, David R; Storm, Daniel R

    2014-07-18

    Translation of mRNA plays a critical role in consolidation of long-term memory. Here, we report that markers of initiation of mRNA translation are activated during training for contextual memory and that they undergo diurnal oscillation in the mouse hippocampus with maximal activity observed during the daytime (zeitgeber time 4-8 h). Phosphorylation and activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), ribosomal protein S6, and eIF4F cap-complex formation, all of which are markers for translation initiation, were higher in the hippocampus during the daytime compared with night. The circadian oscillation in markers of mRNA translation was lost in memory-deficient transgenic mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Moreover, disruption of the circadian rhythm blocked diurnal oscillations in eIF4E, 4EBP1, rpS6, Akt, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and impaired memory consolidation. Furthermore, repeated inhibition of translation in the hippocampus 48 h after contextual training with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired memory persistence. We conclude that repeated activation of markers of translation initiation in hippocampus during the circadian cycle might be critical for memory persistence.

  10. Amelioration of Diabetic Mouse Nephropathy by Catalpol Correlates with Down-Regulation of Grb10 Expression and Activation of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shasha; Deng, Huacong; Zhang, Qunzhou; Xie, Jing; Zeng, Hui; Jin, Xiaolong; Ling, Zixi; Shan, Qiaoyun; Liu, Momo; Ma, Yuefei; Tang, Juan; Wei, Qianping

    2016-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that can negatively regulate the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). The IGF1-1R pathway is critical for cell growth and apoptosis and has been implicated in kidney diseases; however, it is still unknown whether Grb10 expression is up-regulated and plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Catalpol, a major active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicine, Rehmannia, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activities and then used to treat diabetes. Herein, we aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of catalpol on a mouse model diabetic nephropathy and the potential role of Grb10 in the pathogenesis of this diabetes-associated complication. Our results showed that catalpol treatment improved diabetes-associated impaired renal functions and ameliorated pathological changes in kidneys of diabetic mice. We also found that Grb10 expression was significantly elevated in kidneys of diabetic mice as compared with that in non-diabetic mice, while treatment with catalpol significantly abrogated the elevated Grb10 expression in diabetic kidneys. On the contrary, IGF-1 mRNA levels and IGF-1R phosphorylation were significantly higher in kidneys of catalpol-treated diabetic mice than those in non-treated diabetic mice. Our results suggest that elevated Grb10 expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through suppressing IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway, which might be a potential molecular target of catalpol for the treatment of this diabetic complication. PMID:26986757

  11. Melatonin antagonizes cadmium-induced neurotoxicity by activating the transcription factor EB-dependent autophagy-lysosome machinery in mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Pi, Huifeng; Yang, Zhiqi; Reiter, Russel J; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Xiaowei; Chen, Chunhai; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Min; Li, Yuming; Guo, Pan; Li, Gaoming; Tu, Manyu; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous heavy metal, induces neurotoxicity. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, protects against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism that accounts for this protection remains to be elucidated. Herein, we exposed mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a cells) to different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) (12.5, 25, and 50 μ mol L(-1) ) for 24 hours. We showed that Cd inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion and impairs lysosomal function, subsequently leading to nerve cell death. In addition, Cd decreases the level of transcription factor EB (TFEB) but induces the nuclear translocation of TFEB, associated with compromised lysosomal function or a compensatory effect after the impairment of the autophagic flux. Moreover, compared to the 50-μ mol L(-1) Cd group, administration of 1 μ mol L(-1) melatonin increased "TFEB-responsive genes" (P<.05) and the levels of lysosomal-associated membrane protein (0.57±0.06 vs 1.00±0.11, P<.05), preserved lysosomal protease activity (0.52±0.01 vs 0.90±0.02, P<.05), maintained the lysosomal pH level (0.50±0.01 vs 0.87±0.05, P<.01), and enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion (0.05±0.00 vs 0.21±0.01, P<.01). Notably, melatonin enhanced TFEB expression (0.37±0.04 vs 0.72±0.07, P<.05) and nuclear translocation (2.81±0.08 vs 3.82±0.05, P<.05). Tfeb siRNA blocked the melatonin-mediated elevation in autophagy-lysosome machinery in Cd-induced neurotoxicity (P<.01). Taken together, these results uncover a potent role for TFEB-mediated autophagy in the pathogenesis of Cd-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that control of the autophagic pathway by melatonin might provide an important clue for exploring potential targets for novel therapeutics of Cd-induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Melatonin antagonizes cadmium-induced neurotoxicity by activating the transcription factor EB-dependent autophagy-lysosome machinery in mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Pi, Huifeng; Yang, Zhiqi; Reiter, Russel J; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Xiaowei; Chen, Chunhai; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Min; Li, Yuming; Guo, Pan; Li, Gaoming; Tu, Manyu; Tian, Li; Xie, Jia; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yanwen; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly ubiquitous heavy metal, induces neurotoxicity. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, protects against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism that accounts for this protection remains to be elucidated. Herein, we exposed mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a cells) to different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) (12.5, 25, and 50 μ mol L(-1) ) for 24 hours. We showed that Cd inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion and impairs lysosomal function, subsequently leading to nerve cell death. In addition, Cd decreases the level of transcription factor EB (TFEB) but induces the nuclear translocation of TFEB, associated with compromised lysosomal function or a compensatory effect after the impairment of the autophagic flux. Moreover, compared to the 50-μ mol L(-1) Cd group, administration of 1 μ mol L(-1) melatonin increased "TFEB-responsive genes" (P<.05) and the levels of lysosomal-associated membrane protein (0.57±0.06 vs 1.00±0.11, P<.05), preserved lysosomal protease activity (0.52±0.01 vs 0.90±0.02, P<.05), maintained the lysosomal pH level (0.50±0.01 vs 0.87±0.05, P<.01), and enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion (0.05±0.00 vs 0.21±0.01, P<.01). Notably, melatonin enhanced TFEB expression (0.37±0.04 vs 0.72±0.07, P<.05) and nuclear translocation (2.81±0.08 vs 3.82±0.05, P<.05). Tfeb siRNA blocked the melatonin-mediated elevation in autophagy-lysosome machinery in Cd-induced neurotoxicity (P<.01). Taken together, these results uncover a potent role for TFEB-mediated autophagy in the pathogenesis of Cd-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that control of the autophagic pathway by melatonin might provide an important clue for exploring potential targets for novel therapeutics of Cd-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27396692

  13. 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increases the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marci J; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2004-09-01

    Evidence suggests that biologically active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], may inhibit carcinogenesis. Because angiogenesis is crucial to carcinogenesis, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was investigated in cellular models for multistage carcinogenesis. Conditioned media from 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-treated C3H10T(1/2) mouse fibroblasts and their Harvey ras-oncogene transfected counterparts (rasneo11a cells) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation (1.3 and 0.3 times, respectively, P < 0.05), suggesting that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) altered the angiogenic phenotype of the cells. Although rasneo11a cells secreted less VEGF than C3H10T(1/2) cells (97%, P < 0.005), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced C3H10T(1/2) and rasneo11a cells to secrete 2 and 3 times, respectively, more VEGF than controls (P < 0.05). Similar effects on VEGF release occurred after 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment of MCF10A and MCF10Aras cells, a human breast epithelial cell model for multistage carcinogenesis. In C3H10T(1/2) cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activated the VEGF promoter in a dose-dependent (5-100 nmol/L) manner (maximum 60%) and all doses induced VEGF secretion (P < 0.05). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced VEGF mRNA expression ( approximately 50%) from 2 through 24 h; VEGF release was significantly increased at 8 h and sustained for 24 h. VEGF mRNA expression and release declined as C3H10T(1/2) cells grew more confluent, whereas the magnitude of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated changes in VEGF was greater in confluent (3.3 times RNA; 3.5 times release) than in subconfluent (50% RNA; 100% release) cultures (P < 0.05). Thus, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increases VEGF secretion, and in C3H10T(1/2) cells, this is likely through activation of the VEGF promoter and induction of gene expression. These data contribute to understanding the role 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays in regulation of angiogenesis in normal compared with disease states.

  14. A multiplicity of factors contributes to selective RNA polymerase III occupancy of a subset of RNA polymerase III genes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Canella, Donatella; Bernasconi, David; Gilardi, Federica; LeMartelot, Gwendal; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hernandez, Nouria

    2012-04-01

    The genomic loci occupied by RNA polymerase (RNAP) III have been characterized in human culture cells by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitations, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). These studies have shown that only ∼40% of the annotated 622 human tRNA genes and pseudogenes are occupied by RNAP-III, and that these genes are often in open chromatin regions rich in active RNAP-II transcription units. We have used ChIP-seq to characterize RNAP-III-occupied loci in a differentiated tissue, the mouse liver. Our studies define the mouse liver RNAP-III-occupied loci including a conserved mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) as a potential regulator of an RNAP-III subunit-encoding gene. They reveal that synteny relationships can be established between a number of human and mouse RNAP-III genes, and that the expression levels of these genes are significantly linked. They establish that variations within the A and B promoter boxes, as well as the strength of the terminator sequence, can strongly affect RNAP-III occupancy of tRNA genes. They reveal correlations with various genomic features that explain the observed variation of 81% of tRNA scores. In mouse liver, loci represented in the NCBI37/mm9 genome assembly that are clearly occupied by RNAP-III comprise 50 Rn5s (5S RNA) genes, 14 known non-tRNA RNAP-III genes, nine Rn4.5s (4.5S RNA) genes, and 29 SINEs. Moreover, out of the 433 annotated tRNA genes, half are occupied by RNAP-III. Transfer RNA gene expression levels reflect both an underlying genomic organization conserved in dividing human culture cells and resting mouse liver cells, and the particular promoter and terminator strengths of individual genes.

  15. ISOLATION OF MOUSE NEUTROPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT 19.6. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments. PMID:26237011

  16. Krüppel-like factor 4 is widely expressed in the mouse male and female reproductive tract and responds as an immediate early gene to activation of the protein kinase A in TM4 Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Godmann, M; Kosan, C; Behr, R

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor critically involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. Recently, KLF4 has also been used for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. In this study, we analyzed Klf4 expression in different mouse tissues using northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Focusing on the male and female reproductive tract, we showed for the first time that KLF4 is expressed in the epithelia of the murine uterus and the vagina. In the male reproductive tract, we detected KLF4 in the epithelia of the epididymis, ductus deferens, coagulating gland, and the penis. As KLF4 is strongly inducible by FSH signaling in Sertoli cells and as this transcription factor is also involved in Sertoli cell development, we employed the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 as a model system to investigate i) the induction kinetics of Klf4 upon activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway by forskolin and ii) the effects of Klf4 induction on TM4 cell cycle progression. Interestingly, Klf4 mRNA and protein were rapidly but transiently induced, reaching peak levels after 90-120 min and declining to basal levels within 4 h. Compared with the inducible cAMP early repressor, an immediate early response gene, the induction kinetics of Klf4 is much faster. In conclusion, Klf4 is an immediate early gene in TM4 cells and its expression in several epithelia of the male and female reproductive tract suggests an important role of Klf4 in mouse reproductive functions.

  17. A Mouse Model for Conditional Secretion of Specific Single-Chain Antibodies Provides Genetic Evidence for Regulation of Cortical Plasticity by a Non-cell Autonomous Homeoprotein Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertini, Eva; Ribot, Jérôme; Di Nardo, Ariel A.; Volovitch, Michel; Prochiantz, Alain

    2016-01-01

    During postnatal life the cerebral cortex passes through critical periods of plasticity allowing its physiological adaptation to the environment. In the visual cortex, critical period onset and closure are influenced by the non-cell autonomous activity of the Otx2 homeoprotein transcription factor, which regulates the maturation of parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV cells). In adult mice, the maintenance of a non-plastic adult state requires continuous Otx2 import by PV cells. An important source of extra-cortical Otx2 is the choroid plexus, which secretes Otx2 into the cerebrospinal fluid. Otx2 secretion and internalization requires two small peptidic domains that are part of the DNA-binding domain. Thus, mutating these “transfer” sequences also modifies cell autonomous transcription, precluding this approach to obtain a cell autonomous-only mouse. Here, we develop a mouse model with inducible secretion of an anti-Otx2 single-chain antibody to trap Otx2 in the extracellular milieu. Postnatal secretion of this single-chain antibody by PV cells delays PV maturation and reduces plasticity gene expression. Induced adult expression of this single-chain antibody in cerebrospinal fluid decreases Otx2 internalization by PV cells, strongly induces plasticity gene expression and reopens physiological plasticity. We provide the first mammalian genetic evidence for a signaling mechanism involving intercellular transfer of a homeoprotein transcription factor. Our single-chain antibody mouse model is a valid strategy for extracellular neutralization that could be applied to other homeoproteins and signaling molecules within and beyond the nervous system. PMID:27171438

  18. Effect of 3-(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium on expression of GSTP1 and NQO1 genes and protein transcription factors in BALB/c mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Shintyapina, A B; Safronova, O G; Vavilin, V A; Kandalintseva, N V; Prosenko, A E; Lyakhovich, V V

    2014-08-01

    The study examined dynamics of the effect of novel phenol antioxidant preparation 3-(3'-tertbutyl- 4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium (TS-13) on expression of antioxidant protection enzymes genes GSTP1 and NQO1 and on the content of protein transcription factors NF-κB and ATF-2 in mouse liver. Expression of GSTP1 gene decreased significantly on days 4 and 7 after per os administration of TS-13 (100 mg/kg), but increased on post-administration day 14. On days 7 and 14 post-administration, expression of NQO1 gene was significantly increased. On day 7, the hepatic content of the phosphorylated form of ATF-2 and two subunits of nuclear factor NF-κB (p50, p65) decreased significantly.

  19. Loss of epidermal hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accelerates epidermal aging and affects re-epithelialization in human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Ali, Nsrein; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Dubus, Pierre; Varon, Christine; Ged, Cécile; Pain, Catherine; Cario-André, Muriel; Seneschal, Julien; Taïeb, Alain; de Verneuil, Hubert; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2011-12-15

    In mouse and human skin, HIF-1α is constitutively expressed in the epidermis, mainly in the basal layer. HIF-1α has been shown to have crucial systemic functions: regulation of kidney erythropoietin production in mice with constitutive HIF-1α epidermal deletion, and hypervascularity following epidermal HIF-1α overexpression. However, its local role in keratinocyte physiology has not been clearly defined. To address the function of HIF-1α in the epidermis, we used the mouse model of HIF-1α knockout targeted to keratinocytes (K14-Cre/Hif1a(flox/flox)). These mice had a delayed skin phenotype characterized by skin atrophy and pruritic inflammation, partly mediated by basement membrane disturbances involving laminin-332 (Ln-332) and integrins. We also investigated the relevance of results of studies in mice to human skin using reconstructed epidermis and showed that HIF-1α knockdown in human keratinocytes impairs the formation of a viable reconstructed epidermis. A diminution of keratinocyte growth potential, following HIF-1α silencing, was associated with a decreased expression of Ln-322 and α6 integrin and β1 integrin. Overall, these results indicate a role of HIF-1α in skin homeostasis especially during epidermal aging.

  20. Investigations of the relationship between use of in vitro cell culture-quantitative PCR and a mouse-based bioassay for evaluating critical factors affecting the disinfection performance of pulsed UV light for treating Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in saline.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mary; Farrell, Hugh; Cormican, Martin; Rowan, Neil

    2010-03-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric coccidian parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans. We report for the first time on use of the in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay and the in vivo SCID-mouse bioassay for evaluating critical factors that reduce or eliminate infectivity of C. parvum after irradiating oocysts in saline solution under varying operational conditions with pulsed UV light. Infections post UV treatments were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and by quantitative PCR in cell culture, and by IF staining of faeces and by hematoxylin and eosin staining of intestinal villi in mice. There was a good agreement between using cell culture-qPCR and the mouse assay for determining reduction or elimination of C. parvum infectivity as a consequence of varying UV operating conditions. Reduction in infectivity depended on the intensity of lamp discharge energy applied, amount of pulsing and population size of oocysts (P < or = 0.05). Conventional radiometer was unable to measure fluence or UV dose in saline samples due to the ultra-short non-continuous nature of the high-energy light pulses. Incorporation of humic acid at a concentration above that found in surface water (i.e., < or =10 ppm) did not significantly affect PUV disinfection capability irrespective of parameters tested (P < or = 0.05). These observations show that use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay is equivalent to using the 'gold standard' mouse-based infectivity assay for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating C. parvum in saline solution. PMID:20096310

  1. Mouse models for human otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2010-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) remains the most common childhood disease and its annual costs exceed $5 billion. Its potential for permanent hearing impairment also emphasizes the need to better understand and manage this disease. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial and includes infectious pathogens, anatomy, immunologic status, genetic predisposition, and environment. Recent progress in mouse model development is helping to elucidate the respective roles of these factors and to significantly contribute toward efforts of OM prevention and control. Genetic predisposition is recognized as an important factor in OM and increasing numbers of mouse models are helping to uncover the potential genetic bases for human OM. Furthermore, the completion of the mouse genome sequence has offered a powerful set of tools for investigating gene function and is generating a rich resource of mouse mutants for studying the genetic factors underlying OM. PMID:19272362

  2. GH in the dwarf dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout mouse: somatotrope population, GH release, and responsiveness to GH-releasing factors and somatostatin.

    PubMed

    García-Tornadú, Isabel; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Hill, David; Arany, Edith; Low, Malcolm J; Díaz-Torga, Graciela; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2006-09-01

    Recently, the importance of the dopaminergic D2 receptor (D2R) subtype in normal body growth and neonatal GH secretion has been highlighted. Disruption of D2R alters the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis and impairs body growth in adult male mice. The D2R knockout (KO) dwarf mouse has not been well characterized; we therefore sought to determine somatotrope function in the adult pituitary. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we found a significant decrease in the somatotrope population in pituitaries from KO mice (P=0.043), which was paralleled by a decreased GH output from pituitary cells cultured in vitro. In cells from adult mice the response amplitude to GHRH differed between genotypes (lower in KO), but this difference was less dramatic after taking into account the lower basal release and hormone content in the KO cells. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in cAMP generation in response to GHRH between genotypes. By Western blot, GHRH-receptor in pituitary membranes from KO mice was reduced to 46% of the level found in wildtype (WT) mice (P=0.016). Somatostatin induced a concentration-dependent decrease in GH and prolactin (PRL) secretion in both genotypes, and 1x10(-7) M ghrelin released GH in cells from both genotypes (P=0.017) in a proportionate manner to basal levels. These results suggest that KO somatotropes maintain a regulated secretory function. Finally, we tested the direct effect of dopamine on GH and PRL secretion in cells from both genotypes at 20 days and 6 months of life. As expected, we found that dopamine could reduce PRL levels at both ages in WT mice but not in KO mice, but there was no consistent effect of the neurotransmitter on GH release in either genotype at the ages studied. The present study demonstrates that in the adult male D2R KO mouse, there is a reduction in pituitary GH content and secretory activity. Our results point to an involvement of D2R signaling at the hypothalamic level as dopamine did not release GH

  3. A Global Genomic and Genetic Strategy to Identify, Validate and Use Gene Signatures of Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in Prediction of Pathway Activation in the Mouse Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobiotic-responsive transcription factors. Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening as well as their involvement in disease states. ...

  4. Coat color determination by miR-137 mediated down-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Changsheng; Wang, Haidong; Xue, Linli; Dong, Yanjun; Yang, Lei; Fan, Ruiwen; Yu, Xiuju; Tian, Xue; Ma, Shuhui; Smith, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool-producing species. Color development and pigmentation are controlled by complex mechanisms in animals. Here, we report the first production of an altered coat color by overexpression of miR-137 in transgenic mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-137 developed a range of coat color changes from dark black to light color. Molecular analyses of the transgenic mice showed decreased expression of the major target gene termed MITF and its downstream genes, including TYR, TYRP1, and TYRP2. We also showed that melanogenesis altered by miR-137 is distinct from that affected by UV radiation in transgenic mice. Our study provides the first mouse model for the study of coat color controlled by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production. PMID:22847819

  5. E2F transcription factor-1 deficiency reduces pathophysiology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through increased muscle oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Emilie; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Pradelli, Ludivine A; Hugon, Gérald; Matecki, Stéfan; Mornet, Dominique; Rivier, François; Fajas, Lluis

    2012-09-01

    E2F1 deletion leads to increased mitochondrial number and function, increased body temperature in response to cold and increased resistance to fatigue with exercise. Since E2f1-/- mice show increased muscle performance, we examined the effect of E2f1 genetic inactivation in the mdx background, a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). E2f1-/-;mdx mice demonstrated a strong reduction of physiopathological signs of DMD, including preservation of muscle structure, decreased inflammatory profile, increased utrophin expression, resulting in better endurance and muscle contractile parameters, comparable to normal mdx mice. E2f1 deficiency in the mdx genetic background increased the oxidative metabolic gene program, mitochondrial activity and improved muscle functions. Interestingly, we observed increased E2F1 protein levels in DMD patients, suggesting that E2F1 might represent a promising target for the treatment of DMD.

  6. Radiation-induced mouse chimeras: a cellular analysis of the major lymphoid compartments, factors affecting lethal graft versus host disease and host-tumor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major lymphoid compartments of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were evaluated for the extent of cell chimerism and distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells. These chimeras contained lymphoid cell primarily of donor origin. The bone marrow compartment was a mixture of host and donor origin cells. The distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells was similar as in normal mice. The effect of adult thymectomy alone or followed by whole-body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution on the distribution of the Thy 1 positive cells was also investigated. Thymectomy with or without WBI and bone marrow reconstitution significantly lowered the number of Thy 1 bearing cells in the blood and spleen. The number of la bearing cells did not appear to be affected by thymectomy. The role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras was studied. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow from bled donors had a statistically lower incidence of GVHD than those reconstituted with bone marrow from unbled donors. Addition of mature peripheral lymphocytes from blood to the reconstituting bone marrow cells from bled donors reduplicated the high incidence of lethal GVHD. It was demonstrated that the bone marrow of mice not exsanguinated prior to harvesting of bone marrow contained significant numbers of peripheral contaminating cells in the harvested bone marrow. The role of suppressor cell elimination in resisting tumor growth was investigated using radiation induced mouse chimeras. Local effects of irradiation alone at the site of tumor inoculation could account for this lack of growth.

  7. Interleukin 10 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) synthesis required for osteogenic commitment of mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) suppressed TGF-beta synthesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Coincidingly, IL-10 down-regulated the production of bone proteins including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen and osteocalcin, and the formation of mineralized extracellular matrix. The mAb 1D11.16 which neutralizes TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2, induced suppressive effects comparable to IL-10 when administered before the increase of cell proliferation in the culture. It appears that mainly TGF-beta 1 plays a role in this system since (a) TGF-beta 2 levels were undetectable in supernatants from osteogenic cultures, (b) no effect was observed when the anti-TGF-beta 2 neutralizing mAb 4C7.11 was added and (c) the suppressive effect of IL-10 could be reversed by adding exogenous TGF-beta 1. It is unlikely that TGF-beta 1 modulates osteogenic differentiation by changing the proliferative potential of marrow cells since 1D11.16 did not affect [3H]thymidine ([3H]TdR) incorporation or the number of fibroblast colony forming cells (CFU-F) which harbor the osteoprogenitor cell population. Furthermore, 1D11.16 did not alter [3H]TdR uptake by the cloned osteoprogenitor cell lines MN7 and MC3T3. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed that IL-10 and 1D11.16 induced comparable morphological changes in the marrow cultures. Control cultures contained flat adherent cells embedded in a mineralized matrix. In contrast, IL-10 and 1D11.16 treated cultures were characterized by round non-adherent cells and the absence of a mineralized matrix. In this study, the mechanism by which IL-10 suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow was identified as inhibition of TGF-beta 1 production which is essential for osteogenic commitment of bone marrow cells. PMID:8106554

  8. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. volatile oil exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Fan, Te; Zhou, Ping; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

    2013-11-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) is a medicinal herb that generally used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating allergic inflammation. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the volatile oil from HC Thunb. on animal models of inflammation and the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema were significantly decreased by HC volatile oil. HC volatile oil showed pronounced inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and malondialdehyde production in the edematous exudates. In vitro exposure of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages to 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL of HC volatile oil significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to HC volatile oil had no effect on cell viability and systemic toxicity. Furthermore, HC volatile oil inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α by down-regulating LPS-stimulated iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression. Western blot analysis showed that HC volatile oil attenuated LPS-stimulated synthesis of iNOS and TNF-α protein in the macrophages, in parallel. These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of HC and clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:23280586

  9. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  10. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  11. GrpL, a Grb2-related Adaptor Protein, Interacts with SLP-76 to Regulate Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Law, Che-Leung; Ewings, Maria K.; Chaudhary, Preet M.; Solow, Sasha A.; Yun, Theodore J.; Marshall, Aaron J.; Hood, Leroy; Clark, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of signals from the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) involves a number of adaptor molecules. SH2 domain–containing protein 76 (SLP-76) interacts with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav to activate the nuclear factor of activated cells (NF-AT), and its expression is required for normal T cell development. We report the cloning and characterization of a novel Grb2-like adaptor molecule designated as Grb2-related protein of the lymphoid system (GrpL). Expression of GrpL is restricted to hematopoietic tissues, and it is distinguished from Grb2 by having a proline-rich region. GrpL can be coimmunoprecipitated with SLP-76 but not with Sos1 or Sos2 from Jurkat cell lysates. In contrast, Grb2 can be coimmunoprecipitated with Sos1 and Sos2 but not with SLP-76. Moreover, tyrosine-phosphorylated LAT/pp36/38 in detergent lysates prepared from anti-CD3 stimulated T cells associated with Grb2 but not GrpL. These data reveal the presence of distinct complexes involving GrpL and Grb2 in T cells. A functional role of the GrpL–SLP-76 complex is suggested by the ability of GrpL to act alone or in concert with SLP-76 to augment NF-AT activation in Jurkat T cells. PMID:10209041

  12. Expression of transcription factor HNF-4 in the extraembryonic endoderm, gut, and nephrogenic tissue of the developing mouse embryo: HNF-4 is a marker for primary endoderm in the implanting blastocyst.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, S A; Manova, K; Chen, W S; Hoodless, P; Weinstein, D C; Bachvarova, R F; Darnell, J E

    1994-01-01

    The expression of HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) mRNA in postimplantation mouse embryos was analyzed by in situ hybridization. Expression was found in the primary endoderm at embryonic day 4.5 and was restricted to the columnar visceral endoderm cells of the yolk sac from day 5.5 to day 8.5. HNF-4 mRNA was first detected in embryonic tissues at day 8.5, in the liver diverticulum and the hindgut. At later times HNF-4 transcripts were observed in the mesonephric tubules, pancreas, stomach, and intestine and, still later, in the metanephric tubules of the developing kidney. This expression pattern suggests that HNF-4 has a role in the earliest stages of murine postimplantation development as well as in organogenesis. Images PMID:8052626

  13. Krüppel-Like Factor 13 Deficiency in Uterine Endometrial Cells Contributes to Defective Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling but Not Lesion Establishment in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Velarde, Michael C; Giudice, Linda C; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2015-06-01

    Krüppel-like Factor (KLF) 13 and the closely related KLF9 are members of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors that have collectively emerged as essential regulators of tissue development, differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Steroid hormone-responsive tissues express multiple KLFs that are linked to progesterone receptor (PGR) and estrogen receptor (ESR) actions either as integrators or as coregulators. Endometriosis is a chronic disease characterized by progesterone resistance and dysregulated estradiol signaling; nevertheless, distinct KLF members' contributions to endometriosis remain largely undefined. We previously demonstrated promotion of ectopic lesion establishment by Klf9 null endometrium in a mouse model of endometriosis. Here we evaluated whether KLF13 loss of expression in endometrial cells may equally contribute to lesion formation. KLF13 transcript levels were lower in the eutopic endometria of women with versus women without endometriosis at menstrual midsecretory phase. In wild-type (WT) mouse recipients intraperitoneally administered WT or Klf13 null endometrial fragments, lesion incidence did not differ with donor genotype. No differences were noted for lesion volume, number, proliferation status, and apoptotic index as well. Klf13 null lesions displayed reduced total PGR and ESR1 (RNA and immunoreactive protein) and altered expression of several PGR and ESR1 target genes, relative to WT lesions. Unlike for Klf9 null lesions, changes in transcript levels for PGR-A, ESR1, and Notch/Hedgehog-associated pathway components were not observed for Klf13 null lesions. Results demonstrate lack of a causative relationship between endometrial KLF13 deficiency and lesion establishment in mice, and they support the broader participation of multiple signaling pathways, besides those mediated by steroid receptors, in the pathology of endometriosis. PMID:25904015

  14. Expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and the transcription factor ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein (ZONAB)-MsY3 in glial cells and colocalization at oligodendrocyte and astrocyte gap junctions in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Penes, Mihai C; Li, Xinbo; Nagy, James I

    2005-07-01

    The PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) interacts with several members of the connexin (Cx) family of gap junction-forming proteins and has been localized to gap junctions, including those containing Cx47 in oligodendrocytes. We now provide evidence for ZO-1 expression in astrocytes in vivo and association with astrocytic connexins by confocal immunofluorescence demonstration of ZO-1 colocalization with astrocytic Cx30 and Cx43, and by ZO-1 coimmunoprecipitation with Cx30 and Cx43. Evidence for direct interaction of Cx30 with ZO-1 was obtained by pull-down assays that indicated binding of Cx30 to the second of the three PDZ domains in ZO-1. Further, we investigated mouse Y-box transcription factor MsY3, the canine ortholog of which has been termed ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein (ZONAB) and previously reported to interact with ZO-1. By immunofluorescence using specific antimouse ZONAB antibody, ZONAB was found to be associated with oligodendrocytes throughout mouse brain and spinal cord, and to be colocalized with oligodendrocytic Cx47 and Cx32 as well as with astrocytic Cx43. Our results extend the CNS cell types that express the multifunctional protein ZO-1, demonstrate an additional connexin (Cx30) that directly interacts with ZO-1, and show for the first time the association of a transcription factor (ZONAB) with ZO-1 localized to oligodendrocyte and astrocyte gap junctions. Given previous observations that ZONAB and ZO-1 in combination regulate gene expression, our results suggest roles of glial gap junction-mediated anchoring of signalling molecules in a wide variety of glial homeostatic processes. PMID:16045494

  15. Krüppel-Like Factor 13 Deficiency in Uterine Endometrial Cells Contributes to Defective Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling but Not Lesion Establishment in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Velarde, Michael C; Giudice, Linda C; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2015-06-01

    Krüppel-like Factor (KLF) 13 and the closely related KLF9 are members of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors that have collectively emerged as essential regulators of tissue development, differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Steroid hormone-responsive tissues express multiple KLFs that are linked to progesterone receptor (PGR) and estrogen receptor (ESR) actions either as integrators or as coregulators. Endometriosis is a chronic disease characterized by progesterone resistance and dysregulated estradiol signaling; nevertheless, distinct KLF members' contributions to endometriosis remain largely undefined. We previously demonstrated promotion of ectopic lesion establishment by Klf9 null endometrium in a mouse model of endometriosis. Here we evaluated whether KLF13 loss of expression in endometrial cells may equally contribute to lesion formation. KLF13 transcript levels were lower in the eutopic endometria of women with versus women without endometriosis at menstrual midsecretory phase. In wild-type (WT) mouse recipients intraperitoneally administered WT or Klf13 null endometrial fragments, lesion incidence did not differ with donor genotype. No differences were noted for lesion volume, number, proliferation status, and apoptotic index as well. Klf13 null lesions displayed reduced total PGR and ESR1 (RNA and immunoreactive protein) and altered expression of several PGR and ESR1 target genes, relative to WT lesions. Unlike for Klf9 null lesions, changes in transcript levels for PGR-A, ESR1, and Notch/Hedgehog-associated pathway components were not observed for Klf13 null lesions. Results demonstrate lack of a causative relationship between endometrial KLF13 deficiency and lesion establishment in mice, and they support the broader participation of multiple signaling pathways, besides those mediated by steroid receptors, in the pathology of endometriosis.

  16. Alterations of epigenetic signatures in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α deficient mouse liver determined by improved ChIP-qPCR and (h)MeDIP-qPCR assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghao; Lei, Xiaohong; Lu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a liver-enriched transcription factor essential for liver development and function. In hepatocytes, HNF4α regulates a large number of genes important for nutrient/xenobiotic metabolism and cell differentiation and proliferation. Currently, little is known about the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation by HNF4α. In this study, the global and specific alterations at the selected gene loci of representative histone modifications and DNA methylations were investigated in Hnf4a-deficient female mouse livers using the improved MeDIP-, hMeDIP- and ChIP-qPCR assay. Hnf4a deficiency significantly increased hepatic total IPed DNA fragments for histone H3 lysine-4 dimethylation (H3K4me2), H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3 and H3K4 acetylation, but not for H3K9me3, 5-methylcytosine,or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. At specific gene loci, the relative enrichments of histone and DNA modifications were changed to different degree in Hnf4a-deficient mouse liver. Among the epigenetic signatures investigated, changes in H3K4me3 correlated the best with mRNA expression. Additionally, Hnf4a-deficient livers had increased mRNA expression of histone H1.2 and H3.3 as well as epigenetic modifiers Dnmt1, Tet3, Setd7, Kmt2c, Ehmt2, and Ezh2. In conclusion, the present study provides convenient improved (h)MeDIP- and ChIP-qPCR assays for epigenetic study. Hnf4a deficiency in young-adult mouse liver markedly alters histone methylation and acetylation, with fewer effects on DNA methylation and 5-hydroxymethylation. The underlying mechanism may be the induction of epigenetic enzymes responsible for the addition/removal of the epigenetic signatures, and/or the loss of HNF4α per se as a key coordinator for epigenetic modifiers.

  17. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Phan, Anne Q; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2015-08-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain-of-function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position-specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position-specific, developmental-stage-specific, and heparan sulfate-dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals.

  18. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Anne Q.; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain‐of‐function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position‐specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position‐specific, developmental‐stage‐specific, and heparan sulfate‐dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals. PMID:27499874

  19. Positional information in axolotl and mouse limb extracellular matrix is mediated via heparan sulfate and fibroblast growth factor during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Phan, Anne Q; Lee, Jangwoo; Oei, Michelle; Flath, Craig; Hwe, Caitlyn; Mariano, Rachele; Vu, Tiffany; Shu, Cynthia; Dinh, Andrew; Simkin, Jennifer; Muneoka, Ken; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2015-08-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate complex body structures after traumatic injury. In salamander regeneration, the cells maintain a memory of their original position and use this positional information to recreate the missing pattern. We used an in vivo gain-of-function assay to determine whether components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have positional information required to induce formation of new limb pattern during regeneration. We discovered that salamander limb ECM has a position-specific ability to either inhibit regeneration or induce de novo limb structure, and that this difference is dependent on heparan sulfates that are associated with differential expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases. We also discovered that an artificial ECM containing only heparan sulfate was sufficient to induce de novo limb pattern in salamander limb regeneration. Finally, ECM from mouse limbs is capable of inducing limb pattern in axolotl blastemas in a position-specific, developmental-stage-specific, and heparan sulfate-dependent manner. This study demonstrates a mechanism for positional information in regeneration and establishes a crucial functional link between salamander regeneration and mammals. PMID:27499874

  20. Differential Expression and Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) mRNA Isoforms in Brain Cells from Mecp2(308/y) Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Rousseaud, Audrey; Delépine, Chloé; Nectoux, Juliette; Billuart, Pierre; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which encodes a transcriptional modulator of many genes including BDNF. BDNF comprises nine distinct promoter regions, each triggering the expression of a specific transcript. The role of this diversity of transcripts remains unknown. MeCP2 being highly expressed in neurons, RTT was initially considered as a neuronal disease. However, recent studies have shown that MeCP2 was also expressed in astrocytes. Though several studies explored Bdnf IV expression in Mecp2-deficient mice, the differential expression of Bdnf isoforms in Mecp2-deficient neurons and astrocytes was never studied. By using TaqMan technology and a mouse model expressing a truncated Mecp2 (Mecp2(308/y)), we firstly showed in neurons that Bdnf transcripts containing exon I, IIb, IIc, IV, and VI are prominently expressed, whereas in astrocytes, Bdnf transcript containing exon VI is preferentially expressed, suggesting a specific regulation of Bdnf expression at the cellular level. Secondly, we confirmed the repressive role of Mecp2 only on the expression of Bdnf VI in neurons. Our data suggested that the truncated Mecp2 protein maintains its function on Bdnf expression regulation in neurons and in astrocytes. Interestingly, we observed that Bdnf transcripts (I and IXA), regulated by neural activity induced by bicuculline in Mecp2(308/y) neurons, were not affected by histone deacetylase inhibition. In contrast, Bdnf transcripts (IIb, IIc, and VI), regulated by histone deacetylation, were not affected by bicuculline treatment in wild-type and Mecp2(308/y) neurons. All these results reflect the complexity of regulation of Bdnf gene.

  1. Nuclear factor XIIIa staining (clone AC-1A1 mouse monoclonal) is a sensitive and specific marker to discriminate sebaceous proliferations from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhake, Elizabeth E; Clark, Lindsey N; Smoller, Bruce R; Shalin, Sara C; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-08-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy that may be difficult to diagnose when poorly differentiated. Other epithelial tumors with clear cell change may mimic sebaceous carcinoma. Few useful or specific immunohistochemical markers for sebaceous differentiation are available. Nuclear staining with factor XIIIa (clone AC-1A1) was recently found to be a highly sensitive marker of sebaceous differentiation. We evaluated nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining in sebaceous neoplasms vs. other cutaneous clear cell tumors. We stained 27 sebaceous proliferations: sebaceous hyperplasia (7), sebaceous adenoma (8), sebaceoma (5), sebaceous carcinoma (7). We also stained 67 tumors with clear cell change: basal cell carcinoma (8), squamous cell carcinoma (8), hidradenoma (7), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (2), trichilemmoma (10), trichilemmal carcinoma (3), clear cell acanthoma (9), atypical fibroxanthoma (1), syringoma (8), trichoepithelioma (1), metastatic renal cell carcinoma (2), and nevi with balloon cell change (8). Nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining was present in 100% of sebaceous proliferations; 96% displayed strong staining. Non-sebaceous clear cell tumors were negative or only weakly positive with factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) in 95.5%; only 4.5% showed strong staining. This suggests that strong nuclear factor XIIIa (AC-1A1) staining is a sensitive and specific marker of sebaceous neoplasms vs. other clear cell tumors.

  2. Identification of the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in the trajectory of serotonergic differentiation in a rapid assay in mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Atsushi; Toi, Akihiro; Kurita, Maki; Kimoto, Saki; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Shintani, Norihito; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ito, Akira; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Ago, Yukio; Waschek, James A; Onaka, Yusuke; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism by which extracellular molecules control serotonergic cell fate remains elusive. Recently, we showed that noggin, which inactivates bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), induces serotonergic differentiation of mouse embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells with coordinated gene expression along the serotonergic lineage. Here, we created a rapid assay for serotonergic induction by generating knock-in ES cells expressing a naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase driven by the enhancer of Pet-1/Fev, a landmark of serotonergic differentiation. Using these cells, we performed candidate-based screening and identified BMP type I receptor kinase inhibitors LDN-193189 and DMH1 as activators of luciferase. LDN-193189 induced ES cells to express the genes encoding Pet-1, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and the serotonin transporter, and increased serotonin release without altering dopamine release. In contrast, TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB-431542 selectively inhibited serotonergic differentiation, without changing overall neuronal differentiation. LDN-193189 inhibited expression of the BMP signaling target gene Id, and induced the TGF-β target gene Lefty, whereas the opposite effect was observed with SB-431542. This study thus provides a new tool to investigate serotonergic differentiation and suggests that inhibition of BMP type I receptors and concomitant activation of TGF-β receptor signaling are implicated in serotonergic differentiation. Candidate-based screening for serotonergic induction using a rapid assay in mouse embryonic stem cells revealed that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor kinase inhibitors selectively induce serotonergic differentiation, whereas the TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB-431542 inhibits the differentiation. These results suggest that inhibition of BMP type I receptors and concomitant activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor signaling are involved in the early trajectory of serotonergic

  3. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2 Axis Can Promote Mouse and Human Primary Mast Cell Angiogenic Potential through Upregulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    Chumanevich, Alena; Wedman, Piper; Oskeritzian, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) are present in most vascularized tissues around the vasculature likely exerting immunomodulatory functions. Endowed with diverse mediators, resident MC represent first-line fine-tuners of local microenvironment. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) functions as a pluripotent signaling sphingolipid metabolite in health and disease. S1P formation occurs at low levels in resting MC and is upregulated upon activation. Its export can result in type 2 S1P receptor- (S1PR2-) mediated stimulation of MC, further fueling inflammation. However, the role of S1PR2 ligation in proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) A and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2 release from MC is unknown. Using a preclinical MC-dependent model of acute allergic responses and in vitro stimulated primary mouse bone marrow-derived MC (BMMC) or human primary skin MC, we report that S1P signaling resulted in substantial amount of VEGF-A release. Similar experiments using S1pr2-deficient mice or BMMC or selective S1P receptor agonists or antagonists demonstrated that S1P/S1PR2 ligation on MC is important for VEGF-A secretion. Further, we show that S1P stimulation triggered transcriptional upregulation of VEGF-A and MMP-2 mRNA in human but not in mouse MC. S1P exposure also triggered MMP-2 secretion from human MC. These studies identify a novel proangiogenic axis encompassing MC/S1P/S1PR2 likely relevant to inflammation. PMID:26884643

  4. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  5. Mercury and silver induce B cell activation and anti-nucleolar autoantibody production in outbred mouse stocks: are environmental factors more important than the susceptibility genes in connection with autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Abedi-Valugerdi, M

    2009-01-01

    Environmental and predisposing genetic factors are known to play a crucial role in the development of systemic autoimmune diseases. With respect to the role of environmental factors, it is not known how and to what extent they contribute to the initiation and exacerbation of systemic autoimmunity. In the present study, I considered this issue and asked if environmental factors can induce autoimmunity in the absence of specific susceptible genes. The development of genetically controlled mercury- and silver-induced B cell activation and anti-nucleolar autoantibodies (ANolA) production in genetically heterozygous outbred Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) and Black Swiss mouse stocks were analysed. Four weeks of treatment with both mercury and silver induced a strong B cell activation characterized by increased numbers of splenic antibody-secreting cells of at least one or more immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype(s) in all treated stocks. The three stocks also exhibited a marked increase in the serum IgE levels in response to mercury, but not silver. More importantly, in response to mercury a large numbers of ICR (88%), NMRI (96%) and Black Swiss (100%) mice produced different levels of IgG1 and IgG2a ANolA (a characteristic which is linked strictly to the H-2 genes). Similarly, but at lower magnitudes, treatment with silver also induced the production of IgG1 and IgG2a ANolA in 60% of ICR, 75% of NMRI and 100% of Black Swiss mice. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that long-term exposure to certain environmental factors can activate the immune system to produce autoimmunity per se, without requiring specific susceptible genes.

  6. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  7. The niche-derived glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) induces migration of mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Dovere, Lisa; Fera, Stefania; Grasso, Margherita; Lamberti, Dante; Gargioli, Cesare; Muciaccia, Barbara; Lustri, Anna Maria; Stefanini, Mario; Vicini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, the biological activity of the stem/progenitor compartment sustains production of mature gametes through spermatogenesis. Spermatogonial stem cells and their progeny belong to the class of undifferentiated spermatogonia, a germ cell population found on the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubules. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a Sertoli-derived factor, is essential for in vivo and in vitro stem cell self-renewal. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. In this study, we show that GDNF induces dose-dependent directional migration of freshly selected undifferentiated spermatogonia, as well as germline stem cells in culture, using a Boyden chamber assay. GDNF-induced migration is dependent on the expression of the GDNF co-receptor GFRA1, as shown by migration assays performed on parental and GFRA1-transduced GC-1 spermatogonial cell lines. We found that the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is specifically expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. VASP belongs to the ENA/VASP family of proteins implicated in actin-dependent processes, such as fibroblast migration, axon guidance, and cell adhesion. In intact seminiferous tubules and germline stem cell cultures, GDNF treatment up-regulates VASP in a dose-dependent fashion. These data identify a novel role for the niche-derived factor GDNF, and they suggest that GDNF may impinge on the stem/progenitor compartment, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  8. Nuclear receptor co-regulator Krüppel-like factor 9 and prohibitin 2 expression in oestrogen-induced epithelial cell proliferation in the mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    Pabona, J M P; Velarde, M C; Zeng, Z; Simmen, F A; Simmen, R C M

    2008-01-01

    Oestrogen, acting through its cognate receptor oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), is a critical regulator of uterine endometrial epithelial proliferation. Although the dynamic communication between endometrial stromal and epithelial cells is considered to be an important component in this process, key molecular players in particular compartments remain poorly defined. Here, we used mice null for Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) to evaluate the contribution of this nuclear protein in stromal-epithelial interactions underlying proliferative effects of oestrogen. We find that in ovariectomized mice administered estradiol-17β (E2) for 24 h, Klf9 null mutation resulted in lack of E2-induced proliferative response in all endometrial compartments. We demonstrate a negative association between Klf9 expression and nuclear levels of ERα transcriptional corepressor prohibitin (PHB) 2 in uterine stromal and epithelial cells of E2-treated wildtype (WT) and Klf9 null mice. In early pregnancy uteri of WT mice, the temporal pattern of Klf9 transcript levels was inversely associated with that of Phb2. Deletion of Klf9 up-regulated uterine Phb2 expression and increased PHB2 nuclear localization in endometrial stromal and epithelial cells, with no effects on the expression of the related Phb1. In the human endometrial stromal cell line HESC treated with E2 for 24 h, KLF9 siRNA targeting augmented PHB2 transcript and increased nuclear PHB2 protein levels, albeit this effect was not to the extent seen in vivo with Klf9 null mutants. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for control of oestrogen-induced luminal epithelial proliferation involving stromal KLF9 regulation of paracrine factor(s) to repress epithelial expression of corepressor PHB2. PMID:18835980

  9. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  10. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  11. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  12. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  13. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  14. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rithidech, K.N.; Rusek, A.; Reungpatthanaphong, P.; Honikel, L.; Simon, S.R.

    2010-05-28

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory [i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min{sup -1}, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays (10 mGy min{sup -1}). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, delivered at 10 mGy min{sup -1}, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-{kappa}B activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p < 0.05 or < 0.01) were induced by either dose rate, these levels varied over time for each protein. Further, only a dose rate of 5 mGy min{sup -1} induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  15. AAV-mediated delivery of the transcription factor XBP1s into the striatum reduces mutant Huntingtin aggregation in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zuleta, Amparo; Vidal, Rene L.; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Hetz, Claudio

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contribution of ER stress to HD has not been directly addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of XBP1s using AAVs decreases Huntingtin aggregation in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new in vivo model of HD based on the expression of a large fragment of mHtt-RFP. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by mutations that expand a polyglutamine region in the amino-terminal domain of Huntingtin (Htt), leading to the accumulation of intracellular inclusions and progressive neurodegeneration. Recent reports indicate the engagement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in human HD post mortem samples and animal models of the disease. Adaptation to ER stress is mediated by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an integrated signal transduction pathway that attenuates protein folding stress by controlling the expression of distinct transcription factors including X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Here we targeted the expression of XBP1 on a novel viral-based model of HD. We delivered an active form of XBP1 locally into the striatum of adult mice using adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) and co-expressed this factor with a large fragment of mutant Htt as a fusion protein with RFP (Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP) to directly visualize the accumulation of Htt inclusions in the brain. Using this approach, we observed a significant reduction in the accumulation of Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP intracellular inclusion when XBP1 was co-expressed in the striatum. These results contrast with recent findings indicating a protective effect of XBP1 deficiency in neurodegeneration using knockout mice, and suggest a potential use of gene therapy strategies to manipulate the UPR in the context of HD.

  16. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  17. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts induced by oxidized LDL and in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2011-09-01

    The present study demonstrated that oxidized LDL (oLDL) increased the generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the abundances of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4, NOX2, p22-phox and lectin-like oLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) in wild-type or heat shock factor-1 (HSF1)-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). LOX-1 antibody inhibited LDL or oLDL-induced expression of NOX components in MEF. Abundance of HSF1 or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was increased by oLDL in wild-type, but not in HSF1-deficient MEF. Diphenyleneiodonium or siRNA for NOX or p22-phox inhibited oLDL-induced increases of HSF1, PAI-1 and H(2)O(2) in MEF. Increased NOX4, NOX2, LOX1, HSF1 and PAI-1 were detected in aortae and hearts of apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice compared to controls, which were associated with increased serum cholesterol or plasma PAI-1. The results suggest that NOX is required for oLDL-induced HSF1 or PAI-1 expression in MEF, which was supported by the up-regulation of NOX, LOX-1, HSF1 and PAI-1 in apoE-KO mice.

  18. Wnt signaling and gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Taketo, M M

    2006-12-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling plays important roles in embryonic development and tumorigenesis. For the latter, induced mutations in mice have greatly contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer initiation and progression. Here, I will review recent reports on gastrointestinal cancer model mice, with an emphasis on the roles of the Wnt signal pathway. They include: mouse models for familial adenomatous polyposis; modifying factors that affect mouse intestinal polyposis, including the genes that help cancer progression; Wnt target genes that affect mouse intestinal polyposis; and a mouse model of gastric cancer that mimics Helicobacter pyroli infection. PMID:17143296

  19. Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease123

    PubMed Central

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia. This study aimed to determine whether a dietary intervention could attenuate microgliosis. Memory was assessed in 12-mo-old male amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice via Barnes maze testing followed by division into either a control-fed group provided free access to normal chow and water or a treatment group provided free access to normal chow and drinking water supplemented with pomegranate extract (6.25 mL/L) for 3 mo followed by repeat Barnes maze testing for both groups. Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice. An additional behavioral study again used 12-mo-old male APP/PS1 mice tested by T-maze followed by division into a control group provided with free access to normal chow and sugar supplemented drinking water or a treatment group provided with normal chow and pomegranate extract–supplemented drinking water (6.25 mL/L) for 1 mo followed by repeat T-maze testing in both groups. One month of pomegranate feeding increased spontaneous alternations versus control-fed mice (P < 0.05). Cell culture experiments verified that 2 polyphenol components of pomegranate extract, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated NFAT activity in a reporter

  20. Comparisons of the effects of TCDD and hydrocortisone on growth factor expression provide insight into their interaction in the embryonic mouse palate

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Harris, M.W.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cleft palate (CP) can be induced in embryonic mice by a wide range of compounds, including glucocorticoids and 2,3,7,8-tyetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Hydrocortisone (HC), a glucocorticoid, retards embryonic growth producing small palatal shelves, while TCDD exposure blocks the fusion of normally sized shelves. TCDD induction of CP involves altered differentiation of the medial epithelial cells. Recent studies indicate that growth factors such as EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta2 are involved in palatogenesis, regulating proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. A synergism has been observed between HC and TCDD in which doses too low to induce CP alone are able to produce >90% incidence when coadministered. In the present study a standard teratology protocol was performed in C57BL/6N mice to examine the synergism at doses lower than those previously published. Data from the study indicate synergistic interactions at doses as low as 3 micrograms TCDD/kg + 1 mg HC/kg. This extreme sensitivity suggests the involvement of a receptor-mediated mechanism possibly resulting in altered regulation of gene expression. (Copyright (c) 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.)

  1. Human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55) and interleukin 10 gene transfer in the mouse reduces mortality to lethal endotoxemia and also attenuates local inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Anticytokine therapies have been promulgated in gram-negative sepsis as a means of preventing or neutralizing excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, systemic administration of cytokine inhibitors is an inefficient means of targeting excessive production in individual tissue compartments. In the present study, human gene transfer was used to deliver to organs of the reticuloendothelial system antagonists that either inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) synthesis or block its interactions with cellular receptors. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with cationic liposomes containing 200 micrograms of either a pCMV (cytomegalovirus)/p55 expression plasmid that contains the extracellular domain and transmembrane region of the human p55 TNF receptor, or a pcD-SR-alpha/hIL-10 expression plasmid containing the DNA for human interleukin 10. 48 h later, mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine. Pretreatment of mice with p55 or IL-10 cDNA-liposome complexes improved survival (p < 0.01) to LPS-D-galactosamine. In additional studies, intratracheal administration of IL-10 DNA-liposome complexes 48 h before an intratracheal LPS challenge reduced pulmonary TNF-alpha levels by 62% and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the lung by 55% as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (both p < 0.05). Gene transfer with cytokine inhibitors is a promising option for the treatment of both the systemic and local sequelae of septic shock. PMID:7760015

  2. Tachyplesin III and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor enhance the efficacy of tazobactam/piperacillin in a neutropenic mouse model of polymicrobial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Kamysz, Wojciech; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Mocchegiani, Federico; Di Matteo, Fabio; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Riva, Alessandra; Rocchi, Marco; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Giacometti, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of tazobactam/piperacillin (TZP), tachyplesin III and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in an experimental murine neutropenic intraabdominal infection. BALB/c male mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide on days -4 and -2 pre-infection. Septic shock was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Animals received intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution (control group C1), 1mg/kg of tachyplesin III, 120 mg/kg of TZP, 0.1mg/kg of G-CSF, tachyplesin III plus TZP, G-CSF plus TZP and finally tachyplesin III plus G-CSF plus TZP, respectively. Lethality, bacterial growth in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes, endotoxin, IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations in plasma were evaluated. All compounds reduced the lethality when compared to controls. Endotoxin and cytokine plasma levels were significantly higher in TZP-treated animals compared to tachyplesin III-treated animals. Finally, all drug combinations showed to be the most effective treatment in reducing all variables measured. Interestingly, the strongest results concerning the bacterial growth inhibition, lethality and endotoxemia were obtained when the three compounds were contemporaneously administered. The presence of their positive interaction makes tachyplesin III and G-CSF potentially valuable as an adjuvant for antimicrobial chemotherapy of sepsis.

  3. Efficient targeting and tumor retardation effect of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF)-specific RNA replacement in pancreatic cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Kim, Eun-Ok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Heo, Kyun; Lee, Yusun; Kim, Hana; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Daehong; Song, Min Sun; Lee, Seoung-Wook; Lee, Yangsoon; Koh, Sang Seok; Kim, In-Hoo

    2014-03-28

    The soluble protein pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) plays an important role in pancreatic tumor progression and has begun to attract attention as a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. We herein present PAUF RNA-targeting gene therapy strategies with both targeting and therapeutic function using trans-splicing ribozyme (TSR) in pancreatic cancer. We developed adenoviral PAUF-targeting TSR (Rz) containing a PAUF-specific internal guide sequence (IGS) determined by library screening. This Rz harbors suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) or firefly luciferase (Luc) as a transgene for 3' exon replacement of PAUF RNAs. Ad-Rz-TK, Rz harboring the HSV-tk, showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in vivo as well as PAUF-dependent cell death in vitro via a successful trans-splicing reaction. Selective induction of Rz-controlled transgene in PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer was confirmed through noninvasive in vivo imaging; a luminescence signal from Rz harboring Luc (Ad-Rz-Luc) was detectable only in pancreatic tumor sites, not in normal mice. In addition, a [(125)I] FIAU signal reflecting thymidine kinase expression through SPECT and ex vivo biodistribution was co-localized with the tumor sites when we treated with Ad-Rz-TK in orthotopic xenograft model. Taken together, these results imply that PAUF-targeting TSR can contribute to successful targeted gene therapy for pancreatic cancer.

  4. Plasticity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow in the Presence of Conditioned Medium of the Facial Nerve and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; Júnior, Expedito Silva do Nascimento; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2014-01-01

    A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein β-tubulin III (β-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs. PMID:25614888

  5. Overexpression of apolipoprotein A-I fused to an anti-transforming growth factor beta peptide modulates the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of mouse colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Vasquez, Marcos; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Berraondo, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in established tumors. In this study, we analyzed the effect of overexpressing an anti-TGF-β peptide fused to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) as a scaffold molecule. We generated and characterized stable MC38 colon carcinoma clones expressing ApoA-I fused to the anti-TGF-β peptide P144 and ApoA-I as control cells. We evaluated in vitro the gene expression profile, cell cycle and anchorage-independent growth. The in vivo tumorigenic potential and immunogenicity were analyzed inoculating the MC38 clones into C57BL/6 mice, recombination-activating gene 1 knockout mice or mice deficient in NK cells either subcutaneously or intrasplenically to generate hepatic metastases. While overexpression of ApoA-I had no effect on the parameters analyzed, ApoA-I fused to P144 markedly diminished the tumorigenic capacity and metastatic potential of MC38 in vitro and in vivo, thus generating a highly immunogenic cell line. MC38 cells transfected with ApoA-I fused to P144 triggered memory T cell responses able to eliminate the parental cell line upon re-challenge. In summary, expression of ApoA-I fused to P144 is a novel strategy to modulate TGF-β in tumor cells. These results highlight the potential of TGF-β as a target in the development of new antitumor treatments.

  6. Fermented guava leaf extract inhibits LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in Mouse macrophage cells by inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho; Park, Soo-Young; Jin, Yeong-Jun; Ko, Hee-Chul; Moon, Sang-Wook; Kim, Se-Jae

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the antiinflammatory activities of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaf. To improve the functionality of guava leaf, it was fermented with Phellinus linteus mycelia, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol extract from fermented guava leaf inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. Western blot analysis showed that fermented guava leaf extract decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the mechanism involved, the study examined the effect of fermented guava leaf extract on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Fermented guava leaf extract significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity. Immunochemical analysis revealed that fermented guava leaf extract suppressed LPS-induced degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Taken together, the data indicate that fermented guava leaf extract is involved in the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB pathway, revealing a partial molecular basis for the antiinflammatory properties of fermented guava leaf extract.

  7. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A inhibition alters physiopathology and immune responses in a “humanized” transgenic mouse model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic options for treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are still missing. New avenues for immune modulation need to be developed. Here we attempted at altering the diabetes outcome of our humanized model of T1D by inhibiting translation-initiation factor eIF5A hypusination in vivo. Double-transgenic (DQ8-GAD65) mice were immunized with adenoviral vectors carrying GAD65 for diabetes induction. Animals were subsequently treated with deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) inhibitor GC7 and monitored for diabetes development over time. On one hand, helper CD4+ T cells were clearly affected by the downregulation of the eIF5A not just at the pancreas level but overall. On the other hand, the T regulatory cell component of CD4 responded with activation and proliferation significantly higher than in the non-GC7-treated controls. Female mice seemed to be more susceptible to these effects. All together, our results show for the first time that downregulation of eIF5A through inhibition of DHS altered the physiopathology and observed immune outcome of diabetes in an animal model that closely resembles human T1D. Although the development of diabetes could not be abrogated by DHS inhibition, the immunomodulatory capacity of this approach may supplement other interventions directed at increasing regulation of autoreactive T cells in T1D. PMID:24496311

  8. Inhibition of the transcription factor Sp1 suppresses colon cancer stem cell growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingying; Zhang, Wenjing; Guo, Zheng; Ma, Feng; Wu, Yao; Bai, Yang; Gong, Wei; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tianming; Zhi, Fachao; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jide; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) plays a role in the development and progression of various types of human cancers, while cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important in cancer cell self-renewal, resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. This study investigated the role of Sp1 in colon CSC growth and apoptosis. Colon CSCs were successfully enriched using special culture medium and identified by typical CSC gene expression. In a quiescent state, these CSCs formed spheres with slow proliferation; overexpressed Sp1, CD44, CD166 and CD133 proteins; upregulated mesenchymal markers; and a downregulated epithelial marker were noted. In ex vivo experiments, the Sp1 protein was expressed in 74.8% of colon cancer tissues, whereas it was expressed only in 42.2% of the distant normal colon mucosae. Furthermore, inhibition of SP1 expression using Sp1 siRNA or mithramycin A (MIT) led to marked suppression of CSC growth and induced apoptosis. In addition, the percentage of CD44+/CD166+ cells was significantly downregulated both in vivo and in vitro following Sp1 inhibition. In conclusion, Sp1 suppression attenuated the characteristics of colon CSCs. Thus, Sp1 inhibition may be potentially useful for the future development of a novel therapeutic strategy to control colon cancer.

  9. A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for human epidermal growth factor. Determination of hEGF in human serum and urine and pharmacokinetics in mouse.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Hashimoto, K; Sakamoto, S

    1989-07-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is described. The anti-hEGF antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbits with hEGF, which was synthesized by Escherichia coli using the genetic engineering technique. The present assay system was based on the sandwiching of an antigen between anti-hEGF F(ab')2 precoated on a 96-well polystyrene plate and beta-D-galactosidase-labeled anti-hEGF Fab'. The range of measurable hEGF by this assay was 0.1-100 pg/well. Recoveries of hEGF added to serum and urine ranged between 94 and 108%. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 6 and 8%, respectively. The results obtained by this assay method correlated well with those obtained by the radioimmunoassay method. By using this assay, the time course of serum hEGF levels in mice after the various administrations were also examined.

  10. Contrasting effects of Krüppel-like factor 4 on X-ray-induced double-strand and single-strand DNA breaks in mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Cui, Fengmei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Liyuan; Chen, Qiu; Tian, Ye

    2014-04-01

    Astrocytes, the most common cell type in the brain, play a principal role in the repair of damaged brain tissues during external radiotherapy of brain tumours. As a downstream gene of p53, the effects of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in response to X-ray-induced DNA damage in astrocytes are unclear. In the present study, KLF4 expression was upregulated after the exposure of astrocytes isolated from the murine brain. Inhibition of KLF4 expression using lentiviral transduction produced less double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) determined by a neutral comet assay and flow cytometric analysis of phosphorylated histone family 2A variant and more single-strand DNA breaks (SSB) determined by a basic comet assay when the astrocytes were exposed to 4 Gy of X-ray radiation. These data suggest that radiation exposure of the tissues around brain tumour during radiation therapy causes KLF4 overexpression in astrocytes, which induces more DSB and reduces SSB. This causes the adverse effects of radiation therapy in the treatment of brain tumours.

  11. Mouse homologues of human hereditary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, A G; Edwards, J H; Hall, J G

    1994-01-01

    Details are given of 214 loci known to be associated with human hereditary disease, which have been mapped on both human and mouse chromosomes. Forty two of these have pathological variants in both species; in general the mouse variants are similar in their effects to the corresponding human ones, but exceptions include the Dmd/DMD and Hprt/HPRT mutations which cause little, if any, harm in mice. Possible reasons for phenotypic differences are discussed. In most pathological variants the gene product seems to be absent or greatly reduced in both species. The extensive data on conserved segments between human and mouse chromosomes are used to predict locations in the mouse of over 50 loci of medical interest which are mapped so far only on human chromosomes. In about 80% of these a fairly confident prediction can be made. Some likely homologies between mapped mouse loci and unmapped human ones are also given. Sixty six human and mouse proto-oncogene and growth factor gene homologies are also listed; those of confirmed location are all in known conserved segments. A survey of 18 mapped human disease loci and chromosome regions in which the manifestation or severity of pathological effects is thought to be the result of genomic imprinting shows that most of the homologous regions in the mouse are also associated with imprinting, especially those with homologues on human chromosomes 11p and 15q. Useful methods of accelerating the production of mouse models of human hereditary disease include (1) use of a supermutagen, such as ethylnitrosourea (ENU), (2) targeted mutagenesis involving ES cells, and (3) use of gene transfer techniques, with production of 'knockout mutations'. PMID:8151633

  12. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models for Studying Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Takahito; Himuro, Hidetomo; Okada, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that is mediated by very complex mechanisms controlled by genetic, immune, and environmental factors. More than 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse strains have been established since 1993 for studying IBD. Although mouse models cannot fully reflect human IBD, they have provided significant contributions for not only understanding the mechanism, but also developing new therapeutic means for IBD. Indeed, 20 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models carry the susceptibility genes identified in human IBD, and the functions of some other IBD susceptibility genes have also been dissected out using mouse models. Cutting-edge technologies such as cell-specific and inducible knockout systems, which were recently employed to mouse IBD models, have further enhanced the ability of investigators to provide important and unexpected rationales for developing new therapeutic strategies for IBD. In this review article, we briefly introduce 74 kinds of genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation. PMID:26387641

  13. AAV-Dominant Negative Tumor Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) Gene Transfer to the Striatum Does Not Rescue Medium Spiny Neurons in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alto, Laura Taylor; Chen, Xi; Ruhn, Kelly A.; Treviño, Isaac; Tansey, Malú G.

    2014-01-01

    CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD), like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN) degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG) mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF) or GFP (control) were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30–50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice. PMID:24824433

  14. Expansion of the dentate mossy fiber-CA3 projection in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-enriched mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Isgor, C; Pare, C; McDole, B; Coombs, P; Guthrie, K

    2015-03-12

    Structural changes that alter hippocampal functional circuitry are implicated in learning impairments, mood disorders and epilepsy. Reorganization of mossy fiber (MF) axons from dentate granule cells is one such form of plasticity. Increased neurotrophin signaling is proposed to underlie MF plasticity, and there is evidence to support a mechanistic role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this process. Transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in the forebrain under the α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promoter (TgBDNF mice) exhibit spatial learning deficits at 2-3months of age, followed by the emergence of spontaneous seizures at ∼6months. These behavioral changes suggest that chronic increases in BDNF progressively disrupt hippocampal functional organization. To determine if the dentate MF pathway is structurally altered in this strain, the present study employed Timm staining and design-based stereology to compare MF distribution and projection volumes in transgenic and wild-type mice at 2-3months, and at 6-7months. Mice in the latter age group were assessed for seizure vulnerability with a low dose of pilocarpine given 2h before euthanasia. At 2-3months, TgBDNF mice showed moderate expansion of CA3-projecting MFs (∼20%), with increased volumes measured in the suprapyramidal (SP-MF) and intra/infrapyramidal (IIP-MF) compartments. At 6-7months, a subset of transgenic mice exhibited increased seizure susceptibility, along with an increase in IIP-MF volume (∼30%). No evidence of MF sprouting was seen in the inner molecular layer. Additional stereological analyses demonstrated significant increases in molecular layer (ML) volume in TgBDNF mice at both ages, as well as an increase in granule cell number by 8months of age. Collectively, these results indicate that sustained increases in endogenous BDNF modify dentate structural organization over time, and may thereby contribute to the development of pro-epileptic circuitry.

  15. Subcellular plasticity of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor in dendrites of the mouse bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following chronic opiate exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jaferi, Azra; Lane, Diane A.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic opiate administration alters the expression levels of the stress-responsive peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). This brain region contains CRF receptors that drive drug-seeking behavior exacerbated by stress. We used electron microscopy to quantitatively compare immunolabeling of the CRF receptor (CRFr) and CRF in the anterolateral BNST (BSTal) of mice injected with saline or morphine in escalating doses for 14 days. We also compared the results with those in non-injected control mice. The tissue was processed for CRFr immunogold and CRF immunoperoxidase labeling. The non-injected controls had a significantly lower plasmalemmal density of CRFr immunogold particles in dendrites compared with mice receiving saline, but not those receiving morphine, injections. Compared with saline, however, mice receiving chronic morphine showed a significantly lower plasmalemmal, and greater cytoplasmic, density of CRFr immunogold in dendrites. Within the cytoplasmic compartment of somata and dendrites of the BSTal, the proportion of CRFr gold particles associated with mitochondria was three times as great in mice receiving morphine compared with saline. This subcellular distribution is consistent with morphine-, and CRFr-associated modulation of intracellular calcium release or oxidative stress. The between-group changes occurred without effect on the total number of dendritic CRFr immunogold particles, suggesting that chronic morphine enhances internalization or decreases delivery of the CRFr to the plasma membrane, a trafficking effect that is also affected by the stress of daily injections. In contrast, saline and morphine treatment groups showed no significant differences in the total number of CRF-immunoreactive axon terminals, or the frequency with which these terminals contacted CRFr-containing dendrites. This suggests that morphine does not influence axonal availability of CRF in the BSTal. The results

  16. Electron Microscopic Localization of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) and CRF Receptor in Rat and Mouse Central Nucleus of the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Treweek, Jennifer B.; Jaferi, Azra; Colago, Eric E.; Zhou, Ping; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2010-01-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is expressed in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), where the CRF receptor (CRFr) plays an important role in anxiety- and stress-related behaviors. To determine the subcellular sites of CRFr activation in this region, we examined the electron microscopic immunolabeling of antisera recognizing CRF or CRFr. The ultrastructural analysis was principally conducted in the lateral subdivision of the rat CeA, with comparisons being made in mice so as to optimally utilize mutant mice in control experiments. The CRFr labeling was seen in many small dendrites and dendritic spines as well as in a few somata, large dendrites, axons, and axon terminals or more rarely in glial processes. Approximately 35% of the CRFr-labeled dendrites contained CRF immunoreactivity, which was distributed diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, or specifically affiliated with either endomembranes or large dense-core vesicles. The CRF-immunoreactive vesicles also were present in somata and axon terminals with or without CRFr labeling. The CRF immunoreactivity was usually absent from both terminals and dendrites joined by asymmetric, excitatory-type synapses, where a postsynaptic location of the CRFr was commonly observed. Numerous terminals containing both CRF and CRFr were seen, however, within the neuropil and sometimes apposing the excitatory synapses. These results provide ultrastructural evidence for a primary involvement of CRF receptors in modulation of the postsynaptic excitability of CeA neurons, an effect that may be limited by the availability of CRF. The findings have important implications for understanding CRF mediation of rapid responses to stress. PMID:19003957

  17. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition produced anti-allodynia effect and suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in early stage of mouse complex regional pain syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Tsung; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Chin

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to microcirculation impairment associated with tissue hypoxia and peripheral cytokine overproduction in the affected limb. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis involves hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and exaggerated regional inflammatory response. 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) acts as the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) inhibitor and decreases the level of HIF-1α, and can rapidly be metabolized for Trx-1 redox inactivation. This study hypothesized that PX-12 can decrease the cytokine production for nociceptive sensitization in the hypoxia-induced pain model. CD1 mice weighing around 30 g were used. The animal CRPS model was developed via the chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model. The model was induced by using O-rings on the ankles of the mice hind limbs to produce 3-h ischaemia-reperfusion injury on the paw. PX-12 (25 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) was given through tail vein injection immediately after ischaemia. Animal behaviour was tested using the von Frey method for 7 days. Local paw skin tissue was harvest from three groups (control, 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg) 2 h after injection of PX-12. The protein expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and HIF-1α was analysed with the Western blotting method. Mice significantly present an anti-allodynia effect in a dose-related manner after the PX-12 administration. Furthermore, PX-12 not only decreased the expression of HIF-1α but also decreased the expression of IL-1β over the injured palm. This study, therefore, shows the first evidence of the anti-allodynia effect of PX-12 in a CPIP animal model for pain behaviour. The study concluded that inhibition of HIF-1α may produce an analgesic effect and the associated suppression of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in a CPIP model. PMID:26711019

  18. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Modulation of Forebrain GABAergic Transmission has a Pivotal Role in the Expression of Anabolic Steroid-Induced Anxiety in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G; Henderson, Leslie P

    2012-01-01

    Increased anxiety is commonly observed in individuals who illicitly administer anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Behavioral effects of steroid abuse have become an increasing concern in adults and adolescents of both sexes. The dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBnST) has a critical role in the expression of diffuse anxiety and is a key site of action for the anxiogenic neuromodulator, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Here we demonstrate that chronic, but not acute, exposure of female mice during adolescence to AAS augments anxiety-like behaviors; effects that were blocked by central infusion of the CRF receptor type 1 antagonist, antalarmin. AAS treatment selectively increased action potential (AP) firing in neurons of the central amygdala (CeA) that project to the dlBnST, increased the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in dlBnST target neurons, and decreased both c-FOS immunoreactivity (IR) and AP frequency in these postsynaptic cells. Acute application of antalarmin abrogated the enhancement of GABAergic inhibition induced by chronic AAS exposure whereas application of CRF to brain slices of naïve mice mimicked the actions of this treatment. These results, in concert with previous data demonstrating that chronic AAS treatment results in enhanced levels of CRF mRNA in the CeA and increased CRF-IR in the dlBnST neuropil, are consistent with a mechanism in which the enhanced anxiety elicited by chronic AAS exposure involves augmented inhibitory activity of CeA afferents to the dlBnST and CRF-dependent enhancement of GABAergic inhibition in this brain region. PMID:22298120

  19. Topical Application of a Platelet Activating Factor Receptor Agonist Suppresses Phorbol Ester-Induced Acute and Chronic Inflammation and Has Cancer Chemopreventive Activity in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ocana, Jesus A.; DaSilva-Arnold, Sonia C.; Bradish, Joshua R.; Richey, Justin D.; Warren, Simon J.; Rashid, Badri; Travers, Jeffrey B.; Konger, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has long been associated with acute edema and inflammatory responses. PAF acts by binding to a specific G-protein coupled receptor (PAF-R, Ptafr). However, the role of chronic PAF-R activation on sustained inflammatory responses has been largely ignored. We recently demonstrated that mice lacking the PAF-R (Ptafr-/- mice) exhibit increased cutaneous tumorigenesis in response to a two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol. Ptafr-/- mice also exhibited increased chronic inflammation in response to phorbol ester application. In this present study, we demonstrate that topical application of the non-hydrolysable PAF mimetic (carbamoyl-PAF (CPAF)), exerts a potent, dose-dependent, and short-lived edema response in WT mice, but not Ptafr -/- mice or mice deficient in c-Kit (c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice). Using an ear inflammation model, co-administration of topical CPAF treatment resulted in a paradoxical decrease in both acute ear thickness changes associated with a single PMA application, as well as the sustained inflammation associated with chronic repetitive PMA applications. Moreover, mice treated topically with CPAF also exhibited a significant reduction in chemical carcinogenesis. The ability of CPAF to suppress acute and chronic inflammatory changes in response to PMA application(s) was PAF-R dependent, as CPAF had no effect on basal or PMA-induced inflammation in Ptafr-/- mice. Moreover, c-Kit appears to be necessary for the anti-inflammatory effects of CPAF, as CPAF had no observable effect in c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These data provide additional evidence that PAF-R activation exerts complex immunomodulatory effects in a model of chronic inflammation that is relevant to neoplastic development. PMID:25375862

  20. Activity of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C

    1995-05-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent autacoid produced by the embryo and the endometrium during early pregnancy. Its actions in vivo are dependent upon its half-life, which in turn is largely governed by its metabolism. PAF:acetylhydrolase is a major metabolic enzyme for PAF and is widespread in body tissues and fluids. This study was an examination of the activity of this enzyme in the uterus (uterine luminal fluids and endometrial scrapings) of mice in the periovulatory period, throughout the preimplantation phase of pregnancy, and throughout the luteal phase of pseudopregnancy. PAF:acetylhydrolase activity was found in uterine washings and endometrial tissue; it was dependent upon incubation time and protein concentration and was destroyed by boiling. The activity was not affected by cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and was not inhibited by bromophenacyl bromide, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor. The specific and total activity changed dramatically throughout the reproductive cycle. Total tissue activity did not change significantly during the follicular phase. On the day after ovulation, tissue activity was lower in naturally mated mice and was maintained at this level until Day 4; there was no difference in this value between pregnant and pseudopregnant animals. On days 5 and 6 of pseudopregnancy the total tissue activity increased, reaching a peak on Day 6 of 4609 pmol acetate released.min-1, approximately 780% higher than the value obtained on Day 4. Activity then decreased so that by Day 8 it was not different from preovulatory levels. For uterine luminal fluids, total activity significantly decreased during the follicular phase. This continued throughout the preimplatation phase with minimum activity being reached on Days 3 and 4 (7.68 pmol acetate.min-1 on Day 4 pseudopregnancy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Shifts in the Vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) isoforms result in transcriptome changes correlated with early neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jacob T.; Berosik, Matthew A.; Snyder, Stephanie D.; Crawford, Natalie F.; Nour, Shirin I.; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J.; Darland, Diane C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) fate decisions is critical during the transition from a multicellular mammalian forebrain neuroepithelium to the multi-layered neocortex. Forebrain development requires coordinated vascular investment alongside NSC differentiation. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegf) has proven to be a pleiotrophic gene whose multiple protein isoforms regulate a broad range of effects in neurovascular systems. To test the hypothesis that the Vegf isoforms (120, 164, and 188) are required for normal forebrain development, we analyzed the forebrain transcriptome of mice expressing specific Vegf isoforms, Vegf120, VegfF188, or a combination of Vegf120/188. Transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in embryonic day (E) 9.5 forebrain, a time point preceding dramatic neuroepithelial expansion and vascular investment in the telencephalon. Meta-analysis identified gene pathways linked to chromosome-level modifications, cell fate regulation, and neurogenesis that were altered in Vegf isoform mice. Based on these gene network shifts, we predicted that NSC populations would be affected in later stages of forebrain development. In the E11.5 telencephalon, we quantified mitotic cells [Phospho-Histone H3 (pHH3)-positive] and intermediate progenitor cells (Tbr2/Eomes-positive), observing quantitative and qualitative shifts in these populations. We observed qualitative shifts in cortical layering at P0, particularly with Ctip2-positive cells in layer V. The results identify a suite of genes and functional gene networks that can be used to further dissect the role of Vegf in regulating NSC differentiation and downstream consequences for NSC fate decisions. PMID:24124161

  2. Immunomodulatory Factors Galectin-9 and Interferon-Gamma Synergize to Induce Expression of Rate-Limiting Enzymes of the Kynurenine Pathway in the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alexandra K.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Rytych, Jennifer L.; Yu, Kevin C.; Janda, Tiffany M.; Steelman, Andrew J.; McCusker, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with symptomology of several psychiatric disorders, notably major depressive disorder. Symptomology has been linked to inflammation/cytokine-dependent induction of the Kynurenine Pathway. Galectins, like pro-inflammatory cytokines, play a role in neuroinflammation and the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders but without a clearly defined mechanism of action. Their involvement in the Kynurenine Pathway has not been investigated. Thus, we searched for a link between galectins and the Kynurenine Pathway using in vivo and ex vivo models. Mice were administered LPS and pI:C to determine if galectins (Gal’s) were upregulated in the brain following in vivo inflammatory challenges. We then used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) to determine if Gal’s, alone or with inflammatory mediators [interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (pI:C), and dexamethasone (Dex; synthetic glucocorticoid)], would increase expression of indoleamine/tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenases (DO’s: Ido1, Ido2, and Tdo2; Kynurenine Pathway rate-limiting enzymes). In vivo, hippocampal expression of cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ), Gal-3, and Gal-9 along with Ido1 and Ido2 were increased by LPS and pI:C (bacterial and viral mimetics). Of the cytokines induced in vivo, only IFNγ increased expression of two Ido1 transcripts (Ido1-FL and Ido1-v1) by OHSCs. Although ineffective alone, Gal-9 accentuated IFNγ-induced expression of only Ido1-FL. Similarly, IFNγ induced expression of several Ido2 transcripts (Ido2-v1, Ido2-v3, Ido2-v4, Ido2-v5, and Ido2-v6). Gal-9 accentuated IFNγ-induced expression of only Ido2-v1. Surprisingly, Gal-9 alone, slightly but significantly, induced expression of Tdo2 (Tdo2-v1 and Tdo2-v2, but not Tdo2-FL). These effects were specific to Gal-9 as Gal-1 and Gal-3 did not alter DO expression. These results

  3. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  4. Induction of mouse UDP-glucuronosyltransferase mRNA expression in liver and intestine by activators of aryl-hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David B; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2009-04-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the addition of UDP-glucuronic acid to endo- and xenobiotics, enhancing their water solubility and elimination. Many exogenous compounds, such as microsomal enzyme inducers (MEIs), alter gene expression through xenobiotic-responsive transcription factors, namely, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). These transcription factors regulate xenobiotic-inducible expression of hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes and transporters. The purpose of this study was to determine hepatic and intestinal inducibility of mouse Ugt mRNA by MEIs. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated for four consecutive days with activators of AhR [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl 126, and beta-naphthoflavone], CAR [1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), phenobarbital, and diallyl sulfide], PXR [pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), spironolactone, and dexamethasone], PPARalpha (clofibrate, ciprofibrate, and diethylhexylphthalate), and Nrf2 (oltipraz, ethoxyquin, and butylated hydroxyanisole), respectively. Ugt1a1 mRNA expression in liver was induced by activators of all five transcription factor pathways, Ugt1a5 by Nrf2 activators, Ugt1a6 by all the pathways except CAR, and Ugt1a9 by all the pathways except Nrf2. Ugt2b35 mRNA in liver was induced by AhR activators and Ugt2b36 by CAR and PPARalpha activators. Throughout the small and large intestine, the AhR ligand TCDD increased Ugt1a6 and Ugt1a7 mRNA. In small intestine, the PXR activator PCN increased Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt1a7, Ugt2b34, and Ugt2b35 mRNA in the duodenum. In conclusion, chemical activation of AhR, CAR, PXR, PPARalpha, and Nrf2 in mouse results in induction of distinct Ugt gene sets in liver and intestine, predominantly the Ugt1a isoforms.

  5. Osteoblastic γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors negatively regulate osteoblastogenesis toward disturbance of osteoclastogenesis mediated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand in mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-09-23

    The prevailing view is that signaling machineries for the neurotransmitter GABA are also expressed by cells outside the CNS. In cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts, mRNA was constitutively expressed for both subunits 1 and 2 of metabotropic GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R), along with inhibition by the GABA(B)R agonist baclofen of cAMP formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and Ca(2+) accumulation. Moreover, baclofen significantly inhibited the transactivation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) gene in a manner sensitive to a GABA(B)R antagonist, in addition to decreasing mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), osteocalcin, and osterix. In osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with GABA(B)R1 subunit, significant reductions were seen in ALP activity and Ca(2+) accumulation