Science.gov

Sample records for factors natural history

  1. Impacts of natural history and exhibit factors on carnivore welfare.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lance J; Ivy, Jamie A; Vicino, Greg A; Schork, Ivana G

    2018-04-06

    To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare. In the current study, data were obtained from direct behavioral observation and institutional records representing 80 individual animals from 34 different species of the order Carnivora. Data were examined to determine if a variety of natural history and animal management factors impacted the welfare of animals in zoological institutions. Output variables indicating welfare status included behavioral diversity, pacing, offspring production, and infant mortality. Results suggested that generalist species have higher behavioral diversity and offspring production in zoos compared with their specialist counterparts. In addition, increased minimum distance from the public decreased pacing and increased offspring production, while increased maximum distance from the public and large enclosure size decreased infant mortality. These results have implications for future exhibit design or renovation, as well as management practices and priorities for future research.

  2. Natural history and prognostic factors in alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Segovia, Javier; Dominguez, Fernando; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gomez-Bueno, Manuel; Avellana, Patricia; Millan, Isabel; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the natural history of contemporary alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM), to compare it with that of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), and to identify risk factors for poor outcome. ACM is a common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but little is known about its natural history or the effect of reducing alcohol intake on disease progression. We studied the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 94 consecutive patients with ACM and 188 with IDCM, evaluated over the period between 1993 and 2011. After a median follow-up of 59 months (interquartile range: 25 to 107 months), 14 ACM patients (15%) had died from cardiovascular causes (6 from heart failure and 8 from sudden cardiac death), 14 (15%) underwent heart transplantation, 35 (37%) experienced recovery in left ventricular function, and 31 (33%) remained clinically stable without improvement in systolic function. Transplantation-free survival was higher in ACM patients than in IDCM patients (p = 0.002), and ACM was associated with a favorable outcome on multiple analysis of the entire cohort (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2 to 0.8; p = 0.01). Independent predictors of death or heart transplantation in ACM identified by multiple logistic regression analysis were atrial fibrillation (OR: 9.7; 95% CI: 2.56 to 36.79; p = 0.001); QRS duration >120 ms (OR: 7.2; 95% CI: 2.02 to 26; p = 0.002), and lack of beta-blocker therapy (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.35 to 14.49; p = 0.014). ACM patients who reduced their alcohol intake to moderate levels exhibited similar survival (p = 0.22) and cardiac function recovery (p = 0.8) as abstainers. ACM has a better prognosis than IDCM. Atrial fibrillation, QRS width >120 ms, and the absence of beta-blocker therapy identify patients with a poor outcome. Alcohol abstainers and those who reduce intake to a moderate degree show similar clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier

  3. The fractured carpal scaphoid. Natural history and factors influencing outcome.

    PubMed

    Leslie, I J; Dickson, R A

    1981-08-01

    The scaphoid fracture is commonest in young men in the age group 15 to 29 years, who have the highest incidence of non-union, take the longest time to unite, lose more time from work, and spend the longest time as outpatients. A union rate of 95 per cent can be achieved using standard simple treatment. All but a few fractures are visible on the first radiograph, and failure of visualisation at this stage is not associated with a bad outcome. The postero-anterior and semipronated views are the most important to scrutinise. Crank-handle injuries have a particularly bad prognosis when they produce a transverse fracture of the waist of the scaphoid. Poor prognostic factors are displacement during treatment, the fracture line becoming increasingly more obvious, and the presence of early cystic change. The severity of trauma is an important factor to elicit from the history.

  4. The natural history and risk factors of musculoskeletal conditions resulting in disability among US Army personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Andrew E.; Smith, Gordon S.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Bell, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the natural history of 13 musculoskeletal conditions requiring hospitalization and identify demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, occupational, and clinical characteristics most strongly associated with disability discharge from the Army. Subjects included 15,268 active-duty personnel hospitalized for a common musculoskeletal condition between the years 1989–1996 who were retrospectively followed through 1997. Back conditions had the greatest 5-year cumulative risk of disability (21%, 19%, and 17% for intervertebral disc displacement, intervertebral disc degeneration, and nonspecific low back pain, respectively). Cox proportional hazards models identified the following risk factors for disability among males: lower pay grade, musculoskeletal diagnosis, shorter length of service, older age, occupational category, lower job satisfaction, recurrent musculoskeletal hospitalizations, more cigarette smoking, greater work stress, and heavier physical demands. Among females, fewer covariates reached statistical significance, although lower education level was significant in more than one model. Modifiable risk factors related to work (job satisfaction, work stress, physical demands, occupation) and health behaviors (smoking) suggest possible targets for intervention. PMID:12441574

  5. Transient global amnesia and transient ischemic attack. Natural history, vascular risk factors, and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Zorzon, M; Antonutti, L; Masè, G; Biasutti, E; Vitrani, B; Cazzato, G

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to make an attempt to ascertain the etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA), which is still disputed more than 30 years after the first description of this clinical entity. In a case-control study, we compared the prevalence of vascular risk factors in 64 TGA patients with 64 first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA) control subjects and 108 normal community-based control subjects matched for age and sex. We prospectively studied the vascular events and mortality rates of the TGA cases and of the TIA control subjects. Then we compared the outcome of the two groups using actuarial analysis based on survival curves. We did not find evidence of an increased risk of TGA associated with any vascular risk factor. In contrast to TIA control subjects, no TGA patient suffered stroke, myocardial infarction, or TIA during the follow-up period. Migraine was more common in TGA patients than in both normal and TIA control subjects. In three patients (4.5%), the TGA was eventually considered to be of epileptic origin. The results of our case-control and longitudinal studies point to the conclusion that TGA and TIA do not share the same etiology. Since half of our patients had a precipitating event in their history, it is reasonable to hypothesize that spreading depression may play a role in TGA. The significant positive association between migraine and TGA may support this hypothesis. Epilepsy may mimic TGA in a minority of cases.

  6. The Case for Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.

  7. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    significantly disabled by their chronic pain and can suffer from substantial reductions in quality of life . The primary aims of this research project are to... of life , and psychosocial variables. This allows risk factors for chronic pain to be identified and its impact on quality of life to be determined. The... of life using a prospective research design. To date, 83 women scheduled for breast cancer surgery have been assessed with respect to hypothesized

  8. The Case for Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have…

  9. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

    2012-07-21

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett's epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett's to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett's is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett's Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett's and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE.

  10. Natural history of Barrett's esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Milind, Rao; Attwood, Stephen E

    2012-01-01

    The natural history of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is difficult to quantify because, by definition, it should describe the course of the condition if left untreated. Pragmatically, we assume that patients with BE will receive symptomatic treatment with acid suppression, usually a proton pump inhibitor, to treat their heartburn. This paper describes the development of complications of stricture, ulcer, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma from this standpoint. Controversies over the definition of BE and its implications in clinical practice are presented. The presence of intestinal metaplasia and its relevance to cancer risk is discussed, and the need to measure the extent of the Barrett’s epithelium (long and short segments) using the Prague guidelines is emphasized. Guidelines and international consensus over the diagnosis and management of BE are being regularly updated. The need for expert consensus is important due to the lack of randomized trials in this area. After searching the literature, we have tried to collate the important studies regarding progression of Barrett’s to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. No therapeutic studies yet reported show a clear reduction in the development of cancer in BE. The effect of pharmacological and surgical intervention on the natural history of Barrett’s is a subject of ongoing research, including the Barrett’s Oesophagus Surveillance Study and the aspirin and esomeprazole cancer chemoprevention trial with interesting results. The geographical variation and the wide range of outcomes highlight the difficulty of providing an individualized risk profile to patients with BE. Future studies on the interaction of genome wide abnormalities in Barrett’s and their interaction with environmental factors may allow individualization of the risk of cancer developing in BE. PMID:22826612

  11. The natural history of severe asthma and influences of early risk factors: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjia; Marra, Carlo A; Lynd, Larry D; FitzGerald, J Mark; Zafari, Zafar; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    Severe asthma is associated with disproportionately high morbidity, but little is known about its natural history and how risk factors at first year of diagnosis modify its subsequent development. Using administrative health data, we retrospectively followed patients 14-55 years of age with newly diagnosed severe asthma in British Columbia, Canada. Based on intensity of resource use (drug therapy) and occurrence of exacerbations, each patient-year was classified into mild, moderate, or severe asthma. We estimated the probability of transition between severity levels or to death over the study period using a four-state Markov model, and used this to assess the 10-year trajectory of severe asthma and the influence of baseline risk factors. We followed 13,467 patients. Ten years after incident severe asthma, 83% had transitioned to a less severe level (mild: 43%, moderate: 40%). Low socioeconomic status, high comorbidity burden, and high adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC) by asthma controller therapy) in the first year were independently associated with, respectively, 10%, 24% and 35% more time in severe asthma over the next 10 years. Sex was not associated with the clinical course. Most patients with incident severe asthma used fewer resources over time, indicating a long-term transition to milder asthma. Potentially modifiable risk factors for poor prognosis of severe asthma include low socioeconomic status and high comorbidity burden. The association between PDC and future asthma severity is likely due to residual confounding by disease severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  13. The natural history of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Mavrelos, D; Ben-Nagi, J; Holland, T; Hoo, W; Naftalin, J; Jurkovic, D

    2010-02-01

    Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors. They can cause significant morbidity and the symptoms depend largely on their size. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fibroids and identify factors that may influence their growth. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination. All women underwent at least two transvaginal ultrasound scans, which were all performed by a single operator. Fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes and the mean diameter was calculated. The size and position of every individual fibroid was assessed and recorded on a computerized database. The volume of each fibroid was calculated using the formula for a sphere. A total of 122 women were included in the study. Their median age at the initial examination was 40 (range, 27-45) years. Seventy-two (59.0%) were nulliparous and 74 (60.7%) had multiple fibroids. The median interval between the initial and final examination was 21.5 (range, 8-90) months. The median fibroid volume increased by 35.2% per year. Small fibroids (< 20 mm mean diameter) grew significantly faster than larger fibroids (P = 0.007). The median increase in size was significantly higher in cases of intramural fibroids (53.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 11.2-217)%) than in subserous fibroids (25.1 (IQR, 1.1-87.1)%) and submucous fibroids (22.8 (IQR, - 11.7 to 48.3)%) (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis retained only fibroid size at presentation as an independent predictor of fibroid growth. The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.

  14. A natural history of hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    In unpacking the Pandora's box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease. PMID:18923689

  15. Natural history of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Rachel H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey

    2014-11-01

    There has long been evidence that hepatitis C can lead to persistent infection in a high proportion of infected individuals, and can progress to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The transition from acute to chronic hepatitis C is usually sub-clinical. Accurate studies of the time course for clearance of acute hepatitis C are difficult to carry out because of the silent onset of the acute disease. The likelihood of spontaneous HCV resolution is associated with several genetic factors, including IL28B inheritance and the DQB1*0301 allele of the major histocompatibility complex class II. Most data suggest that resolution in the acute phase without progression to chronic disease is not accompanied by significant disease, but minor histological lesions have been observed in anti-HCV positive, HCV RNA negative individuals. The risk of reinfection remains a possibility after clearance of acute hepatitis C. High rates of sexually-transmitted infection are being reported in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Chronic infection with HCV is the leading cause of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver related death in the Western world. The natural history of the chronic disease remains incompletely defined. It is generally a slowly progressive disease characterized by persistent hepatic inflammation, leading to the development of cirrhosis in approximately 10-20% of patients over 20-30 years of HCV infection. However, the published data indicate varying progression rates to cirrhosis. Overall, once cirrhosis has developed there is a 1-5% annual risk of HCC and a 3-6% annual risk of hepatic decompensation. Following an episode of decompensation the risk of death in the following year is between 15% and 20%. The high number of chronically infected individuals, the burden of disease, and the absence of a vaccine indicates that treatment will form part of the disease control but the impact, effectiveness and

  16. Teaching Health in a Natural History Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    The opportunities offered by a natural history museum to enhance and expand classroom instruction in health are discussed. A basic constellation of typical natural history museum exhibit concepts and an array of health-related opportunities that are easily developed around these displays is outlined. The natural history concept provides an…

  17. The Natural History of Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pitot, Henry C.

    1977-01-01

    The stages of initiation and promotion in the natural history of epidermal carcinogenesis have been known for many years. Recently, experimental systems other than skin have been shown to exhibit similar, if not completely analogous, stages in the natural history of neoplasia. In particular, the demonstration by Peraino and his associates that phenobarbital may enhance the production of hepatomas by a relatively subcarcinogenic dose of acetylaminofluorene was one of the first demonstrations of stages occurring in an extraepidermal neoplasm. Studies reported in this paper have demonstrated that administration of phenobarbital (0.05% in the diet) for 6 months following a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (5 to 10 mg/kg) given within 24 hours after partial hepatectomy resulted in a marked increase in the number of enzyme-altered foci in the liver as well as in the production of hepatocellular carcinomas. This was compared to animals receiving only a single dose of diethylnitrosamine following partial hepatectomy with no further treatment, in which only a relatively small number of foci were evident in the absence of phenobarbital feeding. Using three different enzyme markers, a distinct degree of phenotypic heterogeneity of the enzyme-altered foci in liver was demonstrated. These studies have shown that liver carcinogensis can be readily divided into two stages: a) initiation by a single dose of diethylnitrosamine following partial hepatectomy and b) promotion by the continuous feeding of phenobarbital. Furthermore, the immediate progeny of the initiated cells, the enzyme-altered focus, may be recognized by suitable microscopic means prior to the formation of gross lesions as required in the skin system. These initiated cell populations exhibit a degree of biochemical heterogeneity which reflects that seen in fully developed hepatic neoplasms, suggesting that promotion and progression in this system does not significantly alter the basic biochemical characteristics of

  18. Natural history of Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Antón, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    Our view of H. erectus is vastly different today than when Pithecanthropus erectus was described in 1894. Since its synonimization into Homo, views of the species and its distribution have varied from a single, widely dispersed, polytypic species ultimately ancestral to all later Homo, to a derived, regional isolate ultimately marginal to later hominin evolution. A revised chronostratigraphic framework and recent work bearing either directly or indirectly on reconstructions of life-history patterns are reviewed here and, together with a review of the cranial and postcranial anatomy of H. erectus, are used to generate a natural history of the species. Here I argue that H. erectus is a hominin, notable for its increased body size, that originates in the latest Pliocene/earliest Pleistocene of Africa and quickly disperses into Western and Eastern Asia. It is also an increasingly derived hominin with several regional morphs sustained by intermittent isolation, particularly in Southeast Asia. This view differs from several current views, most especially that which recognizes only a single hominin species in the Pleistocene, H. sapiens, and those which would atomize H. erectus into a multiplicity of taxa. Following Jolly ([2001] Yrbk Phys Anthropol 44:177-204), the regional morphs of H. erectus may be productively viewed as geographically replacing allotaxa, rather than as the focus of unresolvable species debates. Such a view allows us to focus on the adaptations and biology of local groups, including questions of biogeographic isolation and local adaptation. A number of issues remain unresolved, including the significance of diversity in size and shape in the early African and Georgian records. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Natural history of Ashkenazi intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gregory; Hardy, Jason; Harpending, Henry

    2006-09-01

    This paper elaborates the hypothesis that the unique demography and sociology of Ashkenazim in medieval Europe selected for intelligence. Ashkenazi literacy, economic specialization, and closure to inward gene flow led to a social environment in which there was high fitness payoff to intelligence, specifically verbal and mathematical intelligence but not spatial ability. As with any regime of strong directional selection on a quantitative trait, genetic variants that were otherwise fitness reducing rose in frequency. In particular we propose that the well-known clusters of Ashkenazi genetic diseases, the sphingolipid cluster and the DNA repair cluster in particular, increase intelligence in heterozygotes. Other Ashkenazi disorders are known to increase intelligence. Although these disorders have been attributed to a bottleneck in Ashkenazi history and consequent genetic drift, there is no evidence of any bottleneck. Gene frequencies at a large number of autosomal loci show that if there was a bottleneck then subsequent gene flow from Europeans must have been very large, obliterating the effects of any bottleneck. The clustering of the disorders in only a few pathways and the presence at elevated frequency of more than one deleterious allele at many of them could not have been produced by drift. Instead these are signatures of strong and recent natural selection.

  20. The natural history of violence.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    1979-01-01

    In the past, human violence was associated with food shortage, but recently it has increased even in relatively well-fed societies. The reason appears from studies of monkeys under relaxed, spacious conditions and under crowding stress. Uncrowded monkeys have unaggressive leaders, rarely quarrel, and protect females and young. Crowded monkeys (even well-fed) have brutal bosses, often quarrel, and wound and kill each other, including females and young. Crowding has similar behaviour effects on other mammals, with physiological disturbances including greater susceptibility to infections. All this appears to be a regular response to overpopulation, reducing the population before it has depleted its natural resources. Human beings, like monkeys and other mammals, need ample space, and become more violent when crowded. Human history is marked by population cycles: population outgrows resources, the resulting violence, stress and disease mortality cuts down the population, leading to a relief period of social and cultural progress, till renewed population growth produces the next crisis. The modern population crisis is world-wide, and explains the increase of violence even in well-fed societies. The solution to the problem of violence is to substitute voluntary birth control for involuntary death control, and bring about relaxed conditions for a reduced world population. PMID:114662

  1. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  2. The natural history of Perthes' disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. Patients and methods During the 5-year period 1996–2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (mean age 5.1 years, 77% boys) who were affected unilaterally and who had been treated with physiotherapy only (which is considered not to change the natural history). They were followed by taking radiographs at the time of diagnosis and after 1, 3, and 5 years. At the 5-year follow-up, the outcome was evaluated according to a modification of the Stulberg classification: good (spherical femoral head), fair (ovoid femoral head), and poor (flat femoral head). Results The 5-year radiographic results were strongly dependent on 4 risk factors: age 6 years or more at diagnosis, total femoral head necrosis, height of the lateral pillar of the epiphysis less than 50% of normal height, and femoral head cover less than 80%. As the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 4, the proportion of patients with good radiographic 5-year outcome decreased from 79% to 0% and the proportion with poor outcome increased from 3% to 91%. Interpretation Most children under 6 years of age do not need any special treatment. In older children, no special treatment is indicated if the whole femoral head is not necrotic and the femoral head cover is > 80%. In the most severe forms of the disease (i.e. more than 2 risk factors), surgical containment treatment seems advisable. PMID:21067434

  3. The natural history of Perthes' disease.

    PubMed

    Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein

    2010-12-01

    The prognosis in Perthes' disease varies considerably according to certain risk factors, but there is no concensus regarding the relative importance of these factors. We assessed the natural history of the disease and defined prognostic factors of value in deciding the proper treatment. During the 5-year period 1996-2000, a nationwide study on Perthes' disease was performed in Norway. 425 patients were registered. The present study involved the 212 children (mean age 5.1 years, 77% boys) who were affected unilaterally and who had been treated with physiotherapy only (which is considered not to change the natural history). They were followed by taking radiographs at the time of diagnosis and after 1, 3, and 5 years. At the 5-year follow-up, the outcome was evaluated according to a modification of the Stulberg classification: good (spherical femoral head), fair (ovoid femoral head), and poor (flat femoral head). The 5-year radiographic results were strongly dependent on 4 risk factors: age 6 years or more at diagnosis, total femoral head necrosis, height of the lateral pillar of the epiphysis less than 50% of normal height, and femoral head cover less than 80%. As the number of risk factors increased from 0 to 4, the proportion of patients with good radiographic 5-year outcome decreased from 79% to 0% and the proportion with poor outcome increased from 3% to 91%. Most children under 6 years of age do not need any special treatment. In older children, no special treatment is indicated if the whole femoral head is not necrotic and the femoral head cover is > 80%. In the most severe forms of the disease (i.e. more than 2 risk factors), surgical containment treatment seems advisable.

  4. The natural history of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    Illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco use disorders contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Knowledge about the major elements of the natural history of substance use disorders (incidence, remission, persistence, and relapse) is crucial to a broader understanding of the course and outcomes of substance use disorders. Prospective cohort studies in nonclinical samples indicate that externalizing psychopathology in earlier life, including early disordered substance use, delinquency, and personality disorders, are related to substance use disorders later in life and chronic course. Externalizing psychopathology may be initiated by early adverse experiences, for example, childhood maltreatment and stressful life events. After controlling for confounders, 'age at first use' as a causal factor for alcohol use disorder later in life and the 'drug substitution' hypothesis are not supported in general population data. Future research should focus on elaborating the causal framework that leads to the development and persistence of severe substance use disorders, with an emphasis on identifying modifiable factors for intervention by policy makers or health professionals. More research is needed on the natural history of substance use disorders in low-income and middle-income countries.

  5. Post-Mastectomy and Phantom Breast Pain: Risk Factors, Natural History, and Impact on Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    be significantly disabled by their chronic pain and can suffer from substantial reductions in quality of life . The primary aims of this research...and examine their impact on quality of life using a prospective research design. To date, 40 women scheduled for surgical procedures for breast cancer...with periodic assessments of pain, health-related quality of life , and psychosocial variables. This allows risk factors for PMPS and phantom breast

  6. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  7. History without time: Buffon's natural history as a nonmathematical physique.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very

  8. A natural history of Cronartium ribicola

    Treesearch

    Brian W. Geils; Detlev R. Vogler

    2011-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola is a fungal pathogen that causes a blister rust disease of white pines, Ribes, and other hosts in the genera Castilleja and Pedicularis. Although blister rust can damage white pine trees and stands, the severity and significance of these impacts vary with time, place, and management. We use a natural history approach to describe the history, biology...

  9. Cystic Lung Disease Among Patients With Sjögren Syndrome: Frequency, Natural History, and Associated Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Balzano, Carlos D; Touray, Sunkaru; Kopec, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Cystic lung disease (CLD) in Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a condition with unclear prognostic implications. Our objectives in this study are to determine its frequency, progression over time, and associated risk factors and complications. Eighty-four patients with primary or secondary SS and chest imaging, chest radiograph, or CT scan were retrospectively evaluated for CLD. Thirteen patients with cysts were found. Baseline characteristics of all patients were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to look for predictors of CLD in patients with CT scan. Additional imaging, SS activity, and complications from CLD and SS were collected for the patients with cysts. CLD had a frequency of 15.4% for all patients with chest imaging. Not all cysts were evident on radiography, and CLD frequency was 30.9% for the patients with chest CT scan. Six patients had cysts without other radiographic findings. CLD was associated with older age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.16), a diagnosis of secondary SS (OR, 12.1; 95% CI, 1.12-130.4), and seropositivity for anti-SS-related antigen A/Ro autoantibodies (OR, 26.9; 95% CI, 1.44-93.61). There was no radiologic progression of CLD for 12 patients after a 4-year median follow-up. Lung function did not exhibit temporal worsening. CLD did not correlate with a specific pattern in pulmonary function testing. Two patients had secondary infectious complications of the cysts. CLD is a relatively common condition in SS that does not progress on serial radiologic and lung function follow-up. CLD, without other radiographic findings, may represent a direct manifestation of SS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural History of Anterior Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Carpinteiro, Eduardo Palma; Barros, Andre Aires

    2017-01-01

    The shoulder is the most complex joint in the body. The large freedom of motion in this joint is the main cause of instability. Instability varies in its degree, direction, etiology and volition and there is a large spectrum of conditions. Based on literature research and also in our own experience, we propose to elucidate the reader about the natural history of instability and its importance for the appropriate management of this pathology, by answering the following questions: What happens in the shoulder after the first dislocation? Which structures suffer damage? Who are the patients at higher risk of recurrence? How does the disease evolve without treatment? Will surgical treatment avoid future negative outcomes and prevent degenerative joint disease? Who should we treat and when? 80% of anterior-inferior dislocations occur in young patients. Recurrent instability is common and multiple dislocations are the rule. Instability is influenced by a large number of variables, including age of onset, activity profile, number of episodes,delay between first episode and surgical treatment. Understanding the disease and its natural evolution is determinant to decide the treatment in order to obtain the best outcome. It is crucial to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Delay in surgical treatment, when indicated, leads to worse results. Surgical technique should address the type and severity of both soft tissue and bone lesions, when present.

  11. Kant on the history of nature: the ambiguous heritage of the critical philosophy for natural history.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Phillip R

    2006-12-01

    This paper seeks to show Kant's importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon's distinctions of 'abstract' and 'physical' truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of 'varieties' from 'races' in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the 'history' of nature [Naturgeschichte] over 'description' of nature [Naturbeschreibung]. Following Kant's confrontations with Johann Herder and Georg Forster in the late 1780s, Kant weakened the epistemic status of the 'history of nature' and gave theoretical preference to 'description of nature'. As a result, Kant's successors, such as Goethe, could draw from Kant either a justification for a developmental history of nature, or, as this paper argues, a warrant from the critical philosophy for denying the validity of the developmental history of nature as anything more than a 'regulative' idea of reason.

  12. Natural history of the ascending aorta after aortic valve replacement: risk factor analysis for late aortic complications after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Koji; Hashizume, Kenichi; Inoue, Yoshito

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the natural history of the ascending aorta and to identify risk factors for late ascending aortic events after first isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR). A total of 287 patients undergoing AVR were enrolled. The patients were categorized into two groups based on the diameter of the ascending aorta at the time of AVR, as determined by computed tomography: Group A (n = 233) was defined as an ascending aortic diameter <40 mm, and Group B (n = 54) was defined as an ascending aortic diameter ≥40 mm. The mean follow-up period was 7.6 years. The baseline diameter of the ascending aorta was 31.4 ± 4.8 mm in Group A and 44.7 ± 4.2 mm in Group B. These values increased to 35.9 ± 7.4 mm in Group A and 50.1 ± 7.3 mm in Group B during the follow-up period (P < 0.001). Ten patients had acute type A aortic dissection (Group A: 1 patient vs. Group B: 9 patients; P < 0.001), and three patients had enlargement of the ascending aorta to ≥55 mm in diameter (Group A: 1 patient vs. Group B: 2 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed that the baseline ascending aortic diameter was the only significant risk factor for developing late ascending aortic events (P < 0.001). AVR alone may not prevent further enlargement of the ascending aorta. An ascending aorta ≥40 mm in diameter at the time of AVR increased the risk of late ascending aortic events.

  13. Field Museum of Natural History Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Benjamin W.; Fawcett, W. Peyton

    1986-01-01

    Founded in 1894 to support museum research, the Field Museum of Natural History Library specializes in fields of anthropology, archaeology, botany, geology, palaeontology, and zoology. A rich serials collection and numerous special collections serve both the scientific community and wider public as noncirculating reference collection and through…

  14. Teaching Natural History in a Wilderness Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Mikel

    A college honors course called "A Field Study in American Literature and Philosophy" helps students develop foundations for an environmental philosophy, by introducing them to the literature of natural history and exploration, and more importantly, through actual participation in outdoor activities. The class spends at least four days…

  15. Learning and Engagement through Natural History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Lawrence, Martin; Oliver, Mary; Reiss, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    This review examines how natural history museums (NHMs) can enhance learning and engagement in science, particularly for school-age students. First, we describe the learning potential of informal science learning institutions in general, then we focus on NHMs. We review the possible benefits of interactions between schools and NHMs, and the…

  16. Natural history, risk factors and clinical features of primary hypogonadism in ageing men: Longitudinal Data from the European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Tomás; Swiecicka, Agnieszka; Eendebak, Robert J A H; Carter, Emma L; Finn, Joseph D; Pye, Stephen R; O'Neill, Terence W; Antonio, Leen; Keevil, Brian; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rastrelli, Giulia; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W

    2016-12-01

    In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T < 10·5 nmol/l and LH>9·4U/l) in ageing men. A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4·3 years. Men were classified as incident (i) PHG (eugonadal [EUG, T ≥ 10·5 nmol/l] at baseline, PHG at follow-up), persistent (p) PHG (PHG at baseline and follow-up), pEUG (EUG at baseline and follow-up) and reversed (r) PHG (PHG at baseline, EUG at follow-up). Predictors and changes in clinical features associated with the development of PHG were analysed by regression models. Of 1,991 men comprising the analytical sample, 97·5% had pEUG, 1·1% iPHG, 1·1% pPHG and 0·3% rPHG. The incidence of PHG was 0·2%/year. Higher age (>70 years) [OR 12·48 (1·27-122·13), P = 0·030] and chronic illnesses [OR 4·24 (1·08-16·56); P = 0·038] predicted iPHG. Upon transition from EUG to PHG, erectile function, physical vigour and haemoglobin worsened significantly. Men with pPHG had decreased morning erections, sexual thoughts and haemoglobin with increased insulin resistance. Primary testicular failure in men is uncommon and predicted by old age and chronic illness. Some clinical features attributable to androgen deficiency, but not others, accompanied the T decline in men who developed biochemical PHG. Whether androgen replacement can improve sexual and/or physical function in elderly men with PHG merits further study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Natural history collections: A scientific treasure trove

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Natural history collections play an indispensable and often overlooked role in the conservation and management of our Nation’s flora and fauna. Scientific specimens housed in museum collections not only open an important window into the current and past diversity of life on Earth, but also play a vital role in fueling cutting-edge scientific research in many disciplines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) curates a collection of vertebrates from the Intermountain and Southwestern United States that is used by researchers from around the globe. As one of the largest Federal natural history collections in the western United States, the USGS specimen holdings offer unique opportunities to study the fauna of this incredibly diverse and unique region.

  18. Natural history of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata.

    PubMed

    White, Amy L; Modaff, Peggy; Holland-Morris, Francesca; Pauli, Richard M

    2003-05-01

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with many associated medical complications. Prior to this study, natural history information about RCP was limited and based on experiences with small populations of affected individuals. We delineate the natural history of RCP through systematic analysis of 35 previously unreported individuals (as well as review of 62 literature cases with respect to survival and cause of death). Survival, growth, and developmental expectations and medical needs are summarized based upon experience with this population. Survival is greater among this population than previously reported, with 90% surviving up to 1 year and 50% surviving up to 6 years. Cause of death is most often respiratory problem. All infants with RCP have joint contractures, bilateral cataracts, and severe growth and psychomotor delays. Recommendations for health supervision of children with RCP and for parental counseling are presented. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The "History" of Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Huxley, Spencer and the "End" of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lightman, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    As part of their defence of evolutionary theory, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer argued that natural history was no longer a legitimate scientific discipline. They outlined a secularized concept of life from biology to argue for the validity of naturalism. Despite their support for naturalism, they offered two different responses to the decline of natural history. Whereas Huxley emphasized the creation of a biological discipline, and all that that entailed, Spencer was more concerned with constructing an entire intellectual system based on the idea of evolution. In effect, Spencer wanted to create a new scientific worldview based on evolutionary theory. This had consequences for their understanding of human history, especially of how science had evolved through the ages. It affected their conceptions of human agency, contingency, and directionality in history. Examining Huxley's and Spencer's responses to the "end" of natural history reveals some of the deep divisions within scientific naturalism and the inherent problems of naturalism in general. Whereas Huxley chose to separate the natural and the historical, Spencer opted to fuse them into a single system. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural History of Innate Host Defense Peptides.

    PubMed

    Linde, A; Wachter, B; Höner, O P; Dib, L; Ross, C; Tamayo, A R; Blecha, F; Melgarejo, T

    2009-12-01

    Host defense peptides act on the forefront of innate immunity, thus playing a central role in the survival of animals and plants. Despite vast morphological changes in species through evolutionary history, all animals examined to date share common features in their innate immune defense strategies, hereunder expression of host defense peptides (HDPs). Most studies on HDPs have focused on humans, domestic and laboratory animals. More than a thousand different sequences have been identified, yet data on HDPs in wild-living animals are sparse. The biological functions of HDPs include broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and immunomodulation. Natural selection and coevolutionary host-pathogen arms race theory suggest that the extent and specificity of the microbial load influences the spectrum and potency of HDPs in different species. Individuals of extant species-that have lived for an extended period in evolutionary history amid populations with intact processes of natural selection-likely possess the most powerful and well-adapted "natural antibiotics". Research on the evolutionary history of the innate defense system and the host in context of the consequences of challenges as well as the efficacy of the innate immune system under natural conditions is therefore of immediate interest. This review focuses on evolutionary aspects of immunophysiology, with emphasis on innate effector molecules. Studies on host defense in wild-living animals may significantly enhance our understanding of inborn immune mechanisms, and help identify molecules that may assist us to cope better with the increasing microbial challenges that likely follow from the continuous amplification of biodiversity levels on Earth.

  1. The natural science underlying big history.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems-including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society-are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density-contrasting with information content or entropy production-is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  2. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    PubMed Central

    Chaisson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated. PMID:25032228

  3. The natural history of endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Crnobrnja, B; Liberale, V; Dharmarajah, K; Widschwendter, M; Jurkovic, D

    2017-02-01

    What is the natural history of endometrial polyps in women who are managed expectantly? The growth rates of expectantly managed polyps vary considerably and cannot be accurately predicted. The majority of polyps detected on ultrasound are treated surgically, and therefore little is known about their natural history. Some polyps have been reported to regress spontaneously without the need for treatment; however, the factors predictive of regression are unknown. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at the Department of Gynaecology, University College London Hospitals. We searched our ultrasound clinic database between July 1997 and September 2015, to identify women aged 18 years or older with endometrial polyps that were managed expectantly for ≥6 months. All women attended for a minimum of two ultrasound scans. A single expert operator performed all ultrasound scans. Those with <6-month follow-up and those who were taking hormonal contraception, HRT or tamoxifen were excluded from the study. The mean diameter of each polyp was calculated from the measurements in three perpendicular planes. The polyp growth rate was expressed as annual percentage change in the mean diameter. Non-parametric tests and the Fisher's exact test were used to compare differences in polyp mean diameters and growth rates between women of different demographic characteristics. To correct for multiple significance testing, we used the Bonferroni method, giving the level of probability at which findings were considered significant as P < 0.0029 (as 17 tests were undertaken). We included 112 women with endometrial polyps, which were expectantly managed over a median period of 22.5 months (range, 6-136). The annual endometrial polyp growth rate varied with a median of 1.0% (interquartile range, -6.5 to 14.3). There was no association between women's demographic characteristics or polyps' morphology and their growth rates. Eleven out of 75 (15% (95% CI, 6.9%-23.1%)) women who initially

  4. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  5. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural history of thyroid cancer [Review].

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru

    2017-03-31

    Thyroid cancers have long been considered to arise in middle age and, after their repeated proliferation, resulting in further damage to the genome, they progress to more aggressive and lethal cancers. However, in 2014, some studies were reported that might lead to a marked change in our understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer. A high prevalence of papillary carcinoma in the young suggested that the first initiation of thyroid cancer is likely to occur in the infantile period. Such a conclusion was also supported by a very slow growth rate of papillary microcarcinomas (PMCs) in an observation trial. The proliferation rate of PMCs was negatively correlated with the age, and surgery to remove PMCs did not contribute to reduce mortality from thyroid cancer. These findings strongly suggested the existence of self-limiting cancers, which are truly malignant but do not progress to lethal cancers, for the first time in human history. The early detection of self-limiting cancers results in overdiagnosis. Ultrasonographic screening of the thyroid in the young should be avoided. Lethal thyroid cancers, whose origin is still unknown, appear suddenly after middle age. In the elderly, thyroid cancers are a mixture of self-limiting and lethal cancers; thus, when thyroid cancer is detected, careful follow-up with examination of its growth rate is required.

  7. Francis Bacon and the classification of natural history.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the place of natural history within Bacon's divisions of the sciences in The Advancement of Learning (1605) and the later De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum (1623). It is shown that at various points in Bacon's divisions, natural history converges or overlaps with natural philosophy, and that, for Bacon, natural history and natural philosophy are not discrete disciplines. Furthermore, it is argued that Bacon's distinction between operative and speculative natural philosophy and the place of natural history within this distinction, are discontinuous with the later distinction between experimental and speculative philosophy that emerged in the methodology of the Fellows of the early Royal Society.

  8. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  9. Learning and engagement through natural history museums*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Martin; Oliver, Mary; Reiss, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This review examines how natural history museums (NHMs) can enhance learning and engagement in science, particularly for school-age students. First, we describe the learning potential of informal science learning institutions in general, then we focus on NHMs. We review the possible benefits of interactions between schools and NHMs, and the potential for NHMs to teach about challenging issues such as evolution and climate change and to use digital technologies to augment more traditional artefacts. We conclude that NHMs can provide students with new knowledge and perspectives, with impacts that can last for years. Through visits and their on-line presence, NHMs can help students see science in ways that the school classroom rarely can, with opportunities to meet scientists, explore whole topic exhibitions, engage with interactive displays and employ digital technologies both in situ and to support learning in the school science classroom. Although these interactions have the potential to foster positive cognitive, affective and social outcomes for students, there is a lack of reliable measures of the impact of NHM experiences for students. Opportunities to foster relationships between NHM staff and teachers through professional development can help articulate shared goals to support students’ learning and engagement.

  10. Natural history of idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gail E; Thomsett, Michael J; Boston, Bruce A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Shulman, Dorothy I; Draznin, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To determine what percentage of diabetes insipidus (DI) in childhood is idiopathic and to assess the natural history of idiopathic DI. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 105 patients with DI who were born or had DI diagnosed between 1980-1989 at 3 medical centers. A second cohort of 30 patients from 6 medical centers in whom idiopathic DI was diagnosed after 1990 was evaluated retrospectively for subsequent etiologic diagnoses and additional hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies and prospectively for quality of life. In the first cohort, 11% of patients had idiopathic DI. In the second cohort, additional hypothalamic/pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in 33%, and 37% received an etiologic diagnosis for DI. Health-related quality of life for all the patients with idiopathic DI was comparable with the healthy reference population. Only a small percentage of patients with DI will remain idiopathic after first examination. Other hormone deficiencies will develop later in one-third of those patients, and slightly more than one-third of those patients will have an etiology for the DI diagnosed. Long-term surveillance is important because tumors have been diagnosed as long as 21 years after the onset of DI. Quality of life for these patients is as good as the reference population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning and engagement through natural history museums.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Lawrence, Martin; Oliver, Mary; Reiss, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    This review examines how natural history museums (NHMs) can enhance learning and engagement in science, particularly for school-age students. First, we describe the learning potential of informal science learning institutions in general, then we focus on NHMs. We review the possible benefits of interactions between schools and NHMs, and the potential for NHMs to teach about challenging issues such as evolution and climate change and to use digital technologies to augment more traditional artefacts. We conclude that NHMs can provide students with new knowledge and perspectives, with impacts that can last for years. Through visits and their on-line presence, NHMs can help students see science in ways that the school classroom rarely can, with opportunities to meet scientists, explore whole topic exhibitions, engage with interactive displays and employ digital technologies both in situ and to support learning in the school science classroom. Although these interactions have the potential to foster positive cognitive, affective and social outcomes for students, there is a lack of reliable measures of the impact of NHM experiences for students. Opportunities to foster relationships between NHM staff and teachers through professional development can help articulate shared goals to support students' learning and engagement.

  12. Geodiversity and the natural history of landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2014-05-01

    possible for a geomorphologist to travel back in the past, a delicate and speculative succession of operations: as noted by Schumm (1979, 485), "The extrapolation of measured average rates of erosion and deposition to longer periods of time is misleading, in the sense that they do not reveal the natural complexity of landform development or the variability of existing landforms". Any extrapolation in the past or future implies true actualiste approach verifying only methodological uniformitarianism (i.e. spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws) as well as quantitative models purged of any hint of gradualism and which takes into account variations of timing, frequency and intensity in the action of morphogenetic forcings. In continuation of Hack's work, the concepts of landscape sensitivity developed by Brunsden and Thornes (1979) explain that some landforms are particularly well fitted to the present conditions of endogenetic and exogenetic forcings (characteristic landforms) while others not at all (transient landforms). This highly effective approach within the Holocene and the Pleistocene marks the beginning of a return to the investigation of the past in geomorphology, given that for the Neogene or even older times, the ancient concept of "héritage" (Birot, 1958) seems more relevant than the concepts of transient or characteristic landforms. We propose here as an illustration to describe the sequence of landforms defined in the Southern Massif Central (France). The full sequence is to be observed between the Languedoc Lowlands and the Monts de Lacaune Highlands, while an elision of the lower terms of the sequence towards the Aquitaine Basin allow to highlight a highly significant limit between two modes of landform development at regional level. In short, the natural history of landforms deserve a high status in the Earth sciences: geomorphology not only needs mechanics and chemistry (i.e. the changing ratio of tectonic-driven to climatic-driven processes

  13. Connecting health and natural history: a failed initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909-1922.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie K

    2014-10-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health-the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation-to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH's Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures-a "Living Museum"-and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and "inglorious end" in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions.

  14. Natural History of Rotator Cuff Disease and Implications on Management

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative rotator cuff disease is commonly associated with ageing and is often asymptomatic. The factors related to tear progression and pain development are just now being defined through longitudinal natural history studies. The majority of studies that follow conservatively treated painful cuff tears or asymptomatic tears that are monitored at regular intervals show slow progression of tear enlargement and muscle degeneration over time. These studies have highlighted greater risks for disease progression for certain variables, such as the presence of a full-thickness tear and involvement of the anterior aspect supraspinatus tendon. Coupling the knowledge of the natural history of degenerative cuff tear progression with variables associated with greater likelihood of successful tendon healing following surgery will allow better refinement of surgical indications for rotator cuff disease. In addition, natural history studies may better define the risks of nonoperative treatment over time. This article will review pertinent literature regarding degenerative rotator cuff disease with emphasis on variables important to defining appropriate initial treatments and refining surgical indications. PMID:26726288

  15. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization. PMID:26175389

  16. The Natural History of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W

    2015-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour. ASPD is associated with co-occurring mental health and addictive disorders and medical comorbidity. Rates of natural and unnatural death (suicide, homicide, and accidents) are excessive. ASPD is a predictor of poor treatment response. ASPD begins early in life, usually by age 8 years. Diagnosed as conduct disorder in childhood, the diagnosis converts to ASPD at age 18 if antisocial behaviours have persisted. While chronic and lifelong for most people with ASPD, the disorder tends to improve with advancing age. Earlier onset is associated with a poorer prognosis. Other moderating factors include marriage, employment, early incarceration (or adjudication during childhood), and degree of socialization.

  17. The natural history of Halley's comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    1981-07-01

    The 1986 apparition of Halley's comet will be the subject of numerous space probes, planned to determine the chemical nature and physical structure of comet nuclei, atmospheres, and ionospheres, as well as comet tails. The problems of cometary origin remain inconclusive, with theories ranging from a purely interstellar origin to their being ejecta from the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Comets can be grouped into one of two classes, depending on their periodicity, and statistical mechanics of the entire Jovian family of comets can be examined under the equilibrium hypothesis. Comet anatomy estimations have been determined, and there is speculation that comet chemistry may have been a factor in the origin of life on earth. Halley's comet was first noted using Newton's dynamical methods, and Brady (1972) attempted to use the comet as a gravitational probe in search of a trans-Plutonian planet. Halley's orbit is calculated by combination of ancient observations and modern scientific methods.

  18. Natural history of JSRV in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J M; DeMartini, J C

    2003-01-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung tumour of sheep and, rarely, goats that arises from two types of secretory epithelial cell that retain their luxury function of surfactant synthesis and secretion. It is classified as a low-grade adenocarcinoma and is viewed as a good model for epithelial neoplasia because of its morphological resemblance to the human lung tumour, bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma. OPA is present in most of the sheep rearing areas of the globe and, in affected flocks, tumours are present in a high proportion of sheep. OPA is associated with the ovine retrovirus, jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), and is transmissible only with inocula that contain JSRV. All sheep contain JSRV-related endogenous viruses, but JSRV is an exogenous virus that is associated exclusively with OPA. JSRV is detected consistently in the lung fluid, tumour and lymphoid tissues of sheep affected by both natural and experimental OPA or unaffected in-contact flockmates and never in sheep from unaffected flocks with no history of the tumour. JSRV replicates principally in the epithelial tumour cells, but also establishes a disseminated infection of several lymphoid cell types, including peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Longitudinal studies in flocks with endemic OPA have revealed JSRV in PBLs before the onset of clinical OPA and even in the absence of discernible lung tumour. The prevalence of JSRV infection is 40%-80%, although only 30% of sheep appear to develop OPA lesions. A unique feature of OPA is the absence of a specific humoral immune response to JSRV, despite the highly productive infection in the lungs and the disseminated lymphoid infection. This feature is associated with reduced responsiveness to some mitogens, although the phenotypic profile of the peripheral blood remains unaltered. The reduced response is an early and sustained event during infection and may indicate that the failure of infected sheep to produce specific antibodies to

  19. Natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome type A.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Dakota; Thakkar, Kavita; Poe, Michele; Escolar, Maria L

    2014-05-01

    To describe the natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome type A. We performed a retrospective review of 46 children (21 boys, 25 girls) with Sanfilippo syndrome type A evaluated between January 2000 and April 2013. Assessments included neurodevelopmental evaluations, audiologic testing, and assessment of growth, adaptive behavior, cognitive behavior, motor function, and speech/language skills. Only the baseline evaluation was included for patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median age at diagnosis was 35 months, with a median delay between initial symptoms to diagnosis of 24 months. The most common initial symptoms were speech/language delay (48%), dysmorphology (22%), and hearing loss (20%). Early behavioral problems included perseverative chewing and difficulty with toilet training. All children developed sleep difficulties and behavioral changes (e.g., hyperactivity, aggression). More than 93% of the children experienced somatic symptoms such as hepatomegaly (67%), abnormal dentition (39%), enlarged tongue (37%), coarse facial features (76%), and protuberant abdomen (43%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a 60% probability of surviving past 17 years of age. Sanfilippo type A is characterized by severe hearing loss and speech delay, followed by a rapid decline in cognitive skills by 3 years of age. Significant somatic disease occurs in more than half of patients. Behavioral difficulties presented between 2 and 4 years of age during a rapid period of cognitive decline. Gross motor abilities are maintained during this period, which results in an active child with impaired cognition. Sleep difficulties are concurrent with the period of cognitive degeneration. There is currently an unacceptable delay in diagnosis, highlighting the need to increase awareness of this disease among clinicians.

  20. Hyperactivity: nature of the syndrome and its natural history.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G

    1984-03-01

    The composition of hyperactivity as a syndrome is discussed from a historical perspective, and the principal events leading to the recent emphasis on attentional characteristics of hyperactive children are summarized. Some of the major challenges to the legitimacy of hyperactivity as a valid syndrome are set forth, and after critical examination of the most influential work, it is concluded that hyperactivity has not been disproved. This is followed by a survey of the large follow-up literature dealing with the natural history of children diagnosed as hyperactive. It is noted that the manifestations of the syndrome appear to change with age but there is little indication that problems simply remit with maturity. The evidence indicates that hyperactivity, as diagnosed in the past, is often a serious disorder with long-term and far-reaching consequences for the children and their families. Multivariate studies are also discussed, as they have important implications for differential outcome. Different symptoms such as aggression, overactivity, and learning disability appear to contain unique information about current and future status, and therefore it appears useful to retain these distinctions rather than view such children as part of an undifferentiated group. It is unknown whether the recent guidelines for diagnosing Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity will alter or refine the outlook for children so identified, but this is an active area of research at present.

  1. The Natural History of Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hebl, Virginia B; Miranda, William R; Ong, Kevin C; Hodge, David O; Bos, J Martijn; Gentile, Federico; Klarich, Kyle W; Nishimura, Rick A; Ackerman, Michael J; Gersh, Bernard J; Ommen, Steve R; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    To describe the survival of a large nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (NO-HCM) cohort and to identify risk factors for increased mortality in this population. Patients were identified from the Mayo Clinic HCM database from January 1, 1975, through November 30, 2006, for this retrospective observational study. Patients with resting or provocable left ventricular outflow tract gradients were excluded. Echocardiographic, clinical, and genetic data were compared between subgroups, and survival data were compared with expected population rates. A total of 706 patients with NO-HCM were identified. During median follow-up of 5 years (mean, 7 years), there were 208 deaths. Overall survival was no different than expected compared with age- and sex-matched white US population mortality rates (P=.77). Independent predictors of death were age at diagnosis, "burned out" HCM, and history of transient ischemic attack or stroke; use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was inversely related to death. After exclusion of patients with an ICD, there was no difference in survival compared with age- and sex- matched individuals (P=.39); age, previous transient ischemic attack/stroke, and burned out HCM were predictors of death. In this cohort, patients with NO-HCM had similar survival rates as age- and sex-matched white US population mortality rates. Although use of an ICD was inversely related to death, no differences in overall survival were seen after those patients were excluded. Burned out HCM was independently associated with an increased risk of death, identifying a subset of patients who may benefit from more aggressive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. History of natural flows--Kansas River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeson, Elwood R.

    1958-01-01

    confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers, From that point the river flows eastward about 175 miles to Kansas City where it empties into the Missouri River. The basic history of its natural flow can be depicted in general by the records from three gaging stations. The one at Bonner Springs, about 21 miles upstream from the mouth, may be considered as representing the total outflow from the basin; the one at Ogden, about 8 miles downstream from the confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers, may be considered as representing the combined contribution of those streams to the Kansas River flow; and the one at Topeka, being only about 16 river miles nearer to Ogden than to Bonner Springs, may be considered as representing flows at the mid-point along the river.

  3. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Natural History of Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Turetz, Meredith; Sideris, Andrew T; Friedman, Oren A; Triphathi, Nidhi; Horowitz, James M

    2018-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially deadly form of venous thromboembolic disease. It is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death and is associated with multiple inherited and acquired risk factors as well as advanced age. The prognosis from PE depends on the degree of obstruction and hemodynamic effects of PE and understanding the pathophysiology helps in risk-stratifying patients and determining treatment. Though the natural history of thrombus is resolution, a subset of patients have chronic residual thrombus, contributing to the post-PE syndrome.

  4. Natural history of medial clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES

  5. Using genetics to predict the natural history of asthma?

    PubMed

    Holloway, John W; Arshad, Syed H; Holgate, Stephen T

    2010-08-01

    Clinical practice reminds us that there is considerable variability in the course of asthma over time. Treatment of patients with asthma would be considerably improved if one could accurately predict the likely course of disease over the life course. Recently, with the advent of the era of genome-wide association studies, there has been a monumental shift in our understanding of the genetic factors that underlie inherited susceptibility to asthma. Genes have been identified that modulate many aspects of the natural history of asthma, such as susceptibility to atopy, altered lung development, and susceptibility to more severe disease. Heritability studies have even suggested a role for genetic factors in remission of asthma. However, although the discovery of novel genetic factors underlying disease susceptibility has undoubtedly improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis, whether these advances have improved the ability to predict the natural history in individual patients is questionable, and the application of genetic testing to clinical practice remains some way off. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Natural Link between Teaching History and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, because both history and computers are information based, there is an natural link between the two. Argues that history teachers should exploit the technology to help students to understand history while they become computer literate. Points out uses for databases, word processing, desktop publishing, and telecommunications in…

  7. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  8. Exploring life history characteristics of naturalized versus stocked chinook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Mark W.; Kerns, Janice A; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2011-01-01

    Naturalization of stocked populations can result in divergence of life-history traits from domestic stocks. Lake Michigan supports popular Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Salmon fisheries that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the last few decades and currently contributes over 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. Samples collected as part of a lakewide mass-marking of Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon, starting with the 2006 year class, indicated hatchery fish average 30-mm longer and 130 grams heavier than naturalized fish at age-1. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized and hatchery populations resulting in divergent life-history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. Specific life-history metrics of interest include: age- and size- at maturity, spawning run timing, fecundity, and sex ratio. Objectives: We evaluated life history characteristics between naturally recruited and stocked Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan to help discern potential changes resulting from naturalization and implications for fisheries. A. Conduct an analysis of historical data to determine if life-history parameters changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. B. Conduct a two-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in life-history metrics of adults. C. Determine if reproductive potential differs between naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook salmon by measuring egg thiamine levels.

  9. Natural history of acute and chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Maasoumy, Benjamin; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major global health burden. Hepatitis C causes significant liver-related morbidity and mortality due to hepatic decompensation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, extra-hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C are frequent. There is a very large interindividual variability in the natural history of both acute and chronic hepatitis C which can be explained in part by a combination of various host, viral and environmental factors. Successful antiviral treatment can prevent short- and long-term complications of HCV infection in many patients. Still, the relative contribution of distinct risk factors for disease progression in different phases of HCV infection needs to be better defined. Personalized treatment approaches for HCV infection should consider individual risk profiles to avoid both under- and over-treatment - which will remain important also in upcoming era of interferon-free treatment of hepatitis C. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Strategies to alter the natural history of childhood asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sarwar, K; Bacharier, L; Litonjua, A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Asthma exhibits significant heterogeneity in occurrence and severity over the lifespan. Our goal is to discuss recent evidence regarding determinants of the natural history of asthma during childhood, and review the rationale behind and status of major efforts to alter its course. Recent findings Variations in microbial exposures are associated with risk of allergic disease, and the use of bacterial lysates may be a promising preventive strategy. Exposure to air pollution appears to be particularly damaging in prenatal and early life, and interventions to reduce pollution are feasible and result in clinical benefit. E-cigarette use may have a role in harm reduction for conventional cigarette smokers with asthma, but has undefined short- and long-term effects that must be clarified. Vitamin D insufficiency over the first several years of life is associated with risk of asthma, and vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of severe exacerbations. Summary The identification of risk factors for asthma occurrence, persistence and severity will continue to guide efforts to alter the natural history of the disease. We have reviewed several promising strategies that are currently under investigation. Vitamin D supplementation and air pollution reduction have been shown to be effective strategies and warrant increased investigation and implementation. PMID:28079559

  11. Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically-occult clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels that may present clinically with seizures, focal neurological deficits and/or hemorrhage. Across natural history studies, the annual hemorrhage rate ranged from 1.6-3.1% per patient-year, decreasing to 0.08-0.2% per patient-year for incidental CMs and to 0.3-0.6% for the collective group of unruptured CMs. Prior hemorrhage is a significant risk factor for subsequent CM hemorrhage. Hemorrhage clustering, particularly within the first 2 years, is an established phenomenon that may confound results of natural history studies evaluating the rate of rehemorrhage. Indeed, rehemorrhage rates for hemorrhagic CMs range from 4.5-22.9% in the literature. Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for surgically-accessible, symptomatic CMs. Incidental CMs or minimally symptomatic, surgically inaccessible eloquent lesions may be considered for observation. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment approach of consideration only for cases of highly aggressive, surgically inaccessible CMs.

  12. Francis Bacon: constructing natural histories of the invisible.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Doina-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The natural histories contained in Francis Bacon's Historia naturalis et experimentalis seem to differ from the model presented in De augmentis scientiarum and the Descriptio globi intellectualis in that they are focused on the defining properties of matter, its primary schematisms and the spirits. In this respect, they are highly speculative. In this paper I aim to describe the Historia naturalis et experimentalis as a text about matter theory, the histories of which are ascending from what is most evident to the senses to what is least accessible to them. Moreover, the Latin natural histories are parts of a methodological procedure in which the provisional rules and axioms obtained in one history can be used as theoretical assumptions for another history, thereby permitting one to delve ever more profoundly into the structure of nature.

  13. The Natural History of Biocatalytic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Neetika; Mitchell, John B. O.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenomic analysis of the occurrence and abundance of protein domains in proteomes has recently showed that the α/β architecture is probably the oldest fold design. This holds important implications for the origins of biochemistry. Here we explore structure-function relationships addressing the use of chemical mechanisms by ancestral enzymes. We test the hypothesis that the oldest folds used the most mechanisms. We start by tracing biocatalytic mechanisms operating in metabolic enzymes along a phylogenetic timeline of the first appearance of homologous superfamilies of protein domain structures from CATH. A total of 335 enzyme reactions were retrieved from MACiE and were mapped over fold age. We define a mechanistic step type as one of the 51 mechanistic annotations given in MACiE, and each step of each of the 335 mechanisms was described using one or more of these annotations. We find that the first two folds, the P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolase and the NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like homologous superfamilies, were α/β architectures responsible for introducing 35% (18/51) of the known mechanistic step types. We find that these two oldest structures in the phylogenomic analysis of protein domains introduced many mechanistic step types that were later combinatorially spread in catalytic history. The most common mechanistic step types included fundamental building blocks of enzyme chemistry: “Proton transfer,” “Bimolecular nucleophilic addition,” “Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution,” and “Unimolecular elimination by the conjugate base.” They were associated with the most ancestral fold structure typical of P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. Over half of the mechanistic step types were introduced in the evolutionary timeline before the appearance of structures specific to diversified organisms, during a period of architectural diversification. The other half unfolded gradually after organismal

  14. The natural history of biocatalytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nath, Neetika; Mitchell, John B O; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    Phylogenomic analysis of the occurrence and abundance of protein domains in proteomes has recently showed that the α/β architecture is probably the oldest fold design. This holds important implications for the origins of biochemistry. Here we explore structure-function relationships addressing the use of chemical mechanisms by ancestral enzymes. We test the hypothesis that the oldest folds used the most mechanisms. We start by tracing biocatalytic mechanisms operating in metabolic enzymes along a phylogenetic timeline of the first appearance of homologous superfamilies of protein domain structures from CATH. A total of 335 enzyme reactions were retrieved from MACiE and were mapped over fold age. We define a mechanistic step type as one of the 51 mechanistic annotations given in MACiE, and each step of each of the 335 mechanisms was described using one or more of these annotations. We find that the first two folds, the P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolase and the NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like homologous superfamilies, were α/β architectures responsible for introducing 35% (18/51) of the known mechanistic step types. We find that these two oldest structures in the phylogenomic analysis of protein domains introduced many mechanistic step types that were later combinatorially spread in catalytic history. The most common mechanistic step types included fundamental building blocks of enzyme chemistry: "Proton transfer," "Bimolecular nucleophilic addition," "Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution," and "Unimolecular elimination by the conjugate base." They were associated with the most ancestral fold structure typical of P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. Over half of the mechanistic step types were introduced in the evolutionary timeline before the appearance of structures specific to diversified organisms, during a period of architectural diversification. The other half unfolded gradually after organismal diversification and during a

  15. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Connecting Health and Natural History: A Failed Initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909–1922

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City’s American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health—the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation—to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH’s Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures—a “Living Museum”—and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and “inglorious end” in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions. PMID:24205997

  18. A natural history of botanical therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Barbara; Ribnicky, David M.; Poulev, Alexander; Logendra, Sithes; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine throughout history and continue to serve as the basis for many pharmaceuticals used today. Although the modern pharmaceutical industry was born from botanical medicine, synthetic approaches to drug discovery have become standard. However, this modern approach has led to a decline in new drug development in recent years and a growing market for botanical therapeutics that are currently available as dietary supplements, drugs, or botanical drugs. Most botanical therapeutics are derived from medicinal plants that have been cultivated for increased yields of bioactive components. The phytochemical composition of many plants has changed over time, with domestication of agricultural crops resulting in the enhanced content of some bioactive compounds and diminished content of others. Plants continue to serve as a valuable source of therapeutic compounds because of their vast biosynthetic capacity. A primary advantage of botanicals is their complex composition consisting of collections of related compounds having multiple activities that interact for a greater total activity. PMID:18555851

  19. [Natural history of flowers and gravity].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-06-01

    Many flowers have coevolved with their pollinator animals. Gravity has been one of selection pressure for the evolution of flowers. Gravity rules morphology and other features of flowers in many aspects. Pair matching between the flower and its specific pollinator is one of factors that determine the fitness of both sides. Evolution of flower morphology and its molecular basis are reviewed briefly. Anemophilous flowers are also under the influence of gravity. Shape and other features of entomophilous flowers have been highly diversed. Gravitropic response and its mechanism are summarized. Recent findings on gravitropism and phototropism of pistils and stamens are presented in this article.

  20. Rotation histories of the natural satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory of rotation are combined with traditional approaches to study the rotational evolution of the 33 known natural satellites. A calculation similar to that reported by Burns and Safronov (1973) is applied to each satellite to obtain the characteristic time of decay of any wobble motion to smooth rotation about the principal axis of maximum moment of inertia. Stability criteria and capture probabilities are calculated for the 3/2 spin resonance. Results show that only the regular satellites and Iapetus, Hyperion, Triton, and the moon are tidally evolved. Of these, 13 have confirmed synchronous rotation periods; capture probabilities into the 3/2 resonance indicate that none of the remaining 10 should be captured in nonsynchronous, commensurate spin states. For the most part, the irregular satellites retain their original spins except for a relaxation to principal axis rotation. Tidal evolution of the obliquities of the satellites is evaluated in the framework of the generalization of Cassini's laws for the moon. Nearly resonant, forced librations in longitude of 4.8 and 0.5 deg are calculated on the basis of the observed shapes of Phobos and Deimos, respectively.

  1. The Natural History of IBD: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Weimers, Petra; Munkholm, Pia

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing diseases with unknown etiologies. The purpose of this review is to present the natural disease course evidenced in the latest epidemiology data. The prevalence of IBD is rapidly increasing, affecting five million patients worldwide with the highest incidence observed in Northern Europe and Northern America. It has been shown that both CD and UC patients are at an increased risk for developing cancer of the gastrointestinal tract compared to the general population. Though the disease course of IBD is unpredictable, the rate of surgical treatment has declined potentially as a consequence of the introduction of immunomodulators and new biologic treatment options. Treatments with biological agents and/or immunosuppressive drugs as well as disease monitoring with eHealth devices seem to have a positive impact on the disease course. However, long-term follow-up studies are still lacking and therefore no reliable conclusions can be drawn as of yet. Medical compliance is paramount in the treatment of IBD, and continuous research focusing on approaches that increase compliance is also necessary.

  2. Cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome: clinical spectrum, natural history, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ovejero, D; Lim, Y H; Boyce, A M; Gafni, R I; McCarthy, E; Nguyen, T A; Eichenfield, L F; DeKlotz, C M C; Guthrie, L C; Tosi, L L; Thornton, P S; Choate, K A; Collins, M T

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome (CSHS), caused by somatic RAS mutations, features excess fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and skeletal dysplasia. Records from 56 individuals were reviewed and demonstrated fractures, scoliosis, and non-congenital hypophosphatemia that in some cases were resolved. Phosphate and calcitriol, but not skin lesion removal, were effective at controlling hypophosphatemia. No skeletal malignancies were found. CSHS is a disorder defined by the association of epidermal and/or melanocytic nevi, a mosaic skeletal dysplasia, and an FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemia. To date, somatic RAS mutations have been identified in all patients whose affected tissue has undergone DNA sequencing. However, the clinical spectrum and treatment are poorly defined in CSHS. The purpose of this study is to determine the spectrum of the phenotype, natural history of the disease, and response to treatment of hypophosphatemia. Five CSHS subjects underwent prospective data collection at clinical research centers. A review of the literature identified 45 reports that included a total of 51 additional patients, in whom the findings were compatible with CSHS. Data on nevi subtypes, bone histology, mineral and skeletal disorders, abnormalities in other tissues, and response to treatment of hypophosphatemia were analyzed. Fractures, limb deformities, and scoliosis affected most CSHS subjects. Hypophosphatemia was not present at birth. Histology revealed severe osteomalacia but no other abnormalities. Skeletal dysplasia was reported in all anatomical compartments, though less frequently in the spine; there was no clear correlation between the location of nevi and the skeletal lesions. Phosphate and calcitriol supplementation was the most effective therapy for rickets. Convincing data that nevi removal improved blood phosphate levels was lacking. An age-dependent improvement in mineral abnormalities was observed. A spectrum of extra

  3. Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: Natural history of visual outcome☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    severe VF defect improved in 52%. In macular BRVO with 20/70 or worse initial VA, it improved in 53%, and initial minimal-mild VF defect was stable or improved in 85%. In various types of CRAO there are significant differences in both initial and final VA and VF defects. In CRAO eyes seen within 7 days of onset and initial VA of counting fingers or worse, VA improved in 82% with transient non-arteritic CRAO, 67% with non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, 22% with non-arteritic CRAO. Central VF improved in 39% of transient non-arteritic CRAO, 25% of non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing and 21% of non-arteritic CRAO. Peripheral VF improved in non-arteritic CRAO in 39% and in transient non-arteritic CRAO in 39%. In transient CRAO, finally peripheral VFs were normal in 93%. In non-arteritic CRAO eyes initially 22% had normal peripheral VF and in the rest it improved in 39%. Final VA of 20/40 or better was seen in 89% of permanent BRAO, and in 100% of transient BRAO and non-arteritic CLRAO. In permanent BRAO eyes, among those seen within 7 days of onset, central VF defect improved in 47% and peripheral VF in 52%, and in transient BRAO central and peripheral VFs were normal at follow-up. My studies showed that AION, CRVO, BRVO, CRAO and BRAO, each consist of multiple distinct clinical sub-categories with different visual outcome. Contrary to the prevalent impression, these studies on the natural history of visual outcome have shown that there is a statistically significant spontaneous visual improvement in each category. The factors which influence the visual outcome in various ocular vascular occlusive disorders are discussed. PMID:24769221

  4. Book review: A natural history of the Sonoran Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2000-01-01

    Review info: A Natural History of the Sonoran Desert. Edited by S. J. Phillips and P. W. Comus. 2000. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Press, Tucson AZ, and University of California Press, Berkeley CA. 628 pp. Cloth ISBN 0-520-22029-3 Paper ISBN 0-520-21980-5.

  5. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Deborah D. Rudis

    1986-01-01

    Describes natural history profiles of New England wildlife species and their associations with forested and nonforested habitats. Provides a database that will enable forest managers or wildlife biologists to describe the species or groups to be found in a given habitat.

  6. A Game Demonstrating Aspects of Bumblebee Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westgarth-Smith, Angus R.

    2004-01-01

    The Bumblebee Game is an exciting outdoor game, which demonstrates aspects of bumblebee natural history including food chains, food webs and competition for food, predation by crab spiders, parasitism by "Conopidae" ("Diptera") and brood parasitism by cuckoo bees. It has been played successfully with groups of 10-25 people. Although most suitable…

  7. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.

  8. 19th Century American Journals of Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Ralph W.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)

  9. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  10. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  11. Michigan Natural History. A Spring Activity Packet for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson Community Coll., MI. Dahlem Environmental Education Center.

    This instructional packet is one of 14 school environmental education programs developed for use in the classroom and at the Dahlem Environmental Education Center (DEEC) of the Jackson Community College (Michigan). Provided in the packet are pre-trip activities, field trip activities, and post-trip activities which focus on the natural history of…

  12. Revolutionizing the Use of Natural History Collections in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Karen E.; Prather, L. Alan; Cook, Joseph A.; Woolley, James; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Monfils, Anna K.; Sierwald, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Natural history collections are an irreplaceable and extensive record of life, and form the basis of our understanding of biodiversity on our planet. Broad-scale educational accessibility to these vast specimen collections, specimen images, and their associated data is currently severely hampered. With emerging technologies and massive efforts…

  13. Narrative and natural history in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2017-04-01

    In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley. In all cases, narrative took the genre of natural history well beyond straightforward description and classification. Prose accounts of insect actions and mechanisms worked in tandem with visual narratives embedded in the accompanying illustrations, where artists developed strategies for representing sequences of minute changes over time. By throwing into relief the narrative sections of natural histories, the examples considered here expose the role played by these tales of encounters with the insect world in the making of natural historical knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael W.; Hammond, Talisin T.; Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Walsh, Rachel E.; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A.; Martins, Felipe M.; Crawford, Jeremy C.; Mack, Katya L.; Bloch, Luke M.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics, and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the lab, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short time scales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. PMID:26757135

  16. 75 FR 45658 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI; Correction AGENCY: National... Natural History, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... History professional staff and physical anthropologists from Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI...

  17. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Lawrence N.; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Heaton, Alice; Holtzhausen, Pieter; Livermore, Laurence; Price, Benjamin W.; van der Walt, Stéfan; Smith, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect—a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization. PMID:26599208

  18. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Heaton, Alice; Holtzhausen, Pieter; Livermore, Laurence; Price, Benjamin W; van der Walt, Stéfan; Smith, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  19. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  20. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  1. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    PubMed

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a "metamuseum", by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

  2. [Natural history, complications, safety and pregnancy in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Chaparro, María

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies were presented in Digestive Disease Week 2015 (DDW 2015) on the natural history, complications, and safety of treatments in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as novel findings on fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The present article reviews presentations on the natural history of IBD, the risk of complications and their prevention, treatment safety, aspects related to fertility, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, as well as the risk of cancer and its association with IBD and with drugs used in its treatment. In the next few years, more data will become available on treatment safety and the possible complications that can develop in IBD patients due to the disease itself and the drugs employed in its treatment, which will allow measures to be adopted to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Italian natural history museums on the verge of collapse?

    PubMed Central

    Andreone, Franco; Bartolozzi, Luca; Boano, Giovanni; Boero, Ferdinando; Bologna, Marco A.; Bon, Mauro; Bressi, Nicola; Capula, Massimo; Casale, Achille; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Chiozzi, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Doria, Giuliano; Durante, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Lanzinger, Michele; Latella, Leonardo; Maio, Nicola; Marangoni, Carla; Mazzotti, Stefano; Minelli, Alessandro; Muscio, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Paola; Pievani, Telmo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Sabella, Giorgio; Valle, Marco; Vomero, Vincenzo; Zilli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a “metamuseum”, by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities. PMID:25709525

  4. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    PubMed

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Chapter 1: The cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl: Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history

    Treesearch

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Glenn A. Proudfoot

    2000-01-01

    The cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) is a small, cryptic owl that is often difficult to observe. Its natural history and conservation needs are poorly understood. Despite ongoing research in Texas and Arizona, the available information remains limited. In addition, factors influencing demographics (e.g., habitat...

  6. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

  7. Natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children.

    PubMed

    Spentzouris, G; Gasparis, A; Scriven, R J; Lee, T K; Labropoulos, N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the natural history of deep vein thrombosis in children presented with a first episode in the lower extremity veins. Children with objective diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis were followed up with ultrasound and clinical examination. Risk factors and clinical presentation were prospectively collected. The prevalence of recurrent deep vein thrombosis and the development of signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were recorded. There were 27 children, 15 males and 12 females, with acute deep vein thrombosis, with a mean age of 4 years, range 0.1-16 years. The median follow-up was 23 months, range 8-62 months. The location of thrombosis involved the iliac and common femoral vein in 18 patients and the femoral and popliteal veins in 9. Only one vein was affected in 7 children, two veins in 14 and more than two veins in 6. Recurrent deep vein thrombosis occurred in two patients, while no patient had a clinically significant pulmonary embolism. Signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease were present at last follow-up in 11 patients. There were nine patients with vein collaterals, but no patient developed varicose veins. Reflux was found in 18 veins of 11 patients. Failure of recanalization was seen in 7 patients and partial recanalization in 11. Iliofemoral thrombosis (p = 0.012) and failure to recanalize (p = 0.036) increased significantly the risk for developing signs and symptoms. Children with acute proximal deep vein thrombosis develop mild chronic venous disease signs and symptoms at mid-term follow-up and are closely related with iliofemoral thrombosis and failure to recanalization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Natural History and Treatment Outcomes of Severe Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Rathi, Pravin M; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Mohite, Ashok R; Pawar, Sunil V; Contractor, Qais

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the natural history and treatment outcomes of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) variants presenting with severe-AIH. Severe acute presentation is an uncommon manifestation of AIH, and it remains poorly characterized. We included 101 patients with AIH from January 2011 to December 2015. Patients were classified as seropositive-AIH and seronegative-AIH. Patients with acute liver failure, acute-on-chronic liver failure, and severe acute hepatitis were defined as severe-AIH patients. Patient characteristics and treatment outcomes with follow-up until 12 months were analyzed between the different groups. Out of 101 cases, 24 (23.76%) had severe AIH. Of them 9 (37.5%) had severe acute hepatitis, 3 (12.5%) had acute liver failure, and 12 (50%) had acute-on-chronic liver failure. Seronegative-AIH patients presented with severe-AIH significantly more frequently compared with seropositive-AIH patients (50% vs. 20.27%, P=0.022). Severe-AIH had 50% complete responders, 25% partial responders, and 25% treatment failures. Jaundice (88.88% vs. 68.7%, P=0.048), encephalopathy (55.55% vs. 6.66%, P=0.014), and higher international normalized ratio values (2.17±0.60 vs. 1.82±0.14, P=0.038) were factors associated with nonresponse rather than the presence or absence of autoantibodies in severe-AIH. The hazard ratio for predicting remission in the non-severe AIH group as compared with the severe-AIH group was 1.502, which was statistically not significant (95% CI, 0.799-2.827; P=0.205). Approximately 24% of patients with AIH have severe-AIH. Conventional autoantibodies are often absent in severe-AIH; however, it does not alter the outcome. Immunosuppressants should be given expediently in patients with severe-AIH.

  9. The eutrophication history of a naturally eutrophic watercourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammelin, Mira; Kauppila, Tommi

    2015-04-01

    For efficient inland water protection, it is essential to know the natural states of lakes or, at least, the reference conditions before intensive human impact. The estimation of the natural state is particularly difficult for geologically anomalous areas, where naturally eutrophic lakes are located within nutrient-poorer regions. This is because of the lack of monitoring data and pristine reference lakes and the poor functioning of regional paleoecological nutrient models in such anomalous areas. A paleoecological model that is specifically targeted to the anomalously eutrophic area, however, could be used to interpret the eutrophication histories and natural states of the naturally eutrophic lakes in that area. We applied a targeted paleoecological diatom-total phosphorus transfer function to examine the natural eutrophy and eutrophication history of a central basin and two upstream lakes of the anomalously nutrient-rich Iisalmi watercourse in Eastern Finland. In addition to the nutrient reconstruction based on stratigraphic diatom samples, we studied chrysophyte cyst to diatom ratio, taxonomic diversity and the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment core to find further evidence for possible changes in the lakes and their catchments. The results show that the three lakes are naturally eutrophic with average background total phosphorus levels between 40 μg/l - 60 μg/l. However, human-induced eutrophication has also affected the lakes, which can be seen as rapid changes in the diatom assemblages and magnetic susceptibility between the sediment depths of 40 cm and 90 cm. The modeled lake water total phosphorus concentration has increased less abruptly, approximately 20 μg/l altogether, and the reconstructions of the top sediments mainly correspond well with the water quality observations of the last few decades. The results of this study indicate that a targeted paleoecological nutrient model can be used to interpret the natural state and the eutrophication

  10. Natural history of incidental World Health Organization grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Pallud, Johan; Fontaine, Denys; Duffau, Hugues; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Sanai, Nader; Taillandier, Luc; Peruzzi, Philippe; Guillevin, Rémy; Bauchet, Luc; Bernier, Valérie; Baron, Marie-Hélène; Guyotat, Jacques; Capelle, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Seizure is the presenting symptom in most of World Health Organization grade II gliomas (GIIGs). Rarely, a GIIG is discovered incidentally on imaging. Little is known about the natural course and prognosis of incidental GIIGs. The aim of the present study is to characterize their natural history and to investigate whether their clinical and radiological behaviors differ from those of symptomatic GIIGs. The clinical and radiological findings, treatments, and outcomes of 47 histologically-proven incidental GIIGs were compared with those of 1249 symptomatic GIIGs. Incidental GIIGs differ significantly from symptomatic GIIGs: they have a female predominance (p = 0.05), smaller initial tumor volumes (p < 0.001), lower incidence of contrast enhancement (p = 0.009), and are more likely to undergo gross total surgical removal (p < 0.001). Proliferation rates were similar to that observed among symptomatic GIIGs. Younger age at the time of discovery, frontal lobes, and noneloquent brain regions were associated with incidental GIIGs, as compared to their symptomatic counterparts. When not treated, incidental GIIGs demonstrated radiological growth (median velocity of diametric expansion at 3.5 mm/year), and became symptomatic at a median interval of 48 months after radiological discovery. Overall, incidental discovery was associated with a significant survival benefit (p = 0.04). Incidental GIIGs are progressive tumors leading to clinical transformation toward symptomatic GIIGs. They may represent an earlier step in the natural history of a glioma than the symptomatic GIIGs.

  11. Genetics instruction with history of science: Nature of science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Young

    2007-12-01

    This study explored the effect of history of genetics in teaching genetics and learning the nature of science (NOS). A quasi-experimental control group research design with pretests, posttests, and delayed posttests was used, combining qualitative data and quantitative data. Two classes which consisted of tenth grade biology students participated in this study. The present study involved two instructional interventions, Best Practice Instruction with History of Genetics (BPIw/HG) and Best Practice Instruction (BPI). The experimental group received BPIw/HG utilizing various historical materials from the history of genetics, while the control group was not introduced to historical materials. Scientific Attitude Inventory II, Genetics Terms' Definitions with Concept Mapping (GTDCM), NOS Terms' Definitions with Concept Mapping (NTDCM), and View of Nature of Science (VNOS-C) were used to investigate students' scientific attitude inventory, and their understanding of genetics as well as the NOS. The results showed that students' scientific attitude inventory, and their understanding of genetics and the NOS were not statistically significantly different in the pretest (p>.05). After the intervention, the experimental group of students who received BPIw/HG demonstrated better understanding of the NOS. NTDCM results showed that the experimental group was better in defining the NOS terms and constructing a concept map ( p<.01). In addition, the experimental group retained their understanding of the NOS two-months after the completion of the intervention, showing no statistically significant difference between the posttest and the delayed posttest of NTDCM (p>.05). Further, VNOS-C data indicated that a greater percentage of the experimental group than the control group improved their understanding of the NOS. However, the two groups' understanding of genetics concepts did not show any statistically significant difference in the pretest, the posttest, and the delayed posttest

  12. Natural history of experimental intestinal atresia: morphologic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Baglaj, S M; Czernik, J; Kuryszko, J; Kuropka, P

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural history of congenital intestinal atresia (IA) in the chick embryo and to assess the type and nature of changes in the intestine at various developmental stages. Chick embryos underwent operative induction of IA on the 12th day of incubation. The procedure consisted of electrocoagulation of the mesenteric vessels supplying a 7- to 8-mm intestinal segment. The embryos were subjected to macroscopic examination, histologic and ultrastructural studies of the preatretic and postatretic bowel using the light microscope, scanning, and transmission electron microscopes. All investigations were performed in an experimental group (operated embryos), in a control group, and in a sham-operated group on the 15th, 17th, 19th, and 21st day of incubation. The original technique of an iatrogenic "vascular event" proved to be effective because IA developed in 96% of embryos surviving the procedure. The affected portion of the bowel underwent progressive necrosis, and signs of bowel obstruction could be observed 48 hours after operation. Cord atresia (type II) developed in 81% of embryos. Histologic investigations showed progressive thinning of mucosa, flattening of mucosal folds, and epithelial detachment within the intestine proximal to atresia. There was only mild hypertrophy of the muscular layers. All these pathomorphologic changes were of rapidly progressive nature until the 17th day of incubation. Later, the rate of distension of preatretic bowel and histologic changes were less. Ultrastructural investigation of the proximal bowel showed progressive flattening of the enterocytes associated with their apical bulging, widening of the intercellular spaces, and microvilli atrophy. Surprisingly, at days 19 and 21 of incubation, signs of induction of adaptive mechanisms with partial restoration of near-normal microvilli pattern were observed. Study of natural history of experimental IA indicates that histologic and ultrastructural

  13. Initiating and continuing participation in citizen science for natural history.

    PubMed

    Everett, Glyn; Geoghegan, Hilary

    2016-07-22

    Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.

  14. [Spleen autotransplant. Natural history and description of a case].

    PubMed

    Ceccherini, E; Sereni, P; Ferrari, F; Fagioli Zucchi, A; Croce, F; Di Maggio, G; Vattimo, A; Mancini, S

    1989-09-30

    After considering the natural history of spleen auto-transplant, a clinical case followed up for seven months with instrumental (echography, scintigraphy) and humoral (Jolly bodies, Heinz bodies, reticulocytes, platelets, complement, immune globulin) examinations has been considered so as to verify "take" and function. One months after reimplantation the patient was again operated on for the onset of an intestinal occlusion due to adherences. On that occasion it was possible to control that the implant had taken. It is concluded that personally used parameters proved to be well correlated and that scintigraphy and echography are two complementary, effective techniques for monitoring auto-transplants.

  15. Rett syndrome diagnostic criteria: lessons from the Natural History Study.

    PubMed

    Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L; Glaze, Daniel G; Motil, Kathleen J; Skinner, Steven A; Khwaja, Omar; Lee, Hye-Seung; Lane, Jane B; Barrish, Judy O; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Graham, Joy; Barnes, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of 819 participants enrolled in the Rett syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study validates recently revised diagnostic criteria. 765 females fulfilled 2002 consensus criteria for classic (653/85.4%) or variant (112/14.6%) RTT. All participants classified as classic RTT fulfilled each revised main criterion; supportive criteria were not uniformly present. All variant RTT participants met at least 3 of 6 main criteria in the 2002, 2 of 4 main criteria in the current format, and 5 of 11 supportive criteria in both. This analysis underscores the critical role of main criteria for classic RTT; variant RTT requires both main and supportive criteria.

  16. Natural history of severe thrombocytopenia in infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Su Yong; Bennett, Bruce

    1982-01-01

    The natural history of severe thrombocytopenia in two patients with infectious mononucleosis (minimum platelet counts under 10 × 109 and 17 × 109/l respectively) is described. In both, the platelet count rose rapidly and spontaneously, reaching approximately 100 × 109/l on the seventh day. Bleeding symptoms were also transient and never life-threatening. The possibility of very rapid spontaneous recovery from severe thrombocytopenia must be borne in mind in assessing the effect of any drug in the management of this complication of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:7111109

  17. Natural history of vestibular schwannomas and hearing loss in NF2 patients.

    PubMed

    Peyre, M; Bernardeschi, D; Sterkers, O; Kalamarides, M

    2015-07-13

    Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), occurring in 95% of patients. These tumors are associated with significant morbidity due to hearing loss, tinnitus, imbalance and facial weakness. As radiosurgery and chemotherapy have been recently introduced in the treatment armamentarium in addition to surgery, a thorough evaluation of vestibular schwannoma natural history is mandatory to determine the role and timing of each treatment modality. An exhaustive review of the literature was performed using the PubMed database concerning the natural history of tumor growth and hearing loss in NF2 patients with vestibular schwannomas. Although some aspects of vestibular schwannoma natural history remain uncertain (pattern of tumor growth, mean tumor growth rate), factors influencing growth such as age at presentation and paracrine factors are well established. Studies focusing on the natural history of hearing have highlighted different patterns of hearing loss and the possible role of intralabyrinthine tumors. The polyclonality of vestibular schwannomas in NF2 was recently unveiled, giving a new perspective to their growth mechanisms. An uniform evaluation of tumor growth using volumetric evaluation and hearing with standard classifications will ensure the use of common endpoints and should improve the quality of clinical trials as well as foster comparison among studies while ensuring more consistency in decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: etiology and natural history.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shunji; Sakou, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Review article. To review the etiology, natural history, measurement tools, and image diagnosis of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine. OPLL is a well-known disease that causes myelopathy. Genetic factors are very important for development of OPLL. However, the pathogenetic gene and natural history of OPLL have not been clarified. The authors reviewed studies about the etiology, natural history, measurement tools, and diagnosis of OPLL, which had been performed by the members of the Investigation Committee on the Ossification of the Spinal Ligaments of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. The prevalence of OPLL in the general Japanese population was reported to be 1.9% to 4.3% among people older than 30 years. Genetic factors are important for development of OPLL, and some candidate genes have been reported. Clinical course of OPLL has been clarified by a prospective long-term follow-up study. Some radiographic predictors for development of myelopathy were introduced. Image diagnosis of OPLL is easy by plain radiographs, but magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are useful to determine cord compression by OPLL. OPLL should be managed on the basis of the consideration of its natural history. Elucidation of pathogenetic genes of OPLL will introduce a new approach for management of OPLL.

  19. Maria Sibylla Merian and the metamorphosis of natural history.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Kay

    2011-03-01

    Known primarily for creating beautiful images of butterflies and flowers, Maria Sibylla Merian (German, 1647-1717) has remained largely unappreciated for her seminal contribution to early modern natural history. Merian was indeed a talented artist, but she clearly thought of herself as a naturalist, and employed both text and images to depict lepidopteran metamorphosis and behavior with unprecedented accuracy and detail. Merian documented larvae and adult insects feeding not only on plants, but also on other animals, and she depicted other creatures preying on insects. An image of battling spiders and ants and the accompanying text in her 1705 Metamorphosis insectorum surinamensium illuminated the world of tropical arthropods in a way that was groundbreaking, and set the stage for a new way to envision nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  1. We Can Change the Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Robert E.; Buse, John B.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    As diabetes develops, we currently waste the first ∼10 years of the natural history. If we found prediabetes and early diabetes when they first presented and treated them more effectively, we could prevent or delay the progression of hyperglycemia and the development of complications. Evidence for this comes from trials where lifestyle change and/or glucose-lowering medications decreased progression from prediabetes to diabetes. After withdrawal of these interventions, there was no “catch-up”—cumulative development of diabetes in the previously treated groups remained less than in control subjects. Moreover, achieving normal glucose levels even transiently during the trials was associated with a substantial reduction in subsequent development of diabetes. These findings indicate that we can change the natural history through routine screening to find prediabetes and early diabetes, combined with management aimed to keep glucose levels as close to normal as possible, without hypoglycemia. We should also test the hypothesis with a randomized controlled trial. PMID:25249668

  2. Novel insight into the natural history of short QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Andrea; Kanthan, Ajita; Monteforte, Nicola; Memmi, Mirella; Bloise, Raffaella; Novelli, Valeria; Miceli, Carlotta; O'Rourke, Sean; Borio, Gianluca; Zienciuk-Krajka, Agnieszka; Curcio, Antonio; Surducan, Andreea Elena; Colombo, Mario; Napolitano, Carlo; Priori, Silvia G

    2014-04-08

    This study intends to gain further insights into the natural history, the yield of familial and genetic screening, and the arrhythmogenic mechanisms in the largest cohort of short QT syndrome (SQTS) patients described so far. SQTS is a rare genetic disorder associated with life-threatening arrhythmias, and its natural history is incompletely ascertained. Seventy-three SQTS patients (84% male; age, 26 ± 15 years; corrected QT interval, 329 ± 22 ms) were studied, and 62 were followed for 60 ± 41 months (median, 56 months). Cardiac arrest (CA) was the most frequent presenting symptom (40% of probands; range, <1 month to 41 years). The rate of CA was 4% in the first year of life and 1.3% per year between 20 and 40 years; the probability of a first occurrence of CA by 40 years of age was 41%. Despite the male predominance, female patients had a risk profile superimposable to that of men (p = 0.49). The yield of genetic screening was low (14%), despite familial disease being present in 44% of kindreds. A history of CA was the only predictor of recurrences at follow-up (p < 0.0000001). Two patterns of onset of ventricular fibrillation were observed and were reproducible in patients with multiple occurrences of CA. Arrhythmias occurred mainly at rest. SQTS is highly lethal; CA is often the first manifestation of the disease with a peak incidence in the first year of life. Survivors of CA have a high CA recurrence rate; therefore, implantation of a defibrillator is strongly recommended in this group of patients. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The dynamic natural history of cerebral aneurysms from cardiac myxomas: A review of the natural history of myxomatous aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Flores, Paloma Largo; Haglund, Felix; Bhogal, Pervinder; Yeo Leong Litt, Leonard; Södermann, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We describe two contrasting patients with multiple cerebral aneurysms and a previous history of resected cardiac myxomas with no cardiac recurrence on follow-up echocardiography. Both patients presented with stroke- like symptoms; one with a left visual defect and the other with right hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of both patients showed the presence of multiple cerebral aneurysms that was later confirmed on conventional angiography. Both patients' aneurysms were managed conservatively. Serial angiograms were performed during their follow-up, which spanned several years. One patient's aneurysms remained static while the evolution of the other patient's aneurysms displayed a dynamic quality with some increasing in size while others diminished. This is the first description in which some aneurysms progressed while others regressed simultaneously in the same patient. Aneurysms in patients with a history of cardiac myxoma can be active years after primary tumor resection and it is difficult to predict how they will develop. We reviewed the literature of all patients with multiple myxomatous aneurysms who were treated conservatively to better understand the natural history of this rare disease. Long-term follow-up of these patients may be necessary.

  4. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given... Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains were removed from the Channel Islands in Santa Barbara and.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional...

  5. 76 FR 43710 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound has completed an... contact the Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound. Disposition of the human remains...

  6. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has completed an inventory of human... culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary objects may contact the Natural History...

  7. 76 FR 36146 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History has... contact the University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History. Repatriation of the human remains...

  8. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given... possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary... assessment of the human remains was made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in...

  9. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Natural History Museum of Utah has completed an inventory of human... culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary objects may contact the Natural History...

  10. 75 FR 438 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given... Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains were removed from Howkan, AK. This notice is published as... Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Hydaburg...

  11. 75 FR 52022 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given... possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary... made by Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in consultation with representatives of the...

  12. 50 CFR 16.33 - Importation of natural-history specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of natural-history specimens... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Additional Exemptions § 16.33 Importation of natural-history... natural-history specimens of wildlife or their eggs for museum or scientific collection purposes: Provided...

  13. 78 FR 22285 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has... associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. If no...

  14. 77 FR 74872 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College, Amherst, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... and museum staff of the Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College, and their agents, in... Inventory Completion: Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College, Amherst, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Beneski Museum of Natural History, Amherst College...

  15. 78 FR 19302 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History has... may contact the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains to the...

  16. Natural history of echocardiographic abnormalities in mucopolysaccharidosis III.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Carolyn M; Truxal, Kristen V; McBride, Kim L; Kovalchin, John P; Flanigan, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type III, Sanfilippo Syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. MPS I and II patients often develop cardiac involvement leading to early mortality, however there are limited data in MPS III. The objective of this study is to describe cardiac abnormalities in a large group of MPS III patients followed in a longitudinal natural history study designed to determine outcome measures for gene transfer trials. A single center study of MPS III patients who were enrolled in the Nationwide Children's Hospital natural history study in 2014. Two cardiologists reviewed all patient echocardiograms for anatomic, valvular, and functional abnormalities. Valve abnormalities were defined as abnormal morphology, trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) with abnormal morphology or at least mild MR, and any aortic regurgitation (AR). Abnormal left ventricular (LV) function was defined as ejection fraction < 50%. Group comparisons were assessed using two-sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. Twenty-five patients, 15 Type A and 10 Type B MPS III, underwent 45 echocardiograms. Fifteen patients (60%) demonstrated an abnormal echocardiographic finding with age at first abnormal echocardiogram within the study being 6.8 ± 2.8 years. Left-sided valve abnormalities were common over time: 7 mitral valve thickening, 2 mitral valve prolapse, 16 MR (8 mild, 8 trivial), 3 aortic valve thickening, and 9 AR (7 mild, 2 trivial). Two patients had asymmetric LV septal hypertrophy. No valvular stenosis or ventricular function abnormalities were noted. Incidental findings included: mild aortic root dilation (2), bicommissural aortic valve (1), and mild tricuspid regurgitation (3). Individuals with Sanfilippo A and B demonstrate a natural history of cardiac involvement with valvular abnormalities most common. In short-term follow up, patients demonstrated only

  17. Perrault, Buffon and the natural history of animals

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In 1733, as part of a programme to publish its early works in a uniform format, the Paris Academy of Sciences reprinted Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des animaux (Histoire des animaux), last published in 1676, a work of both natural history and mechanistic anatomy. However, unlike the other works in this enterprise, Histoire des animaux was extensively edited and updated. In 1749 Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon published the first volume of Histoire naturelle. Its volumes on quadrupeds, written with Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, held significant similarities to Histoire des animaux. The relationship between these works has not hitherto been examined. Buffon's early ideas on species, in particular, resemble the emphasis on particulars of Histoire des animaux.

  18. Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Skyler, Jay S; Bakris, George L; Bonifacio, Ezio; Darsow, Tamara; Eckel, Robert H; Groop, Leif; Groop, Per-Henrik; Handelsman, Yehuda; Insel, Richard A; Mathieu, Chantal; McElvaine, Allison T; Palmer, Jerry P; Pugliese, Alberto; Schatz, Desmond A; Sosenko, Jay M; Wilding, John P H; Ratner, Robert E

    2017-02-01

    The American Diabetes Association, JDRF, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists convened a research symposium, "The Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History and Prognosis" on 10-12 October 2015. International experts in genetics, immunology, metabolism, endocrinology, and systems biology discussed genetic and environmental determinants of type 1 and type 2 diabetes risk and progression, as well as complications. The participants debated how to determine appropriate therapeutic approaches based on disease pathophysiology and stage and defined remaining research gaps hindering a personalized medical approach for diabetes to drive the field to address these gaps. The authors recommend a structure for data stratification to define the phenotypes and genotypes of subtypes of diabetes that will facilitate individualized treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakris, George L.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Handelsman, Yehuda; Insel, Richard A.; Mathieu, Chantal; Palmer, Jerry P.; Pugliese, Alberto; Sosenko, Jay M.; Ratner, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association, JDRF, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists convened a research symposium, “The Differentiation of Diabetes by Pathophysiology, Natural History and Prognosis” on 10–12 October 2015. International experts in genetics, immunology, metabolism, endocrinology, and systems biology discussed genetic and environmental determinants of type 1 and type 2 diabetes risk and progression, as well as complications. The participants debated how to determine appropriate therapeutic approaches based on disease pathophysiology and stage and defined remaining research gaps hindering a personalized medical approach for diabetes to drive the field to address these gaps. The authors recommend a structure for data stratification to define the phenotypes and genotypes of subtypes of diabetes that will facilitate individualized treatment. PMID:27980006

  20. Natural History of the Post-ablation Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Reed, Craig C; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2018-04-18

    Endoscopic ablative therapy including radiofrequency ablation (RFA) represents the preferred management strategy for dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) and appears to diminish the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Limited data describe the natural history of the post-ablation esophagus. Recent findings demonstrate that recurrent intestinal metaplasia (IM) following RFA is relatively frequent. However, dysplastic BE and EAC subsequent to the complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM) are uncommon. Moreover, data suggest that the risk of recurrent disease is probably highest in the first year following CEIM. Recurrent IM and dysplasia are usually successfully eradicated with repeat RFA. Future studies may refine surveillance intervals and inform the length of time surveillance should be conducted following RFA with CEIM. Further data will also be necessary to understand the utility of chemopreventive strategies, including NSAIDs, in reducing the risk of recurrent disease.

  1. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald; Feldman, Howard H; Scheltens, Philip; Aisen, Paul; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Benali, Habib; Bertram, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Broich, Karl; Cavedo, Enrica; Crutch, Sebastian; Dartigues, Jean-François; Duyckaerts, Charles; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Gauthier, Serge; Genthon, Remy; Gouw, Alida A; Habert, Marie-Odile; Holtzman, David M; Kivipelto, Miia; Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, José-Luis; O'Bryant, Sid E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rowe, Christopher; Salloway, Stephen; Schneider, Lon S; Sperling, Reisa; Teichmann, Marc; Carrillo, Maria C; Cummings, Jeffrey; Jack, Cliff R

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence of the first clinical symptoms. This preclinical stage of AD has become a major research focus as the field postulates that early intervention may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. To date, very little evidence is established on this "silent" stage of the disease. A clarification is needed about the definitions and lexicon, the limits, the natural history, the markers of progression, and the ethical consequence of detecting the disease at this asymptomatic stage. This article is aimed at addressing all the different issues by providing for each of them an updated review of the literature and evidence, with practical recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural history of the ERVWE1 endogenous retroviral locus

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Bertrand; Beliaeff, Jean; Bouton, Olivier; Oriol, Guy; Duret, Laurent; Mallet, François

    2005-01-01

    Background The human HERV-W multicopy family includes a unique proviral locus, termed ERVWE1, whose full-length envelope ORF was preserved through evolution by the action of a selective pressure. The encoded Env protein (Syncytin) is involved in hominoid placental physiology. Results In order to infer the natural history of this domestication process, a comparative genomic analysis of the human 7q21.2 syntenic regions in eutherians was performed. In primates, this region was progressively colonized by LTR-elements, leading to two different evolutionary pathways in Cercopithecidae and Hominidae, a genetic drift versus a domestication, respectively. Conclusion The preservation in Hominoids of a genomic structure consisting in the juxtaposition of a retrotransposon-derived MaLR LTR and the ERVWE1 provirus suggests a functional link between both elements. PMID:16176588

  3. STRAWBERRY HEMANGIOMAS—The Natural History of the Untreated Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Alvin H.

    1957-01-01

    A review of the literature on the natural history of strawberry hemangiomas revealed over-whelming evidence of the satisfactory spontaneous involution of over 95 per cent of these lesions without the scarring and danger of other sequelae inherent in the various forms of treatment. In a study of 105 strawberry nevi observed for more than one year, 97 per cent of the lesions had either completely disappeared or were regressing satisfactorily. A cross-section study of 1,735 consecutively examined children in routine pediatric practice showed hemangiomas to be present in 10.1 per cent of all infants from birth to one year of age but that this incidence drops to 1.5 per cent in children over five years of age, confirming the fact of spontaneous involution. PMID:13383382

  4. Natural history of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Toma, Ahmed K; Stapleton, Simon; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Kitchen, Neil D; Watkins, Laurence D

    2011-10-01

    Natural history of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is not clear. We performed a literature search for studies that looked into the outcome of unshunted INPH patients trying to answer the following questions: Do all INPH patients deteriorate without shunt? If yes, at what rate? Do some NPH patients improve without shunt? If yes, to what extent? Six studies objectively described the outcome of 102 INPH patients. Result shows that without surgery, most INPH patients had measurable deterioration as early as 3 months following initial assessment. A small number of patients might improve without shunt, however the extent of improvement is not clear. The homogeneity of the findings of the cohort studies provided high evidence supporting the rule of shunt surgery in INPH patients.

  5. Natural history's hypothetical moments: narratives of contingency in Victorian culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tina Young

    2009-01-01

    This essay focuses on the ways in which works by Robert Chambers, Charles Darwin, and George Eliot encouraged readers to imagine the future as contingent. But where Chambers alludes to Charles Babbage's computational engine and the period's life insurance industry to hint at the role of contingency in natural history, Darwin insists on the importance of contingently determined outcomes to speciation. The "Origin" consistently exercises the reader's speculative energies by generating conditional statements, causal hypotheses, adn diverging alternatives. "Adam Bede" constitutes its characters' interior lives around the proliferation of such contingent narratives. To reflect on the future or on the past, these works suggest, demands a temporal, moral, and narrative complexity in one's thinking.

  6. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Busch, Katrin; Thimme, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection represents a major global health problem. Currently, there are more than 240 million chronically infected people worldwide. The development of chronic hepatitis B virus-mediated liver disease may lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, the discovery of the viral entry receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide has facilitated new approaches for a better understanding of viral physiopathology. Hopefully, these novel insights may give rise to the development of more effective antiviral therapy concepts during the next years. In this review, we will discuss the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection including the viral biology, the clinical course of infection and the role of the immune response.

  7. Massive plexiform neurofibromas in childhood: natural history and management issues.

    PubMed

    Serletis, Demitre; Parkin, Patricia; Bouffet, Eric; Shroff, Manohar; Drake, James M; Rutka, James T

    2007-05-01

    The authors review their experience with massive plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) in patients with pediatric neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) to better characterize the natural history and management of these complex lesions. The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained in seven patients with NF1 in whom massive PNs were diagnosed at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. These patients attended routine follow-up examinations conducted by a number of specialists, and serial neuroimaging studies were obtained to monitor disease progression. The most common presenting feature of PN was that of a painful, expanding lesion. Furthermore, two patients harbored multiple, distinct PNs affecting different body sites. With respect to management, two patients were simply observed, undergoing serial neuroimaging studies; two patients underwent biopsy sampling of their plexiform lesions; two patients underwent attempted medical treatment (farnesyl transferase inhibitor, R11577, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy); and three patients required surgical debulking of their PNs because the massive growth of these tumors caused functional compromise. Ultimately, one patient died of respiratory complications due to progressive growth of the massive PN lesion. In this review of their experience, the authors found certain features that underscore the presentation and natural history of PNs. The management of these complex lesions, however, remains unclear. Slow-growing PNs may be observed conservatively, but the authors' experience suggests that resection should be considered in selected cases involving significant deterioration or functional compromise. Nevertheless, patients with massive PNs will benefit from close surveillance by a team of specialists to monitor for ongoing disease progression.

  8. TNNT1 nemaline myopathy: Natural history and therapeutic frontier.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Carson, Vincent J; Feng, Han-Zhong; Lawlor, Michael W; Gray, John T; Brigatti, Karlla W; Jin, J-P; Strauss, Kevin A

    2018-06-20

    We describe the natural history of 'Amish' nemaline myopathy (ANM), an infantile-onset, lethal disease linked to a pathogenic c.505G>T nonsense mutation of TNNT1, which encodes the slow fiber isoform of troponin T (TNNT1; a.k.a TnT). The TNNT1 c.505G>T allele has a carrier frequency of 6.5% within Old Order Amish settlements of North America. We collected natural history data for 106 ANM patients born between 1923 and 2017. Over the last two decades, mean age of molecular diagnosis was 16 ± 27 days. TNNT1 c.505G>T homozygotes were normal weight at birth but failed to thrive by age 9 months. Presenting neonatal signs were axial hypotonia, hip and shoulder stiffness, and tremors, followed by progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and contractures. Affected children developed thoracic rigidity, pectus carinatum, and restrictive lung disease during infancy, and all succumbed to respiratory failure by 6 years of age (median survival 18 months, range 0.2-66 months). Muscle histology from two affected children showed marked fiber size variation due to both type 1 myofiber smallness (hypotrophy) and type 2 fiber hypertrophy, with evidence of nemaline rods, myofibrillar disarray, and vacuolar pathology in both fiber types. The truncated slow TNNT1 (TnT) fragment (p.Glu180Ter) was undetectable in ANM muscle, reflecting its rapid proteolysis and clearance from sarcoplasm. Similar functional and histological phenotypes were observed in other human cohorts and two transgenic murine models (Tnnt1-/- and Tnnt1 c.505G>T). These findings have implications for emerging molecular therapies, including the suitably of TNNT1 gene replacement for newborns with ANM or other TNNT1-associated myopathies.

  9. Initial report of the osteogenesis imperfecta adult natural history initiative.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Laura L; Oetgen, Matthew E; Floor, Marianne K; Huber, Mary Beth; Kennelly, Ann M; McCarter, Robert J; Rak, Melanie F; Simmonds, Barbara J; Simpson, Melissa D; Tucker, Carole A; McKiernan, Fergus E

    2015-11-14

    A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation established the Adult Natural History Initiative (ANHI) in 2010 to give voice to the health concerns of the adult OI community and to begin to address existing knowledge gaps for this condition. Using a web-based platform, 959 adults with self-reported OI, representing a wide range of self-reported disease severity, reported symptoms and health conditions, estimated the impact of these concerns on present and future health-related quality of life (QoL) and completed a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) survey of health issues. Adults with OI report lower general physical health status (p < .0001), exhibit a higher prevalence of auditory (58% of sample versus 2-16% of normalized population) and musculoskeletal (64% of sample versus 1-3% of normalized population) concerns than the general population, but report generally similar mental health status. Musculoskeletal, auditory, pulmonary, endocrine, and gastrointestinal issues are particular future health-related QoL concerns for these adults. Numerous other statistically significant differences exist among adults with OI as well as between adults with OI and the referent PROMIS® population, but the clinical significance of these differences is uncertain. Adults with OI report lower general health status but are otherwise more similar to the general population than might have been expected. While reassuring, further analysis of the extensive OI-ANHI databank should help identify areas of unique clinical concern and for future research. The OI-ANHI survey experience supports an internet-based strategy for successful patient-centered outcomes research in rare disease populations.

  10. Family History Is a Risk Factor for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hokanson, John E.; Lynch, David A.; Washko, George R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility. Methods: We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement. Results: Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P < .0001) and educational level (OR, 0.48 for some college vs no college; P < .0001) were significant predictors of COPD, but parental history of smoking and childhood ETS exposure were not significant. The population-attributable risk from COPD family history was 18.6%. Patients with COPD with a parental history had more severe disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans. Conclusions: Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history. PMID:21310839

  11. Phenomenology of tics and natural history of tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Leckman, James F

    2003-12-01

    Tic symptoms, the hallmark of Tourette's syndrome (TS), may simply be fragments of innate behavior. As such, the sensory urges that precede tics may illuminate some of the normal internal cues that are intimately involved in the assembly of behavioral sequences. The occurrence of tics in time appears to have fractal characteristics that may help to explain the waxing and waning course of tic disorders. Longitudinal studies are currently underway that should permit a close examination of the natural fluctuations in tic severity using valid and reliable clinician-rated scales of tic severity. The natural history of tics typically shows a marked decline during the course of adolescence. However, TS can also be associated with social, emotional, and academic difficulties in early adulthood. Comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are likely to influence the long-term adaptive outcomes of individuals with TS. Future progress may also be expected as endophenotypes, and possibly genetic markers, are identified that are associated with specific comorbid conditions and etiologically distinct forms of TS.

  12. [The natural history of ankylosing spondylitis in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Frallonardo, P; Ramonda, R; Lo Nigro, A; Modesti, V; Campana, C; Punzi, L

    2011-03-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the axial skeleton and evolves in stiffness followed by ankylosis and disability. However, it may be difficult to exactly establish the natural history of the disease and the influence of risk factors of progression, since most patients are treated with various pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic agents, which may potentially influence the natural progression of the disease. In this context, we report here a very interesting case of a 40 year old man, presented to our outpatient clinic, 28 years after the onset of AS. Previously for personal reasons, did not choose not to undergo any treatment. This case allows us to evaluate the natural radiological progression of the disease and the influence of predictive risk factors.

  13. 77 FR 25740 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History has completed an inventory of human remains in... History. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional...

  14. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Museum of Natural History has completed an inventory of human remains, in... History. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no additional...

  15. 76 FR 43720 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum has completed an inventory of human... History, Pratt Museum. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe stated below may occur if no...

  16. American History in the Schools: Its Nature, Functions and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    The teaching of history is part of the continuous process of redefining American civilization that lies at the center of what it means to be an American. A major challenge facing teachers of U.S. history is how to strike an appropriate balance between the forces of continuity and change. Much of the concern over history standards and the choice of…

  17. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Murdoch, Andrew R; Hughes, Michael S; Seamons, Todd R; LaHood, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26-93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24-54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River.

  18. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Andrew R.; Hughes, Michael S.; Seamons, Todd R.; LaHood, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26–93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24–54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River. PMID:27737000

  19. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L; Shah, Apurva S

    2016-12-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging. Physical examination is also the best modality to determine candidates for microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The key finding on physical examination that determines need for microsurgery is recovery of antigravity elbow flexion by 3-6 months of age. When indicated, both microsurgery and secondary shoulder and elbow procedures are effective and can substantially improve functional outcomes. These procedures include nerve transfers and nerve grafting in infants and secondary procedures in children, such as botulinum toxin injection, shoulder tendon transfers, and humeral derotational osteotomy.

  20. Aphasia after stroke: natural history and associated deficits.

    PubMed

    Wade, D T; Hewer, R L; David, R M; Enderby, P M

    1986-01-01

    Data relating to 976 patients registered as suffering an acute stroke has been analysed to determine the natural history of speech disturbance: these patients came from a community survey of 215,000 people over a 28 month period. Of the 545 patients assessed within 7 days of stroke, 24% were aphasic and 28% unassessable. At 3 weeks, when over 90% of survivors were tested, 20% of those tested had aphasia. At 6 months only 12% of survivors had significant aphasia, but 44% of patients and 57% of carers thought speech was abnormal. Of those aphasic within 7 days, 40% remained so at 6 months; 60% of those aphasic at 3 weeks remained so. There was a high correlation between early and late aphasia scores. Aphasia was associated with more severe disability (degree of limb weakness, loss of function, loss of IQ), and with a less good recovery of social activities, but did not cause any measurable increase in stress upon carers. In a Health District of 250,000 people, about 60 patients each year may be referred for speech therapy after an acute stroke.

  1. Natural history of alkaptonuria revisited: analyses based on scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F

    2011-12-01

    Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease.

  2. The history of natural progesterone, the never-ending story.

    PubMed

    Piette, P

    2018-05-28

    The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.

  3. Factors shaping life history traits of two proovigenic parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Segoli, Michal; Sun, Shucun; Nava, Dori E; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2017-11-23

    What shapes the relative investment in reproduction vs. survival of organisms is one of the key questions in life history. Proovigenic insects mature all their eggs prior to emergence and are short lived, providing a unique opportunity to quantify their lifetime investments in the different functions. We investigated the initial eggloads and longevity of two proovigenic parasitoid wasps (Anagrus erythroneurae and Anagrus daanei, (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) that develop within leafhopper eggs in both agricultural vineyards and natural riparian habitats in Northern California. We collected Vitis spp. leaves containing developing parasitoids from three natural sites (Knight Landing, American River and Putah Creek) and three agricultural vineyards (Solano Farm, Davis Campus and Village Homes). We recorded eggloads at parasitoid emergence and female parasitoid longevity with or without honey-feeding. Theory predicts that parasitoids from vineyards (where hosts are abundant) would have higher initial eggloads and lower longevity compared with parasitoids from riparian habitats (where hosts are scarce). Although host density and parasitoid eggloads were indeed higher in vineyards than in riparian habitats, parasitoid longevity did not follow the predicted pattern. Longevity without feeding differed among field sites, but it was not affected by habitat type (natural vs. agricultural), whereas longevity with feeding was not significantly affected by any of the examined factors. Moreover, longevity was positively, rather than negatively, correlated with eggloads at the individual level, even after correcting for parasitoid body size. The combined results suggest a more complex allocation mechanism than initially predicted, and the possibility of variation in host quality that is independent of size. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural History of Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectatic and Fusiform Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Deena M; Flemming, Kelly D; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Cloft, Harry J; Kallmes, David F; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Brinjikji, Waleed

    2018-01-01

    -VBDAs appear to have distinct natural histories with substantially higher growth and rupture associated with fusiform aneurysms. These findings suggest that these aneurysms should be considered separate entities. Further studies on the natural history of vertebrobasilar dolichoectatic and fusiform aneurysms with more complete follow-up are needed to better understand the risk factors for progression of these aneurysms. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 78 FR 19299 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... made by the Slater Museum of Natural History and Burke Museum professional staff in consultation with....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Slater Museum of Natural...

  6. Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Janine M; Polusny, Melissa A

    2004-01-01

    On 29 March 1998, a series of category F-3 and F-4 tornadoes caused wide-spread destruction in four rural southern Minnesota counties in the United States. Extensive research has examined the impact of disaster exposure on adults' psychological functioning, including alcohol use. However, there has been little research on potential risk factors for adolescents' alcohol use following disaster exposure. It was hypothesized that demographic variables such as age and gender, prior drinking involvement, extent of prior trauma history, level of disaster exposure, and current disaster-related, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology would predict alcohol use among adolescents. Six months following a natural disaster, survey data were collected from 256 adolescents assessing these factors. Risk factors for adolescents' alcohol use were identified using hierarchical, multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. Greater age, prior drinking involvement, and the extent of prior trauma history were significantly associated with higher levels of binge drinking. Prior trauma history and current levels of disaster-related PTSD symptomatology were significant risk factors for adolescents' report of increases in their alcohol consumption since the tornado. In general, the extent of trauma exposure was associated with greater binge drinking among adolescents. Similar to adults, post-traumatic stress symptoms experienced in the aftermath of a disaster can lead to increased alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  7. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history.

    PubMed

    Frank, J H; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae.By 'coastal habitats' we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs.The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database.The 'Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes' section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history.The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This difference is a

  8. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. H.; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This

  9. Contemporary Natural History and Management of Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Maron, Martin S; Rowin, Ethan J; Olivotto, Iacopo; Casey, Susan A; Arretini, Anna; Tomberli, Benedetta; Garberich, Ross F; Link, Mark S; Chan, Raymond H M; Lesser, John R; Maron, Barry J

    2016-03-29

    Left ventricular outflow tract gradients are absent in an important proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the natural course of this important patient subgroup remains largely unresolved. The authors systematically employed exercise (stress) echocardiography to define those patients without obstruction to left ventricular outflow at rest and/or under physiological exercise and to examine their natural history and clinical course to create a more robust understanding of this complex disease. We prospectively studied 573 consecutive HCM patients in 3 centers (44 ± 17 years; 66% male) with New York Heart Association functional class I/II symptoms at study entry, including 249 in whom left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was absent both at rest and following physiological exercise (<30 mm Hg; nonobstructive HCM) and retrospectively assembled clinical follow-up data. Over a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 225 of 249 nonobstructive patients (90%) remained in classes I/II, whereas 24 (10%) developed progressive heart failure to New York Heart Association functional classes III/IV. Nonobstructive HCM patients were less likely to experience advanced limiting class III/IV symptoms than the 324 patients with outflow obstruction (1.6%/year vs. 7.4%/year rest obstruction vs. 3.2%/year provocable obstruction; p < 0.001). However, 7 nonobstructive patients (2.8%) did require heart transplantation for progression to end stage versus none of the obstructive patients. HCM-related mortality among nonobstructive patients was low (n = 8; 0.5%/year), with 5- and 10-year survival rates of 99% and 97%, respectively, which is not different from expected all-cause mortality in an age- and sex-matched U.S. population (p = 0.15). HCM patients with nonobstructive disease appear to experience a relatively benign clinical course, associated with a low risk for advanced heart failure symptoms, other disease complications, and HCM-related mortality, and

  10. Retrospective natural history of thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Garone, Caterina; Taylor, Robert W; Nascimento, Andrés; Poulton, Joanna; Fratter, Carl; Domínguez-González, Cristina; Evans, Julie C; Loos, Mariana; Isohanni, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Anu; Ram, Dipak; Hughes, M Imelda; McFarland, Robert; Barca, Emanuele; Lopez Gomez, Carlos; Jayawant, Sandeep; Thomas, Neil D; Manzur, Adnan Y; Kleinsteuber, Karin; Martin, Miguel A; Kerr, Timothy; Gorman, Grainne S; Sommerville, Ewen W; Chinnery, Patrick F; Hofer, Monika; Karch, Christoph; Ralph, Jeffrey; Cámara, Yolanda; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Domínguez-Carral, Jana; Ortez, Carlos; Emperador, Sonia; Montoya, Julio; Chakrapani, Anupam; Kriger, Joshua F; Schoenaker, Robert; Levin, Bruce; Thompson, John L P; Long, Yuelin; Rahman, Shamima; Donati, Maria Alice; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio

    2018-03-30

    Thymine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial matrix protein encoded in nuclear DNA and phosphorylates the pyrimidine nucleosides: thymidine and deoxycytidine. Autosomal recessive TK2 mutations cause a spectrum of disease from infantile onset to adult onset manifesting primarily as myopathy. To perform a retrospective natural history study of a large cohort of patients with TK2 deficiency. The study was conducted by 42 investigators across 31 academic medical centres. We identified 92 patients with genetically confirmed diagnoses of TK2 deficiency: 67 from literature review and 25 unreported cases. Based on clinical and molecular genetics findings, we recognised three phenotypes with divergent survival: (1) infantile-onset myopathy (42.4%) with severe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, frequent neurological involvement and rapid progression to early mortality (median post-onset survival (POS) 1.00, CI 0.58 to 2.33 years); (2) childhood-onset myopathy (40.2%) with mtDNA depletion, moderate-to-severe progression of generalised weakness and median POS at least 13 years; and (3) late-onset myopathy (17.4%) with mild limb weakness at onset and slow progression to respiratory insufficiency with median POS of 23 years. Ophthalmoparesis and facial weakness are frequent in adults. Muscle biopsies show multiple mtDNA deletions often with mtDNA depletion. In TK2 deficiency, age at onset, rate of weakness progression and POS are important variables that define three clinical subtypes. Nervous system involvement often complicates the clinical course of the infantile-onset form while extraocular muscle and facial involvement are characteristic of the late-onset form. Our observations provide essential information for planning future clinical trials in this disorder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. A natural history study of X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    PubMed

    Amburgey, Kimberly; Tsuchiya, Etsuko; de Chastonay, Sabine; Glueck, Michael; Alverez, Rachel; Nguyen, Cam-Tu; Rutkowski, Anne; Hornyak, Joseph; Beggs, Alan H; Dowling, James J

    2017-09-26

    To define the natural history of X-linked myotubular myopathy (MTM). We performed a cross-sectional study that included an online survey (n = 35) and a prospective, 1-year longitudinal investigation using a phone survey (n = 33). We ascertained data from 50 male patients with MTM and performed longitudinal assessments on 33 affected individuals. Consistent with existing knowledge, we found that MTM is a disorder associated with extensive morbidities, including wheelchair (86.7% nonambulant) and ventilator (75% requiring >16 hours of support) dependence. However, unlike previous reports and despite the high burden of disease, mortality was lower than anticipated (approximate rate 10%/y). Seventy-six percent of patients with MTM enrolled (mean age 10 years 11 months) were alive at the end of the study. Nearly all deaths in the study were associated with respiratory failure. In addition, the disease course was more stable than expected, with few adverse events reported during the prospective survey. Few non-muscle-related morbidities were identified, although an unexpectedly high incidence of learning disability (43%) was noted. Conversely, MTM was associated with substantial burdens on patient and caregiver daily living, reflected by missed days of school and lost workdays. MTM is one of the most severe neuromuscular disorders, with affected individuals requiring extensive mechanical interventions for survival. However, among study participants, the disease course was more stable than predicted, with more individuals surviving infancy and early childhood. These data reflect the disease burden of MTM but offer hope in terms of future therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. A natural history study of X-linked myotubular myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Amburgey, Kimberly; Tsuchiya, Etsuko; de Chastonay, Sabine; Glueck, Michael; Alverez, Rachel; Nguyen, Cam-Tu; Rutkowski, Anne; Hornyak, Joseph; Beggs, Alan H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To define the natural history of X-linked myotubular myopathy (MTM). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that included an online survey (n = 35) and a prospective, 1-year longitudinal investigation using a phone survey (n = 33). Results: We ascertained data from 50 male patients with MTM and performed longitudinal assessments on 33 affected individuals. Consistent with existing knowledge, we found that MTM is a disorder associated with extensive morbidities, including wheelchair (86.7% nonambulant) and ventilator (75% requiring >16 hours of support) dependence. However, unlike previous reports and despite the high burden of disease, mortality was lower than anticipated (approximate rate 10%/y). Seventy-six percent of patients with MTM enrolled (mean age 10 years 11 months) were alive at the end of the study. Nearly all deaths in the study were associated with respiratory failure. In addition, the disease course was more stable than expected, with few adverse events reported during the prospective survey. Few non–muscle-related morbidities were identified, although an unexpectedly high incidence of learning disability (43%) was noted. Conversely, MTM was associated with substantial burdens on patient and caregiver daily living, reflected by missed days of school and lost workdays. Conclusions: MTM is one of the most severe neuromuscular disorders, with affected individuals requiring extensive mechanical interventions for survival. However, among study participants, the disease course was more stable than predicted, with more individuals surviving infancy and early childhood. These data reflect the disease burden of MTM but offer hope in terms of future therapeutic intervention. PMID:28842446

  13. The diagnosis and natural history of false preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tamara T; Bloom, Steven L; Mitchell, Judith S; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the natural history of pregnancies in women who present with preterm labor symptoms and who are sent home with a diagnosis of false labor. A prospective observational study of women with singletons and intact membranes who presented to triage between 24 0/7 and 33 6/7 weeks of gestation with preterm labor symptoms and cervical dilation less than 2 cm was conducted. Women sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor were analyzed against a comparable general obstetric population delivered during the same time period. The primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included the interval between presentation and delivery, as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes. Of the 843 women who met inclusion criteria, 690 (82%) were sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor and 153 (18%) were admitted to labor and delivery. When analyzed compared with a comparable general obstetric population, women sent home had a similar rate of birth before 34 weeks of gestation (2% compared with 1%, P=.28) but a higher rate of birth between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation (5% compared with 2%, P<.001). There was no difference in neonatal mortality (0% compared with 0.3%, P=.18). Women with cervical dilation of 1 cm at discharge were more likely to deliver before 34 weeks of gestation compared with nondilated women (5% compared with 1%, P=.02); however, 89% of the 1-cm group delivered more than 21 days after presentation. Women sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor are not at increased risk for early preterm birth or neonatal mortality; however, they are at increased risk for late preterm birth. II.

  14. Natural history of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia treated with hypomethylating agents.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Ana; Montalban-Bravo, Guillermo; Takahashi, Koichi; Jabbour, Elias J; Kadia, Tapan; Ravandi, Farhad; Cortes, Jorge; Estrov, Zeev; Borthakur, Gautam; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Konopleva, Marina; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2017-07-01

    Hypomethylating agents (HMA) are the most commonly used therapeutic intervention in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Due to the lack of CMML-specific clinical trials, the impact of these agents in the natural history of CMML is not fully understood. We present the largest retrospective series of CMML (n = 151) treated with HMA. Mean age at diagnosis was 69 years (range 50-88). According to the CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS): 17 (15%) were low-risk, 45 (39%) intermediate-1 risk, 42 (36%) intermediate-2, and 12 (10%) high-risk. 35 (23%) patients received single agent azacitidine, 73 (48%) single agent decitabine, and 43 (29%) combinations. With a median follow-up of 17 months, overall response rate (ORR) was 75%, with 41% achieving complete response (CR). Median overall survival (OS) was 24 months (95%CI: 20-28) and event-free survival 14 months (95%CI: 11-17). By multivariate analysis, age < 70 years, higher levels of hemoglobin, absence of blast in peripheral blood and lower CPSS cytogenetic risk predicted for better OS. CR was significantly higher in those patients treated with decitabine (58.3%) when compared with azacitidine (20.6%) (P < .001). 13 patients (9%) received allo-SCT after a median of 4 cycles of HMA. 66 patients (50%) had HMA failure: 26 primary (34%) and 50 secondary (66%), including 35 (46%) that transformed to AML. Outcomes after HMA failure were poor with OS of 7 months (95%CI: 3-12). In conclusion, HMA are effective in CMML but new agents and combinations are needed. This data could be a benchmark for further drug development in CMML. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Natural History of Aging in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KLINE, ANTONIE D.; GRADOS, MARCO; SPONSELLER, PAUL; LEVY, HOWARD P.; BLAGOWIDOW, NATALIE; SCHOEDEL, CHRISTIANNE; RAMPOLLA, JONI; CLEMENS, DOUGLAS K.; KRANTZ, IAN; KIMBALL, AMY; PICHARD, CARMEN; TUCHMAN, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype–phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  16. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  17. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  18. Genetics, phenotype, and natural history of autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Dale, D.C.

    Cyclic hematopoiesis (CH, or cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disease manifested by transient severe neutropenia that recurs approximately every 21 days. The hematologic profile of families with the autosomal dominant form (ADCH) has not been well characterized, and it is unknown if the phenotype is distinct from the more common sporadic congenital or acquired forms of CH. We studied nine ADCH families whose children displayed typical CH blood patterns. Pedigrees confirmed dominant inheritance without evidence of heterogeneity or decreased penetrance; three pedigrees suggested new mutations. Families were Caucasian with exception of one with a Cherokee Native American founder. A widemore » spectrum of symptom severity, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening illness, was observed within families. The phenotype changed with age. Children displayed typical neutrophil cycles with symptoms of mucosal ulceration, lymphadenopathy, and infections. Adults often had fewer and milder symptoms, sometimes accompanied by mild chronic neutropenia without distinct cycles. While CH is commonly described as {open_quotes}benign{close_quotes}, four children in three of the nine families died of Clostridium or E. coli colitis, documenting the need for urgent evaluation of abdominal pain. Misdiagnosis with other neutropenias was common but can be avoided by serial blood counts in index cases. Genetic counseling requires specific histories and complete blood counts in relatives at risk to assess status regardless of symptoms, especially to determine individuals with new mutations. We propose diagnostic criteria for ADCH in affected children and adults. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of neutropenia and morbidity. The differential diagnosis from other forms of familial neutropenia is reviewed. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  19. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  20. The Unfortunate Human Factor: A Selective History of Human Factors for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews moments in the history of human factors that are especially relevant to the field of technical communications. Discusses human factors research that is applicable to technical communications. Focuses on qualitative usability research, minimalism, and human activity interface design. (HB)

  1. Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection

    PubMed Central

    Gostic, Katelyn M; Kucharski, Adam J; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2015-01-01

    During outbreaks of high-consequence pathogens, airport screening programs have been deployed to curtail geographic spread of infection. The effectiveness of screening depends on several factors, including pathogen natural history and epidemiology, human behavior, and characteristics of the source epidemic. We developed a mathematical model to understand how these factors combine to influence screening outcomes. We analyzed screening programs for six emerging pathogens in the early and late stages of an epidemic. We show that the effectiveness of different screening tools depends strongly on pathogen natural history and epidemiological features, as well as human factors in implementation and compliance. For pathogens with longer incubation periods, exposure risk detection dominates in growing epidemics, while fever becomes a better target in stable or declining epidemics. For pathogens with short incubation, fever screening drives detection in any epidemic stage. However, even in the most optimistic scenario arrival screening will miss the majority of cases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05564.001 PMID:25695520

  2. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: phases in a complex relationship.

    PubMed

    Croagh, Catherine M N; Lubel, John S

    2014-08-14

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a condition of global prevalence and its sequelae include cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The natural history of CHB is a complex interplay of virological, environmental and host factors. The dynamic relationship between the virus and host evolves over the duration of the infection and different phases of the disease have been observed and described. These have been conceptualized in terms of the state of balance between the host immune system and the hepatitis B virus and have been given the labels immune tolerant, immune clearance, immune control and immune escape although other nomenclature is also used. Host factors, such as age at infection, determine progression to chronicity. Virological factors including hepatitis B viral load, mutations and genotype also have an impact on the adverse outcomes of the infection, as do hepatotoxic cofactors such as alcohol. Our understanding of the natural history of CHB has evolved significantly over the past few decades and characterizing the phase of disease of CHB remains an integral part of managing this virus in the clinic.

  3. Clinical and Polysomnographic Predictors of the Natural History of Poor Sleep in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Approximately 8-10% of the general population suffers from chronic insomnia, whereas another 20-30% of the population has insomnia symptoms at any given time (i.e., poor sleep). However, few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors of the natural history of poor sleep, and none have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 yr. Measurements: Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and telephone interview at follow-up. Results: The rate of incident poor sleep was 18.4%. Physical (e.g., obesity, sleep apnea, and ulcer) and mental (e.g., depression) health conditions and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol consumption) increased the odds of incident poor sleep as compared to normal sleep. The rates of persistent, remitted, and poor sleepers who developed chronic insomnia were 39%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Risk factors for persistent poor sleep were physical health conditions combined with psychologic distress. Shorter objective sleep duration and a family history of sleep problems were risk factors for poor sleep evolving into chronic insomnia. Conclusions: Poor sleep appears to be primarily a symptom of physical and mental health conditions, whereas the persistence of poor sleep is associated with psychologic distress. Importantly, sleep apnea appears to be associated with incident poor sleep but not with chronic insomnia. Finally, this study suggests that objective short sleep duration in poor sleepers is a biologic marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Karataraki M; Vela-Bueno A; Liao D. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of the natural history of poor sleep in the general population

  4. 75 FR 52368 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Homer Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Society of Natural History, Pratt Museum, Homer, AK. The human remains were removed from Kachemak Bay, AK...

  5. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  6. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-CRIMINAL Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] ...

  7. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-CRIMINAL Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] ...

  8. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-CRIMINAL Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] ...

  9. 43 CFR 9268.2 - Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] 9268.2 Section 9268.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-CRIMINAL Recreation Programs § 9268.2 Natural history resource management procedures. [Reserved] ...

  10. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT. The human remains were removed from Snow... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native...

  11. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... Museum of Anthropology professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Confederated Tribes... Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR AGENCY... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR. The human remains...

  12. 75 FR 57288 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... the human remains was made by the Utah Museum of Natural History professional staff and a report sent... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of... possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT. The human remains and...

  13. A Perspective on Natural History and Survival in Nonoperated Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Mohamad; Fok, Matthew; Hammoud, Ibrahim; Rimmer, Lara; Shaw, Matthew; Field, Mark; Harrington, Debbie; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung

    2013-01-01

    There are many questions that remain unanswered in the understanding of the natural history of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). This review will critically appraise the current published evidence on the natural history of TAA in nonoperated patients and their present rates of survival. PMID:26798691

  14. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-01-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an “heroic progress” of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history. PMID:17630362

  15. Dirt, disgust and disease: a natural history of hygiene.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    Hygiene has been studied from multiple perspectives, including that of history. I define hygiene as the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid infection. I argue that it has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they were adaptive. In humans, the avoidance of infectious threats is motivated by the emotion of disgust. Intuition about hygiene, dirt and disease can be found underlying belief about health and disease throughout history. Purification ritual, miasma, contagion, zymotic and germ theories of disease are ideas that spread through society because they are intuitively attractive, because they are supported by evidence either from direct experience or from authoritative report and because they are consistent with existing beliefs. In contrast to much historical and anthropological assertion, I argue that hygiene behaviour and disgust predate culture and so cannot fully be explained as its product. The history of ideas about disease thus is neither entirely socially constructed nor an "heroic progress" of scientists leading the ignorant into the light. As an animal behaviour the proper domain of hygiene is biology, and without this perspective attempts at explanation are incomplete. The approaches of biological anthropology have much to offer the practice of cultural history.

  16. 'An aid to mental health': natural history, alienists and therapeutics in Victorian Scotland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Diarmid A

    2008-09-01

    In the nineteenth century natural history was widely regarded as a rational and 'distracting' pursuit that countered the ill-effects, physical and mental, of urban life. This familiar argument was not only made by members of naturalists' societies but was also borrowed and adapted by alienists concerned with the moral treatment of the insane. This paper examines the work of five long-serving superintendents in Victorian Scotland and uncovers the connections made between an interest in natural history and the management of mental disease. In addition to recovering a significant influence on the conduct of several alienists the paper explores arguments made outside the asylum walls in favour of natural history as an aid to mental health. Investigating the promotion of natural history as a therapeutic recreation in Scotland and elsewhere reveals more fully the moral and cultural significance attached to natural history pursuits in the nineteenth century.

  17. A natural history of behavioral health program evaluation in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Braun, S H; Irving, D

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the history of behavioral health program evaluation efforts in the state of Arizona during the years 1974-1982. Program Evaluation in Arizona has been carried out in an environment where planning, monitoring, contracting, appropriations, and evaluation have been inter-related--sometimes loosely, sometimes closely. Here we trace the year-by-year evolution of the evaluation system and its connections with the other parts of the environment. This history illustrates the gradual development of an evaluation system in an organizational context, including the sidetracks and setbacks .

  18. The reconsideration of natural history of echinococcosis at Rebun Island.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, T

    1999-03-01

    It has been believed that the outbreak of echinococcosis at Rebun Island had ceased by 1970. The first patient was diagnosed in 1936 and 131 patients have been authorized as echinococcosis so far. The conference of measures against the outbreak had been organized in 1948 and started to eradicate Echinococcus multilocularis from the Island. Medical examination to detect the patients and the capture and autopsy of dogs and cats had been carried out hard till 1970. At that time, foxes imported from Simusiru Island in the middle Kuriles during the years 1924 to 1926 had already disappeared and it has seemed to be sure that stray dogs and cats might carry E. multilocularis and excrete infectious eggs in stead of foxes. Since we have had no real data concerning the natural history of patients with echinococcosis without any treatments, it can not be recognized the time of infection and the role of dogs or cats on the spread of echinococcosis at Rebun Island. From the new data, it is concluded that the active life cycle of E. multilocularis between foxes and vole might be closed by 1940, since the last patient infected with E. multilocularis was born in 1940 and died in 1945. Furthermore, it is estimated that more than 200 patients (3 to 4% of people at the island) might die from echinococcosis, because of the fact of the unusual increase of mortality of liver disorders and oldness observed during the years of 1940 to 1960. 81 patients with the high possibility of echinococcosis detected from 1937 to 1963 can be added to 131 authorized patients. Surprisingly, it is noticed that the standard deviations of ages of death of 94 patients born in Meiji era (1880-1912) and 59 in Taisho and Showa eras (1912-1940) are 63.16 +/- 11.68, and 34.32 +/- 11.87, respectively. It means that both old and young people might be infected simultaneously but for the long period. There was no difference between the susceptibility of young and old men to E. multilocularis. The numbers of male

  19. [A brief history of the natural causes of human disease].

    PubMed

    Lips-Castro, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the study of the causes of disease that have arisen during the development of humankind, one can distinguish three major perspectives: the natural, the supernatural, and the artificial. In this paper we distinguish the rational natural causes of disease from the irrational natural causes. Within the natural and rational causal approaches of disease, we can highlight the Egyptian theory of putrid intestinal materials called "wechdu", the humoral theory, the atomistic theory, the contagious theory, the cellular theory, the molecular (genetic) theory, and the ecogenetic theory. Regarding the irrational, esoteric, and mystic causal approaches to disease, we highlight the astrological, the alchemical, the iatrochemical, the iatromechanical, and others (irritability, solidism, brownism, and mesmerism).

  20. The Classification, Natural History and Treatment of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Alexander Peter; Straub, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over sixty years ago John Walton and Frederick Nattrass defined limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) as a separate entity from the X-linked dystrophinopathies such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. LGMD is a highly heterogeneous group of very rare neuromuscular disorders whose common factor is their autosomal inheritance. Sixty years later, with the development of increasingly advanced molecular genetic investigations, a more precise classification and understanding of the pathogenesis is possible. To date, over 30 distinct subtypes of LGMD have been identified, most of them inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are significant differences in the frequency of subtypes of LGMD between different ethnic populations, providing evidence of founder mutations. Clinically there is phenotypic heterogeneity between subtypes of LGMD with varying severity and age of onset of symptoms. The first natural history studies into subtypes of LGMD are in process, but large scale longitudinal data have been lacking due to the rare nature of these diseases. Following natural history data collection, the next challenge is to develop more effective, disease specific treatments. Current management is focussed on symptomatic and supportive treatments. Advances in the application of new omics technologies and the generation of large-scale biomedical data will help to better understand disease mechanisms in LGMD and should ultimately help to accelerate the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:27858764

  1. The Classification, Natural History and Treatment of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Alexander Peter; Straub, Volker

    2015-07-22

    Over sixty years ago John Walton and Frederick Nattrass defined limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) as a separate entity from the X-linked dystrophinopathies such as Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. LGMD is a highly heterogeneous group of very rare neuromuscular disorders whose common factor is their autosomal inheritance. Sixty years later, with the development of increasingly advanced molecular genetic investigations, a more precise classification and understanding of the pathogenesis is possible.To date, over 30 distinct subtypes of LGMD have been identified, most of them inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. There are significant differences in the frequency of subtypes of LGMD between different ethnic populations, providing evidence of founder mutations. Clinically there is phenotypic heterogeneity between subtypes of LGMD with varying severity and age of onset of symptoms. The first natural history studies into subtypes of LGMD are in process, but large scale longitudinal data have been lacking due to the rare nature of these diseases. Following natural history data collection, the next challenge is to develop more effective, disease specific treatments. Current management is focussed on symptomatic and supportive treatments. Advances in the application of new omics technologies and the generation of large-scale biomedical data will help to better understand disease mechanisms in LGMD and should ultimately help to accelerate the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches.

  2. Reprint Series: Nature and History of Pi. RS-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the history of the number pi; (2) what's new about pi; (3) the number pi; (4) pi and probability; and (5) from the…

  3. Ray Owen and the history of naturally acquired chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aryn

    2015-01-01

    abstract This article interweaves a history of Ray Owen's early work with a broader account of the conceptual landscape of immunology in the mid 1950's. In particular, Owen's openness to the very possibility of chimeric phenomena is recognized. PMID:27093621

  4. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  5. Natural History of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Role of Obesity, Weight Loss, Depression, and Sleep Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Kritikou, Ilia; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with occupational and public safety hazards. However, no study has examined the clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) predictors of the natural history of EDS. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the Penn State Adult Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 years. Measurements and Results: Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and standardized telephone interview at follow-up. The incidence of EDS was 8.2%, while its persistence and remission were 38% and 62%, respectively. Obesity and weight gain were associated with the incidence and persistence of EDS, while weight loss was associated with its remission. Significant interactions between depression and PSG parameters on incident EDS showed that, in depressed individuals, incident EDS was associated with sleep disturbances, while in non-depressed individuals, incident EDS was associated with increased physiologic sleep propensity. Diabetes, allergy/asthma, anemia, and sleep complaints also predicted the natural history of EDS. Conclusions: Obesity, a disorder of epidemic proportions, is a major risk factor for the incidence and chronicity of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), while weight loss is associated with its remission. Interestingly, objective sleep disturbances predict incident EDS in depressed individuals, whereas physiologic sleep propensity predicts incident EDS in those without depression. Weight management and treatment of depression and sleep disorders should be part of public health policies. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Kritikou I, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Bixler EO. Natural history of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of obesity, weight loss, depression, and sleep propensity. SLEEP 2015;38(3):351–360. PMID:25581913

  6. The biology and natural history of prostate cancer: a short introduction.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Lars; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    This chapter aims to serve as a quick glance outlining an overall picture of mainstream thoughts, and to serve as a point of departure for more thorough discussions. The introduction of PSA testing has immensely complicated research in prostate cancer epidemiology and biology and added new clinical and biological domains. As for many cancers, age and ethnic origin are the strongest known risk factors. While migrant studies imply that environment and/or personal life style is important, epidemiological studies have failed to establish any strong leads. Despite the known androgen dependence of prostate cancer, there is little to support that circulating levels of androgens, estrogens or 5-alpha-reductase are associated with risk of developing the disease. However, a consistent finding is a positive association with levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Prostate cancer is one of the cancers most strongly related to inherited susceptibility, even when taking into account that family history of prostate cancer triggers PSA testing among relatives. A number of somatic genetic alterations (amplifications, deletions, point mutations, translocations) are associated with prostate cancer risk. Findings for alterations in FASN, HPN, AMACR and MYC have been fairly consistent. Recent research shows that the notion of "hormone-independent prostate cancer" has to be revised: most prostate cancers remain dependent on androgen receptor signalling also after progression despite traditional androgen deprivation therapy. Traditional markers of stage and type of disease still play a major role for prognostication and treatment decisions. Prostate cancer is one of the few cancers where patients have been recommended watchful waiting or active surveillance. This provides opportunities for studies of natural history of the disease. The understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and natural history has progressed slowly. However, the current situation is positively challenging and

  7. Clinical evaluation of natural history of Peyronie's disease: our experience, old myths and new certainties.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Gianni; Cavallini, Giorgio

    2013-10-01

    Several studies describing the "natural history" of Peyronie's disease (PD) (Chronic Inflammation of the Tunica Albuginea-CITA) showed that untreated patients with PD seem to have spontaneous improvement. Because of these articles many physicians found to have a non-therapeutic behavior in case of PD. This paper tries to define the natural history of PD using penile dynamic duplex ultrasound evaluation in function of factors able to elicit fibrosis of the penis. Eighty-two patients have been studied, the mean time being between PD onset and diagnosis was 9.6 ± 3.8 months, mean age was 52.6 ± 10.69. Each patient underwent to two clinical assessments for PD, with a time-lag of 18.08 ± 9.2 months. Each assessment comprises: measurement of: plaque volume in cm(3) (with dynamic echocolor Doppler ultrasonography), penile curvature in degrees (with Kelami method), pain (with Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale/PINRS) and sexual function (with IIEF15 scale). The following clinical and laboratory assessments were carried out on each patient: body-mass index (BMI), blood pressure measurement, blood count, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, blood sugar, glycated haemoglobin and total testosterone. We assessed whether PD plaque volume, penile deformity, pain and modify by time, in function of risk factors of fibrosis (aging, smoking habit, erectile failure, number of comorbidities, BMI, radical prostatectomy) and/or of the severity of symptoms (plaque area, penile deformity and calcifications). Qualitative-quantitative non parametric multivariate analysis has been used as statistical test. The analysis indicated that PD symptoms increase by time in the majority of the patients, and that the increase is not linked to the severity of symptoms, but to the risk factors for developing fibrosis, with the exception of age that is inversely related. PD is a progressive disease, whose progression is linked to young age and to risk factors

  8. What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2017-11-01

    Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.

  9. Will novel agents for ALL finally change the natural history?

    PubMed

    Douer, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cure rates have markedly improved over the past years to approximately 85%, but remain at 40%-50% in adults. Redefining current adult chemotherapy regimens is likely to improve the natural course of the disease, but new agents are needed. Immunotherapy approaches for pre-B ALL are in the forefront of research on novel agents; in particular, advances are being made in manipulating autologous T cells either by infusion of a bifunctional antibody (eg, blinatumomab) or by ex vivo genetic modification of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The natural course of Philadelphia positive ALL has already improved by targeting ABL/BCR1. Other mutated genes are being discovered and novel small molecules that target their products are being studied in clinical trials. Finally, ALL is a heterogeneous disease and novel agents are likely to impact the natural course of smaller populations of biologically defined ALL subtypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of chronic kidney disease on the natural history of alkaptonuria

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Bernardo; Vidinha, Joana; Pêgo, Cátia; Correia, Hugo; Sousa, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    In alkaptonuria, deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its metabolites in the body, resulting in ochronosis. Reports of patients with alkaptonuria who have decreased kidney function are rare, but this seems to play an important role in the natural history of the disease. We describe a 68-year-old female with chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology who started peritoneal dialysis (PD) after 5 years of follow-up and who was diagnosed with alkaptonuria at this time. Progressive exacerbation of ochronotic manifestations had been noted during these last few years, as kidney function worsened. After PD initiation, the disease continued to progress, and death occurred after one year and a half, due to severe aortic stenosis-related complications. Her 70-year-old sister was evaluated and also diagnosed with alkaptonuria. She had no renal dysfunction. Higher HGA excretion and significantly milder ochronosis than that of her sister were found. We present two alkaptonuric sisters with similar comorbidities except for the presence of CKD, who turned out to have totally different evolutions of their disease. This report confirms that kidney dysfunction may be an important factor in determining the natural history of alkaptonuria. PMID:25874097

  11. The Natural History of Oral Human Papillomavirus in Young Costa Rican Women.

    PubMed

    Beachler, Daniel C; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Hildesheim, Allan; Cortes, Bernal; Sampson, Joshua; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2017-07-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link. Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%). Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.

  12. Natural history of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of obesity, weight loss, depression, and sleep propensity.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Kritikou, Ilia; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with occupational and public safety hazards. However, no study has examined the clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) predictors of the natural history of EDS. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the Penn State Adult Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 years. Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and standardized telephone interview at follow-up. The incidence of EDS was 8.2%, while its persistence and remission were 38% and 62%, respectively. Obesity and weight gain were associated with the incidence and persistence of EDS, while weight loss was associated with its remission. Significant interactions between depression and PSG parameters on incident EDS showed that, in depressed individuals, incident EDS was associated with sleep disturbances, while in non-depressed individuals, incident EDS was associated with increased physiologic sleep propensity. Diabetes, allergy/ asthma, anemia, and sleep complaints also predicted the natural history of EDS. Obesity, a disorder of epidemic proportions, is a major risk factor for the incidence and chronicity of EDS, while weight loss is associated with its remission. Interestingly, objective sleep disturbances predict incident EDS in depressed individuals, whereas physiologic sleep propensity predicts incident EDS in those without depression. Weight management and treatment of depression and sleep disorders should be part of our public health policies. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. North American freshwater mussels: natural history, ecology, and conservation

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag

    2012-01-01

    Interest in freshwater mussels is growing for two important reasons. First, freshwater mussels are among the most endangered organisms on Earth, and many species are already extinct or face imminent extinction. Their desperate conservation plight has gained intense interest from natural resource agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, academia, and...

  14. An early history of the Gestalt factors of organisation.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M; Giora, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Wertheimer's (1923, Psychologische Forschung 4 301 - 350) idea that the perceptual world is articulated according to factors of organisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most original contributions of Gestalt psychology and stands as a milestone in the history of vision research. An inquiry focused on the forerunners of some of Wertheimer's factors of perceptual organisation is documented here. In fact, in 1900 Schumann described grouping by proximity and by vertical symmetry, and in 1903 G E Müller identified the factors of sameness/similarity and contour. Other authors contributed to the early description of these factors, such as Rubin, who in 1922 originally illustrated grouping by similarity. Even though Wertheimer himself granted these authors due recognition, later psychologists have paid little attention to their contributions. Some possible reasons for this negligence are briefly discussed.

  15. Crayfishes (Decapoda : Cambaridae) of Oklahoma: identification, distributions, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Morehouse, Reid L; Tobler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We furnish an updated crayfish species list for the state of Oklahoma (United States of America), including an updated and illustrated dichotomous key. In addition, we include species accounts that summarize general characteristics, life coloration, similar species, distribution and habitat, life history, and syntopic species. Current and potential distributions were analyzed using ecological niche models to provide a critical resource for the identification of areas with conservation priorities and potential susceptibility to invasive species. Currently, Oklahoma harbors 30 species of crayfish, two of which were recently discovered. Eastern Oklahoma has the highest species diversity, as this area represents the western distribution extent for several species. The work herein provides baseline data for future work on crayfish biology and conservation in Oklahoma and surrounding states.

  16. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C.

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, theremore » were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.« less

  17. Natural Inhibitors of Snake Venom Metalloendopeptidases: History and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Viviane A.; Gomes-Neto, Francisco; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C.; Valente, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The research on natural snake venom metalloendopeptidase inhibitors (SVMPIs) began in the 18th century with the pioneering work of Fontana on the resistance that vipers exhibited to their own venom. During the past 40 years, SVMPIs have been isolated mainly from the sera of resistant animals, and characterized to different extents. They are acidic oligomeric glycoproteins that remain biologically active over a wide range of pH and temperature values. Based on primary structure determination, mammalian plasmatic SVMPIs are classified as members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) supergene protein family, while the one isolated from muscle belongs to the ficolin/opsonin P35 family. On the other hand, SVMPIs from snake plasma have been placed in the cystatin superfamily. These natural antitoxins constitute the first line of defense against snake venoms, inhibiting the catalytic activities of snake venom metalloendopeptidases through the establishment of high-affinity, non-covalent interactions. This review presents a historical account of the field of natural resistance, summarizing its main discoveries and current challenges, which are mostly related to the limitations that preclude three-dimensional structural determinations of these inhibitors using “gold-standard” methods; perspectives on how to circumvent such limitations are presented. Potential applications of these SVMPIs in medicine are also highlighted. PMID:27571103

  18. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  19. Clinical Monitoring of Chronic Hepatitis C Based on its Natural History and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. Chronic HCV infection often follows a progressive course over years and can result in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and need for liver transplantation. In the United States alone, the estimated prevalence of HCV infection is up to 5.1 million persons. The optimal approach to detecting HCV infection is to screen persons for possible history of risks of exposure to virus and to test those selected individuals with risk factors. Both host and viral factors may be important contributors to the natural history of HCV. Currently, effective pharmacologic therapy are available to induce sustained virologic response (SVR) or virologic "cure," which results in improved morbidity and mortality. Patient education before treatment is essential and should include a full discussion of potential side effects. It is important to work collaboratively and closely with patients to ensure early recognition of adverse events and to effectively manage them in order to ensure treatment compliance. This paper provides a thorough overview on screening for the diagnosis, clinical management, and treatment indications and contraindications for chronic hepatitis C.

  20. History of Science as an Instructional Context: Student Learning in Genetics and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in…

  1. A history of nuclear transmutations by natural alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo

    2005-11-01

    A systematic account of the use of alpha particles up to the 1930s for promoting the disintegration of atoms is here provided. As will be shown, a number of different radium family alpha sources were used in the experiments that led to the discoveries of the proton (Rutherford E 1919 Phil. Mag. 37 581-7) and neutron (Chadwick J 1932 Nature 129 312). The reasons leading to the employment of a particular alpha particle source, as well as the relationship between these sources and the available methods of recording, will be closely addressed.

  2. The Natural History and Tailored Treatment of ACL Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nick A.; Chew, Hall F.; Stanish, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Bodily responses to an anterior cruciate ligament injury can range from minor to very significant. Understanding factors influencing the course can help physicians determine effective treatment strategies. Certain patterns, such as complete disruption and participation in high-demand sports, highlight the need for an aggressive approach.…

  3. Time: The Biggest Pattern in Natural History Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontier, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    We distinguish between four cosmological transitions in the history of Western intellectual thought, and focus on how these cosmologies differentially define matter, space and time. We demonstrate that how time is conceptualized significantly impacts a cosmology's notion on causality, and hone in on how time is conceptualized differentially in modern physics and evolutionary biology. The former conflates time with space into a single space-time continuum and focuses instead on the movement of matter, while the evolutionary sciences have a tradition to understand time as a given when they cartography how organisms change across generations over or in time, thereby proving the phenomenon of evolution. The gap becomes more fundamental when we take into account that phenomena studied by chrono-biologists demonstrate that numerous organisms, including humans, have evolved a "sense" of time. And micro-evolutionary/genetic, meso-evolutionary/developmental and macro-evolutionary phenomena including speciation and extinction not only occur by different evolutionary modes and at different rates, they are also timely phenomena that follow different periodicities. This article focusses on delineating the problem by finding its historical roots. We conclude that though time might be an obsolete concept for the physical sciences, it is crucial for the evolutionary sciences where evolution is defined as the change that biological individuals undergo in/over or through time.

  4. Natural history of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katz, Yitzhak; Goldberg, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Because of the paucity of reports and variability in the diagnostic criteria utilized, little is known regarding the natural outcome of patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Data extracted from referenced manuscripts, as well as allergists' unpublished observations from across the globe, were used to form a cohesive opinion regarding its natural outcome. All authors concur that there is a generally high rate of recovery for FPIES. The most common foods causing FPIES are milk and soy. Depending upon which study is analyzed, by the age of 3-5 years, approximately 90% of patients recover from their disease. Recovery from FPIES to solid foods, occurs at a later age, but may reflect a later stage of introduction of the food into the diet. An important clinical outcome, although not common, is a shift from FPIES food hypersensitivity to an IgE-mediated food allergy. This necessitates a change in the oral food challenge protocol, if IgE-mediated sensitization is detected. Over the past several years, there has been an increasing awareness of FPIES. This knowledge should lead to a more timely diagnosis and should reassure parents and practitioners alike regarding its favorable course.

  5. Order from Force; A natural history of the vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jeffrey H.

    2015-11-01

    The laws of physics govern our lives, and the fundamental constants of Nature (for example, the mass and charge of the electron) define our very morphology. If a human body were totally dehydrated there would only remain about thirty kilograms of crystals and powder, after having removed about fifty litres of water. Yet the amazing machine that is our body functions because of the forces of interaction (attraction and repulsion) that exist between the molecules in that powder when fully hydrated. These forces of interaction are mediated and directed by the vast amount of water that is present. It is the precise orientation of one hydrated molecule with respect to another hydrated molecule, at a well-defined separation, in our central nervous systems that allows a nerve impulse to tunnel quantum-mechanically through the intermediate space between two nerve cells at a synapse. Thereby allowing us to observe our environment, and contemplate our existence. It is the arrangement of the water molecules along molecules of muscle proteins that allows one protein molecule to slide over neighbouring protein molecules, thereby allowing us to do exercise and work, or to hunt and to gather. The precise distances and orientations between the molecules of which our bodies are composed are determined by subtle intermolecular electrostatic forces, whose magnitude is determined by the various constants of Nature, and whose operation is dictated by the laws of physics. We are merely living representations of these immutable physical laws.

  6. Natural history, treatment and prevention of hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, Jérôme; Boillot, Olivier; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

    2014-08-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is the main indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide. Post-transplant HCV re-infection is almost universal and results in accelerated progression from acute hepatitis to chronic hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. Comprehension and treatment of recurrent HCV infection after LT have been major issues for all transplant hepatologists and transplant surgeons for the last decades. The aim of this paper is to review the evolution of our knowledge on the natural history of HCV recurrence after LT, including risk factors for disease progression, and antiviral therapy. We will focus our attention on possible ways (present and future) to improve the final long-term results of LT for HCV-related liver disease.

  7. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries.

    PubMed

    Hadziyannis, Stephanos J

    2011-07-01

    Data derived from population, case-control, and cohort studies conducted in several Euro-Mediterranean and African countries disclose impressive similarities in the age and modes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and in the prevalence, duration, and outcome of the four phases of the natural history of chronic infection. Perinatal HBV infection is rare while the vast majority of chronic infections originate from horizontal HBV transmission to infants and children. HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe occur in a few years time, usually during the second decade of life. HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB), predominates in these countries being 7-9 times more frequent than HBeAg-positive CHB. The predominance of HBeAg-negative CHB is largely linked to the molecular characteristics of HBV genotype D prevailing in European and African countries of the Mediterranean basin and of genotype E and subgenotype A1 that prevail in the other parts of Africa. The molecular characteristics of the African subgenotype A1 differ from those of European subgenotype A2 explaining the fact that patients infected subgenotype A1 demonstrate an earlier loss of HBeAg and seroconversion to anti-HBe during the natural course of HBV infection compared to those infected with subgenotype A2. It is proposed that the molecular characteristics of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes prevailing in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries acting in concert with host and environmental factors largely determine the natural history of chronic HBV infection and its significant differences from countries of HBV genotype C and B and of subgenotype Ae predominance. The knowledge of the natural history of chronic HBV infection in Euro-Mediterranean and African countries combined with wide screening programs for prompt recognition and treatment of chronic HBV infection both in its HBeAg-positive and -negative immune reactive phases can be expected to increase the efficacy of current

  8. Alwyne (Wyn) Cooper Wheeler (1929-2005) and the libraries of the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ann

    2009-01-01

    As a senior scientist working in the Fish Section of the Department of Zoology at the Natural History Museum, Alwyne (Wyn) Wheeler was a regular library user and well-known to library staff. Always amiable and helpful, and possessing a broad general knowledge of natural history as well as expertise on fishes, Wyn interacted with library staff at all levels. A close working relationship developed where he contributed to section library management and collection building. He also published catalogues of some of the library's most important art collections. This paper celebrates the collaboration between Museum scientist Wyn Wheeler and librarians at the National History Museum.

  9. Determining Source Attenuation History to Support Closure by Natural Attenuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Tortuosity Factor Exponent Bulk Density of Low-k Zone DistriDutlon Coemctent or FractiOn Organic Carbon In Low-k Zone o rgaric CarDon Pa-tnioning...Organic Carbon In Low-k Zone orgaric CarDon Pa-tnioning coemctent Constrtuent Half-Life in Low-k Zone 3. GEN ERA L Year Core sample Collected fran

  10. 78 FR 50094 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ....R50000] Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL... Natural History has corrected a Notice of Intent to Repatriate published in the Federal Register on March... Natural History. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control of the cultural items to the...

  11. 76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of unassociated... Wyman sold the items to the Field Museum of Natural History. The items were accessioned into the...

  12. 76 FR 28067 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Field Museum of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of unassociated..., Kalamazoo, MI. In 1999, the Field Museum of Natural History acquired the cultural items as a gift from the...

  13. 75 FR 58425 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, that meets the definition of unassociated funerary objects under... American Museum of Natural History. No known individual was identified. This individual has been identified...

  14. 78 FR 19305 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven... Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural... Natural History. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation...

  15. 75 FR 52013 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... of Natural History (Field Museum), Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary..., for the Field Museum of Natural History. The items were accessioned into the collections of the Field...

  16. History as narrative: the nature and quality of historical understanding for students with LD.

    PubMed

    Espin, Christine A; Cevasco, Jazmin; van den Broek, Paul; Baker, Scott; Gersten, Russell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examine the nature and quality of students' comprehension of history. Specifically, we explore whether cognitive-psychological theories developed to capture the comprehension of narrative text can be used to capture the comprehension of history. Participants were 36 students with learning disabilities who had taken part in an earlier study designed to investigate the effects of an interactive instructional intervention in history. The results of the original study supported the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of amount recalled. The results of the present study reveal that historical understanding can be characterized as the construction of meaning through the creation of a causal network of events. The study of history within a causal network framework has implications for understanding the nature and quality of students' learning of history, and for potentially identifying sources of failure in learning.

  17. Hypertension in pregnancy: natural history and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Foo, L; Tay, J; Lees, C C; McEniery, C M; Wilkinson, I B

    2015-05-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect approximately 5-10% of all maternities and are major contributors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of disorders encompasses chronic hypertension, as well as conditions that arise de novo in pregnancy: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The latter group is thought to be part of the same continuum but with arbitrary division. Research into the aetiology of hypertension in pregnancy have largely been focused on pre-eclampsia, with a majority of studies exploring either pregnancy-associated factors such as placental-derived or immunologic responses to pregnancy tissue, or maternal constitutional factors such as cardiovascular health and endothelial dysfunction. The evidence base for the pathophysiology and progression of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, particularly pre-eclampsia, is reviewed. Clinical algorithms and pharmacological agents for the management of hypertension in pregnancy are summarised, with a brief focus on post-partum considerations and long-term health implications. Novel therapeutic options for the management of pre-eclampsia are also explored.

  18. A natural history of mathematics: George Peacock and the making of English algebra.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    In a series of papers read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society through the 1820s, the Cambridge mathematician George Peacock laid the foundation for a natural history of arithmetic that would tell a story of human progress from counting to modern arithmetic. The trajectory of that history, Peacock argued, established algebraic analysis as a form of universal reasoning that used empirically warranted operations of mind to think with symbols on paper. The science of counting would suggest arithmetic, arithmetic would suggest arithmetical algebra, and, finally, arithmetical algebra would suggest symbolic algebra. This philosophy of suggestion provided the foundation for Peacock's "principle of equivalent forms," which justified the practice of nineteenth-century English symbolic algebra. Peacock's philosophy of suggestion owed a considerable debt to the early Cambridge Philosophical Society culture of natural history. The aim of this essay is to show how that culture of natural history was constitutively significant to the practice of nineteenth-century English algebra.

  19. The natural history of thyroid autonomy and hot nodules.

    PubMed

    Corvilain, B

    2003-02-01

    Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas are benign monoclonal tumors characterized by their capacity to grow and produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) autonomously, i.e. in the absence of thyrotropin (TSH). Mutations of the TSH receptor (TSH-R) have been found in the majority of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas. On radioisotope scanning they generally appear as hot nodules because they concentrate radioiodide or 99mTc pertechnate, whereas the normal surrounding and contralateral tissue concentrate little isotopes. A toxic adenoma probably evolves gradually from a small autonomously hyperfunctioning adenoma that initially is only slightly more active than the extranodular tissue. This has been referred to as a "warm" nodule or a "compensated" adenoma. The diagnostic criterion for this designation is the persistence of detectable serum TSH maintaining some radioiodine uptake by the extranodular tissue. This "compensated" adenoma persists as long as the autonomous hormone output is not sufficient to suppress thyrotropin, i.e. to cause hyperthyroidism. The rate of development of thyrotoxicosis in patients with hyperfunctioning adenomas who are euthyroid initially is about 4% per year and depends on the size of the adenoma, iodine intake and age of the patient. No clear relationship can be establish between the nature of the TSH receptor mutations and the phenotype of the tumor.

  20. Modeling the natural history of Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Joshua A.; Griffiths, Ian R.; Goldman, James E.; Smith, Chelsey M.; Cooksey, Elizabeth; Radcliff, Abigail B.; Duncan, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Major gaps in our understanding of the leukodystrophies result from their rarity and the lack of tissue for the interdisciplinary studies required to extend our knowledge of the pathophysiology of the diseases. This study details the natural evolution of changes in the CNS of the shaking pup (shp), a model of the classical form of the X-linked disorder Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, in particular in glia, myelin, and axons, which is likely representative of what occurs over time in the human disease. The mutation in the proteolipid protein gene, PLP1, leads to a delay in differentiation, increased cell death, and a marked distension of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in oligodendrocytes. However, over time, more oligodendrocytes differentiate and survive in the spinal cord leading to an almost total recovery of myelination, In contrast, the brain remains persistently hypomyelinated. These data suggest that shp oligodendrocytes may be more functional than previously realized and that their early recruitment could have therapeutic value. PMID:25562656

  1. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  2. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy.

  3. Natural History of Pulmonary Subsolid Nodules: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Noguchi, Masayuki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Kuriyama, Keiko; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Koizumi, Naoya; Kondo, Tetsuro; Matsuguma, Haruhisa; Nitta, Norihisa; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Okami, Jiro; Suehisa, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Kodama, Ken; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Kouzo; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Murayama, Sadayuki; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural course of the progression of pulmonary subsolid nodules (SSNs). Eight facilities participated in this study. A total of 795 patients with 1229 SSNs were assessed for the frequency of invasive adenocarcinomas. SSNs were classified into three categories: pure ground-glass nodules (PGGNs), heterogeneous GGNs (HGGNs) (solid component detected only in lung windows), and part-solid nodules. The mean prospective follow-up period was 4.3 ± 2.5 years. SSNs were classified at baseline as follows: 1046 PGGNs, 81 HGGNs, and 102 part-solid nodules. Among the 1046 PGGNs, 13 (1.2%) developed into HGGNs and 56 (5.4%) developed into part-solid nodules. Among the 81 HGGNs, 16 (19.8%) developed into part-solid nodules. Thus, the SSNs at the final follow-up were classified as follows: 977 PGGNs, 78 HGGNs, and 174 part-solid nodules. Of the 977 PGGNs, 35 were resected (nine minimally invasive adenocarcinomas [MIAs], 21 adenocarcinomas in situ [AIS], and five atypical adenomatous hyperplasias). Of the 78 HGGNs, seven were resected (five MIAs and two AIS). Of the 174 part-solid nodules, 49 were resected (12 invasive adenocarcinomas, 26 MIAs, 10 AIS, and one adenomatous hyperplasia). For the PGGNs, the mean period until their development into part-solid nodules was 3.8 ± 2.0 years, whereas the mean period for the HGGNs was 2.1 ± 2.3 years (p = 0.0004). This study revealed the frequencies and periods of development from PGGNs and HGGNs into part-solid nodules. Invasive adenocarcinomas were diagnosed only among the part-solid nodules, corresponding to 1% of all 1229 SSNs. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Grapple with a Giant Squid at the Natural History Museum's Darwin Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Abigail; Collins, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The Natural History Museum's new Darwin Centre fulfils three main roles. It is a state-of-the-art scientific research and collections facility, but it is also an awe-inspiring new public space that allows visitors to explore the natural world in an exciting and innovative way. With its opening, students can experience the relevance of the science…

  5. Ophthalmic Graves's disease: natural history and detailed thyroid function studies.

    PubMed Central

    Teng, C S; Yeo, P P

    1977-01-01

    Of 27 patients with ophthalmic Graves's disease (OGD) who had been clinically euthyroid three years previously, one became clinically hyperthyroid and seven overtly hypothyroid. Improvement in eye signs was associated with a return to normal of thyroidal suppression by triiodothyronine (T3) and of the response of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH). Of a further 30 patients with OGD who had not been studied previously, three were overtly hypothyroid. Of the combined series, 46 patients were euthyroid, 18 (40%) of whom had an impaired or absent TSH response to TRH, and 3(6-7%) an exaggerated response. Eleven out of 37 patients (29-7%) had abnormal results in the T3 suppression test. There was a significant correlation between thyroidal suppression by T3 and the TSH response to TRH. Total serum concentrations of both T3 and thyroxine (T4) were closely correlated with T3 suppressibility and TRH responsiveness. Free T4 and T3 (fT3) concentrations were normal in all but three patients, in whom raised fT3 was accompanied by abnormal TSH responses and thyroidal suppression. The presence of normal free thyroid hormone concentrations in patients with impaired or absent TSH responses to TRH is interesting and challenges the concept that free thyroid hormones are the major controlling factors in the feedback control of TSH. PMID:576414

  6. Brainstem cavernous malformations: Natural history versus surgical management.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Choudhri, Omar; Lawton, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    While brainstem cavernous malformations were once considered inoperable, improvements in patient selection, surgical exposures, intraoperative MRI-guidance, MR tractography, and neurophysiologic monitoring have resulted in good outcomes in the majority of operated patients. In a consecutive series of 104 patients with brainstem cavernous malformations, only 14% of patients experienced cranial nerve or motor dysfunction that was worse at late follow-up, relative to their preoperative condition. Outcomes were predicted by several factors, including larger lesion size, lesions that crossed the midline, the presence of a developmental venous anomaly, older age, and greater time interval from lesion hemorrhage to surgery. The 14% of patients who experienced a persistent neurological deficit as a result of surgery, while substantial from any perspective, compares favorably with the risks of observation based on a recent meta-analysis. Curative resection is a safe and effective treatment for brainstem cavernous malformations that will prevent re-hemorrhage in symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the natural history of patients who aspirate.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jonathan M; Varadarajan, Varun; Brawley, Mary C; Blumin, Joel H

    2017-12-01

    The natural clinical progression of aspiration to eventual pulmonary compromise is not well understood. We hypothesized that dietary modification recommendations, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) score, and dysphagia etiology would be associated with changes in time to first pulmonary event and overall survival for patients with documented aspiration on radiologic testing. This study identified a cohort of patients with detectable unsensed penetration or aspiration on videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), and followed this cohort over time for development of pulmonary events and death. We then evaluated the association of aspiration severity and dietary modification recommendations on incidence of these endpoints. Retrospective chart review. A total of 2,616 VFSS exam reports were reviewed from our institution performed between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Aspiration or unsensed penetration (PAS of 5 or greater) was detected in 564 (21.5%) of these patients, who were then included in the study cohort. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for development of pulmonary events (pneumonia, pneumonitis, or other life-threatening pulmonary illness) and all-cause mortality for up to 54 months after initial VFSS. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression were performed for time to first pulmonary event and survival predicted by recommended diet, PAS score, and dysphagia etiology. Dysphagia etiology was highly associated with increased development of pulmonary events for some patients, especially those with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (hazard ratio [HZ] vs. stroke 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-5.69, P = .001) and esophageal dysphagia (HZ: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.17-6.02, P = .019). Dysphagia etiology was also associated with increased mortality for patients with generalized nonspecific dysphagia due to deconditioning or frailty (HZ: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.0-5.52, P < .001), postsurgical

  8. Epidemiology and Natural History of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Alita; Younossi, Zobair M

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease burden across the world. By definition, although the histopathologic features of NAFLD are identical to that of alcoholic liver disease, its diagnosis requires absence of significant alcohol use and absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. We now know that NAFLD is not simply a disease of the Western world. It is manifested across the world, in varying rates, across gender, across varying ethnicities, and in its association with other host factors. In this review article, the definition of NAFLD, its spectrum, ranging from mild steatosis to hepatocellular injury and inflammation defined as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is discussed. Mild steatosis is generally a stable disease whereas NASH can be progressive. Based on current published literature, current incidence and prevalence of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. It is also accepted that these processes will continue to increase in prevalence with the rise of obesity, type II diabetes, and associated metabolic syndrome. Some of the risk factors have been well-established and are discussed. In addition, this review also presents emerging associations with other risk factors for NAFLD. Natural history of NAFLD is variable depending upon the histologic subtypes and other underlying comorbidities and is discussed in this review as well. PMID:25755422

  9. A single-centre prospective, cohort study of the natural history of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Leandro, Gioacchino; Di Leo, Milena; Zuppardo, Raffaella Alessia; Morrow, Olivia B; Notaristefano, Chiara; Rossi, Gemma; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Alessandri, Matteo; Goni, Elisabetta; Singh, Satish K; Giliberti, Aurore; Bianco, Margherita; Fanti, Lorella; Viale, Edi; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio; Mariani, Alberto; Petrone, Maria Chiara; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The natural history of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical studies that aim to elucidate the course of disease on the basis of predicted risk factors. To evaluate the long-term occurrence of recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis in a cohort of patients following an initial episode of acute pancreatitis. 196 patients were enrolled consecutively and studied prospectively. Clinical characteristics, exogenously/endogenously-associated factors, and evolution to recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis were analyzed. 40 patients developed recurrent acute pancreatitis 13 of whom developed chronic pancreatitis. In a univariate analysis, recurrent acute pancreatitis was associated with an idiopathic aetiology (p<0.001), pancreas divisum (p=0.001), and higher usage of cigarettes and alcohol (p<0.001; p=0.023). Chronic pancreatitis was associated with a severe first episode of acute pancreatitis (p=0.048), PD (p=0.03), and cigarette smoking (p=0.038). By multivariate analysis, pancreas divisum was an independent risk factor for recurrent acute pancreatitis (OR 11.5, 95% CI 1.6-83.3). A severe first-episode of acute pancreatitis increased the risk of progressing to chronic pancreatitis by nine-fold. Special attention should be given to patients who experience a severe first attack of acute pancreatitis as there appears to be an increased risk of developing chronic pancreatitis over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural history of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Parisi, Pietro; Peralta, Marco; Antonucci, Michela; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Cammà, Calogero; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito

    2012-09-27

    To investigate the clinical course of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) identified at any stage and to identify factors associated with mortality. From January 1999 to December 2010, 320 out of 825 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HCC and not appropriate for curative or palliative treatments were followed and managed with supportive therapy. Cirrhosis was diagnosed by histological or clinical features and liver function was evaluated according to Child-Pugh score. The diagnosis of HCC was performed by Ultra-Sound guided biopsy or by multiphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography or gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Data were collected for each patient including all clinical, laboratory and imaging variables necessary for the outcome prediction staging systems considered. HCC staging was performed according Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores. Follow-up time was defined as the number of months from the diagnosis of HCC to death. Prognostic baseline variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox analysis to identify the independent predictors of survival. Seventy-five per cent of patients had hepatitis C. Ascites was present in 169 patients (53%), while hepatic encephalopathy was present in 49 patients (15%). The Child-Pugh score was class A in 105 patients (33%), class B in 142 patients (44%), and class C in 73 patients (23%). One hundred patients (31%) had macroscopic vascular invasion and/or extra-hepatic spread of the tumor. A single lesion > 10 cm was observed in 34 patients (11%), while multinodular HCC was present in 189 patients (59%). Thirty nine patients (12%) were BCLC early (A) stage, 55 (17%) were BCLC intermediate (B) stage, 124 (39%) were BCLC advanced (C) stage, and 102 (32%) were end-stage BCLC (D). At the time of this analysis (July 2011), 28 (9%) patients were still alive. Six (2%) patients who were lost during follow-up were censored at the last visit. The overall

  11. Natural history of asymptomatic renal stones and prediction of stone related events.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Lee, Sang Keun; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2013-05-01

    The appropriate management for asymptomatic renal stones remains unclear. We assessed the natural history and progression rate of such stones and identified clinical factors associated with an increased risk of stone related events. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 male and 146 female patients with asymptomatic renal stones. It was recommended that patients be followed every 6 months. Mean followup was 31 months (range 6 to 180). Patients were divided into 2 groups by stone related events, including spontaneous stone passage, flank pain, stone growth or the need for intervention during followup. Spontaneous passage occurred in 101 patients (29.1%). Of the patients 186 (53.6%) and 161 (46.4%) did and did not have stone related events, respectively. Of the whole cohort 85 patients (24.5%) required intervention but only 4.6% needed surgery. At 19 months after diagnosis 50% of the patients had a symptom. Those with stone related events were more likely to be younger (mean ± SD age 46.6 ± 12.7 vs 49.3 ± 12.6 years) and male, and have a stone history (p = 0.047, 0.017 and 0.014, respectively). Male gender significantly decreased the probability of freedom from stone related events (log rank test p = 0.0135) and it was an independent predictor of stone related events (HR 1.521, p = 0.009). Younger patients, and those with smaller stones and no stone growth were more likely to experience spontaneous passage and less likely to undergo intervention (each p <0.05). Asymptomatic renal stones can be followed safely but long-term followup is necessary. Periodic followup and early intervention should be recommended in patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza.

    PubMed

    Punpanich, Warunee; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum and natural history of human influenza, including risk factors for severe disease, and to identify the knowledge gap in this area. We searched the MEDLINE database of the recent literature for the period January 2009 to August 17, 2011 with regard to the abovementioned aspects of human influenza, focusing on A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza. The clinical spectrum and outcomes of cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have been mild and rather indistinguishable from those of seasonal influenza. Sporadic cases covering a wide range of neurological complications have been reported. Underlying predisposing conditions considered to be high-risk for A(H1N1)pdm09 infections are generally similar to those of seasonal influenza, but with two additional risk groups: pregnant women and the morbidly obese. Co-infections with bacteria and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome have also been reported to be significant factors associated with the severity of disease. The current knowledge gap includes: (1) a lack of clarification regarding the relatively greater severity of the Mexican A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in the early phase of the pandemic; (2) insufficient data on the clinical impact, risk factors, and outcomes of human infections caused by resistant strains of influenza; and (3) insufficient data from less developed countries that would enable them to prioritize strategies for influenza prevention and control. Clinical features and risk factors of A(H1N1)pdm09 are comparable to those of seasonal influenza. Emerging risk factors for severe disease with A(H1N1)pdm09 include morbid obesity, pregnancy, bacterial co-infections, and D222/N variants or 225G substitution of the viral genome. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the Nature of Scientific Enterprise (NOSE) through a Discourse with Its History: The Influence of an Undergraduate "History of Science" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Pradeep M.

    2005-01-01

    An appropriate understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise (NOSE) is a key element of scientific literacy and can arguably be influenced through an exploration of the history of science. An elective, undergraduate History of Science course was organized in the form of small-group discussion-based inquiries into the history of science…

  14. The Natural History of Epilepsy in 163 Untreated Patients: Looking for “Oligoepilepsy”

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Sara; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Leonardi, Cinzia Grazia; Cianci, Vittoria; Mumoli, Laura; Sueri, Chiara; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    The clinical evolution of untreated epilepsy has been rarely studied in developed countries, and the existence of a distinct syndrome characterized by rarely repeated seizures (oligoepilepsy) is debated. The aim of this study is to assess the natural history of 163 untreated patients with epilepsy in order to evaluate whether oligoepilepsy retains specific features. We retrospectively evaluated 7344 patients with ≥2 unprovoked seizures. Inclusion criteria: sufficient anamnestic/EEG data, disease duration ≥10 years, follow-up ≥3 years. Exclusion criteria: psychogenic seizures, natural history of disease <5 years. The 163 included subjects were divided into 2 groups according to seizure frequency: oligoepilepsy (≤1/year; 47 subjects) and controls (>1/year; 116 subjects). We also evaluated seizure frequency during the natural history. There were no differences between groups regarding duration of natural history, family history of epilepsy/febrile seizures, interictal EEG. Subjects with oligoepilepsy differed from controls in terms of sex (females 38% vs. 58%, p = 0.03) and drug resistance (6% vs 28%; p = 0.003). Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was more frequent in controls (9.5% vs 0%, p = 0.04). Patients with oligoepilepsy, differently from controls, had stable seizure frequency. Oligoepilepsy represents a favourable evolution of different epileptic syndromes and keeps a stable seizure frequency over time. PMID:27657542

  15. Epidemiology, genetic, natural history and clinical presentation of giant cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lonjon, M; Pennes, F; Sedat, J; Bataille, B

    2015-12-01

    Giant cerebral aneurysms represent 5% of intracranial aneurysms, and become symptomatic between 40 and 70 years with a female predominance. In the paediatric population, the giant aneurysm rate is higher than in the adult population. Classified as saccular, fusiform and serpentine, the natural history of giant cerebral aneurysms is characterized by thrombosis, growth and rupture. The pathogenesis of these giant aneurysms is influenced by a number of risk factors, including genetic variables. Genome-wide association studies have identified some chromosomes highlighting candidate genes. Although these giant aneurysms can occur at the same locations as their smaller counterparts, a predilection for the cavernous location has been observed. Giant aneurysms present with symptoms caused by a mass effect depending on their location or by rupture; ischemic manifestations rarely reveal the aneurysm. If the initial clinical descriptions have been back up by imagery, the clinical context with a pertinent analysis of the risk factors remain the cornerstone for the management decisions of these lesions. Five year cumulative rupture rates for patients with giant aneurysm were 40% for those located on the anterior part of circle of Willis and 50% for those on the posterior part. The poor outcome of untreated patients justifies the therapeutic risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Natural history of β-cell adaptation and failure in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Gregg, Brigid; Blandino-Rosano, Manuel; Cras-Méneur, Corentin; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by β-cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. The current evidence suggests that genetic predisposition, and environmental factors can impair the capacity of the β-cells to respond to insulin resistance and ultimately lead to their failure. However, genetic studies have demonstrated that known variants account for less than 10% of the overall estimated T2D risk, suggesting that additional unidentified factors contribute to susceptibility of this disease. In this review, we will discuss the different stages that contribute to the development of β-cell failure in T2D. We divide the natural history of this process in three major stages: susceptibility, β-cell adaptation and β-cell failure and provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved. Further research into mechanisms will reveal key modulators of β-cell failure and thus identify possible novel therapeutic targets and potential interventions to protect against β-cell failure. PMID:25542976

  17. 77 FR 65015 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; Correction AGENCY... repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History that meet the... History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, telephone (212) 769-5837, before November...

  18. Reemergence of the Natural History of Otolaryngologic Infections: Lessons Learned from 2 American Presidents.

    PubMed

    Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.

  19. The natural history and the national pre-marital screening program in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F

    2004-11-01

    The genetic disorders are chronic in nature and, therefore, require continuous support and health care. Consequently, the genetic diseases cause formidable economic and psychosocial burdens on the family with negative reflection on the community at large. The genetic diseases are a heterogeneous group that result in varieties of chronic health ailment as a result of defects in the genetic material. The congenital malformations and some genetic defects may result from exposure to radiation, pharmaceutical drugs, the exposure of the mother during pregnancy to certain infectious diseases, such as rubella, toxoplasma or viruses. It may also result as a side effect of chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension or varieties of environmental factors, or both. The other group of genetic diseases are transmitted from parents to the offspring through a specific pattern of inheritance exemplified by recessive genetic disorders. This group includes the sickle cell gene, the thalassemias, the hemophilias, inborn errors of metabolism and red cell enzymopathies. The main etiological factors of genetic diseases and congenital malformations are 1) Genetic defects which are transmitted to offspring through carriers of affected parents. 2) Mutations in the genetic materials due to spontaneous mutations, exposure of the mother during pregnancy to infectious diseases, such as rubella and toxoplasma, receiving certain teratogenic drugs during pregnancy, exposure of the mother to ionizing radiation during pregnancy such as x-ray and chronic diseases of the mother, such as diabetes mellitus. 3) Others such as difficult labor or injury to the baby, during or after labor. This paper reviews the natural history of common blood genetic disorders and the means of prevention and control, focusing on pre-marital screening as a means of prevention.

  20. ["Artificial animals etc." Popular natural history and bourgeois curiosity around 1900].

    PubMed

    Wessely, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the 19th and early 20th century zoological gardens ranged among the most prominent places of popular natural history While aristocratic owners of earlier menageries installed animal collections mostly to symbolize their power over nature as well as to display their extensive diplomatic relations, the zoological gardens founded from the 1830s onwards all over Europe by members of the local bourgeois elites were supposed to mediate their social and political values by "enjoyably educating" a broader public. The new zoos were introduced as places at the antipodes of the frenzy, noise and motion of modern urban life, as spaces of pure, authentic nature whose observation would teach people a reasonable and responsible way of life in a civilised bourgeois community. Taking the Berlin Zoo as an example this paper questions these programmatic imaginations by showing how popular Naturkunde (natural history) was informed by cultures of urban entertainment and spectacle. It discusses the numerous relations and productive tensions that evolved out of the establishment of a "realm of nature" in the middle of the ever growing modern metropolis and investigates the consequences the zoo's rise as "the city's most important attraction" around the turn of the century had for the public perception of natural history as well as for the institution's scientific program.

  1. Fossil Platygastroidea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Platygastroid wasps preserved in Dominican amber and oil shale from the Kishenehn formation (Montana, USA) in the National Museum of Natural History are catalogued. Compression fossils in Kishenehn oil shale yield a specimen of Fidiobia, a specimen of Telenominae, and a specimen with a Scelio-type o...

  2. A photographic catalog of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A photographic catalog of all determined species of Platygastroidea, including primary types, in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online. Following examination of this collection we make the following taxonomic acts: Leptacis piniellaMacGown ...

  3. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  4. Teaching Science Rhetorically: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Natural History, 1948-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaolo, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…

  5. The value of the study of natural history in genetic disorders and congenital anomaly syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J G

    1988-01-01

    The study of the natural history of genetic disorders and syndromes with congenital anomalies and dysmorphic features is a challenging and often neglected area. There are many reasons to pursue this type of research but it requires special clinical skills and a considerable amount of hard work. Setting up protocols and collecting data is complex and time consuming. Frequently, helpful clues for a particular disorder come from the study of the natural history of other disorders. Older affected subjects and unique cases with unusual features are often most important in unravelling the 'normal' course of a disease or recognising the basic defect. The study of natural history from individual patients and their records is complementary to population or registry based studies because it identifies individual variations and clinical heterogeneity. The understanding of the natural history of a particular disorder is of importance both to the affected person and their family and to the physicians caring for them. It is also useful to the basic researcher trying to determine the pathogenetic mechanism causing the disorder. In many ways, clinical geneticists have learned the art of caring for patients, as well as the challenges of clinical genetics, by becoming apprentices to and studying in depth specific disease entities. PMID:3050091

  6. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  7. From Pythagoras to Sauveur: Tracing the History of Ideas about the Nature of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Subramaniam, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to supplement the scant literature on the history of ideas about the nature of sound. It presents how notions about the production and propagation of sound developed from antiquity up to the 17th century, i.e. from the time of Pythagoras to the time of Sauveur. It will highlight and examine the principles of sound that were…

  8. Changes and Stability in Reasoning after a Field Trip to a Natural History Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; To, Cheryl; Wormald, Daniel; Pegram, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is difficult to understand because of conceptual barriers stemming from intuitive ideas. This study examined understanding of evolution in 52 students (M = 14.48 years, SD = 0.89) before and after a guided field trip to a natural history museum and in a comparison group of 18 students (M = 14.17 years, SD = 0.79) who did not…

  9. Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience a Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of…

  10. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  11. Spinal tuberculosis, natural history of disease, classifications and principles of management with historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kush

    2016-08-01

    To describe the natural history spinal tuberculosis, classifications and principles of management based upon the grading of the neurological deficit. Review of literature was conducted with the aim to provide the clinico-radiological correlation of the natural history of spinal tuberculosis in different stages. Management strategy is developed based upon the severity of the neurological deficit. A five stage natural history of spinal tuberculosis is described. Stage of neurological involvement is further divided into 4 grades, predominantly on the basis of progressively increasing motor deficits as negligible, mild, moderate and severe with sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. Suitable principles of management with role of rest, braces, chemotherapy and surgery are discussed. Neurological deficit grading based management is developed. Grade 1 and 2, conservative treatment, grade 3, gray zone and grade 4, operative treatment is emphasized. The five stages of natural history of tuberculosis of spine have been developed from the clinician's point of view. Management of tuberculosis of spine, in general, it is no different than management of soft tissue tuberculosis, in HIV negative or positive patients. Role of surgery is very limited. Management of tubercular paraplegia, based upon the grading of paraplegia is simple, logical, efficient and easy to understand and remember by any orthopedic surgeon.

  12. Natural Reforestation Reclaims a Watershed: A Case History from West Virginia

    Treesearch

    W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...

  13. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  14. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  15. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History.

    PubMed

    Sponsel, Alistair

    2016-06-01

    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.

  16. DinoViz: Exploring the History and Nature of Science through the Progression of Dinosaur Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2011-01-01

    Dinosaurs in the middle school classroom can be exciting. These extinct reptiles are both an exotic subject and familiar to our students. Because students are inherently interested, dinosaurs can serve as an effective portal for the integration of biology, geology, ecology, and the history and nature of science. The field of dinosaur study is…

  17. 76 FR 48179 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound professional staff in consultation with... museum staff that it does not exhibit the darker coloration usually found on remains removed from burials... period, museum staff consider the coloration of the remain to suggest an origin east of the Cascades...

  18. Exploring Research Themes in Public Engagement within a Natural History Museum: A Modified Delphi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seakins, Amy; Dillon, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The primacy of the research question in designing studies affords an opportunity for enhancing collaborations between researchers and "practitioners". This paper describes the use of a modified Delphi technique to co-generate research questions for a collaborative research study co-funded by a university and a natural history museum.…

  19. 75 FR 16175 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of... funerary objects in the possession of the Museum of Cultural and Natural History, Central Michigan... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native...

  20. A Conceptual Guide to Natural History Museum Visitors' Understanding of Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Margaret; Spiegel, Amy N.; Gram, Wendy; Frazier, Brandy N.; Tare, Medha; Thompson, Sarah; Diamond, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Museum visitors are an ideal population for assessing the persistence of the conceptual barriers that make it difficult to grasp Darwinian evolutionary theory. In comparison with other members of the public, they are more likely to be interested in natural history, have higher education levels, and be exposed to the relevant content. If museum…

  1. Guided School Visits to Natural History Museums in Israel: Teachers' Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Revital; Bamberger, Yael; Morag, Orly

    2005-01-01

    Museums are favorite and respected resources for learning worldwide. In Israel, there are two relatively large science centers and a number of small natural history museums that are visited by thousands of students. Unlike other countries, studying museum visits in Israel only emerges in the last few years. The study focused on the roles and…

  2. Prospective study of natural history of deep vein thrombosis: early predictors of poor late outcomes.

    PubMed

    van Rij, André M; Hill, Gerry; Krysa, Jo; Dutton, Samantha; Dickson, Riordon; Christie, Ross; Smillie, Judi; Jiang, Ping; Solomon, Clive

    2013-10-01

    A proportion of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Currently, the only clearly identified risk factors for developing PTS are recurrent ipsilateral DVT and extensive proximal disease. The aim of the study was to assess the natural history of DVT and identify early predictors of poor clinical outcome at 5 years. Patients with suspected acute DVT in the lower limb were assessed prospectively. All patients with a confirmed DVT were asked to participate in this study. Within 7-10 days after diagnosis of DVT, patients underwent a further review, involving clinical, ultrasound, and air plethysmography assessment of both lower limbs. Patients were reassessed at regular intervals for 5 years. One hundred twenty-two limbs in 114 patients were included in this study. Thrombus regression occurred in two phases, with a rapid regression between 10 days and 3 months, and a more gradual regression thereafter. Reflux developed as thrombus regression occurred. Segmental reflux progressed to axial deep reflux and continued to deteriorate in a significant proportion of patients with iliofemoral-popliteal-calf DVT throughout the 5-year study period. Similarly, venous filling index became progressively more abnormal, in this group, over the course of the study. Four risk factors for PTS were identified as best predictors: extensive clot load on presentation; <50% clot regression at 6 months; venous filling index >2.5 mL/sec; and abnormal outflow rate (<0.6). Patients with three or more of these risk factors had a significant risk of developing PTS with sensitivity 100%, specificity 83%, and positive predictive value 67%. Patients scoring 2 or less did not have PTS at 5 years with a negative predictive value of 100%. This is the first study to show that venous assessment at 6 months post-DVT can predict PTS at 5 years. Those who will not develop PTS can be reassured of this at 6 months. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The natural history of thin melanoma and the utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Durham, Alison B; Schwartz, Jennifer L; Lowe, Lori; Zhao, Lili; Johnson, Andrew G; Harms, Kelly L; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Orsini, Amy P; McLean, Scott A; Bradford, Carol R; Cohen, Mark S; Johnson, Timothy M; Sabel, Michael S; Wong, Sandra L

    2017-12-01

    Current literature may overestimate the risk of nodal metastasis from thin melanoma due to reporting of data only from lesions treated with SLNB. Our objective was to define the natural history of thin melanoma, assessing the likelihood of nodal disease, in order to guide selection for SLNB. Retrospective review. The primary outcome was the rate of nodal disease. Clinicopathologic factors were evaluated to find associations with nodal disease. Five hundred and twelve lesions, follow up available for 488 (median: 48 months). Lesions treated with WLE/SLNB compared to WLE alone were more likely to have high-risk features. The rate of nodal disease was higher in the WLE/SLNB group (24 positive SLNB, five false-negative SLNB with nodal recurrence: 10.2%) compared to WLE alone (four nodal recurrences: 2.0%). Univariate analysis showed age ≤45, Breslow depth ≥0.85 mm, mitotic rate >1 mm 2 , and ulceration were associated with nodal disease. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of age ≤45 and ulceration. SLNB for melanoma 0.75-0.99 mm should be considered in patients age ≤45, Breslow depth ≥0.85 mm, mitotic rate >1 mm 2 , and/or with ulceration. Thin melanoma <0.85 mm without high-risk features may be treated with WLE alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Kindler syndrome: extension of FERMT1 mutational spectrum and natural history.

    PubMed

    Has, Cristina; Castiglia, Daniele; del Rio, Marcela; Diez, Marta Garcia; Piccinni, Eugenia; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Itin, Peter; Martin, Ludovic; Fischer, Judith; Zambruno, Giovanna; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2011-11-01

    Mutations in the FERMT1 gene (also known as KIND1), encoding the focal adhesion protein kindlin-1, underlie the Kindler syndrome (KS), an autosomal recessive skin disorder with an intriguing progressive phenotype comprising skin blistering, photosensitivity, progressive poikiloderma with extensive skin atrophy, and propensity to skin cancer. Herein we review the clinical and genetic data of 62 patients, and delineate the natural history of the disorder, for example, age at onset of symptoms, or risk of malignancy. Although most mutations are predicted to lead to premature termination of translation, and to loss of kindlin-1 function, significant clinical variability is observed among patients. There is an association of FERMT1 missense and in-frame deletion mutations with milder disease phenotypes, and later onset of complications. Nevertheless, the clinical variability is not fully explained by genotype-phenotype correlations. Environmental factors and yet unidentified modifiers may play a role. Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of KS should enable the development of prevention strategies for disease complications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. From Appearance of Adrenal Autoantibodies to Clinical Symptoms of Addison's Disease: Natural History.

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Presotto, Fabio; Furmaniak, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Clinical Features, Classification, Natural History, Management and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-11-07

    Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.

  7. [Natural history, diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Nicolardi, Erica; Grieco, Antonio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and C are important causes of liver disease in hemodialysis units. The most important route of transmission is the inapparent parenteral route; known risk factors are the high prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in hemodialysis units, previous blood transfusions, long-term dialysis treatment, frequent changes of hemodialysis unit, and previous renal transplants. The source, time and duration of infection are often difficult to ascertain. The studies investigating the natural history of viral hepatitis in hemodialysis patients are few and limited by a short follow-up, but they show an independent and negative impact on survival due to an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment options include conventional or pegylated interferon (alone or in association with ribavirin) and the nucleoside/nucleotide analogs. The aim of treatment is viral eradication or persistent suppression of viral replication. The altered pharmacokinetics, the increased risk of drug-related toxicity, and the need for renal transplant complicate the management of antiviral therapy. In patients with chronic HBV infection and active replication the most common approach is persistent suppression of viral replication using nucleoside/nucleotide analogs. As regards hepatitis C, several clinical trials evaluating conventional interferon monotherapy have shown higher sustained virological response and dropout rates in dialysis patients than in patients with normal kidney function. Data about pegylated interferon as monotherapy or in association with ribavirin are promising but limited. Hemodialyzed patients obtaining a sustained virological response often maintain the response after kidney transplantation.

  8. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    PubMed

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach.

  9. Natural history and outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases in children in Saudi Arabia: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Alreheili, Khalid M; Alsaleem, Khalid A; Almehaidib, Ali I

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder which includes ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), and indeterminate colitis (IC). The natural history of pediatric IBDs is poorly understood and generally unpredictable. We aim to study the natural history of IBD in Saudi children including the extraintestinal manifestations, changes in diagnosis, disease behavior, medical management, and surgical outcome. A retrospective review of all the charts of children less than 14 years of age who were diagnosed as IBD and followed up in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC) from January 2001 to December 2011 was performed. Sixty-six children were diagnosed with IBD, 36 patients (54.5%) had CD, 27 patients (41%) had UC, and 3 patients (4.5%) had IC. Change in the diagnosis from UC to CD was made in 5 patients (7.6%). Extraintestinal manifestations were documented in 32% of all patients, and the most common was bone involvement (osteopenia/osteoporosis) in 16.7% of the patients. Arthritis (13.6%) was the second most common manifestation. Sclerosing cholangitis was reported in 2.8% in CD compared to 14.8% in UC. At the time of data collection, 8 patients (12%) were off therapy, 38 patients (57.6) were on 5-ASA, 31 patients (47%) were on azathioprine, and 12 patients (18.2%) were receiving anti-TNF. Of the children with CD, 10 patients (27.8%) underwent 1 or more major operations. Of the children with UC, 18.5% underwent 1 or more major intraabdominal procedures. Many issues in pediatric IBD can predict the natural history of the disease including growth failure, complications, need for more aggressive medical treatment, and/or surgery. More studies are needed from the region focusing on factors that may affect the natural history and disease progression.

  10. Nature and the natural environment as health facilitators: the need to reconceptualize the ICF environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Day, Adam M B; Theurer, Julie A; Dykstra, Allyson D; Doyle, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the environmental factors component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) relative to current health-facilitating evidence about natural environmental factors. We argue that the environmental factors component warrants reconceptualization in order to offer an extended and more systematic framework for identifying and measuring health-facilitating natural environmental factors. Current evidence highlighting the potential health-facilitating benefits of natural environmental factors is synthesized and considered in the context of the ICF framework and its coding system. In its current form, the ICF's conceptual framework and coding system are inadequate for identifying and measuring natural environmental factors in individuals and groups with and/or without health conditions. The ICF provides an advanced framework for health and disability that reflects contemporary conceptualizations about health. However, given the scope of emerging evidence highlighting positive health and well-being outcomes associated with natural environmental factors, we believe the environmental factors component requires further advancement to reflect this current knowledge. Reconceptualizing the environmental factors component supports a more holistic interpretation of the continuum of environmental factors as both facilitators and barriers. In doing so, it strengthens the ICF's utility in identifying and measuring health-facilitating natural environmental factors.

  11. Imitative and Direct Learning as Interacting Factors in Life History Evolution.

    PubMed

    Bullinaria, John A

    2017-01-01

    The idea that lifetime learning can have a significant effect on life history evolution has recently been explored using a series of artificial life simulations. These involved populations of competing individuals evolving by natural selection to learn to perform well on simplified abstract tasks, with the learning consisting of identifying regularities in their environment. In reality, there is more to learning than that type of direct individual experience, because it often includes a substantial degree of social learning that involves various forms of imitation of what other individuals have learned before them. This article rectifies that omission by incorporating memes and imitative learning into revised versions of the previous approach. To do this reliably requires formulating and testing a general framework for meme-based simulations that will enable more complete investigations of learning as a factor in any life history evolution scenarios. It does that by simulating imitative information transfer in terms of memes being passed between individuals, and developing a process for merging that information with the (possibly inconsistent) information acquired by direct experience, leading to a consistent overall body of learning. The proposed framework is tested on a range of learning variations and a representative set of life history factors to confirm the robustness of the approach. The simulations presented illustrate the types of interactions and tradeoffs that can emerge, and indicate the kinds of species-specific models that could be developed with this approach in the future.

  12. The natural history of light smokers: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Levy, Douglas E; Biener, Lois; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2009-02-01

    Among cigarette smokers, lower levels of consumption, defined as smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) or not smoking daily, are becoming more common. The relationship between cigarette consumption and smoking frequency (daily or nondaily) is not well characterized, and the natural history of light smoking (defined here as smoking < or =10 CPD) is poorly understood. We assessed changes in CPD and smoking frequency over time among light smokers (< or =10 CPD) and very light smokers (< or =5 CPD), using a population-based longitudinal survey of 3,083 adult smokers in Massachusetts who were interviewed three times over a 4-year follow-up period (in 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2005-2006). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with light smokers' progression to heavier smoking or smoking reduction/quitting. Seventy percent of very light smokers were nondaily smokers. Very light nondaily smokers differed from very light daily smokers by younger age, higher socioeconomic status, a social smoking pattern, later smoking initiation, less evidence of nicotine addiction, and more recent and planned cessation efforts. Very light nondaily smokers and smokers consuming 6-10 CPD were more likely to remain in the same smoking category and were less likely to increase consumption than were very light daily smokers. Factors independently associated with increasing consumption among very light smokers were smoking daily, nicotine dependence, White ethnicity, social smoking, and having more friends who smoked; among smokers consuming 6-10 CPD, male gender and lack of quitting self-efficacy were associated with increasing consumption. Our findings indicate that most light smoking is not a gateway to heavier smoking.

  13. The natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, H.; Bauer, P.; Giunti, P.; Labrum, R.; Sweeney, M.G.; Charles, P.; Dürr, A.; Marelli, C.; Globas, C.; Linnemann, C.; Schöls, L.; Rakowicz, M.; Rola, R.; Zdzienicka, E.; Schmitz-Hübsch, T.; Fancellu, R.; Mariotti, C.; Tomasello, C.; Baliko, L.; Melegh, B.; Filla, A.; Rinaldi, C.; van de Warrenburg, B.P.; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Szymanski, S.; Berciano, J.; Infante, J.; Timmann, D.; Boesch, S.; Hering, S.; Depondt, C.; Pandolfo, M.; Kang, J.-S.; Ratzka, S.; Schulz, J.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. We report the results of the 1- and 2-year follow-up visits. Methods: As the primary outcome measure we used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, 0–40), and as a secondary measure the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms (INAS, 0–16) count. Results: The annual increase of the SARA score was greatest in SCA1 (2.18 ± 0.17, mean ± SE) followed by SCA3 (1.61 ± 0.12) and SCA2 (1.40 ± 0.11). SARA progression in SCA6 was slowest and nonlinear (first year: 0.35 ± 0.34, second year: 1.44 ± 0.34). Analysis of the INAS count yielded similar results. Larger expanded repeats and earlier age at onset were associated with faster SARA progression in SCA1 and SCA2. In SCA1, repeat length of the expanded allele had a similar effect on INAS progression. In SCA3, SARA progression was influenced by the disease duration at inclusion, and INAS progression was faster in females. Conclusions: Our study gives a comprehensive quantitative account of disease progression in SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 and identifies factors that specifically affect disease progression. PMID:21832228

  14. Natural history of polyomaviruses in men: the HPV infection in men (HIM) study.

    PubMed

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Giuliano, Anna R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J; Abrahamsen, Martha E; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E

    2015-05-01

    Several new polyomaviruses have been discovered in the last decade, including Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Little is known about the natural history of the more recently discovered polyomaviruses. We estimated the incidence, prevalence, and persistence of 9 polyomaviruses (MCPyV, BK polyomavirus, KI polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus, WU polyomavirus, Human polyomavirus 6 [HPyV6], HPyV7, HPyV9, and Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus) and examined factors associated with MCPyV infection in a prospective cohort of 209 men initially enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study. Participants enrolled at the US site of the HIM study were recruited into a substudy of cutaneous viral infections and followed for a median of 12.6 months. Eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens were obtained at each study visit, and the viral DNA load was measured using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. MCPyV infection showed the highest prevalence (65.1% of normal skin swab specimens and 30.6% of eyebrow hair specimens), incidence (81.7 cases per 1000 person-months among normal skin swab specimens, and 24.1 cases per 1000 person-months among eyebrow hair specimens), and persistence (85.8% of normal skin swab specimens and 58.9% of eyebrow hair specimens) among all polyomaviruses examined. Age of >44 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.33) and Hispanic race (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.01-6.88) were associated with an increased prevalence of MCPyV infection in eyebrow hair and normal skin swab specimens, respectively. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in adults, with age and race being predisposing factors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The role of images in the development of Renaissance natural history.

    PubMed

    Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    This review surveys recent scholarship on the history of natural history with special attention to the role of images in the Renaissance. It discusses how classicism, collecting and printing were important catalysts for the Renaissance study of nature. Classicism provided inspiration of how to study and what kind of object to examine in nature, and several images from the period can be shown to reflect these classical values. The development of the passion for collecting and the rise of commerce in nature's commodities led to the circulation of a large number of exotic flora and fauna. Pictures enabled scholars to access unobtainable objects, build up knowledge of rare objects over time, and study them long after the live specimens had died away. Printing replicated pictures alongside texts and enabled scholars to share and accumulate knowledge. Images, alongside objects and text, were an important means of studying nature. Naturalists' images, in turn, became part of a larger visual culture in which nature was regarded as a beautiful and fascinating object of admiration.

  16. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  17. The Royal Society, natural history and the peoples of the 'New World(s)', 1660-1800.

    PubMed

    Gascoigne, John

    2009-12-01

    This paper focuses on the response of the Royal Society to the increasing contact with parts of the globe beyond Europe. Such contact was in accord with the programme of Baconian natural history that the early Royal Society espoused, but it also raised basic questions about the extent and nature of the pursuit of natural history. In particular, the paper is concerned with the attention paid to one particular branch of natural history, the study of other peoples and their customs. Such scrutiny of other peoples in distant lands raised basic questions about what methods natural history should employ and the extent to which it could serve as a foundation for more general and theoretical claims. By taking a wide sweep from the beginnings of the Royal Society until the end of the eighteenth century it is hoped light will be shed on the changing understanding of natural history over this period.

  18. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.

  19. The importance of scientific collecting and natural history museums for comparative neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2011-05-01

    The comparative study of vertebrate brains is inherently dependent upon access to a sufficient number of species and specimens to perform meaningful comparisons. Although many studies rely on compiling published information, continued specimen collection, in addition to more extensive use of existing brain collections and natural history museums, are crucial for detailed neuroanatomical comparisons across species. This review highlights the importance of collecting species through a variety of means, details a marsupial brain collection, and stresses the potential of natural history museums as a resource for comparative neuroanatomy. By taking advantage of as many of these resources as possible, researchers can rapidly increase species coverage and generate a better understanding of how the brain evolves. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  1. The development of a digitising service centre for natural history collections

    PubMed Central

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Haapala, Jaana; Mononen, Tero; Pajari, Mika; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Digitarium is a joint initiative of the Finnish Museum of Natural History and the University of Eastern Finland. It was established in 2010 as a dedicated shop for the large-scale digitisation of natural history collections. Digitarium offers service packages based on the digitisation process, including tagging, imaging, data entry, georeferencing, filtering, and validation. During the process, all specimens are imaged, and distance workers take care of the data entry from the images. The customer receives the data in Darwin Core Archive format, as well as images of the specimens and their labels. Digitarium also offers the option of publishing images through Morphbank, sharing data through GBIF, and archiving data for long-term storage. Service packages can also be designed on demand to respond to the specific needs of the customer. The paper also discusses logistics, costs, and intellectual property rights (IPR) issues related to the work that Digitarium undertakes. PMID:22859879

  2. [Impact of antiviral therapy on the natural history of hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Fernández Rodriguez, Conrado M; Gutierrez Garcia, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection affects around 150 million persons, and 350,000 persons worldwide die of this disease each year. Although the data on its natural history are incomplete, after the acute infection, most patients develop chronic forms of hepatitis C with variable stages of fibrosis. In these patients, continual inflammatory activity can cause significant fibrosis, cirrhosis, decompensation of the liver disease, or hepatocarcinoma. In the next few years, it is expected that hepatitis C virus infection and its complications will significantly increase, as will the incidence of hepatocarcinoma in Spain. This review presents the data on the natural history of hepatitis C virus infection and discusses the potential impact of antiviral therapy on the distinct stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. [Natural history and eighteenth-century ideas regarding generation and heredity: Buffon and Bonnet].

    PubMed

    Castañeda, L A

    1995-01-01

    The intellectual course of natural history reveals three conceptual approaches. The first was the taxonomic point of view, where naturalists worked to name and classify the living beings created by God. The second approach was provided by the eighteenth century's philosophical doctrine of mechanism, which lent natural history its method of endeavoring to comprehend the workings of organisms, inasmuch as the world "ran". Calling into question the adequacy of prior message, the third approach argued that living things display characteristics quite distinct from those of non-living matter, making it necessary to understand processes rather than simply decompose phenomena to then analyze them. This inadequacy became apparent at the moment when ideas of generation and heredity ascribed a reproductive history to living things, a history where the act of one fellow creature being formed by another plays an important role in coming to understand the workings of life. The paper analyzes these conceptual approaches from the perspective of Buffon's and Bonnet's ideas on reproduction and heredity, which represented opposite schools of thought: epigenesis and preformation.

  4. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Type catalogue of Terebridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London, U.K.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Andreia; Pickering, Joan

    2017-04-04

    The type collection of Terebridae in the Natural History Museum consists of 248 lots. In order to clarify the type status of this material, an annotated alphabetic list by species is provided. The format includes the original citation for each species, type locality, collector, label data, registration number, number of specimens, type status and remarks. Due to the actions of previous workers, fixation of lectotype by inference of holotype is given for 168 species. A bibliography of relevant publications is also provided.

  6. "What if I do nothing?" The natural history of operable cancer of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Keshava, H B; Rosen, J E; DeLuzio, M R; Kim, A W; Detterbeck, F C; Boffa, D J

    2017-04-01

    "Natural history", or anticipated survival without treatment, is critical for patients weighing risks and benefits of cancer surgery. Current estimates concerning the natural history of cancer includes patients whose poor health precludes treatment; a cohort whose fate is likely distinctly worse than those eligible for surgery ("operable"). The study objective was to evaluate survival among patients recommended for cancer surgery but went untreated, to determine the natural history of "operable" alimentary tract cancer. The NCDB was queried for untreated patients with clinical stage I-III esophageal, gastric, colon, and rectal cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2009. Untreated patients who were recommended for surgery were considered "operable," while patients coded as surgically ineligible for health reasons were "inoperable." 5-year survival of untreated, "operable" alimentary tract cancers varied by clinical stage: esophageal cI = 10.0%, cII = 9.8%, cIII = 4.6%; gastric cI = 9.2%, cII = 5.8%, cIII = 4.3%; colon cI = 18.4%, cII = 5.0%, cIII = 10.4; and rectal cI = 17.1%, cII = 14.0%, cIII = 19.9%. At every timepoint, stage-specific survival of "operable" patients was superior to inoperable patients (p < 0.05). Additionally, median survival among "operable" patients at least doubled "inoperable" patients for each tumor. Natural history of patients with "operable" alimentary tract cancer is superior to that of "inoperable" patients. Preoperative counseling should be refined to reflect this distinction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecology and natural history of the green rat snake at Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge, Cochise County, Arizona

    Treesearch

    William R. Radke; Jacob W. Malcom

    2005-01-01

    Green rat snakes (Senticolis triaspis) appear to be rare throughout their range, and little is known about their ecology and life history. Using opportunistically captured S. triaspis coupled with captive observations, natural observations, and radio telemetry, we document several natural history and ecological aspects of the...

  8. ‘Vividness’ in english natural history and anatomy, 1650–1700

    PubMed Central

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the use of rhetorical strategies in the natural historical and anatomical works of the seventeenth-century Royal Society. Choosing representative works, it argues that naturalists such as Nehemiah Grew, John Ray and the neuroanatomist Thomas Willis used the rhetorical device known as ‘comparison’ to make their descriptions of natural things vivid. By turning to contemporary works of neurology such as Willis's Cerebri Anatome and contemporary rhetorical works inspired by other such descriptions of the brain and nerves, it is argued that the effects of these strategies were taken to be wide-ranging. Contemporaries understood the effects of rhetoric in terms inflected by anatomical and medical discourse—the brain was physically altered by powerful sense impressions such as those of rhetoric. I suggest that the rhetoric of natural history could have been understood in the same way and that natural history and anatomy might therefore have been understood to cultivate the mind, improving its capacity for moral judgements as well as giving it knowledge of nature.

  9. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history.

    PubMed

    Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.

  10. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data.

    PubMed

    Turnhout, Esther; Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Sander

    2016-06-01

    Biodiversity data are in increasing demand to inform policy and management. A substantial portion of these data is generated in citizen science networks. To ensure the quality of biodiversity data, standards and criteria for validation have been put in place. We used interviews and document analysis from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands to examine how data validation serves as a point of connection between the diverse people and practices in natural history citizen science networks. We found that rather than a unidirectional imposition of standards, validation was performed collectively. Specifically, it was enacted in ongoing circulations of biodiversity records between recorders and validators as they jointly negotiated the biodiversity that was observed and the validity of the records. These collective validation practices contributed to the citizen science character or natural history networks and tied these networks together. However, when biodiversity records were included in biodiversity-information initiatives on different policy levels and scales, the circulation of records diminished. These initiatives took on a more extractive mode of data use. Validation ceased to be collective with important consequences for the natural history networks involved and citizen science more generally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Lifestyles in transition: evolution and natural history of the genus Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Duar, Rebbeca M; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Zheng, Jinshui; Martino, Maria Elena; Grenier, Théodore; Pérez-Muñoz, María Elisa; Leulier, François; Gänzle, Michael; Walter, Jens

    2017-08-01

    Lactobacillus species are found in nutrient-rich habitats associated with food, feed, plants, animals and humans. Due to their economic importance, the metabolism, genetics and phylogeny of lactobacilli have been extensively studied. However, past research primarily examined lactobacilli in experimental settings abstracted from any natural history, and the ecological context in which these bacteria exist and evolve has received less attention. In this review, we synthesize phylogenetic, genomic and metabolic metadata of the Lactobacillus genus with findings from fine-scale phylogenetic and functional analyses of representative species to elucidate the evolution and natural history of its members. The available evidence indicates a high level of niche conservatism within the well-supported phylogenetic groups within the genus, with lifestyles ranging from free-living to strictly symbiotic. The findings are consistent with a model in which host-adapted Lactobacillus lineages evolved from free-living ancestors, with present-day species displaying substantial variations in terms of the reliance on environmental niches and the degree of host specificity. This model can provide a framework for the elucidation of the natural and evolutionary history of Lactobacillus species and valuable information to improve the use of this important genus in industrial and therapeutic applications. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The natural history of Leydig cell testicular tumours: an analysis of the National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Nason, G J; Redmond, E J; Considine, S W; Omer, S I; Power, D; Sweeney, P

    2018-05-01

    Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis is a rare histological subtype of stromal tumours, accounting for 1 to 3% of testicular neoplasms. The natural history of LCT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and natural history of Leydig cell tumours (LCT) of the testes. A search of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland database was performed regarding Leydig cell testicular tumours. Recurrence free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analysed. Between 1994 and 2013, 2755 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Ireland. Of these, 22 (0.79%) were Leydig cell tumours. Nineteen were invasive (stage T1) and three were in situ (stage Tis). One patient developed a local recurrence following an organ preserving procedure and underwent a completion orchidectomy 107 days after initial diagnosis. No further treatment was required. There have been no disease-specific deaths. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.5, 88.2 and 73.3%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 100% and the 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 93.3%. From the National Cancer Registry, LCT has been shown to be a rare subtype of testicular tumour. Due to the relatively favourable natural history, it may be possible to tailor less aggressive surveillance regimens in these patients.

  14. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. 5. The clinical features and natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, D A; Kremenchutzky, M; Rice, G P; Koopman, W J; Hader, W; Baskerville, J; Ebers, G C

    1999-04-01

    We report a natural history study of 216 patients with primary progressive (PP)- multiple sclerosis defined by at least 1 year of exacerbation-free progression at onset. This represents 19.8% of a largely population-based patient cohort having a mean longitudinal follow-up of 23 years. This subgroup of PP-multiple sclerosis patients had a mean age of onset of 38.5 years, with females predominating by a ratio of 1.3:1.0. The rate of deterioration from disease onset was substantially more rapid than for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, with a median time to disability status score (DSS) 6 and DSS 8 of 8 and 18 years, respectively. Forty-nine percent of patients were followed through to death. Examination of the early disease course revealed two groups with adverse prognostic profiles. Firstly, a shorter time to reach DSS 3 from onset of PP-multiple sclerosis significantly adversely influenced time to DSS 8. Second, involvement of three or more neurological systems at onset resulted in a median time to DSS 10 of 13.5 years in contrast to PP-multiple sclerosis patients with one system involved at onset where median time to death from multiple sclerosis was 33.2 years. However, age, gender and type of neurological system involved at onset appeared to have little influence on prognosis. Life expectancy, cause of mortality and familial history profile were similar in PP-multiple sclerosis and non-PP-multiple sclerosis (all other multiple sclerosis patients from the total population). From clinical onset, rate of progression was faster in the PP-multiple sclerosis group than in the secondary progressive (SP)-multiple sclerosis group. When the rates of progression from onset of the progressive phase to DSS 6, 8 and 10 were compared, SP-multiple sclerosis had a more rapid progressive phase. A substantial minority (28%) of the PP-multiple sclerosis cohort had a distinct relapse even decades after onset of progressive deterioration. These studies establish natural

  15. The Natural History of Erectile Dysfunction After Prostatic Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Allen, Isabel E; Chang, Albert; Rosen, Raymond C; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) after treatment for prostate cancer with radiotherapy (RT) is well known, and pooled estimates of ED after RT will provide more accurate patient education. To systematically evaluate the natural history of ED in men with previous erectile function after prostate RT and to determine clinical factors associated with ED. We performed a review of the PubMed and Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases in April 2016 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Identified reports included a measurement of ED before and after prostate RT. Two hundred seventy-eight abstracts were screened and 105 publications met the criteria for inclusion. Only men with known erectile function before RT were included in the analysis. ED after RT of the prostate. In total, 17,057 men underwent brachytherapy (65%), 8,166 men underwent external-beam RT (31%), and 1,046 men underwent both (4%). Seven common instruments were used to measure ED, including 23 different cutoffs for ED. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was used in 31 studies (30%). Pooled estimates of SHIM-confirmed ED (score <10-17) suggested the prevalence of ED after RT is 34% of men (95% CI = 0.29-0.39) at 1 year and 57% (95% CI = 0.53-0.61) at 5.5 years. Compared with brachytherapy, studies of the two types of radiation increased the proportion of new-onset ED found by 12.3% of studies (95% CI = 2.3-22.4). For every 10% who were lost to follow-up, the proportion of ED reported increased by 2.3% (95% CI = 0.03-4.7). ED is common regardless of RT modality and increases during each year of follow-up. Using the SHIM, ED is found in approximately 50% patients at 5 years. The strengths of this systematic review include strict inclusion criteria of studies that measured baseline erectile function, no evidence for large effect size bias, and a large number of studies, which allow for modeling techniques. However

  16. Natural and molecular history of prolactinoma: insights from a Prlr-/- mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Valérie; Villa, Chiara; Auguste, Aurélie; Lamothe, Sophie; Guillou, Anne; Martin, Agnès; Caburet, Sandrine; Young, Jacques; Veitia, Reiner A; Binart, Nadine

    2018-01-19

    Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( Prlr -/- ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. The present study aims to explore the natural history of prolactinoma formation in Prlr -/- mice, using hormonal, radiological, histological and molecular analyses to uncover mechanisms involved in lactotroph adenoma development. Prlr -/- females develop large secreting prolactinomas from 12 months of age, with a penetrance of 100%, mimicking human aggressive densely granulated macroprolactinoma, which is a highly secreting subtype. Mean blood PRL measurements reach 14 902 ng/mL at 24 months in Prlr -/- females while PRL levels were below 15 ng/mL in control mice ( p < 0.01). By comparing pituitary microarray data of Prlr -/- mice and an estrogen-induced prolactinoma model in ACI rats, we pinpointed 218 concordantly differentially expressed (DE) genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis, cell adhesion molecules, dopaminergic synapse and estrogen signaling. Pathway/gene-set enrichment analyses suggest that the transcriptomic dysregulation in both models of prolactinoma might be mediated by a limited set of transcription factors (i.e., STAT5, STAT3, AhR, ESR1, BRD4, CEBPD, YAP, FOXO1) and kinases (i.e., JAK2, AKT1, BRAF, BMPR1A, CDK8, HUNK, ALK, FGFR1, ILK). Our experimental results and their bioinformatic analysis provide insights into early genomic changes in murine models of the most frequent human pituitary tumor.

  17. The Natural History of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism in Graves' Disease: The Rule of Thirds.

    PubMed

    Zhyzhneuskaya, Sviatlana; Addison, Caroline; Tsatlidis, Vasileios; Weaver, Jolanta U; Razvi, Salman

    2016-06-01

    There is little information regarding the natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) due to Graves' disease (GD). A prospective analysis was conducted of patients with SH due to GD between 2007 and 2013 with at least 12 months of follow-up. SH was diagnosed if serum thyrotropin (TSH) was below the laboratory reference range (0.4-4.0 mIU/L) and when thyroid hormones were normal. GD was confirmed by either a raised TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) level or uniform uptake on Technetium scan. Forty-four patients (89% female, 16% current smokers, and 5% with active Graves' orbitopathy) were diagnosed with SH due to GD. Over the follow-up period (median 32 months), approximately one third (34%) of the cohort progressed to overt hyperthyroidism, one third (34%) normalized their thyroid function, slightly less than one third (30%) remained in the SH state, while one person became hypothyroid. Multivariate regression analysis showed that older age and positive antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody status had a positive association with risk of progression to overt hyperthyroidism, with hazard ratios of 1.06 ([confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.10], p < 0.01) per year and 10.15 ([CI 1.83-56.23], p < 0.01), respectively, independent of other risk factors including, smoking, TRAb levels at diagnosis, and sex. A third each of patients with SH due to GD progress, normalize, or remain in the SH state. Older people and those with positive anti-TPO antibodies have a higher risk of progression of the disease. These novel data need to be verified and confirmed in larger cohorts and over longer periods of follow-up.

  18. Natural history of splenic vascular abnormalities after blunt injury: A Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Zarzaur, Ben L; Dunn, Julie A; Leininger, Brian; Lauerman, Margaret; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanthan; Kaups, Krista; Zamary, Kirellos; Hartwell, Jennifer L; Bhakta, Ankur; Myers, John; Gordy, Stephanie; Todd, Samuel R; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Teicher, Erik; Sperry, Jason; Privette, Alicia; Allawi, Ahmed; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Maung, Adrian A; Davis, Kimberly A; Cogbill, Thomas; Bonne, Stephanie; Livingston, David H; Coimbra, Raul; Kozar, Rosemary A

    2017-12-01

    Following blunt splenic injury, there is conflicting evidence regarding the natural history and appropriate management of patients with vascular injuries of the spleen such as pseudoaneurysms or blushes. The purpose of this study was to describe the current management and outcomes of patients with pseudoaneurysm or blush. Data were collected on adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with blunt splenic injury and a splenic vascular injury from 17 trauma centers. Demographic, physiologic, radiographic, and injury characteristics were gathered. Management and outcomes were collected. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to determine factors associated with splenectomy. Two hundred patients with a vascular abnormality on computed tomography scan were enrolled. Of those, 14.5% were managed with early splenectomy. Of the remaining patients, 59% underwent angiography and embolization (ANGIO), and 26.5% were observed. Of those who underwent ANGIO, 5.9% had a repeat ANGIO, and 6.8% had splenectomy. Of those observed, 9.4% had a delayed ANGIO, and 7.6% underwent splenectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between those observed and those who underwent ANGIO. There were 111 computed tomography scans with splenic vascular injuries available for review by an expert trauma radiologist. The concordance between the original classification of the type of vascular abnormality and the expert radiologist's interpretation was 56.3%. Based on expert review, the presence of an actively bleeding vascular injury was associated with a 40.9% risk of splenectomy. This was significantly higher than those with a nonbleeding vascular injury. In this series, the vast majority of patients are managed with ANGIO and usually embolization, whereas splenectomy remains a rare event. However, patients with a bleeding vascular injury of the spleen are at high risk of nonoperative failure, no matter the strategy used for management. This group may warrant closer observation or

  19. The natural history of nonobstructing asymptomatic renal stones managed with active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Dropkin, Benjamin M; Moses, Rachel A; Sharma, Devang; Pais, Vernon M

    2015-04-01

    We documented the natural history of asymptomatic nonobstructing renal calculi managed with active surveillance and explored factors predicting stone related events to better inform shared decision making. Patients with asymptomatic nonobstructing renal calculi electing active surveillance of their stone(s) were retrospectively reviewed. Stone characteristics, patient characteristics, and stone related events were collected. We evaluated the effects of stone size and location on development of symptoms, spontaneous passage, requirement for surgical intervention, and stone growth. We identified 160 stones with an average size of 7.0 ± 4.2 mm among 110 patients with average followup of 41 ± 19 months. Forty-five (28% of total) stones caused symptoms during followup. Notably 3 stones (3% of asymptomatic subgroup, 2% of total stones) caused painless silent obstruction necessitating intervention after an average of 37 ± 17 months. The only significant predictor of spontaneous passage or symptom development was location. Upper pole/mid renal stones were more likely than lower pole stones to become symptomatic (40.6% vs 24.3%, p = 0.047) and to pass spontaneously (14.5% vs 2.9%, p = 0.016). Among asymptomatic nonobstructing renal calculi managed with active surveillance, most remained asymptomatic through an average followup of more than 3 years. Less than 30% caused renal colic, less than 20% were operated on for pain and 7% spontaneously passed. Lower poles stones were significantly less likely to cause symptoms or pass spontaneously. Despite 3 stones causing silent hydronephrosis suggestive of obstruction, regular followup imaging facilitated interventions that prevented renal loss. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Long-term Natural History of Geographic Atrophy from Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sunness, Janet S.; Margalit, Eyal; Srikumaran, Divya; Applegate, Carol A.; Tian, Yan; Perry, Daniel; Hawkins, Barbara S.; Bressler, Neil M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To report the enlargement rate of geographic atrophy (GA) over time, its relationship to size of atrophy at baseline and to prior enlargement rate, and the implications for designing future treatment trials for GA. Design Prospective natural history study of GA resulting from age-related macular degeneration. Participants Two hundred twelve eyes of 131 patients were included in the analysis. Methods Annual follow-up included stereo color fundus photographs. The areas of GA were identified and measured, and the rate of enlargement of the atrophy was assessed. Sample sizes for clinical trials using systemic treatment and uniocular treatment were determined. Main Outcome Measure Rate of enlargement of the atrophy. Results The median overall enlargement rate was 2.1 mm2/year (mean, 2.6 mm2/year). Eyes with larger areas of atrophy at baseline tended to have larger enlargement rates, but knowledge of prior rates of enlargement was the most significant factor in predicting subsequent enlargement rates. There was high concordance between the enlargement rates in the 2 eyes of patients with bilateral GA (correlation coefficient, 0.76). To detect a 25% reduction in enlargement rate for a systemic treatment (α, 0.05; power, 0.80; losses to follow-up, 15%), 153 patients each in a control and treatment group would be required for a trial with a 2-year follow-up period for each patient. For a uniocular treatment, 38 patients with bilateral GA would be required, with the untreated eye serving as a control for the treated eye. Conclusions Treatment trials for GA with an outcome variable of change in enlargement rate are feasible. PMID:17270676

  1. Chronic hepatitis B: Virology, natural history, current management and a glimpse at future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gish, Robert G; Given, Bruce D; Lai, Ching-Lung; Locarnini, Stephen A; Lau, Johnson Y N; Lewis, David L; Schluep, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The host immune system plays an important role in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), both in viral clearance and hepatocellular damage. Advances in our understanding of the natural history of the disease have led to redefining the major phases of infection, with the "high replicative, low inflammatory" phase now replacing what was formerly termed the "immune tolerant" phase, and the "nonreplicative phase" replacing what was formerly termed the "inactive carrier" phase. As opposed to the earlier view that HBV establishes chronic infection by exploiting the immaturity of the neonate's immune system, new findings on trained immunity show that the host is already somewhat "matured" following birth, and is actually very capable of responding immunologically, potentially altering future hepatitis B treatment strategies. While existing therapies are effective in reducing viral load and necroinflammation, often restoring the patient to near-normal health, they do not lead to a cure except in very rare cases and, in many patients, viremia rebounds after cessation of treatment. Researchers are now challenged to devise therapies that will eliminate infection, with a particular focus on eliminating the persistence of viral cccDNA in the nuclei of hepatocytes. In the context of chronic hepatitis B, new definitions of 'cure' are emerging, such as 'functional' and 'virological' cure, defined by stable off-therapy suppression of viremia and antigenemia, and the normalization of serum ALT and other liver-related laboratory tests. Continued advances in the understanding of the complex biology of chronic hepatitis B have resulted in the development of new, experimental therapies targeting viral and host factors and pathways previously not accessible to therapy, approaches which may lead to virological cures in the near term and functional cures upon long term follow-up. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "An unfinished story: from the discovery of the Australia

  2. Mediation of mouse natural cytotoxic activity by tumour necrosis factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortaldo, John R.; Mason, Llewellyn H.; Mathieson, Bonnie J.; Liang, Shu-Mei; Flick, David A.; Herberman, Ronald B.

    1986-06-01

    Natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity in the mouse has been associated with two types of effector cells, the natural killer (NK) cell and the natural cytotoxic (NC) cell, which seem to differ with regard to their patterns of target selectivity, cell surface characteristics and susceptibility to regulatory factors1. During studies on the mechanism of action of cytotoxic molecules, it became evident that WEHI-164, the prototype NC target cell, was highly susceptible to direct lysis by both human and mouse recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that NC, but not NK activity mediated by normal splenocytes, is abrogated by rabbit antibodies to recombinant and natural TNF, respectively. Thus, the cell-mediated activity defined as NC is due to release of TNF by normal spleen cells and does not represent a unique natural effector mechanism.

  3. Patterns and natural history of radiographically defined osteoarthritis in a registry of women

    SciTech Connect

    Cerhan, J.R.

    The authors studied the natural history of osteoarthritis (OA) in a registry of female radium dial painters who had longitudinal radiographic examinations. Radiographs of the hands, spine, pelvis, knees and feet were graded for OA using the method of Kellgren and Lawrence. The prevalence of OA in this study was consistent with other population-based studies of OA in white women. A full body OA score was defined as the summation of the number of joints with OA. Higher full body OA score was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, after controlling for age and year of birth. Variables cross-sectionallymore » associated with the full body OA score included increasing age; later year of birth; increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure; increasing uric acid level; a history of diabetes, cholecystectomy, or cardiovascular disease; and being a current drinker of alcohol or being a current smoker. The authors described that natural history of OA for individual joints, joint groups, and the full body. The authors found that progression of OA was common, but not universal. Every joint group studied also displayed some amount of regression, although the authors could not conclude how much of the regression was real versus measurement error. The authors found that, in general, joints with a baseline OA grade of one to four were more likely to progress to a higher grade compared to joints with a grade of zero at baseline. Finally, the authors described predictors of followup OA status and predictors of change from baseline to followup for the full body. Predictors of greater change (to more OA) included increasing age, a history of cholecystectomy, having ever drank alcohol, and not having ever smoked. Predictors of a higher followup OA status included increasing age, increasing baseline full body OA score, a history of cholecystectomy, being a current drinker, and having never smoked.« less

  4. Acts of God - The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Ted

    2003-05-01

    With the exception of the 9/11 disaster, the top ten most costly catastrophes in U.S. history have all been natural disasters--five of them hurricanes--and all have occurred since 1989. Why this tremendous plague on our homes? In Acts of God , environmental historian Ted Steinberg explains that much of the death and destruction has been well within the realm of human control. Steinberg exposes the fallacy of seeing such calamities as simply random events. Beginning with the 1886 Charleston and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes, and continuing to the present, Steinberg explores the unnatural history of natural calamity, the decisions of business leaders and government officials that have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows--America's poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg argues, has helped to hide the fact that some Americans are better protected from the violence of nature than their counterparts lower down the socioeconomic ladder. Sure to provoke discussion, Acts of God is a call to action that must be heard. "A sobering lesson in humanity's vulnerability to extreme climatic events, especially the impoverished farmer and the urban poor."--The Los Angeles Times Book Review

  5. Oral History as a Motivating Factor among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet H.; Lehman, Esther

    An exploratory study was designed to assess (1) whether a class created around older adults' personal recollections would motivate the class's involvement in adult education activities, (2) the oral history preparation process's impact on younger interviewers and older respondents, and (3) the instructional approach's strengths and weaknesses. The…

  6. Natural History of Ground-Glass Lesions Among Patients With Previous Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Jitesh B; Nelson, David B; Rice, David C; Sepesi, Boris; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Mehran, Reza J; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Walsh, Garrett L; Swisher, Stephen G; Roth, Jack A; Antonoff, Mara B

    2018-06-01

    Among patients with previous lung cancer, the malignant potential of subsequent ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on computed tomography remains unknown, with a lack of consensus regarding surveillance and intervention. This study sought to describe the natural history of GGO in patients with a history of lung cancer. A retrospective review was performed of 210 patients with a history of lung cancer and ensuing computed tomography evidence of pure or mixed GGOs between 2007 and 2013. Computed tomography reports were reviewed to determine the fate of the GGOs, by classifying all lesions as stable, resolved, or progressive over the course of the study. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of GGO progression and resolution. The mean follow-up time was 13 months. During this period, 55 (26%) patients' GGOs were stable, 131 (62%) resolved, and 24 (11%) progressed. Of the 24 GGOs that progressed, three were subsequently diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Patients of black race (odds ratio [OR], 0.26) and other races besides white (OR, 0.89) had smaller odds of GGO resolution (p = 0.033), whereas patients with previous lung squamous cell carcinoma (OR, 5.16) or small cell carcinoma (OR, 5.36) were more likely to experience GGO resolution (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, only a history of adenocarcinoma was an independent predictor of GGO progression (OR, 6.9; p = 0.011). Among patients with a history of lung cancer, prior adenocarcinoma emerged as a predictor of GGO progression, whereas a history of squamous cell carcinoma or small cell carcinoma and white race were identified as predictors of GGO resolution. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bringing dinosaurs back to life: exhibiting prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.

    PubMed

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.

  9. The natural history of adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Abdellatif; de Margerie, Constance; Naccache, Jean Marc; Fry, Stéphanie; Dominique, Stéphane; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lorillon, Gwenaël; Bugnet, Emmanuelle; Chiron, Raphael; Wallaert, Benoit; Valeyre, Dominique; Chevret, Sylvie

    2015-03-14

    The natural history of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) has been unclear due to the absence of prospective studies. The rate of patients who experience an early progression of their disease is unknown. Additionally, conflicting effects of smoking cessation on the outcome of PLCH have been reported. In this prospective, multicentre study, 58 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PLCH were comprehensively evaluated over a two-year period. Our objectives were to estimate the incidence of early progression of the disease and to evaluate the impact of smoking status on lung function outcomes. Lung function deterioration was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in FEV1 and/or FVC and/or DLCO, compared with baseline values. At each visit, smoking status was recorded based on the patients' self-reports and urinary cotinine measurements that were blinded for the patients. The cumulative incidence of lung function outcomes over time was estimated using the non-parametric Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox models with time-dependent covariates were used to calculate the hazards ratios of the lung function deterioration associated with smoking status with adjustment for potential confounders. The cumulative incidence of lung function deterioration at 24 months was 38% (22% for FEV1 and DLCO, and 9% for FVC). In the multivariate analysis, smoking status and PaO2 at inclusion were the only factors associated with the risk of lung function deterioration. The patients' smoking statuses markedly changed over time. Only 20% of the patients quit using tobacco for the entire study period. Nevertheless, being a non-smoker was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent lung function deterioration, even after adjustment for baseline predictive factors. By serial lung computed tomography, the extent of cystic lesions increased in only 11% of patients. Serial lung function evaluation on a three- to six-month basis is essential for the follow-up of patients with

  10. A prospective study of the natural history of urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Kaitlin A; Erekson, Elisabeth; Austin, Andrea; Minassian, Vatche A; Townsend, Mary K; Bynum, Julie P W; Grodstein, Francine

    2018-05-01

    Symptoms of urinary incontinence are commonly perceived to vary over time; yet, there is limited quantitative evidence regarding the natural history of urinary incontinence, especially over the long term. We sought to delineate the course of urinary incontinence symptoms over time, using 2 large cohorts of middle-aged and older women, with data collected over 10 years. We studied 9376 women from the Nurses' Health Study, age 56-81 years at baseline, and 7491 women from the Nurses' Health Study II, age 39-56 years, with incident urinary incontinence in 2002 through 2003. Urinary incontinence severity was measured by the Sandvik severity index. We tracked persistence, progression, remission, and improvement of symptoms over 10 years. We also examined risk factors for urinary incontinence progression using logistic regression models. Among women age 39-56 years, 39% had slight, 45% had moderate, and 17% had severe urinary incontinence at onset. Among women age 56-81 years, 34% had slight, 45% had moderate, and 21% had severe urinary incontinence at onset. Across ages, most women reported persistence or progression of symptoms over follow-up; few (3-11%) reported remission. However, younger women and women with less severe urinary incontinence at onset were more likely to report remission or improvement of symptoms. We found that increasing age was associated with higher odds of progression only among older women (age 75-81 vs 56-60 years; odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-2.25). Among all women, higher body mass index was strongly associated with progression (younger women: odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-2.81; body mass index ≥30 vs <25 kg/m 2 ; older women: odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-2.22). Additionally, greater physical activity was associated with lower odds of progression to severe urinary incontinence (younger women: odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.03; highest vs lowest quartile of activity

  11. Natural History of Untreated Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a US Cohort and the Role of Cancer Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Natalia; Ying, Jun; Mittal, Sahil; Temple, Sarah; Kanwal, Fasiha; Davila, Jessica; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2017-02-01

    Determining the natural history and predictors of survival in patients with untreated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States is useful to test existing tumor classifications, identify subgroups of patients likely to benefit from treatment, and estimate lead time related to HCC surveillance. We identified a national cohort of 518 veterans diagnosed with HCC from 2004 through 2011, with follow-up ending in 2014, who received no palliative or curative treatment. We examined the association between postdiagnosis survival and patient factors, tumor characteristics, and prediagnosis surveillance. The mean age at HCC diagnosis was 65.7 years and most patients had hepatitis C (60.6%). Almost all patients (99%) died within the observation period; the median overall survival time was 3.6 months and survival times were 13.4, 9.5, 3.4, and 1.6 months for patients of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages 0/A, B, C, and D, respectively. In addition, model for end-stage liver disease and levels of α-fetoprotein were predictive of survival. Nearly 28% received prediagnosis HCC surveillance, which was associated with detection of disease at an earlier stage (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer 0/A/B; 26.4% vs 14.4%; P = .0006) and slightly longer survival than patients with no surveillance overall (5.2 months vs 3.4 months; P = .021); there was no difference in survival times of patients with 0/A stage who did versus did not receive surveillance (10.3 months vs 10.5 months). Patients with HCCs, including those detected through surveillance, survived for short time periods in the absence of treatment, irrespective of their initial stage at diagnosis. Model for end-stage liver disease scores and levels of α-fetoprotein were prognostic factors, independent of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage. The lead time related to detection by surveillance was modest (<2 months) and therefore unlikely to explain the survival benefit associated with surveillance in previous studies

  12. Natural History of Perihematomal Edema and Impact on Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teddy Y; Sharma, Gagan; Strbian, Daniel; Putaala, Jukka; Desmond, Patricia M; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2017-04-01

    Edema may worsen outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We assessed its natural history, factors influencing growth, and association with outcome. We estimated edema volumes in ICH patients from the Helsinki ICH study using semiautomated planimetry. We assessed the correlation between edema extension distance (EED) and time from ICH onset, creating an edema growth trajectory model up to 3 weeks. We interpolated expected EED at 72 hours and identified clinical and imaging characteristics associated with faster edema growth. Association of EED and mortality was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for predictors of ICH outcome. From 1013 consecutive patients, 861 were included. There was a strong inverse correlation between EED growth rate (cm/d) and time from onset (days): EED growth=0.162*days exp(-0.927), R 2 =0.82. Baseline factors associated with larger than expected EED were older age (71 versus 68; P =0.002), higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (14 versus 8; P <0.001), and lower Glasgow Coma scale score (13 versus 15; P <0.001), larger ICH volume (19.7 versus 12.7 mL; P <0.001), larger initial EED (0.42 versus 0.30; P <0.001), irregularly shaped hematoma (55% versus 42%; P <0.001), and higher glucose (7.6 versus 6.9 mmol/L; P =0.001). Patients with faster edema growth had more midline shift (50% versus 31%; P <0.001), herniation (12% versus 4%; P <0.001), and higher 6-month (46% versus 26%; P <0.001) mortality. In the logistic regression model, higher-than-expected EED was associated with 6-month mortality (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.46; P =0.032). Edema growth can be readily monitored and is an independent determinant of mortality after ICH, providing an important treatment target for strategies to improve patient outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  14. Natural History of Perceived Food Hypersensitivity and IgE Sensitisation to Food Allergens in a Cohort of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patelis, Antonios; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Borres, Magnus P.; Burney, Peter; Gislason, Thorarinn; Torén, Kjell; Forsberg, Bertil; Alving, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Background No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults. Objective To examine the natural history of food hypersensitivity, the natural history of IgE sensitisation to food allergens and to investigate the risk factors for new onset food hypersensitivity. Methods Food hypersensitivity was questionnaire-assessed in 2307 individuals (aged 20–45 years) from Iceland and Sweden during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both at baseline and follow-up 9 years later. IgE food and aeroallergen sensitisation were assessed in a subgroup of these individuals (n = 807). Values of 0.35 kU/L and above were regarded as positive sensitisation. Results Food hypersensitivity was reported by 21% of the subjects and this proportion remained unchanged at follow-up (p = 0.58). Fruits, nuts and vegetables were the three most common causes of food hypersensitivity, with a similar prevalence at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in general by 56% (p<0.001) and IgE sensitisation to peanut decreased in particular by 67% (p = 0.003). The prevalence of timothy grass IgE sensitisation decreased by 15% (p = 0.003) while cat, mite and birch IgE sensitisation did not decrease significantly. Female sex, rhinitis, eczema and presence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens were independently associated with new onset food hypersensitivity. Conclusion The prevalence of food hypersensitivity remained unchanged while the prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in adults over a 9-year follow-up period. The decrease in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens was considerably larger than the change in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens. PMID:24427301

  15. Natural history of perceived food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in a cohort of adults.

    PubMed

    Patelis, Antonios; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Borres, Magnus P; Burney, Peter; Gislason, Thorarinn; Torén, Kjell; Forsberg, Bertil; Alving, Kjell; Malinovschi, Andrei; Janson, Christer

    2014-01-01

    No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults. To examine the natural history of food hypersensitivity, the natural history of IgE sensitisation to food allergens and to investigate the risk factors for new onset food hypersensitivity. Food hypersensitivity was questionnaire-assessed in 2307 individuals (aged 20-45 years) from Iceland and Sweden during the European Community Respiratory Health Survey both at baseline and follow-up 9 years later. IgE food and aeroallergen sensitisation were assessed in a subgroup of these individuals (n = 807). Values of 0.35 kU/L and above were regarded as positive sensitisation. Food hypersensitivity was reported by 21% of the subjects and this proportion remained unchanged at follow-up (p = 0.58). Fruits, nuts and vegetables were the three most common causes of food hypersensitivity, with a similar prevalence at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in general by 56% (p<0.001) and IgE sensitisation to peanut decreased in particular by 67% (p = 0.003). The prevalence of timothy grass IgE sensitisation decreased by 15% (p = 0.003) while cat, mite and birch IgE sensitisation did not decrease significantly. Female sex, rhinitis, eczema and presence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens were independently associated with new onset food hypersensitivity. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity remained unchanged while the prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens decreased in adults over a 9-year follow-up period. The decrease in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to food allergens was considerably larger than the change in prevalence of IgE sensitisation to aeroallergens.

  16. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  17. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  18. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  19. The natural history and incidence of Yersinia pestis and prospects for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2012-07-01

    Plague is an ancient, serious, infectious disease which is still endemic in regions of the modern world and is a potential biothreat agent. This paper discusses the natural history of the bacterium and its evolution into a flea-vectored bacterium able to transmit bubonic plague. It reviews the incidence of plague in the modern world and charts the history of vaccines which have been used to protect against the flea-vectored disease, which erupts as bubonic plague. Current approaches to vaccine development to protect against pneumonic, as well as bubonic, plague are also reviewed. The considerable challenges in achieving a vaccine which is licensed for human use and which will comprehensively protect against this serious human pathogen are assessed.

  20. History of Science as an Instructional Context: Student Learning in Genetics and Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun Young; Irving, Karen E.

    2010-02-01

    This study (1) explores the effectiveness of the contextualized history of science on student learning of nature of science (NOS) and genetics content knowledge (GCK), especially interrelationships among various genetics concepts, in high school biology classrooms; (2) provides an exemplar for teachers on how to utilize history of science in genetics instruction; and (3) suggests a modified concept mapping assessment tool for both NOS and GCK. A quasi-experimental control group research design was utilized with pretests, posttests, and delayed posttests, combining qualitative data and quantitative data. The experimental group was taught with historical curricular lessons, while the control group was taught with non-historical curricular lessons. The results indicated that students in the experimental group developed better understanding in targeted aspects of NOS immediately after the intervention and retained their learning 2 months after the intervention. Both groups developed similar genetics knowledge in the posttest, and revealed a slight decay in their understanding in the delayed posttest.

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  2. Program calculates Z-factor for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, A.K.

    The Fortran program called Physic presented in this article calculates the gas deviation or compressibility factor, Z, of natural gas. The author has used the program for determining discharge-piping pressure drop. The calculated Z is within 5% accuracy for natural hydrocarbon gas with a specific gravity between 0.5 and 0.8, and at a pressure below 5,000 psia.

  3. Natural history of small gallbladder polyps is benign: evidence from a clinical and pathogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Larocca, Anna; Scaioli, Eleonora; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Azzaroli, Francesco; Gualandi, Roberta; Simoni, Patrizia; Vestito, Amanda; Festi, Davide

    2009-03-01

    Little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps (<10 mm, usually of the cholesterol type), particularly in Western populations. It is unclear if these polyps and gallstones represent different aspects of the same disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps. Fifty-six Caucasian patients with small gallbladder polyps, 30 matched gallstone patients, and 30 controls were enrolled in this 5-year prospective study. Patients underwent a symptomatic questionnaire, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder motility at baseline and yearly intervals for 5 years. Cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol crystals in bile, and apolipoprotein E genotype were also determined. Most patients with polyps (mean size: 5.3 mm) were men (61%), asymptomatic, and had multiple polyps (57%). Polyps did not change in 91% of patients during follow-up. No subject experienced biliary pain or underwent cholecystectomy; four developed gallstones. Cholesterol saturation index was higher in patients with polyps or gallstones than in controls (P<0.05). Cholesterol crystals were more frequent in patients with polyps than in controls (P<0.0001) but less common than in gallstone patients (P<0.0001). Polyps and gallstones were associated with nonapolipoprotein E4 phenotypes. The natural history of small gallbladder polyps was benign, as no patient developed specific symptoms and/or morphological changes in polyps. Consequently, a "wait and see" policy is advisable in these patients. Polyps have some pathogenetic mechanisms in common with gallstones, but few patients developed gallstones.

  4. Natural History of Conservatively Managed Ureteral Stones: Analysis of 6600 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yallappa, Sachin; Amer, Tarik; Jones, Patrick; Greco, Francesco; Tailly, Thomas; Somani, Bhaskar K; Umez-Eronini, Nkem; Aboumarzouk, Omar M

    2018-05-01

    Ureteral colic has a lifetime prevalence of 10%-15% and is one of the most common emergency urologic presentations. Current European Association of Urology recommends conservative management for "small" (<6 mm) ureteral stones if active removal is not indicated. It is important to understand the natural history of ureteral stone disease to help counsel patients with regard to their likelihood of stone passage and anticipated time frame with which they could be safely observed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to better establish the natural history of stone expulsion. Literature search was performed using Cochrane and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. Outcome measures were patient and stone demographics, expulsion rates, expulsion times, and side effect of the medication. A cumulative analysis, with subgroup analysis, was performed on stone location and size. The results were depicted as percentages and an intention-to-treat basis was used. The literature search identified 70 studies and a total of 6642 patients, with a median age of 46 and range of 18-74 years. Overall, 64% of patients successfully passed their stones spontaneously. About 49% of upper ureteral stones, 58% of midureteral stones, and 68% of distal ureteral stones passed spontaneously. Almost 75% of stones <5 mm and 62% of stones ≥5 mm passed spontaneously. The average time to stone expulsion was about 17 days (range 6-29 days). Nearly 5% of participants required rehospitalization due to a deterioration of their condition and only about 1% of patients experienced side effects from analgesia provided. We believe this current review is the largest study for the evaluation of natural history of ureteral stones. The evidence suggests that ureteral stones will pass without intervention in 64% of patients, however, this varies from nearly 50%-75% depending on the size and location, in the span of 1-4 weeks.

  5. Natural history of diminutive colorectal polyps: long-term prospective observation by colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic removal of colorectal adenomatous polyps effectively prevents cancer. However, the treatment strategy for diminutive polyps (diameter ≤ 5 mm) remains controversial. Understanding the natural history of diminutive polyps is a prerequisite to their effective management. We prospectively examined the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term surveillance colonoscopy. A total of 207 polyps detected in 112 patients from December 1991 through March 2002 were studied. To avoid potential effects on size and morphological characteristics, all polyps were selected randomly and were followed without biopsy. Polyp size was estimated by comparing the lesion with the diameter of a biopsy forceps. Mean follow up was 7.8 years (SD, 4.8; range, 1.0-18.6; median, 7.5; interquartile range 3.4-11.2). Twenty-four polyps were resected endoscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was mucosal high-grade neoplasia (Category 4) for one polyp, and mucosal low-grade neoplasia (Category 3) for 23 polyps. Mean linear size of the polyps was 3.2 mm (SD, 1.0; range, 1.3-5.0) at initial colonoscopy and 3.8 mm (SD 1.6; range 1.3-10.0) at final colonoscopy (P<0.01). Left-sided polyps showed a higher growth rate than right-sided polyps, and a type IIIL2 pit pattern was associated with a lower growth rate than a type IIIL1 pattern. We clarified the natural history of diminutive polyps by long-term follow-up colonoscopy. The benign course of diminutive polyps should be considered in the design of treatment strategies. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. The Natural History and Rehabilitative Outcomes of Hearing Loss in Congenital Cytomegalovirus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kyle T; Horrell, Erin M Wolf; Ayugi, John; Irungu, Catherine; Muthoka, Maria; Creel, Liza M; Lester, Cathy; Bush, Matthew L

    2018-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the literature regarding the natural history and rehabilitative outcomes of sensorineural hearing loss from congenital cytomegalovirus infections. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Eligible studies were those containing original peer-reviewed research in English addressing either the natural history or rehabilitative outcomes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV). Two investigators independently reviewed all articles and extracted data. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment Scale. Thirty-six articles were reviewed. Universal screening identifies 0.2 to 1% of newborns with cCMV infection. SNHL ranged from 8 to 32% of infants and was more prevalent in symptomatic versus asymptomatic cases. Nine to 68% of hearing loss occurs in a late or delayed fashion. In 7 to 71% of cases hearing loss is progressive. Cochlear implantation (CI) is a viable option for patients with cCMV associated hearing loss and leads to improvements in hearing and language. There is limited literature comparing rehabilitation outcomes in cCMV and non-cCMV CI recipients. Late onset and progressive hearing loss is seen in children who develop hearing loss from cCMV. Frequent audiologic follow-up is necessary considering the natural history of cCMV hearing loss. Universal screening should be pursued due to the number of asymptomatic children, at birth, who develop late onset/delayed hearing loss. CI is an effective means of improving speech and language in this population.

  7. Chiari Malformation Type 1: A Systematic Review of Natural History and Conservative Management.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Benjamin; Phillips, Edward; Choi, David

    2017-08-01

    Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) is a variation of hindbrain development that can sometimes occur in asymptomatic individuals. Conventional treatment is surgical decompression, but little is known about the natural history of patients who do not undergo surgical management. This information is critical to determine how these patients should be managed. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the natural history of CM-1, particularly in patients who did not undergo surgery and in asymptomatic individuals, to help patients and physicians determine when surgery is likely to be beneficial. The literature search was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. In symptomatic patients who did not undergo surgery, headaches and nausea often improved, whereas ataxia and sensory disturbance tended not to improve spontaneously. Of patients, 27%-47% had an improvement in symptoms after 15 months, and 37%-40% with cough headache and 89% with nausea who were managed nonoperatively improved at follow-up. Most asymptomatic individuals with CM-1 remained asymptomatic (93.3%) even in the presence of syringomyelia. The natural history of mild symptomatic and asymptomatic CM-1 in adults is relatively benign and nonprogressive; the decision to perform surgical decompression should be based on severity and duration of a patient's symptoms at presentation. It is reasonable to observe a patient with mild or asymptomatic symptoms even in the presence of significant tonsillar descent or syringomyelia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  9. Leukocytes and the natural history of deep vein thrombosis: current concepts and future directions

    PubMed Central

    P, Saha; J, Humphries; B, Modarai; K, Mattock; M, Waltham; C, Evans; A, Ahmad; A, Patel; S, Premaratne; OTA, Lyons; A, Smith

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have shown that inflammatory cells accumulate within the thrombus and surrounding vein wall during the natural history of venous thrombosis. More recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms that regulate this interaction and have confirmed that thrombosis and inflammation are intimately linked. This review outlines our current knowledge of the complex relationship between inflammatory cell activity and venous thrombosis and highlights new areas of research in this field. A better understanding of this relationship could lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets that inhibit thrombus formation or promote its resolution. PMID:21325673

  10. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-04-17

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned.

  11. Congenital neutropenia in the era of genomics: classification, diagnosis, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Donadieu, Jean; Beaupain, Blandine; Fenneteau, Odile; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine

    2017-11-01

    This review focuses on the classification, diagnosis and natural history of congenital neutropenia (CN). CN encompasses a number of genetic disorders with chronic neutropenia and, for some, affecting other organ systems, such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, bone and skin. To date, 24 distinct genes have been associated with CN. The number of genes involved makes gene screening difficult. This can be solved by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted gene panels. One of the major complications of CN is spontaneous leukaemia, which is preceded by clonal somatic evolution, and can be screened by a targeted NGS panel focused on somatic events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The natural history of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    Huhta, James

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is of clinical/surgical importance once the fetus is born without heart block or signs of heart failure. Without significant tricuspid valve malformation, associated defects such as ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow obstruction can be repaired surgically. The mortality and long-term outcome appear to be linked strongly with the severity of tricuspid valve regurgitation. Some patients with an intact ventricular septum and no right ventricular dysfunction will live long lives without detection, and some women will successfully complete pregnancy.

  13. The effects of a regional natural history course on outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, and instructional methods of science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, Thomas Fredrick

    Recent concerns about the effectiveness of science instruction have prompted a variety of strategies and research to effect positive changes. Research has indicated that among the contributing factors to the success of students learning science are teacher outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, and the selection and use of various teaching methods. Inservice training opportunities for public school teachers have been proposed as a strategy that can yield positive changes in these areas. Environmental education has also been proposed as a viable component of teaching science, but focus on global, and the omission of local themes is common. This study assessed the effects of an inservice training course entitled "Natural History of the Southern Appalachians" on regional teachers' outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, and science teaching methods. Through the administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument and the Science Teaching Strategies Survey before taking the course and after taking the course, changes in the teachers outcome expectancy (p<.05), self-efficacy (p<.10), and teaching strategy selection were measured. In all three areas, desired positive changes have resulted from teachers completing the course. It appears that regionally specific Natural History training gives teachers inexpensive options to teach science, as well as making them more comfortable with the delivery of science instruction.

  14. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-02-08

    To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: "portal" and "gastropathy"; or "portal" and "hypertensive"; or "congestive" and "gastropathy"; or "congestive" and "gastroenteropathy". The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa in PHG shows increased susceptibility to gastrotoxic

  15. Portal hypertensive gastropathy: A systematic review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, natural history, and therapy of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) based on a systematic literature review. METHODS: Computerized search of the literature was performed via PubMed using the following medical subject headings or keywords: “portal” and “gastropathy”; or “portal” and “hypertensive”; or “congestive” and “gastropathy”; or “congestive” and “gastroenteropathy”. The following criteria were applied for study inclusion: Publication in peer-reviewed journals, and publication since 1980. Articles were independently evaluated by each author and selected for inclusion by consensus after discussion based on the following criteria: Well-designed, prospective trials; recent studies; large study populations; and study emphasis on PHG. RESULTS: PHG is diagnosed by characteristic endoscopic findings of small polygonal areas of variable erythema surrounded by a pale, reticular border in a mosaic pattern in the gastric fundus/body in a patient with cirrhotic or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Histologic findings include capillary and venule dilatation, congestion, and tortuosity, without vascular fibrin thrombi or inflammatory cells in gastric submucosa. PHG is differentiated from gastric antral vascular ectasia by a different endoscopic appearance. The etiology of PHG is inadequately understood. Portal hypertension is necessary but insufficient to develop PHG because many patients have portal hypertension without PHG. PHG increases in frequency with more severe portal hypertension, advanced liver disease, longer liver disease duration, presence of esophageal varices, and endoscopic variceal obliteration. PHG pathogenesis is related to a hyperdynamic circulation, induced by portal hypertension, characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance to flow, increased splanchnic flow, increased total gastric flow, and most likely decreased gastric mucosal flow. Gastric mucosa

  16. Trajectories of health-related quality of life during the natural history of dementia: a six-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongmei; Gao, Caihong; Zhang, Yanbo; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore profiles of quality of life (QoL) trajectories during the natural history of dementia and individual variations contributing to QoL trajectories. We conducted a longitudinal community-based study of 520 elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and 100 healthy people aged 60 years or over. We conducted six waves of assessment between October 2010 and May 2013 in Taiyuan, mainland China. Cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, global impairment, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were defined as state 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. We assessed health-related QoL (HRQoL) via the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) Chinese version. We used the latent growth curve model (LGCM) to investigate change in HRQoL over time. Latent growth curve model analysis revealed a mean initial QoL level of 29.865 with substantial variation and a significant mean slope for the whole sample. Multigroup LGCM showed substantial variations across individuals in initial QoL levels for each cognitive state transition group. For the slope factor, we found significant changes and variations for the transition from state 2 to 3 and from state 3 to 4. We estimated mean QoL levels over six assessments based on intercept, slope, and factor loadings for the whole sample and the three cognitive state transition groups. A decline in subjective QoL is not inevitable during the natural history of dementia in community settings, and there is a degree of individual variation in QoL. Future studies should investigate the factors associated with individual variations in QoL trajectories in AD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word “evolution” or the word “ecology”. “Ecology” was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used “the economy of nature”. The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life. PMID:26097722

  18. Exploring the Phenotypic Space and the Evolutionary History of a Natural Mutation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ullastres, Anna; Petit, Natalia; González, Josefa

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge of modern Biology is elucidating the functional consequences of natural mutations. Although we have a good understanding of the effects of laboratory-induced mutations on the molecular- and organismal-level phenotypes, the study of natural mutations has lagged behind. In this work, we explore the phenotypic space and the evolutionary history of a previously identified adaptive transposable element insertion. We first combined several tests that capture different signatures of selection to show that there is evidence of positive selection in the regions flanking FBti0019386 insertion. We then explored several phenotypes related to known phenotypic effects of nearby genes, and having plausible connections to fitness variation in nature. We found that flies with FBti0019386 insertion had a shorter developmental time and were more sensitive to stress, which are likely to be the adaptive effect and the cost of selection of this mutation, respectively. Interestingly, these phenotypic effects are not consistent with a role of FBti0019386 in temperate adaptation as has been previously suggested. Indeed, a global analysis of the population frequency of FBti0019386 showed that climatic variables explain well the FBti0019386 frequency patterns only in Australia. Finally, although FBti0019386 insertion could be inducing the formation of heterochromatin by recruiting HP1a (Heterochromatin Protein 1a) protein, the insertion is associated with upregulation of sra in adult females. Overall, our integrative approach allowed us to shed light on the evolutionary history, the relevant fitness effects, and the likely molecular mechanisms of an adaptive mutation and highlights the complexity of natural genetic variants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Contribution of natural history collection data to biodiversity assessment in national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F.; Gilbert, A.T.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    There has been mounting interest in the use of museum and herbaria collections to assess biodiversity; information is often difficult to locate and access, however, and few recommendations are available for effectively using natural history collections. As part of an effort to inventory vertebrates and vascular plants in U.S. national parks, we searched manually and by computer for specimens originating within or adjacent to 14 parks throughout the northeastern United States. We compared the number of specimens located to collection size to determine whether there was any effect on detection rate of specimens. We evaluated the importance of park characteristics (e.g., age since establishment, size, theme [natural vs. cultural]) for influencing the number of specimens found in a collection. We located >31,000 specimens and compiled associated records (hereafter referred to as specimens) from 78 collections; >9000 specimens were park-significant, originating either within park boundaries or in the local township where the park was located. We found >2000 specimens by means of manual searches, which cost $0.001?0.15 per specimen searched and $0.81?151.95 per specimen found. Collection effort appeared relatively uniform between 1890 and 1980, with low periods corresponding to significant sociopolitical events. Detection rates for specimens were inversely related to collection size. Although specimens were most often located in collections within the region of interest, specimens can be found anywhere, particularly in large collections international in scope, suggesting that global searches will be necessary to evaluate historical biodiversity. Park characteristics indicated that more collecting effort occurred within or adjacent to larger parks established for natural resources than in smaller historical sites. Because many institutions have not yet established electronic databases for collections, manual searches can be useful for retrieving specimens. Our results

  20. Factors driving natural regeneration beneath a planted urban forest

    Treesearch

    Danica A. Doroski; Alexander J. Felson; Mark A. Bradford; Mark P. Ashton; Emily E. Oldfield; Richard A. Hallett; Sara E. Kuebbing

    2018-01-01

    Cities around the world are investing in urban forest plantings as a form of green infrastructure. The aim is that these plantations will develop into naturally-regenerating native forest stands. However, woody plant recruitment is often cited as the most limiting factor to creating self-sustaining urban forests. As such, there is interest in site treatments that...

  1. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sahagún's "Florentine codex," a little known Aztecan natural history of the Valley of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Henry M

    2006-01-01

    Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. The first English translation was issued in 13 volumes between 1950 and 1982, and the first facsimile was published in 1979. Book 11, "Earthly things," is a comprehensive natural history of the Valley of Mexico based on pre-Cortésian Aztec knowledge. Sahagún's work, largely unknown among English-speaking biologists, is an untapped treasury of information about Aztecan natural history. It also establishes the Aztecs as the preeminent pioneering naturalists of North American, and Sahagún and his colleagues as their documentarians.

  3. Lessons from the life history of natural fertility societies on child growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Aneta; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2012-06-19

    During the evolution of hominids, childhood and adolescence have been added as new life-history phases. The transition from infancy to childhood (ICT) confers a predictive adaptive response to energetic cues that strongly influence adult height, whereas the transition from juvenility to adolescence establishes longevity and the age of fertility. Evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises apparently use epigenetic mechanisms that defer the ICT, culminating in short stature. The study of hunter-gatherers gives us an indication of pre-demographic transition populations and their life style that prevailed for 99% of homo's evolution. The secular trend for receding age of pubertal development has been an adaptive response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance. In natural fertility preindustrial societies with limited access to modern contraception and health care, and whose economies are primarily subsistence-based, most resources are invested as somatic capital in human body size and fertility. Here we review results from databases for natural fertility societies, with the information on life history, population density, height and body mass, indices of adolescence and fertility. By using them it was possible to verify the ICT model as well as to explore pubertal parameters that are related to evolutionary fitness. They confirmed that body size was adaptively smaller in hostile environments, and was tightly associated with reproductive fitness.

  4. Longitudinal timed function tests in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: ImagingDMD cohort natural history.

    PubMed

    Arora, Harneet; Willcocks, Rebecca J; Lott, Donovan J; Harrington, Ann T; Senesac, Claudia R; Zilke, Kirsten L; Daniels, Michael J; Xu, Dandan; Tennekoon, Gihan I; Finanger, Erika L; Russman, Barry S; Finkel, Richard S; Triplett, William T; Byrne, Barry J; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2018-05-09

    Tests of ambulatory function are common clinical trial endpoints in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The ImagingDMD study has generated a large data set using these tests, which can describe the contemporary natural history of DMD in 5-12.9 year olds. 92 corticosteroid treated boys with DMD and 45 controls participated in this longitudinal study. Subjects performed the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) and timed function tests (TFTs: 10m walk/run, 4 stairs, supine to stand). Boys with DMD had impaired functional performance even at 5-6.9 years. Boys older than 7 had significant declines in function over 1 year for 10m walk/run and 6MWT. 80% of subjects could perform all functional tests at 9 years old. TFTs appear to be slightly more responsive and predictive of disease progression than 6MWT in 7-12.9 year olds. This study provides insight into the contemporary natural history of key functional endpoints in DMD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from three natural history models

    PubMed Central

    Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M.; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A. M.; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A.; Mariotto, Angela B.; de Koning, Harry J.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Background Black men in the US have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which the incidence disparity is due to prostate cancer being more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. Methods We estimated three independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of PSA screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005, and prostate cancer incidence from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program in 1975–2000. Using the estimated models, we compared prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population. Results The models projected that 30–43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28–56% higher than in the general population. Among men who have had preclinical disease onset, black men have a similar risk of diagnosis (35–49%) compared with the general population (32–44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis is 44–75% higher than in the general population. Conclusions Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. PMID:28436011

  6. On the Natural and Unnatural History of the Voltage-Gated Na(+) Channel.

    PubMed

    Moczydlowski, E G

    2016-01-01

    This review glances at the voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channel (NaV) from the skewed perspective of natural history and the history of ideas. Beginning with the earliest natural philosophers, the objective of biological science and physiology was to understand the basis of life and discover its intimate secrets. The idea that the living state of matter differs from inanimate matter by an incorporeal spirit or mystical force was central to vitalism, a doctrine based on ancient beliefs that persisted until the last century. Experimental electrophysiology played a major role in the abandonment of vitalism by elucidating physiochemical mechanisms that explained the electrical excitability of muscle and nerve. Indeed, as a principal biomolecule underlying membrane excitability, the NaV channel may be considered as the physical analog or surrogate for the vital spirit once presumed to animate higher forms of life. NaV also epitomizes the "other secret of life" and functions as a quantal transistor element of biological intelligence. Subplots of this incredible but true story run the gamut from electric fish to electromagnetism, invention of the battery, venomous animals, neurotoxins, channelopathies, arrhythmia, anesthesia, astrobiology, etc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural History and Ecology of Soldier Beetles (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) in the Mexican Tropical Dry Forests.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Cisteil X

    2018-06-06

    Until today, most information about the natural history and ecology of soldier beetles came from temperate zones, mainly from Holarctic areas, while tropical regions have been poorly studied. The aim of this contribution is to compile and synthesize information concerning the natural history and ecology of Cantharidae (Coleoptera) from the Mexican tropical dry forest (TDF), to serve as a starting point for more in-depth study of the group in one of the Mexico's most endangered ecosystems. All compiled data on the family have been organized into the following topics: distributional patterns and habitat preferences, feeding behavior and host plants, and daily and seasonal activity cycles. For the first time, it was provided a list of host plants for TDF Cantharidae genera and species, and it was also observed a high ecological diversity in the phenology and behavior of TDF Cantharidae assemblages. Further research concerning cantharids and other TDF insects needs to have a more comprehensive and integrated approach toward understanding the patterns of distribution and diversity, and elucidating the role that cantharids play in ecosystems, especially in TDF, which is one of the most endangered ecosystem in the world.

  8. The natural history of cystic echinococcosis in untreated and albendazole-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Solomon, N; Kachani, M; Zeyhle, E; Macpherson, C N L

    2017-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) treatment protocols for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are based on the standardized ultrasound (US) classification. This study examined whether the classification reflected the natural history of CE in untreated and albendazole-treated patients. Data were collected during mass US screenings in CE endemic regions among transhumant populations, the Turkana and Berber peoples of Kenya and Morocco. Cysts were classified using the WHO classification. Patient records occurring prior to treatment, and after albendazole administration, were selected. 852 paired before/after observations of 360 cysts from 257 patients were analyzed. A McNemar-Bowker χ 2 test for symmetry was significant (p<0.0001). 744 observations (87.3%) maintained the same class, and 101 (11.9%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in seven of 116 CE4 cyst observations (6.0%). A McNemar-Bowker χ 2 test of 1414 paired before/after observations of 288 cysts from 157 albendazole-treated patients was significant (p<0.0001). 1236 observations (87.4%) maintained the same class, and 149 (10.5%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in 29 of 206 CE4 observations (14.1%). Significant asymmetry confirms the WHO classification's applicability to the natural history of CE and albendazole-induced changes. Regressions may reflect the stability of CE3B cysts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Natural history and the formation of the human being: Kant on active forces.

    PubMed

    Waldow, Anik

    2016-08-01

    In his 1785-review of the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, Kant objects to Herder's conception of nature as being imbued with active forces. This attack is usually evaluated against the background of Kant's critical project and his epistemological concern to caution against the "metaphysical excess" of attributing immanent properties to matter. In this paper I explore a slightly different reading by investigating Kant's pre-critical account of creation and generation. The aim of this is to show that Kant's struggle with the forces of matter has a long history and revolves around one central problem: that of how to distinguish between the non-purposive forces of nature and the intentional powers of the mind. Given this history, the epistemic stricture that Kant's critical project imposes on him no longer appears to be the primary reason for his attack on Herder. It merely aggravates a problem that Kant has been battling with since his earliest writings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryopreservation of Fish Spermatogonial Cells: The Future of Natural History Collections.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary M; Daly, Jonathan P; Carter, Virginia L; Cole, Kathleen S; Jaafar, Zeehan; Lager, Claire V A; Parenti, Lynne R

    2018-04-18

    As global biodiversity declines, the value of biological collections increases. Cryopreserved diploid spermatogonial cells meet two goals: to yield high-quality molecular sequence data; and to regenerate new individuals, hence potentially countering species extinction. Cryopreserved spermatogonial cells that allow for such mitigative measures are not currently in natural history museum collections because there are no standard protocols to collect them. Vertebrate specimens, especially fishes, are traditionally formalin-fixed and alcohol-preserved which makes them ideal for morphological studies and as museum vouchers, but inadequate for molecular sequence data. Molecular studies of fishes routinely use tissues preserved in ethanol; yet tissues preserved in this way may yield degraded sequences over time. As an alternative to tissue fixation methods, we assessed and compared previously published cryopreservation methods by gating and counting fish testicular cells with flow cytometry to identify presumptive spermatogonia A-type cells. Here we describe a protocol to cryopreserve tissues that yields a high percentage of viable spermatogonial cells from the testes of Asterropteryx semipunctata, a marine goby. Material cryopreserved using this protocol represents the first frozen and post-thaw viable spermatogonial cells of fishes archived in a natural history museum to provide better quality material for re-derivation of species and DNA preservation and analysis.

  11. Taking Spectacle Seriously: Wildlife Film and the Legacy of Natural History Display.

    PubMed

    Louson, Eleanor

    2018-03-01

    Argument I argue through an analysis of spectacle that the relationship between wildlife documentary films' entertainment and educational mandates is complex and co-constitutive. Accuracy-based criticism of wildlife films reveals assumptions of a deficit model of science communication and positions spectacle as an external commercial pressure influencing the genre. Using the Planet Earth (2006) series as a case study, I describe spectacle's prominence within the recent blue-chip renaissance in wildlife film, resulting from technological innovations and twenty-first-century consumer and broadcast market contexts. I connect spectacle in contemporary wildlife films to its relevant precursors within natural history, situating spectacle as a central feature of natural history display designed to inspire awe and wonder in audiences. I show that contemporary documentary spectacle is best understood as an opportunity for affective knowing rather than a constraint on accuracy; as a result, spectacle contributes to the virtuous inter-reinforcement of entertainment and education at work in blue-chip wildlife films.

  12. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Aridmore » Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.« less

  13. Stereotactic Radiosurgery versus Natural History in Patients with Growing Vestibular Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Tu, Albert; Gooderham, Peter; Mick, Paul; Westerberg, Brian; Toyota, Brian; Akagami, Ryojo

    2015-08-01

    Objective To describe our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery and its efficacy on growing tumors, and then to compare this result with the natural history of a similar cohort of non-radiation-treated lesions. Study Design A retrospective chart review and cohort comparison. Methods The long-term control rates of patients having undergone radiosurgery were collected and calculated, and this population was then compared with a group of untreated patients from the same period of time with growing lesions. Results A total of 61 patients with growing vestibular schwannomas treated with radiosurgery were included. After a mean of 160 months, we observed a control rate of 85.2%. When compared with a group of 36 patients with growing tumors who were yet to receive treatment (previously published), we found a corrected control rate or relative risk reduction of only 76.8%. Conclusion Radiosurgery for growing vestibular schwannomas is less effective than previously reported in unselected series. Although radiosurgery still has a role in managing this disease, consideration should be given to the actual efficacy that may be calculated when the natural history is known. We hope other centers will similarly report their experience on this cohort of patients.

  14. Stereotactic Radiosurgery versus Natural History in Patients with Growing Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Albert; Gooderham, Peter; Mick, Paul; Westerberg, Brian; Toyota, Brian; Akagami, Ryojo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe our experience with stereotactic radiosurgery and its efficacy on growing tumors, and then to compare this result with the natural history of a similar cohort of non-radiation–treated lesions. Study Design A retrospective chart review and cohort comparison. Methods The long-term control rates of patients having undergone radiosurgery were collected and calculated, and this population was then compared with a group of untreated patients from the same period of time with growing lesions. Results A total of 61 patients with growing vestibular schwannomas treated with radiosurgery were included. After a mean of 160 months, we observed a control rate of 85.2%. When compared with a group of 36 patients with growing tumors who were yet to receive treatment (previously published), we found a corrected control rate or relative risk reduction of only 76.8%. Conclusion Radiosurgery for growing vestibular schwannomas is less effective than previously reported in unselected series. Although radiosurgery still has a role in managing this disease, consideration should be given to the actual efficacy that may be calculated when the natural history is known. We hope other centers will similarly report their experience on this cohort of patients. PMID:26225318

  15. Autophagy in Natural History and After ERT in Glycogenosis Type II.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Corrado; Nascimbeni, Anna C; Fanin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of autophagy in a series of 10 infantile-, juvenile-, and adult-onset GSDII patients and investigated autophagy blockade in successive biopsies of adult cases during disease natural history. We also correlated the autophagosome accumulation and efficiency of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in four treated cases (two infantile and two juvenile-adult onsets).The autophagic flux was monitored by measuring the amount of p62-positive protein aggregates and compared, together with fibre vacuolisation, to fibre atrophy.A blocked autophagic flux resulted in p62 accumulation, increased vacuolisation, and progressive atrophy of muscle fibres in biopsies collected from patients during natural history. On the contrary, in the GSDII cases early treated with ERT, the autophagic flux improved and muscle fibre atrophy, fibre vacuolisation, and acid phosphatase activity decreased.The functionality of the autophagy-lysosome system is essential in GSDII muscle, which is characterised by the presence of swollen glycogen-filled lysosomes and autophagic build-up. Defining the role of autophagy and its relationship with muscle loss is critical for understanding the disease pathogenesis, for developing new therapies, and for improving ERT efficacy in GSDII.

  16. Guided school visits to natural history museums in Israel: Teachers' roles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Revital; Bamberger, Yael; Morag, Orly

    2005-11-01

    Museums are favorite and respected resources for learning worldwide. In Israel, there are two relatively large science centers and a number of small natural history museums that are visited by thousands of students. Unlike other countries, studying museum visits in Israel only emerges in the last few years. The study focused on the roles and perceptions of teachers, who visited four natural history museums with their classes. The study followed previous studies that aimed at understanding the role teachers play in class visits to museums (Griffin & Symington, 1997, Science Education, 81, 763-779; Cox-Petersen et al., 2003, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 200-218; Olsen, Cox-Petersen, & McComas, 2001, Journal of Science Teacher Education, 12, 155-173) and emphasized unique phenomena related to the Israeli system. None of the teachers interviewed for this study was an active facilitator, and in many cases the teachers had no idea regarding the field trip program and rationale. Our main findings support previous studies that indicated that teachers are hardly involved in planning and enacting the museum visit. An issue of concern, which came up in this study, is the tendency of Israeli schools to use subcontractor companies that plan and make all the museum arrangements. Unlike the common patterns described in the paper, a case study of unique teacher's function is presented as well.

  17. Using the History of Research on Sickle Cell Anemia to Affect Preservice Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Eric M.

    This paper examines how using a series of lessons developed from the history of research on sickle cell anemia affects preservice teacher conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The importance of a pedagogy that has students do science through an integral use of the history of science is effective at enriching students' NOS views is presented.…

  18. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forato, Thais Cyrino de Mello; Martins, Roberto de Andrade; Pietrocola, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the…

  19. Addressing Nature of Science Core Tenets with the History of Science: An Example with Sickle-Cell Anemia & Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Erica M.

    2007-01-01

    The history of science (HOS) has proven to be a useful pedagogical tool to help students learn about what has come to be regarded as an agreed upon set of core nature of science (NOS) tenets. The following article illustrates an example of how teachers can instrumentally use the history of research on heterozygote protection in sickle-cell anemia…

  20. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L; DeShon, Heather R; Hornbach, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.

  1. Natural history of severe atheromatous disease of the thoracic aorta: a transesophageal echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D H; Ververis, J J; McGorisk, G; Frohwein, S; Martin, R P; Taylor, W R

    1996-01-01

    This study sought to prospectively observe the morphologic and clinical natural history of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography. Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta has been shown to be highly associated with risk for embolic events in transesophageal studies, but the natural history of the disease under clinical conditions has not been reported. During a 20-month period, 191 of 264 patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography had adequate visualization of the aorta to allow atherosclerotic severity to be graded as follows: grade I = normal (44 patients); grade II = intimal thickening (52 patients); grade III = atheroma < 5 mm (62 patients); grade IV = atheroma > or = 5 mm (19 patients); grade V = mobile lesion (14 patients). All available patients with grades IV (8 patients) and V (10 patients) disease as well as a subgroup of 12 patients with grade III disease had follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies (mean [+/- SD] 11.7 +/- 0.9 months, range 6 to 22). Of 30 patients undergoing follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic studies, 20 (66%) had no change in atherosclerotic severity grade. Of the remaining 10 patients, atherosclerotic severity progressed one grade in 7 and decreased in 3 with resolved mobile lesions. Of 18 patients with grade IV or V disease of the aorta who underwent a follow-up study, 11 (61%) demonstrated formation of new mobile lesions. Of 10 patients with grade V disease on initial study who underwent follow-up study, 7 (70%) demonstrated resolution of a specific previously documented mobile lesion. However, seven patients (70%) with grade V disease also demonstrated development of a new mobile lesion. Of 33 patients with grade IV or V disease, 8 (24%) died during the study period, and 1 (3%) had a clinical embolic event. The presence of severe atherosclerotic disease of the thoracic aorta as defined by transesophageal echocardiography is associated with a

  2. More ecological ERA: incorporating natural environmental factors and animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Jevtić, Dragan M; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    We discuss the importance of selected natural abiotic and biotic factors in ecological risk assessment based on simplistic laboratory bioassays. Although it is impossible to include all possible natural factors in standard lower-tier ecotoxicological testing, neglecting them is not an option. Therefore, we try to identify the most important factors and advocate redesigning standard testing procedures to include theoretically most potent interactions. We also point out a few potentially important factors that have not been studied enough so far. The available data allowed us to identify temperature and O2 depletion as the most critical factors that should be included in ecotoxicity testing as soon as possible. Temporal limitations and fluctuations in food availability also appear important, but at this point more fundamental research in this area is necessary before making decisions on their inclusion in risk assessment procedures. We propose using specific experimental designs, such as Box-Behnken or Central Composite, which allow for simultaneous testing of 3 or more factors for their individual and interactive effects with greater precision and without increasing the effort and costs of tests dramatically. Factorial design can lead to more powerful tests and help to extend the validity of conclusions. Finally, ecological risk assessment procedures should include information on animal behavior, especially feeding patterns. This requires more basic studies, but already at this point adequate mechanistic effect models can be developed for some species. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Natural history of aneurysmal aortic arch branch vessels in a single tertiary referral center.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Adam J; Rajaee, Sareh; Erben, Young; Li, Yupeng; Rizzo, John A; Lyall, Vikram; Mojibian, Hamid; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2018-05-23

    Little is known about the natural history and management of aneurysmal aortic arch branch vessels (AABVs). The objectives of this study were to assess the natural history of aneurysmal AABVs and to examine the outcomes of operative intervention. A retrospective review of the Yale radiologic database from 1999 to 2016 was performed. Only those patients with an aneurysmal AABV and a computed tomography scan were selected for review. Patients' demographics, aneurysm characteristics, management, and follow-up information were collected. There were 105 patients with 147 aneurysmal AABVs; 76 were male (72%), with a mean age of 70 years (range, 17-93 years). We identified 63 innominate, 50 left subclavian, 30 right subclavian, and 4 common carotid artery aneurysms. On computed tomography, 65 (62%) had aortic aneurysms and six (6%) had suffered an aortic dissection. Most were asymptomatic (104 [99%]); one had chest pain and an enlarging swollen mass. Twelve (11%) patients underwent operative repair (OR) for 12 aneurysmal AABVs because of symptoms, growth, or concomitant aortic operations; 93 (89%) were observed in the no operative repair (NOR) group with cross-sectional imaging. The overall mean vessel diameter was 2.08 ± 0.68 cm. The mean diameters in the OR and NOR groups were 3.32 ± 1.24 cm and 1.97 ± 0.46 cm, respectively (P = .002). OR included nine bypasses with resection, two stent grafts, and one resection without reconstruction. Two patients developed postoperative hemorrhage requiring re-exploration, one patient developed stent thrombosis, and one patient required pseudoaneurysm repair 20 years after index operation. Mean follow-up was 52 ± 51 months for the NOR group, with no ruptures or emboli. The growth rate was 0.04 ± 0.10 cm/y. On multivariable regression analysis, a descending aortic aneurysm (P = .041) and a left subclavian artery aneurysm (P = .016) were associated with higher growth rates, whereas height was associated with a

  4. Defining SOD1 ALS natural history to guide therapeutic clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Taha; Self, Wade; Liu, Jingxia; Siddique, Teepu; Wang, Leo H; Bird, Thomas D; Ratti, Elena; Atassi, Nazem; Boylan, Kevin B; Glass, Jonathan D; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Caress, James B; McCluskey, Leo F; Appel, Stanley H; Wymer, James P; Gibson, Summer; Zinman, Lorne; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Callaghan, Brian; McVey, April L; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Allred, Peggy; Fisher, Elena R; Lopate, Glenn; Pestronk, Alan; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Miller, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    Importance Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALSSOD1) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. Objective To establish an updated natural history of ALSSOD1. Design, setting and participants Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. Main outcomes and measures Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1A4V), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1non-A4V) for analysis. Results Mean age of disease onset was 49.7 ±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1A4V and SOD1non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1A4V. SOD1A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1A4V compared with SOD1non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1A4V compared with SOD1non-A4V (p=0.02). Conclusions and relevance SOD1A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALSSOD1 patient population. PMID:27261500

  5. Defining SOD1 ALS natural history to guide therapeutic clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Bali, Taha; Self, Wade; Liu, Jingxia; Siddique, Teepu; Wang, Leo H; Bird, Thomas D; Ratti, Elena; Atassi, Nazem; Boylan, Kevin B; Glass, Jonathan D; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Caress, James B; McCluskey, Leo F; Appel, Stanley H; Wymer, James P; Gibson, Summer; Zinman, Lorne; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Callaghan, Brian; McVey, April L; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Allred, Peggy; Fisher, Elena R; Lopate, Glenn; Pestronk, Alan; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Miller, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALS SOD1 ) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. To establish an updated natural history of ALS SOD1 . Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1 A4V ), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1 non-A4V ) for analysis. Mean age of disease onset was 49.7±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1 A4V and SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1 A4V . SOD1 A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1 non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.02). SOD1 A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALS SOD1 patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. [Natural history of breast cancer: a systematic review of worldwide randomized controlled trials of mammography screening].

    PubMed

    Yue, X P; Shi, J F; Mao, A Y; Wang, L; Ma, H M; Chen, L L; Zhu, J; Cheng, X; Dai, M

    2017-02-23

    Objective: To parameterize the 1-year transition probabilities between different health status of the natural history of breast cancer based on the data of randomized controlled trial of X-ray mammography screening worldwide. Methods: Based on the breast cancer screening randomized controlled trials defined by a mammography screening review from the Cochrane 2013 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a systematic review was initiated in PubMed by searching names of the key investigators of the trials, combined with the diseases, screening intervention and outcome indicators. If applicable, all the original cumulative incidence rates were converted into one-year transition rate, using the life-table approach considering time length of follow-up. Results: A total of 23 reports from 9 RCTs were included. The data on transition rate between the healthy status to precancerous lesions was absent. The 1-year transition rate from health to carcinoma in situ was 17.78 to 50.21 per 100 000 persons in the intervention group and 9.16 to 26.84 per 100 000 persons in the control group. Correspondingly, the 1-year transition rate from health to breast cancer (including carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer) were estimated as 143.75 to 316.97 per 100 000 persons in the intervention group, and 141.45 to 288.84 per 100 000 persons in the control group. Furthermore, the transition rate from the healthy status to invasive breast cancer was 159.79 to 264.60 per 100 000 persons in intervention group and 170.12 to 255.33 per 100 000 persons in control group. The transition rate from carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer varied among different pathological types. Conclusions: The most common natural history states of reported by the included trials involved the full healthy status, carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer. The findings of transition rates between different health statuses will be informative for future model development of natural history studies

  7. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    PubMed

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  8. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Two. Natural Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    pockets of air trapped between the substrate and the film produces blisters. These eventually break and peel off. Resins containing active...paint films and the surface. The most undesirable failure of paint is peeling , which occurs upon the loss of ad- hesion between the paint ftlm and...the sub- strate to which it has been applied. Peeling is related to several factors, including the nature of the substrate, the amount of moisture

  9. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  10. The Natural History and Treatment Outcomes of Perineural Spread of Malignancy within the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Warren, Timothy A; Nagle, Christina M; Bowman, James; Panizza, Benedict J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural history of diseases enables the clinician to better diagnose and treat their patients. Perineural spread of head and neck cancers are poorly understood and often diagnosis is delayed resulting in poorer outcomes and more debilitating treatments. This article reviews a large personal series of head and neck malignancy presenting with perineural spread along almost exclusively the trigeminal and/or facial nerves. A detailed analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of cutaneous origin is presented including an analysis of likely primaries, which most often have occurred months to years prior. The importance of early detection is reinforced by the highly significant (p < 0.0001) differences in disease specific survival, which occur, depending on how far along a cranial nerve the disease has been allowed to spread.

  11. The Natural History and Treatment Outcomes of Perineural Spread of Malignancy within the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Timothy A.; Nagle, Christina M.; Bowman, James; Panizza, Benedict J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the natural history of diseases enables the clinician to better diagnose and treat their patients. Perineural spread of head and neck cancers are poorly understood and often diagnosis is delayed resulting in poorer outcomes and more debilitating treatments. This article reviews a large personal series of head and neck malignancy presenting with perineural spread along almost exclusively the trigeminal and/or facial nerves. A detailed analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of cutaneous origin is presented including an analysis of likely primaries, which most often have occurred months to years prior. The importance of early detection is reinforced by the highly significant (p < 0.0001) differences in disease specific survival, which occur, depending on how far along a cranial nerve the disease has been allowed to spread. PMID:27123386

  12. Density-dependent natural selection and trade-offs in life history traits.

    PubMed

    Mueller, L D; Guo, P Z; Ayala, F J

    1991-07-26

    Theories of density-dependent natural selection state that at extreme population densities evolution produces alternative life histories due to trade-offs. The trade-offs are presumed to arise because those genotypes with highest fitness at high population densities will not also have high fitness at low density and vice-versa. These predictions were tested by taking samples from six populations of Drosophila melanogaster kept at low population densities (r-populations) for nearly 200 generations and placing them in crowded cultures (K-populations). After 25 generations in the crowded cultures, the derived K-populations showed growth rate and productivity that at high densities were elevated relative to the controls, but at low density were depressed.

  13. A Quantitative Analysis and Natural History of B. F. Skinner's Coauthoring Practices

    PubMed Central

    McKerchar, Todd L; Morris, Edward K; Smith, Nathaniel G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes B. F. Skinner's coauthoring practices. After identifying his 35 coauthored publications and 27 coauthors, we analyze his coauthored works by their form (e.g., journal articles) and kind (e.g., empirical); identify the journals in which he published and their type (e.g., data-type); describe his overall and local rates of publishing with his coauthors (e.g., noting breaks in the latter); and compare his coauthoring practices with his single-authoring practices (e.g., form, kind, journal type) and with those in the scientometric literature (e.g., majority of coauthored publications are empirical). We address these findings in the context of describing the natural history of Skinner's coauthoring practices. Finally, we describe some limitations in our methods and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:22532732

  14. New concept in natural history and management of diabetes mellitus in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ratna; Bajoria, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a major endocrinopathy, which occurs due transfusional haemosiderosis and is found in 20-30% of adult patients with beta-thalassaemia worldwide, accounting for significant morbidity. It is multifactorial with iron loading being the dominant cause and its management poses a clinical challenge. Diabetes in thalassaemia patients is distinct from type 2 diabetes. It is peculiar in many aspects including its pathophysiology and occurs due to insulin resistance as well as islet cell insufficiency. This article reviews the natural history of diabetes in this presentation with emphasis on prevention monitoring and management. Use of MRI techniques may be useful for future monitoring as well as biochemical monitoring to prevent complications of diabetes. Early intervention with intensified chelation may reverse pancreatic function and structural changes as evident from MRI.

  15. A qualitative natural history study of ME/CFS in the community.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Valerie R; Jason, Leonard A; Hlavaty, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples. This qualitative study examined the natural history of people with ME/CFS (n = 19) from a community-based sample. Findings highlighted multilayered themes involving the illness experience and the physical construction of ME/CFS. In addition, this study further illuminated unique subthemes regarding community response and treatment, which have implications for understanding the progression of ME/CFS as well as experiences of those within patient networks. There is a need for more longitudinal qualitative research on epidemiological samples of patients with ME/CFS.

  16. Marshall-Smith syndrome: natural history and evidence of an osteochondrodysplasia with connective tissue abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Keppen, Laura Davis; Bull, Marilyn J; Clericuzio, Carol L; Burke, Leah W; Ormond, Kelly E; Hoyme, Eugene H

    2005-08-30

    The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a distinct malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia. At least 33 cases have been reported in the literature, mostly as single case reports or small series. The purpose of the present study is to report on the clinical findings and natural history of MSS in five children and to review the features of three others previously reported, with particular attention to the skeletal and connective tissue findings. Our study demonstrates an increased rate of nontraumatic fractures and other bony and connective tissue abnormalities that support the hypothesis that MSS should be considered an osteochondrodysplasia. In addition, long-term survival beyond infancy is possible if respiratory problems are expectantly and aggressively managed. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Applications of deep convolutional neural networks to digitized natural history collections.

    PubMed

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Frandsen, Paul B; Dikow, Rebecca B; Brown, Abel; Orli, Sylvia; Peters, Melinda; Metallo, Adam; Funk, Vicki A; Dorr, Laurence J

    2017-01-01

    Natural history collections contain data that are critical for many scientific endeavors. Recent efforts in mass digitization are generating large datasets from these collections that can provide unprecedented insight. Here, we present examples of how deep convolutional neural networks can be applied in analyses of imaged herbarium specimens. We first demonstrate that a convolutional neural network can detect mercury-stained specimens across a collection with 90% accuracy. We then show that such a network can correctly distinguish two morphologically similar plant families 96% of the time. Discarding the most challenging specimen images increases accuracy to 94% and 99%, respectively. These results highlight the importance of mass digitization and deep learning approaches and reveal how they can together deliver powerful new investigative tools.

  18. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-11-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and subjective NOS as measured using VNOS-D as pre- and post-test surveys. Social and cultural context of science was not accessible for the students. Students in second, third, and fourth grades were able to attain adequate views of empirical NOS, the role of observation and inference, creative and imaginative NOS, and subjective NOS. Students were not able to express adequate views of socially and culturally embedded NOS. Most gains in NOS eroded by the next school year, except for tentative NOS for both groups and creative NOS for the inquiry group.

  19. Was Queen Victoria depressed? 1. Natural history and differential diagnosis of presenting problem.

    PubMed

    Powles, W E; Alexander, M G

    1987-02-01

    For some years we have speculated as to whether Queen Victoria suffered a definable psychiatric illness in her notorious and prolonged seclusion after the Prince Consort's death. We here summarize criteria for grief and depression from three authorities. Against these, we examine the natural history of the Queen's bereavement and restitution. We find that her suffering and her portrayal of the role of widow were related to her personal style and were culturally accepted. Her self-esteem, ego functions, and object relatedness were preserved. While some clinicians might favour a diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder, we find the evidence strongly in favour of an intense, prolonged, normal human grief (Uncomplicated Bereavement of DSM III) coloured by a romantic and histrionic personal style. Intensity and duration do not, in this case, establish a diagnosis of depression.

  20. HBsAg quantification to predict natural history and treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Asselah, Tarik; Marcellin, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    There is a growing interest in serum HBsAg quantification (qHbsAg). HBsAg titers are negatively correlated with liver fibrosis in HBeAg(+) patients. In HBeAg(-) HBsAg level <1000 IU/ml and HBV-DNA titer <2000 IU/ml accurately identify inactive carriers. During PEG-IFN treatment qHBsAg identifies patients with no benefit from therapy at week 12, allowing stopping or switched- "week 12 stopping rule". During nucleos(t)ide analogues the role of qHBsAg need to be clarified. In clinical practice qHBsAg is a simple and reproducible tool that may be used in association with HBV-DNA to classify patients during the natural history of HBV and to monitor therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Applications of deep convolutional neural networks to digitized natural history collections

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Paul B.; Dikow, Rebecca B.; Brown, Abel; Orli, Sylvia; Peters, Melinda; Metallo, Adam; Funk, Vicki A.; Dorr, Laurence J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Natural history collections contain data that are critical for many scientific endeavors. Recent efforts in mass digitization are generating large datasets from these collections that can provide unprecedented insight. Here, we present examples of how deep convolutional neural networks can be applied in analyses of imaged herbarium specimens. We first demonstrate that a convolutional neural network can detect mercury-stained specimens across a collection with 90% accuracy. We then show that such a network can correctly distinguish two morphologically similar plant families 96% of the time. Discarding the most challenging specimen images increases accuracy to 94% and 99%, respectively. These results highlight the importance of mass digitization and deep learning approaches and reveal how they can together deliver powerful new investigative tools. PMID:29200929

  2. Summary: The natural history and immunobiology of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and implications for Chlamydia control.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Martin, David H; Xu, Fujie; Byrne, Gerald I; Brunham, Robert C

    2010-06-15

    In 2008, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting to foster a dialogue among basic scientists, clinical researchers, and epidemiologists studying genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of the meeting were to determine key questions related to C. trachomatis natural history and immunobiology, with implications for control programs;to review existing data on these key questions; and to delineate research needs to address remaining gaps in knowledge. The 9 articles in this supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases describe salient findings presented at the 2008 meeting, and this commentary summarizes and synthesizes these articles and discusses implications for chlamydia control efforts and future research priorities.

  3. [The art cabinet and its current significance. Museum establishment of natural history in early modern times].

    PubMed

    Felfe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.

  4. Genetic utility of natural history museum specimens: endangered fairy shrimp (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Adam R.; Campo, Daniel; Wetzer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We examined the potential utility of museum specimens as a source for genetic analysis of fairy shrimp. Because of loss of their vernal pool habitat, some fairy shrimp (including Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Branchinecta lynchi) are listed as threatened or endangered in Southern California by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Management of those species requires extensive population genetics studies and the resolution of important genetic complexity (e.g. possible hybridization between endangered and non-endangered species). Regulations mandating deposition of specimens of listed species have resulted in thousands of specimens accessioned into the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County that have been preserved in a variety of solutions. We subsampled those specimens, as well as other Anostraca with known collection and preservation histories, to test their potential for genetic analysis by attempting DNA extraction and amplification for mt16SrDNA. Fixation and preservation in not denatured ethanol had a far greater sequencing success rate than other (and unknown) fixatives and preservatives. To maximize scientific value we recommend field preservation in 95% not denatured ethanol (or, if pure ethanol is unavailable, high-proof drinking spirits, e.g. Everclear™, or 151 proof white rum), followed by storage in 95% not denatured ethanol. PMID:25561827

  5. Review of Mariana Gosnell's 'ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2006-01-01

    ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance is a recently published book by Mariana Gosnell about ice. It covers not just the ice that is readily seen, such as sea ice, lake ice, icebergs, glaciers, ice sheets, and ice cubes, but also ice in the ground, in the atmosphere, inside plants and animals, and in outer space, plus new ice forms being created in scientific laboratories. Gosnell treats the reader to a well-written, easy-going mixture of science, adventure, history, applications, science methods and controversies, and philosophy, all centered in one way or another on ice. The book is 563 pages long and is filled with fascinating anecdotes and details, such as beetles in the Canadian Rockies that can supercool to 60 C below freezing and a lake in Minnesota where each winter typically 65,000 fishing shanties are set up on the lake's ice, many with couches, beds, television sets, and bathrooms. Gosnell also includes many practical suggestions. Among them: When driving on lake ice, keep your windows open, in case your vehicle breaks through the ice and you need to make a rapid exit.

  6. Geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area: A field-trip guidebook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2001-01-01

    A National Association of Geoscience Teachers Far Western Section (NAGT-FWS) field conference is an ideal forum for learning about the geology and natural history of the San Francisco Bay area. We visit classic field sites, renew old friendships, and make new ones. This collection of papers includes field guides and road logs for all of the Bay-area trips held during the NAGT-FWS 2001 Fall Field Conference and supplemental chapters on other aspects of the area’s natural and human history. The trips touch on many aspects of the geology and natural hazards of the Bay area, especially urban problems associated with living on an active tectonic plate margin: earthquake faults, coastal erosion, landslides, and the utilization of land and natural resources. We hope this conference not only provides a two-day learning opportunity for conference participants but that students and educators will use this field guidebook for future teaching and research.Many thanks are due to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and San José State University (SJSU) for cohosting the conference. We are grateful to each of the field trip leaders for preparing the trips and writing the accompanying guides. We especially appreciate the many hours put in by the guidebook reviewers, Robert I. Tilling (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and to the USGS Western Publications Group for editing, layout, and web posting. Additional guidebook contributions include articles by John Galloway, Scott Starratt, Page Mosier, and Susan Toussaint. During the conference guest speakers include Robert I. Tilling (USGS Volcano Hazards Team) and Ross Stein (USGS Earthquake Hazards Team). Workshops prepared for the conference include GIS in the classroom, using USGS data by John Vogel (USGS) and Paula Messina (SJSU), and The Best of BAESI (Bay Area Earth Science Institute), a teacher training organization under the direction of Ellen Metzger (SJSU) and Richard Sedlock (SJSU). The conference provides an opportunity to

  7. Natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual women and risks associated with persistence.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Farhat, Sepideh; Jay, Julie; Hanson, Evelyn; Benningfield, Susanna; Jonte, Janet; Godwin-Medina, Cheryl; Wilson, Robert; Shiboski, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Anal cancer is more common in women than in men, yet little is known about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women. The objective was to examine the natural history of anal HPV in heterosexual women. Young women participating in an HPV cohort study were seen at 4-month intervals for cervical and anal HPV testing. Time to clearance was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach; risks for persistence were assessed using Cox regression models. Seventy-five women (mean age, 23.5 ± 4.1 years) who tested positive for anal HPV were followed for a mean of 84.5 ± 44.9 months. By 3 years, 82.5% of anal non-16 high-risk (HR) HPV, 82.6% of low-risk (LR) HPV, and 76.2% of HPV-16 infections had cleared. By 3 years, only 36.4% of women had become negative for all HPV types. In the multivariable model, concurrent cervical HPV-16 (P < .001), weekly alcohol use (P = .015), anal touching during sex (P = .045), recent anal sex (P = .04), and no condom use during anal sex (P = .04) were associated with HPV-16 persistence. Greater number of new sex partners (P = .024) and condom use during vaginal sex (P = .003) were associated with clearance. Similar associations were found for clearance in all HR-HPV infections. Only concomitant cervical HPV was associated with non-16 HR-HPV persistence. The majority of anal HPV infections cleared within 3 years. HPV-16 infections were slower to clear than other HR-HPV infections, consistent with its role in anal cancer. Specific sexual behaviors were associated with persistence, suggesting that education and behavioral interventions may decrease persistence.

  8. Natural History of Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Heterosexual Women and Risks Associated With Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Farhat, Sepideh; Jay, Julie; Hanson, Evelyn; Benningfield, Susanna; Jonte, Janet; Godwin-Medina, Cheryl; Wilson, Robert; Shiboski, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is more common in women than in men, yet little is known about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women. The objective was to examine the natural history of anal HPV in heterosexual women. Methods. Young women participating in an HPV cohort study were seen at 4-month intervals for cervical and anal HPV testing. Time to clearance was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach; risks for persistence were assessed using Cox regression models. Results. Seventy-five women (mean age, 23.5 ± 4.1 years) who tested positive for anal HPV were followed for a mean of 84.5 ± 44.9 months. By 3 years, 82.5% of anal non-16 high-risk (HR) HPV, 82.6% of low-risk (LR) HPV, and 76.2% of HPV-16 infections had cleared. By 3 years, only 36.4% of women had become negative for all HPV types. In the multivariable model, concurrent cervical HPV-16 (P < .001), weekly alcohol use (P = .015), anal touching during sex (P = .045), recent anal sex (P = .04), and no condom use during anal sex (P = .04) were associated with HPV-16 persistence. Greater number of new sex partners (P = .024) and condom use during vaginal sex (P = .003) were associated with clearance. Similar associations were found for clearance in all HR-HPV infections. Only concomitant cervical HPV was associated with non-16 HR-HPV persistence. Conclusions. The majority of anal HPV infections cleared within 3 years. HPV-16 infections were slower to clear than other HR-HPV infections, consistent with its role in anal cancer. Specific sexual behaviors were associated with persistence, suggesting that education and behavioral interventions may decrease persistence. PMID:24368624

  9. Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from 3 natural history models.

    PubMed

    Tsodikov, Alex; Gulati, Roman; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel A; Mariotto, Angela B; de Koning, Harry J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2017-06-15

    Black men in the United States have substantially higher prostate cancer incidence rates than the general population. The extent to which this incidence disparity is because prostate cancer is more prevalent, more aggressive, and/or more frequently diagnosed in black men is unknown. The authors estimated 3 independently developed models of prostate cancer natural history in black men and in the general population using an updated reconstruction of prostate-specific antigen screening, based on the National Health Interview Survey in 2005 and on prostate cancer incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program during 1975 through 2000. By using the estimated models, the natural history of prostate cancer was compared between black men and the general population. The models projected that from 30% to 43% (range across models) of black men develop preclinical prostate cancer by age 85 years, a risk that is (relatively) 28% to 56% higher than that in the general population. Among men who had preclinical disease onset, black men had a similar risk of diagnosis (range, 35%-49%) compared with the general population (32%-44%), but their risk of progression to metastatic disease by the time of diagnosis was from 44% to 75% higher than that in the general population. Prostate cancer incidence patterns implicate higher incidence of preclinical disease and higher risk of metastatic progression among black men. The findings suggest screening black men earlier than white men and support further research into the benefit-harm tradeoffs of more aggressive screening policies for black men. Cancer 2017;123:2312-2319. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. The natural history of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Savarino, E; de Bortoli, N; De Cassan, C; Della Coletta, M; Bartolo, O; Furnari, M; Ottonello, A; Marabotto, E; Bodini, G; Savarino, V

    2017-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract which is typically characterized by heartburn and acid regurgitation. These symptoms are widespread in the community and range from 2.5% to more than 25%. Economic analyses showed an increase in direct and indirect costs related to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of GERD and its complications. The aim of this review is to provide current information regarding the natural history of GERD, taking into account the evolution of its definition and the worldwide gradual change of its epidemiology. Present knowledge shows that there are two main forms of GERD, that is erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and the latter comprises the majority of patients (up to 70%). The major complication of GERD is the development of Barrett esophagus, which is considered as a pre-cancerous lesion. Although data from medical literature on the natural history of this disease are limited and mainly retrospective, they seem to indicate that both NERD and mild esophagitis tend to remain as such with time and the progression from NERD to ERD, from mild to severe ERD and from ERD to Barrett's esophagus may occur in a small proportion of patients, ranging from 0 to 30%, 10 to 22% and 1 to 13% of cases, respectively. It is necessary to stress that these data are strongly influenced by the use of powerful antisecretory drugs (PPIs). Further studies are needed to better elucidate this matter and overcome the present limitations represented by the lack of large prospective longitudinal investigations, absence of homogeneous definitions of the various forms of GERD, influence of different treatments, clear exclusion of patients with functional disorders of the esophagus. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Natural history of frozen shoulder: fact or fiction? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, C K; Levine, W N; Deo, K; Kesting, R S; Mercer, E A; Schram, G A; Strang, B L

    2017-03-01

    In 1940s, it was proposed that frozen shoulder progresses through a self-limiting natural history of painful, stiff and recovery phases, leading to full recovery without treatment. However, clinical evidence of persistent limitations lasting for years contradicts this assumption. To assess evidence for the natural history theory of frozen shoulder by examining: (1) progression through recovery phases, and (2) full resolution without treatment. MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO CINAHL and PEDro database searches augmented by hand searching. Cohort or randomised controlled trials with no-treatment comparison groups including adults with frozen shoulder who received no treatment and reporting range of motion, pain or function for ≥6 months. Reviewers assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data before reaching consensus. Limited early range-of-motion improvements and greater late improvements defined progression through recovery phases. Restoration of normal range of motion and previous function defined full resolution. Of 508 citations, 13 articles were reviewed and seven were included in this review. Low-quality evidence suggested that no treatment yielded some, but not complete, improvement in range of motion after 1 to 4 years of follow-up. No evidence supported the theory of progression through recovery phases to full resolution without treatment. On the contrary, moderate-quality evidence from three randomised controlled trials with longitudinal data demonstrated that most improvement occurred early, not late. Low-quality evidence revealed the weakness of longstanding assumptions about frozen shoulder. Contradictory evidence and a lack of supporting evidence shows that the theory of recovery phases leading to complete resolution without treatment for frozen shoulder is unfounded. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural history of patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension: Comparison with patients with compensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Stefania; Nardelli, Silvia; Pasquale, Chiara; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Aprile, Francesca; Merli, Manuela; Riggio, Oliviero

    2018-01-31

    The knowledge of natural history of patients with portal hypertension (PH) not due to cirrhosis is less well known than that of cirrhotic patients. To describe the clinical presentation and the outcomes of 89 patients with non-cirrhotic PH (25 with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, INCPH, and 64 with chronic portal vein thrombosis, PVT) in comparison with 77 patients with Child A cirrhosis. The patients were submitted to a standardized clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and endoscopic follow-up. Variceal progression, incidence of variceal bleeding, portal vein thrombosis, ascites and survival were recorded. At presentation, the prevalence of varices, variceal bleeding and ascites was similar in the 3 groups. During follow-up, the rate of progression to varices at risk of bleeding (p < 0.0001) and the incidence of first variceal bleeding (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in non-cirrhotic then in cirrhotic patients. A PVT developed in 32% of INCPH patients and in 18% of cirrhotics (p = 0.02). In the patients with non-cirrhotic PH variceal progression is more rapid and bleeding more frequent than in cirrhotics. Patients with INCPH are particularly prompt to develop PVT. This observational study suggests that the management of patients with non-cirrhotic PH should take into consideration the natural history of portal hypertension in these patients and cannot be simply derived by the observation of cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural History of COPD Exacerbations in a General Practice Based COPD Population.

    PubMed

    Rothnie, Kieran J; Müllerová, Hana; Smeeth, Liam; Quint, Jennifer K

    2018-02-23

    Rationale Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are important adverse events in the natural history of COPD. Objectives To investigate the natural history of AECOPD over 10-years of follow-up. Methods and Results We identified 99,574 patients with COPD 01/Jan/04-31/March/15 from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We defined moderate AECOPD as those managed outside hospital and severe as those requiring hospitalisation. During the baseline period (first year of follow-up), patients were grouped according to the number and severity of AECOPD and then followed for a maximum of 10 years (mean 4.9 years). We investigated the effect of baseline AECOPD number and severity on risk of further events and death. Around one-quarter of the COPD patients did not exacerbate during follow-up. Compared to no AECOPD in the baseline period, AECOPD number predicted the future long-term rate of AECOPD in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.71(1.66-1.77) for one to HR 3.41(3.27-3.56) for 5+ events. Two or more moderate AECOPD were also associated with an increased risk of death in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.10(1.03-1.18) for 2 moderate AECOPD to HR 1.57(1.45-1.70) for 5+ moderate AECOPD, compared to those with no AECOPD at baseline. Severe AECOPD were associated with an even higher risk of death (HR 1.79,1.65-1.94). Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients do not exacerbate over a maximum 10 years of follow-up. AECOPD frequency in a single year predicts long-term AECOPD rate. Increasing frequency and severity of AECOPD is associated with risk of death, and highlights the importance of preventing AECOPD.

  14. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: what exactly has REVEAL revealed?

    PubMed

    Iloeje, Uchenna H; Yang, Hwai-I; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem because of its worldwide prevalence and potential to cause adverse consequences. The Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) study carried out in Taiwan was used to investigate the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. The REVEAL-HBV study has established an HBV viral load paradigm in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Serum HBV DNA level has been shown to be significantly and independently associated with incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis and liver-related mortality across a biological gradient. It is also a major predictor of HBsAg seroclearance. Genetic features including HBV genotype and basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutant, and precore G1896A mutant were documented as predictors of HCC risk. Inactive HBV carriers still had an increased risk on HCC development and liver-related mortality compared with HBsAg -seronegatives. Nomograms focusing on facilitating risk communication between patients and clinicians were developed incorporating non-invasive clinical parameters to predict long-term HCC risk. These will hopefully contribute to evidence-based decisions in the clinical management of CHB patients. A somewhat provocative and novel finding from the REVEAL-HBV study is the association of chronic HBV infection in active replication with an increased pancreatic cancer risk especially in women less than 50 years old. This finding will hopefully spur further research in this area seeking confirmatory evidence. Finally, we hope that the REVEAL-HBV study will continue to be a source of data to answer other important questions in chronic hepatitis B research going forward. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. history.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Anne-Marie

    The choice of the expression «History of the Maghreb Pasteur institutes» is suggestive of a post-colonial approach and raises questions about the shared future of those centres. The author offers a comparative view of the past of the Institutes in Tunis, Algiers and Casablanca, relying on recent research in social sciences and the development of oral history. The Institutes were created separately at different times but more or less followed a single model linking research, production, and teaching. Fighting infectious diseases was part of the colonial heritage, but it was above all the promise of modernisation linked to participation in the Pastorian Revolution that explains why the three Institutes never discontinued their activities in the three Southern Mediterranean capitals At the turn of the 21th century, the Pasteur Institutes of the Maghreb, in common with the mother Institute in Paris, were faced by new challenges in a changing political and epidemiological context. The International Pasteur Institutes Network was formally established in 2003. What is the future of the Maghreb Institutes? Will they form a separate entity? And what links will they create with the rest of the world, especially the Arab World? These questions are both scientific and political.

  16. Natural history matters: how biological constraints shape diversified interactions in pollination networks.

    PubMed

    Jordano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Species-specific traits constrain the ways organisms interact in nature. Some pairwise interactions among coexisting species simply do not occur; they are impossible to observe despite the fact that partners coexist in the same place. The author discusses these 'forbidden links' of species interaction networks. Photo: a sphingid moth, Manduca sexta visiting a flower of Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado; tongue and corolla tube lengths approximately 100 mm. Courtesy of Felipe Amorim. Sazatornil, F.D., Moré, M., Benitez-Vieyra, S., Cocucci, A.A., Kitching, I.J., Schlumpberger, B.O., Oliveira, P.E., Sazima, M. & Amorim, F.W. (2016) Beyond neutral and forbidden links: morphological matches and the assembly of mutualistic hawkmoth-plant networks. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 1586-1594. Species-specific traits and life-history characteristics constrain the ways organisms interact in nature. For example, gape-limited predators are constrained in the sizes of prey they can handle and efficiently consume. When we consider the ubiquity of such constrains, it is evident how hard it can be to be a generalist partner in ecological interactions: a free-living animal or plant cannot simply interact with every available partner it encounters. Some pairwise interactions among coexisting species simply do not occur; they are impossible to observe despite the fact that partners coexist in the same place. Sazatornil et al. () explore the nature of such constraints in the mutualisms among hawkmoths and the plants they pollinate. In this iconic interaction, used by Darwin and Wallace to vividly illustrate the power of natural selection in shaping evolutionary change, both pollinators and plants are sharply constrained in their interaction modes and outcomes. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  17. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L.; DeShon, Heather R.; Hornbach, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques. PMID:29202029

  18. Science on a salad plate?: Thinking about the representation of natural history in the Canadian Historic Dinner Service project.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Keri

    2008-01-01

    The Women's Art Association of Canada marked the 400th anniversary of John Cabot's "discovery" of Canada (celebrated in 1897) through the production of the "Canadian Historic Dinner Service." The high-profile project, which resulted in a set of hand-painted porcelain dinnerware, was a celebration not only of nation-building, but also of the natural history of the country. Visual reference material provided to the women selected to create the individual pieces included photographs, natural history texts, and illustrations that W.H. Bartlett produced for Canadian Scenery earlier in the century. This article explores this visual reinterpretation of Canada's natural history in order to raise questions about how a recontextualization of scientific material shapes narratives of nation and nature in the 'New World'.

  19. The influence of natural factors on the spatio-temporal distribution of Oncomelania hupensis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Li, Dan; Zhuang, Dafang; Wang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    relatively larger in areas around the outlet of the lake (Chenglingji) were more affected. (3) The effects of natural factors on the spatio-temporal distribution of O. hupensis were spatio-temporally heterogeneous. Rainfall, land surface temperature, NDVI, and distance from water sources all played an important role in the spatio-temporal distribution of O. hupensis. In addition, due to the effects of the local geographical environment, the direction of the influences the average annual rainfall, land surface temperature, and NDVI had on the spatio-temporal distribution of O. hupensis were all spatio-temporally heterogeneous, and both the distance from water sources and the history of snail distribution always had positive effects on the distribution O. hupensis, but the direction of the influence was spatio-temporally heterogeneous. (4) Of all the natural factors, the leading factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of O. hupensis were rainfall and vegetation (NDVI), and the primary factor alternated between these two. The leading role of rainfall decreased year by year, while that of vegetation (NDVI) increased from 2004 to 2011. The spatio-temporal distribution of O. hupensis was significantly influenced by natural factors, and the influences were heterogeneous across space and time. Additionally, the variation in the spatial-temporal distribution of O. hupensis was mainly affected by rainfall and vegetation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  1. Categorizing natural history trajectories of ambulatory function measured by the 6-minute walk distance in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Signorovitch, James Edward; Swallow, Elyse; Song, Jinlin; Ward, Susan J

    2016-09-01

    High variability in patients' changes in 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) over time has complicated clinical trials of treatment efficacy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We assessed whether boys with DMD could be grouped into classes that shared similar ambulatory function trajectories as measured by 6MWD. Ambulatory boys aged 5 years or older with genetically confirmed DMD who were enrolled in a natural history study at 11 care centers throughout Italy were included. For each boy, standardized assessments of 6MWD were available at annual intervals spanning 3 years. Trajectories of 6MWD vs. age and trajectories of 6MWD vs. time from enrollment were examined using latent class analysis. A total of 96 boys were included. At enrollment, the mean age was 8.3 years (mean 6MWD: 374 meters). After accounting for age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use, four latent trajectory classes were identified as explaining 3-year 6MWD outcomes significantly better than a single average trajectory. Patient trajectories of 6MWD change from enrollment were categorized as having fast decline (n = 25), moderate decline (n = 19), stable function (n = 37), and improving function (n = 15) during the 3-year follow-up. After accounting for trajectory classes, the standard deviation of variation in 6MWD was reduced by approximately 40%. The natural history of ambulatory function in DMD may be composed of distinct trajectory classes. The extent to which trajectories are associated with novel and established prognostic factors warrants further study. Reducing unexplained variation in patient outcomes could help to further improve DMD clinical trial design and analysis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood: a risk factor for preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) were approximately 4 times greater among women with a history of childhood adoption or foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Female Adolescents with a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse. Found that they reported higher rates of adverse outcomes than did teenagers without a background of abuse. Lists protective factors and risk factors that influenced outcomes. (RJM)

  5. The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Natural History of Insomnia: Acute Insomnia and First-onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jason G.; Perlis, Michael L.; Bastien, Célyne H.; Gardani, Maria; Espie, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: While many studies have examined the association between insomnia and depression, no studies have evaluated these associations (1) within a narrow time frame, (2) with specific reference to acute and chronic insomnia, and (3) using polysomnography. In the present study, the association between insomnia and first-onset depression was evaluated taking into account these considerations. Design: A mixed-model inception design. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four individuals (acute insomnia [n = 33], normal sleepers [n = 21]) with no reported history of a sleep disorder, chronic medical condition, or psychiatric illness. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed at baseline (2 nights of polysomnography and psychometric measures of stress and mood) and insomnia and depression status were reassessed at 3 months. Individuals with acute insomnia exhibited more stress, poorer mood, worse subjective sleep continuity, increased N2 sleep, and decreased N3 sleep. Individuals who transitioned to chronic insomnia exhibited (at baseline) shorter REM latencies and reduced N3 sleep. Individuals who exhibited this pattern in the transition from acute to chronic insomnia were also more likely to develop first-onset depression (9.26%) as compared to those who remitted from insomnia (1.85%) or were normal sleepers (1.85%). Conclusion: The transition from acute to chronic insomnia is presaged by baseline differences in sleep architecture that have, in the past, been ascribed to Major Depression, either as heritable traits or as acquired traits from prior episodes of depression. The present findings suggest that the “sleep architecture stigmata” of depression may actually develop over the course transitioning from acute to chronic insomnia. Citation: Ellis JG; Perlis ML; Bastien CH; Gardani M; Espie CA. The natural history of insomnia: acute insomnia and first-onset depression. SLEEP 2014;37(1):97-106. PMID

  7. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Putta, Srikrishna; Smith, Jeramiah J; Walker, John A; Rondet, Mathieu; Weisrock, David W; Monaghan, James; Samuels, Amy K; Kump, Kevin; King, David C; Maness, Nicholas J; Habermann, Bianca; Tanaka, Elly; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2004-01-01

    Background Establishing genomic resources for closely related species will provide comparative insights that are crucial for understanding diversity and variability at multiple levels of biological organization. We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories. Results Approximately 40,000 quality cDNA sequences were isolated for these species from various tissues, including regenerating limb and tail. These sequences and an existing set of 16,030 cDNA sequences for A. mexicanum were processed to yield 35,413 and 20,599 high quality ESTs for A. mexicanum and A. t. tigrinum, respectively. Because the A. t. tigrinum ESTs were obtained primarily from a normalized library, an approximately equal number of contigs were obtained for each species, with 21,091 unique contigs identified overall. The 10,592 contigs that showed significant similarity to sequences from the human RefSeq database reflected a diverse array of molecular functions and biological processes, with many corresponding to genes expressed during spinal cord injury in rat and fin regeneration in zebrafish. To demonstrate the utility of these EST resources, we searched databases to identify probes for regeneration research, characterized intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism, saturated a human – Ambystoma synteny group with marker loci, and extended PCR primer sets designed for A. mexicanum / A. t. tigrinum orthologues to a related tiger salamander species. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of developing resources in traditional model systems where the likelihood of information transfer to multiple, closely related taxa is high, thus simultaneously enabling both laboratory and natural history research. PMID:15310388

  8. Pedogenesis and its effects on the natural remanent magnetization acquisition history of the Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingsong

    The thick (100--300 m) Chinese loess/paleosol sequences are good archives for both paleoclimate and paleomagnetism. Previous studies have shown that the large-scale Milankovitch cycles can be recorded by the Chinese loess. However, there exist some barriers against further quantitative and accurate interpretation. The most specific one is that pedogenesis has strongly altered (overprinted) not only the acquisition history of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) but also the paleoclimatic proxies (e.g. low-field magnetic susceptibility). Therefore, this study aims to solve this problem by quantifying the effects of pedogenesis on the loess NRM acquisition history and further to probe the mechanism of susceptibility enhancements. The thesis is divided into three parts: Part I (Chapters 2 to 7) proposes several new techniques in rock magnetism to determine the exact carriers of various magnetic parameters, e.g., susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), NRM and the corresponding Characteristic remanent magnetization, etc; Part II (Chapters 8 and 9) focuses mainly on the mechanism of low-temperature oxidation and its effects on the magnetic signals; and Part III (Chapters 10 and 11) discusses the mechanism of susceptibility enhancements. The main conclusions and contributions of this thesis are: (1) The enhancement of magnetic susceptibility is dominated by single-domain (SD) maghemite of pedogenic origin (>50%) instead of the pedogenically produced superparamagnetic (SP) particles; (2) For loess sample, its NRM and ChRM is carried by aeolian coarse-grained partially oxidized magnetite (CG-POM). However, this primary remanence can be easily masked by the secondary Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) carried by pedogenic maghemites; (3) Due to low-temperature oxidation, the aeolian CG-POM has a much higher coercivity than the pedogenic fine-grained particles; therefore, alternating field (AF) demagnetization is more efficient to separate the

  9. The prevalence and natural history of urinary symptoms among recreational ketamine users.

    PubMed

    Winstock, Adam R; Mitcheson, Luke; Gillatt, David A; Cottrell, Angela M

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Symptom prevalence (prospective cohort) Level of Evidence 1b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Case series have described lower urinary tract symptoms associated with ketamine use including severe pain, frequency, haematuria and dysuria. Little is known regarding the frequency of symptoms, relationship of symptoms with dose and frequency of use and natural history of symptoms once the ketamine user has stopped. This study describes the prevalence of ketamine use in a population of recreational drug users in a dance music setting. It shows a dose-frequency relationship with ketamine use. It shows that urinary symptoms associated with recreational ketamine use may lead to a considerable demand on health resources in the primary-, secondary- and emergency-care settings. It shows that symptoms may improve once ketamine use is decreased. • To investigate the prevalence and natural history of urinary symptoms in a cohort of recreational ketamine users. • A purposeful sampling technique was used. • Between November 2009 and January 2010 participants were invited to undertake an on-line questionnaire promoted by a national dance music magazine and website. • Data regarding demographics and illicit drug-use were collected. • Among respondents reporting recent ketamine use, additional information detailing their ketamine use, experience of urinary symptoms and use of related healthcare services was obtained. • In all, 3806 surveys were completed, of which 1285 (33.8%) participants reported ketamine use within the last year. • Of the ketamine users, 17% were found to be dependent on the drug; 26.6% (340) of recent ketamine users reported experiencing urinary symptoms. • Urinary symptoms were significantly related to both dose of ketamine used and frequency of ketamine use. • Of 251 users reporting their experience of symptoms over time in relationship to their use of ketamine, 51% reported improvement in urinary symptoms

  10. The natural history of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a multi-center series of untreated Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Yang, Elizabeth; Lee, Won Ki; Lee, Gary K Y; Mathur, Ranjana; Cheng, Jacob; Wong, Doric; Wong, Tien Yin; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the long-term natural history of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in untreated patients. This is a retrospective observational case series. Patients with symptomatic PCV who did not receive any treatment for at least 12 months were included from the records of three ophthalmic clinics in Asia. The medical records and imaging data were reviewed. Visual outcomes at month 12 and at last follow-up were analyzed. The influence of demographics and presenting features on visual outcome was analyzed. A total of 32 eyes (32 patients) were included in this analysis. The mean follow-up was 59.9 months (range, 18-119 months), the mean age was 65.7 years and 21 (65.6 %) patients were male. The mean presenting logMAR visual acuity was 0.79 (Standard deviation [SD] 0.49). The center of the fovea was involved by the PCV complex in 25 eyes (78.1 %). The mean greatest linear dimension (GLD) of the PCV complex was 2584 μm (SD 880). Twenty-three eyes (71.9 %) had a cluster-of-grapes configuration on indocyanine green angiography. Leakage of fluorescein angiography was present in 29 eyes (90.6 %). The mean logMAR vision deteriorated from 0.79 at baseline to 0.88 at month 12 (p = 0.11), and further to 1.14 (p = 0.003) at the last follow-up. The proportion of eyes that improved, remained unchanged and worsened was 21.9 %, 31.3 % and 46.9 %, respectively, at month 12; and 28.1 %, 9.4 % and 62.5 %, respectively, at last follow-up. The proportion of eyes with logMAR vision worse than 1.0 was 28.1 % at presentation, and increased to 31.3 % at month 12 and further to 53.1 % at last follow-up. Reasons for poor vision were due to retinal, subretinal or vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and scarring. None of the presenting features were found to significantly influence visual outcome. Half of eyes presenting with symptomatic PCV had a relatively benign course without treatment and some even had vision

  11. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  12. Natural History of Gutter-Related Type Ia Endoleaks after Snorkel/Chimney EVAR

    PubMed Central

    Ullery, Brant W.; Tran, Kenneth; Itoga, Nathan K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Lee, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Alternative endovascular strategies utilizing parallel or snorkel/chimney (ch-EVAR) techniques have been developed to address the lack of widespread availability and manufacturing limitations with branched/fenestrated aortic devices for the treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. Despite high technical success and mid-term patency of snorkel stent configurations, concerns remain regarding the perceived increased incidence of early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks following ch-EVAR. Methods Review of medical records and available imaging studies, including completion angiography and serial computed tomographic angiography, was performed for all patients undergoing ch-EVAR at our institution between September 2009 and January 2015. Only procedures involving ≥1 renal artery with or without visceral snorkel stents were included. Primary outcomes of the study were presence and persistence or resolution of early gutter-related type Ia endoleak. Secondary outcomes included aneurysm sac shrinkage and need for secondary intervention related to the presence of type Ia gutter endoleak. Results Sixty patients (mean age, 75.8 ± 7.6 years; male, 70.0%) underwent ch-EVAR with a total of 111 snorkel stents (97 renal [33 bilateral renal], 12 SMA, 2 celiac). A median of 2 (range, 1-4) snorkel stents were placed per patient. Early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks were noted on 30.0% (n=18) of initial postoperative imaging studies. Follow-up imaging revealed spontaneous resolution of these gutter endoleaks in 47.3% and 71.8% of patients at 6- and 12 months post-procedure, respectively. Long-term anticoagulation, degree of oversizing, stent type and diameter, and other clinical/anatomic variables were not significantly associated with presence of gutter endoleaks. Two patients (3.3%) required secondary intervention related to persistent gutter endoleak. At a mean radiologic

  13. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  14. A systematic review of the risks factors associated with the onset and natural progression of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stephanie; Donnan, Jennifer; Fortin, Yannick; Sikora, Lindsey; Morrissey, Andrea; Collins, Kayla; MacDonald, Don

    2017-07-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects more than 50 million individuals worldwide. It presents as unpredictable, temporary and recurrent seizures often having negative physical, psychological and social consequences. To inform disease prevention and management strategies, a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on risk factors for the onset and natural progression of epilepsy was conducted. Computerized bibliographic databases for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, observational studies and genetic association studies published between 1990 and 2013 describing etiological risk factors for epilepsy was searched. The quality of systematic reviews was validated using the AMSTAR tool and articles were reviewed by two referees. A total of 16,958 articles went through stage one review of abstracts and titles. A total of 76 articles on genetic and non-genetic risk factors for the onset and progression of epilepsy met the eligibility criteria for data extraction. Dozens of risk factors were significantly associated with onset of epilepsy. Inconsistent levels of evidence for risk of onset included family history of epilepsy, history of febrile seizures, alcohol consumption, CNS and other infections, brain trauma, head injury, perinatal stroke, preterm birth and three genetic markers. Limited evidence showed that symptomatic epilepsy, focal seizures/syndromes, slow waves on EEG, higher seizure frequency, high stress or anxiety, and lack of sleep decreased the odds of seizure remission. High quality studies were rare and while a large body of work exists, relatively few systematic reviews were found. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The type material of Mantodea (praying mantises) deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, USA

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The collection of Mantodea of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, includes 26 holotypes, 7 allotypes, 4 lectotypes, 23 paratypes, and 1 paralectotype. Four type specimens were designated as lectotypes within this work. Highly accurate measurement data, high resolution images of specimens and labels, verbatim label data, georeferenced coordinates, original and newly assigned database codes, and bibliographic data are presented for all primary types. Label data for all paratype specimens in the collection are provide in tabular form. The location of the USNM collection has been moved to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History as a loan under the Off-site Enhancement Program. PMID:25152673

  16. The Changing Chesapeake: An Introduction to the Natural History and Cultural History of the Chesapeake Bay. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Valerie

    This book is about changes in the Chesapeake Bay, its animals, plants, and the surrounding land during the last 15,000 years. Some changes were caused by natural forces while others were made by people. "Chesapeake Challenges" tests the student's thinking skills. "Family Action" lists things families can do to learn more about…

  17. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. Aims To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. Method A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Results Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Conclusions Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. PMID:25657352

  18. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors.

    PubMed

    Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-05-01

    Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Natural history of de novo High Grade Glioma: first description of growth parabola.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Roberto; Hirono, Seiichiro; Duffau, Hugues; Ducati, Alessandro; Fontanella, Marco; LA Rocca, Giuseppe; Melcarne, Antonio; Panciani, Pier P; Spena, Giannantonio; Garbossa, Diego

    2017-07-26

    Etiopathogenesis and physiopathology of gliomas are largely unknown. Recently, many authors have proved a strict correlation between the velocity of diametric expansion (VDE) on the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the biological behavior of these tumors, especially in Low Grade Gliomas (LGGs). Unfortunately, natural history of High Grade Gliomas (HGGs) has not been well clarified because of its fast progression, late diagnoses and early surgical intervention. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the case of asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered de novo HGG with a total of 17 months of follow-up. A male patient was referred to our consultation for routinely follow-up after meningioma resection 5 years before. He underwent MRI every year without any neuroradiological alterations. A new MRI image presented a non-enhancing lesion in the right temporal lobe with 3.55 cm of Mean Tumor Diameter (MTD) and 35.6 mm/year of VDE. After two months interval, the lesion had 3.97 cm of MTD and 27.8 mm/year of VDE. Although we have strongly suggested surgical resection, patient have delayed the operation for personal issues. After other 3 months, the tumor showed enhancement with 4.5 of MTD and 17.4 mm/year of VDE. We speculate that the descending parabola is due to initial mass effect and hypoxia of the tumor core. We also underline the crucial role of the VDE determining, in order to predict the nature of the lesion and address the most effective treatment for each patient.

  20. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  1. Focal confluent fibrosis in cirrhotic liver: natural history studied with serial CT.

    PubMed

    Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Baron, Richard L; Federle, Michael P; Sparacia, Gianvincenzo; Pealer, Karen

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the long-term natural history of focal confluent fibrosis in cirrhotic liver with CT. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed in consensus 118 liver CT examinations in 26 patients (19 men, seven women; age range, 32-68 years; mean age, 50 years) performed over approximately 6 years. Helical CT scans were obtained before and 30-35 and 65-70 seconds after injection of 125-150 mL of contrast medium at a rate of 4-5 mL/s. Proof of cirrhosis was based on liver transplantation (n = 6), biopsy (n = 9), or imaging findings (n = 11). The number, location, and attenuation of fibrotic lesions and presence of trapped vessels were evaluated. Variation of hepatic retraction associated with the development of focal confluent fibrosis lesions was assessed using the ellipsoid volume formula and an arbitrary retraction index. Each radiologist identified 41 focal confluent fibrosis lesions. All lesions were identified by both radiologists. Twelve patients (46%) had a single lesion, 13 (50%) had two lesions, and one (4%) had three lesions. Thirty-four (83%) of 41 lesions were located in segment IV, VII, or VIII. Thirty-two lesions (78%) were hypoattenuating on unenhanced images, 25 lesions (61%) were hypoattenuating on hepatic arterial phase images, and 20 lesions (49%) were isoattenuating on portal venous phase images. Seven lesions (17%) were or became hyperattenuating at follow-up on portal venous phase images. Trapped vessels were found in six lesions (15%). The retraction index showed a significant increase over time (r = 0.423, p < or = 0.0001). The degree of capsule retraction associated with focal confluent fibrosis evolves with time and relates to the natural evolution of cirrhosis.

  2. Human exposure to natural uranium: A case history and analytical results from some postmortem tissues

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, J. K.; Dyson, E. D.; Hislop, J. S.; Leach, A. M.; Spoor, N. L.

    1972-01-01

    Donoghue, J. K., Dyson, E. D., Hislop, J. S., Leach, A. M., and Spoor, N. L. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 81-89. Human exposure to natural uranium: a case history and analytical results from some postmortem tissues. After the collapse and sudden death of an employee who had worked for 10 years in a natural uranium workshop, in which the airborne uranium was largely U3O8 with an Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter in the range 3·5-6·0 μm and average concentration of 300 μg/m3, his internal organs were analysed for uranium. The tissues examined included lungs (1041 g), pulmonary lymph nodes (12 g), sternum (114 g), and kidneys (217 g). Uranium was estimated by neutron activation analysis, using irradiated tissue ash, and counting the delayed neutrons from uranium-235. The concentrations of uranium (μg U/g wet tissue) in the lungs, lymph nodes, sternum, and kidneys were 1·2, 1·8, 0·09, and 0·14 respectively. The weights deposited in the lungs and lymph nodes are less than 1% of the amounts calculated from the environmental data using the parameters currently applied in radiological protection. The figures are compatible with those reported by Quigley, heartherton, and Ziegler in 1958 and by Meichen in 1962. The relation between these results, the environmental exposure data, and biological monitoring data is discussed in the context of current views on the metabolism of inhaled insoluble uranium. PMID:5060250

  3. A systematic review of the risks factors associated with the onset and natural progression of hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stephanie; Donnan, Jennifer; Morrissey, Andrea; Sikora, Lindsey; Bowen, Sonya; Collins, Kayla; MacDonald, Don

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically assess and synthesize the world literature on risk factors for the onset and natural progression of hydrocephalus, thereby providing a basis for policy makers to identify appropriate risk management measures to mitigate the burden of disease in Canada. Evidence for risk factors was limited for both onset and progression. Two meta-analyses that examined a risk factor for onset met the inclusion criteria. One found a significant protective effect of prenatal vitamins among case control studies, but not cohort/randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The second found maternal obesity to be a significant risk factor for congenital hydrocephalus. Significant risk factors among 25 observational studies included: biological (multiple births, maternal parity, common cold with fever, maternal thyroid disease, family history, preterm birth, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, ischemic ECG changes, higher cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration following vestibular schwannoma); lifestyle (maternal obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, maternal diabetes, maternal age), healthcare-related (caesarean section, interhospital transfer, drainage duration following subarachnoid hemorrhage, proximity to midline for craniectomy following traumatic brain injury); pharmaceutical (prenatal exposure to: tribenoside, metronidazole, anesthesia, opioids); and environmental (altitude, paternal occupation). Three studies reported on genetic risk factors: no significant associations were found. There are major gaps in the literature with respect to risk factors for the natural progression of hydrocephalus. Only two observational studies were included and three factors reported. Many risk factors for the onset of hydrocephalus have been studied; for most, evidence remains limited or inconclusive. More work is needed to confirm any causal associations and better inform policy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Evan C.; Pratt, William D.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C.; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E.; Goff, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule—a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis. PMID:27043611

  5. Status and Natural History of Emballonura Semicaudata Rotensis on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Worthington, David J.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Valdez, Ernest W.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific sheath-tailed bats (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) in the Mariana Islands declined greatly in abundance and distribution during the 20th century. The small island of Aguiguan now supports the only persisting population. We studied abundance and natural history of this population from 1995–2008. There was a likely population increase during the study, with 359–466 (minimum and maximum) bats counted at caves in 2008. Bats roosted only in caves, primarily those of relatively larger size. Bats were detected in only seven of 95 caves; three caves were always occupied when surveyed. One cave consistently had the largest colony ( ± SD = 333 ± 33.6 in 2008). Others held 1–64 bats. Cave environments showed no complexities in temperature or humidity. Preliminary observations indicate a litter size of one and the possibility of birthing timed to coincide with the transitional period leading into the rainy season (June–July). We review potential threats to E. s. rotensis on Aguiguan and make suggestions for conservation.

  6. iCollections - Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gordon; Albuquerque, Sara; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Brooks, Stephen; Cafferty, Steve; Cane, Elisa; Carter, Victoria; Chainey, John; Crowther, Robyn; Douglas, Lyndsey; Durant, Joanna; Duffell, Liz; Hine, Adrian; Honey, Martin; Huertas, Blanca; Howard, Theresa; Huxley, Rob; Kitching, Ian; Ledger, Sophie; McLaughlin, Caitlin; Martin, Geoff; Mazzetta, Gerardo; Penn, Malcolm; Perera, Jasmin; Sadka, Mike; Scialabba, Elisabetta; Self, Angela; Siebert, Darrell J; Sleep, Chris; Toloni, Flavia; Wing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK) has embarked on an ambitious programme to digitise its collections . The first phase of this programme has been to undertake a series of pilot projects that will develop the necessary workflows and infrastructure development needed to support mass digitisation of very large scientific collections. This paper presents the results of one of the pilot projects - iCollections. This project digitised all the lepidopteran specimens usually considered as butterflies, 181,545 specimens representing 89 species from the British Isles and Ireland. The data digitised includes, species name, georeferenced location, collector and collection date - the what, where, who and when of specimen data. In addition, a digital image of each specimen was taken. This paper explains the way the data were obtained and the background to the collections which made up the project. Specimen-level data associated with British and Irish butterfly specimens have not been available before and the iCollections project has released this valuable resource through the NHM data portal.

  7. The natural history of acute hepatitis C: clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, R.; Rivera, M. M.; McBurney, R.; Park, Y.; Haynes-Williams, V.; Rehermann, B.; Alter, H. J.; Herrine, S. K.; Liang, T. J.; Hoofnagle, J. H.; Heller, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Acute hepatitis C has variable modes of presentation and frequently results in chronic infection. Its optimal management has yet to be defined. Aims To establish natural history and complications of treatment of acute hepatitis C. Methods Data from all patients presenting with acute hepatitis C to the National Institutes of Health between 1994 and 2007 were reviewed. Results Twenty-five patients were identified. Symptoms were reported by 80% and jaundice by 40%. Aminotransferase levels and HCV RNA levels fluctuated greatly; 18% of patients were intermittently negative for HCV RNA. Five patients recovered spontaneously whereas 20 developed chronicity or received interferon-based therapy during the acute phase. Among 15 patients treated during the acute phase with peginterferon with or without ribavirin for 24 weeks, all became HCV RNA negative within 4 to 8 weeks, and all except two (HIV-positive) achieved a sustained virological response. Side effects (particularly psychiatric) were common and limited treatment in 30%. Conclusion Thus, among 25 patients with acute HCV infection, fluctuating illness was common and spontaneous recovery occurred in only 20%. Antiviral treatment with a 24-week course of peginterferon and ribavirin was highly effective but marked by frequent and severe side effects. PMID:21198704

  8. Natural history of Brugada syndrome in a patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Doroteia; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Silva, Margarida Matos; Anjos, Rui; Ferreira, Álvaro; Gaspar, Isabel Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification of sudden death in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a controversial issue, and there is currently no consensus on the best method. Examination of data from the natural history of the disease is of fundamental importance and may help to identify relatives at risk. At the same time, study of the genetic mutations responsible for the disease may also contribute to risk stratification of the syndrome, enabling identification of asymptomatic relatives carrying mutations. This paper presents the case of a young man, aged 26, monitored as a pediatric cardiology outpatient from birth for a simple structural heart defect not requiring surgery. Analysis of the evolution of the patient's electrocardiogram revealed the appearance, at the age of 20, of a pattern compatible with type I BrS. Following an episode of syncope and induction of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the electrophysiological study, a cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. One year later, a single shock terminated an episode of ventricular fibrillation. A molecular study of the SCN5A gene identified a rare mutation, c.3622G>T (p.Glu1208X), recently described and associated with more severe phenotypes in patients with BrS, as in the case presented. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting natural histories of thoracic spine pneumatocysts: resolution versus rapid enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, V H; Carroll, T; Hoggard, N

    2011-01-01

    An intraosseous pneumatocyst is an unusual cause of gas in a vertebral body and is rarely reported in the thoracic spine. We report the evolution of thoracic spine pneumatocysts, one that enlarged rapidly with resorption of fluid and one that resolved. A 65-year-old female with lower back and left leg pain underwent MRI of the lumbar spine, which demonstrated a well-defined lesion in a T10 vertebral body of low-signal on T1 and T2 weighted imaging. CT confirmed this as a gas-containing cyst. Review of previous imaging showed that this lesion had initially contained fluid and had expanded rapidly over 14 months. It also showed smaller pneumatocysts, which had resolved. The variable natural history and imaging features of pneumatocysts make them an important differential diagnosis of an intravertebral lesion. Their aetiology is not known, but previous case reports suggest that they can occur spontaneously or in association with vacuum phenomenon in adjacent discs or facet joints. Previous reports have observed that they can fill with granulation tissue or fluid, and the case we report demonstrates that this fluid can be resorbed and that the pneumatocyst can undergo rapid enlargement. A pneumatocyst is a differential diagnosis for an expanding intravertebral lesion of indeterminate MRI characteristics. The diagnosis can be made with CT if the lesion is gas or gas and fluid filled. PMID:21415298

  10. Natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tyler; Westerberg, Brian D; Atashband, Shahnaz; Kozak, Frederick K

    2008-02-01

    To determine the natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome. (1) Retrospective cohort study and (2) systematic literature review. Tertiary pediatric centre. (1) Charts of children assessed by one physician between 1993 and 2000 were reviewed. (2) Source articles were identified by a search of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of the English-language literature through January 2006, with manual review of references. The search was limited to English, human, and age less than 18 years. Pure-tone average. Hearing was classified as stable, progressive and fluctuating. (1) Twenty-one children (39 ears) with EVA were identified. Eighty-two percent of ears had stable hearing, and 18% of ears demonstrated progressive hearing loss. (2) Seven source articles were identified and combined with the present data for a total of 310 ears with a mean follow-up of 4 years. Bilateral EVA was found to be six times more common than unilateral EVA, and there was an equal male to female ratio. Stable hearing was found in 67% of ears and progressive hearing loss in 33% of ears. Subgroup analysis demonstrated hearing fluctuations in 50% of progressive hearing loss ears and 34% of stable ears. Stable hearing is observed in 67% of ears with EVA of which 34% will demonstrate fluctuations in hearing. Progression of hearing loss is seen in 33% of ears of which half will demonstrate fluctuations.

  11. Longitudinal MRI Study on the Natural History of Carotid Artery Plaques in Symptomatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwee, Robert M.; Truijman, Martine T. B.; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Mess, Werner H.; Prins, Martin H.; Franke, Cees L.; Korten, Arthur G. G. C.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Kooi, M. Eline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the natural history of carotid atherosclerosis in patients who experienced a TIA or ischemic stroke. Patients and Methods Ninety-two TIA/stroke patients (57 men, mean age 67.7±9.8 years) with ipsilateral <70% carotid stenosis underwent multisequence MRI of the plaque ipsilateral to the symptomatic side at baseline and after one year. For each plaque, several parameters were assessed at both time points. Results Carotid lumen, wall and total vessel ( = carotid lumen and wall) volume did not significantly change. Forty-four patients had a plaque with a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) at baseline, of which 34 also had a LRNC after one year. In three patients a LRNC appeared after one year. Thirty patients had a plaque with a thin and/or ruptured fibrous cap (FC) at both time points. In seven patients, FC status changed from thin and/or ruptured into thick and intact. In three patients, FC status changed from thick and intact into thin and/or ruptured. Twenty patients had intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) at both time points. In four patients, IPH disappeared, whereas in three patients, new IPH appeared at follow-up. Conclusion In TIA/stroke patients, carotid plaque morphology does not significantly change over a one-year period. IPH and FC status change in a minority of patients. PMID:22860130

  12. Therapeutic modulation of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis: lessons learned from serial imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jordan; Puri, Rishi; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J; Psaltis, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in risk prediction, preventive and therapeutic strategies, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major public health challenge worldwide, carrying considerable morbidity, mortality and health economic burden. There continues to be a need to better understand the natural history of this disease to guide the development of more effective treatment, integral to which is the rapidly evolving field of coronary artery imaging. Various imaging modalities have been refined to enable detailed visualization of the pathological substrate of atherosclerosis, providing accurate and reproducible measures of coronary plaque burden and composition, including the presence of high-risk characteristics. The serial application of such techniques, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have uncovered important insights into the progression of coronary plaque over time in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), and its responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Here we review the use of different imaging modalities for the surveillance of coronary atherosclerosis and the lessons they have provided about the modulation of CAD by both traditional and experimental therapies.

  13. The natural history of skin-limited Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Humphrey, Stephen R; Kelly, Michael E; Chiu, Yvonne E; Galbraith, Sheila S

    2014-11-01

    Prior reports of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) suggest that isolated skin involvement is rare and often progresses to systemic disease. More rapid access to pediatric subspecialty care has likely led to more frequent representation of this condition. The purpose of this study is to characterize the natural history of skin-limited LCH in an era of increased access to pediatric subspecialty care. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients newly diagnosed with LCH between 2001 and 2012 at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Extensive review of laboratory, physical examination, and imaging reports was performed and data collected for patients with biopsy-proven skin LCH. Sixteen individuals with skin-limited LCH were identified. The median age at onset of skin eruption was birth (range, birth to 6 mo), and median duration of follow-up was 19.5 months (range, 2 wk to 10 y) from diagnosis. One patient (6%) developed pituitary disease and 1 patient (6%) had refractory skin involvement. All others experienced complete resolution. For patients without progressive or refractory disease, resolution of skin findings occurred within 7 months from onset. Progression of skin-limited to multisystem LCH likely may be less frequent than previously described.

  14. The Natural History of Idiopathic Scoliosis During Growth: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Francesca; Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Negrini, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to provide a meta-analysis of current literature concerning the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, And Scopus databases was conducted up to November 2016. Eligible works were prospective or retrospective studies that enrolled patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, followed up without any treatment from the time of detection. A meta-analysis for proportion was performed. The following studies were grouped per diagnosis: infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Of the 1797 citations screened, we assessed 61 full-text articles and included 13 of these (2301 participants). Three studies included infantile idiopathic scoliosis patients (347 participants), five studies included a mixed population of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (1330 participants), and five studies included adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients only (624 participants). The random pooled estimated progression rate was 49% (95% confidence interval = 1%-97%) for infantile idiopathic scoliosis, 49% in a mixed group of patients affected by juvenile idiopathic scoliosis or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 19%-79%), and 42% in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 11%-73%). During growth, idiopathic scoliosis tends to progress in a high percentage of cases. The progression rate varies according to the age at diagnosis, with infantile scoliosis being the most unpredictable. There are many confounders, such as age, Risser sign and baseline Cobb angles that were not consistent among studies, making the data very heterogeneous.

  15. Displaying Science: The Exhibits Revolution in Science and Natural History Museums, 1900--1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Once defined primarily by their collections, by the end of the twentieth century, American natural history and science museums had become institutions defined largely by their displays. This talk will use life science and physics exhibits to illustrate how and why this transformation occurred. Efforts to modernize displays shaped and were themselves shaped by new institutional roles and identities for museums in twentieth-century science education and in American culture. Drawing on a forthcoming co-authored book (``Life on Display,'' U. Chicago, 2014) this talk will reveal the controversies that accompanied exhibition building, chronicling how and why curators, designers, and educators worked with and against one another to build displays intended to communicate new ideas about topics like evolution, animal behavior, and radiation to the American public. It explains that scientists were extraordinarily invested in the success of museums' displays and saw display as an integral element of their own public outreach work and research agendas. In turn, rapidly professionalizing exhibit designers were periodic participants in the research process, supplementing and sometimes prompting research projects through the displays they built. Presenting work that is co-authored by Rader and Victoria E.M. Cain (Northeastern University).

  16. Natural history of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome associated with FAS gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Susan; Shaw, Pamela A.; Seitz, Amy; Joshi, Gyan; Davis, Joie; Niemela, Julie E.; Perkins, Katie; Hornung, Ronald L.; Folio, Les; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Hsu, Amy P.; Lo, Bernice; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) presents in childhood with nonmalignant lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly associated with a characteristic expansion of mature CD4 and CD8 negative or double negative T-cell receptor αβ+ T lymphocytes. Patients often present with chronic multilineage cytopenias due to autoimmune peripheral destruction and/or splenic sequestration of blood cells and have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. Deleterious heterozygous mutations in the FAS gene are the most common cause of this condition, which is termed ALPS-FAS. We report the natural history and pathophysiology of 150 ALPS-FAS patients and 63 healthy mutation-positive relatives evaluated in our institution over the last 2 decades. Our principal findings are that FAS mutations have a clinical penetrance of <60%, elevated serum vitamin B12 is a reliable and accurate biomarker of ALPS-FAS, and the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients are the overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis and development of lymphoma. With longer follow-up, we observed a significantly greater relative risk of lymphoma than previously reported. Avoiding splenectomy while controlling hypersplenism by using corticosteroid-sparing treatments improves the outcome in ALPS-FAS patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:24398331

  17. Natural history and quality of life in patients with cystine urolithiasis: a single centre study.

    PubMed

    Parr, Justin M; Desai, Devang; Winkle, David

    2015-10-01

    To describe the natural history and quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystine urolithiasis. A cohort study was carried out involving participants recruited from a single surgeon's case mix. Patients with cystinuria and related urolithiasis were invited to complete a questionnaire involving demographic information, use of medical treatment, surgical interventions and the 36-item short-form 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). In all, 14 patients completed the survey. The SF-36 survey showed lower QoL than the general public in seven of eight domains. The mean interventional rate in patients with cystinuria was 10.6 procedures per patient. Most patients reported previous use of d-penicillamine and urinary alkalinisation medications, with most ceasing due to side-effects or lack of perceived efficacy. Cystinuria is associated with a high rate of surgical intervention and lower QoL than the general public. Individuals with this condition report that medical management is either ineffective or poorly tolerated. There is a need for further improvements in medical management of cystinuria, to reduce the rate of operative intervention. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The natural history of acute hepatitis C: clinical presentation, laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Loomba, R; Rivera, M M; McBurney, R; Park, Y; Haynes-Williams, V; Rehermann, B; Alter, H J; Herrine, S K; Liang, T J; Hoofnagle, J H; Heller, T

    2011-03-01

    Acute hepatitis C has variable modes of presentation and frequently results in chronic infection. Its optimal management has yet to be defined. To establish natural history and complications of treatment of acute hepatitis C. Data from all patients presenting with acute hepatitis C to the National Institutes of Health between 1994 and 2007 were reviewed. Twenty-five patients were identified. Symptoms were reported by 80% and jaundice by 40%. Aminotransferase levels and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels fluctuated greatly; 18% of patients were intermittently negative for HCV RNA. Five patients recovered spontaneously whereas 20 developed chronicity or received interferon-based therapy during the acute phase. Among 15 patients treated during the acute phase with peginterferon with or without ribavirin for 24 weeks, all became HCV RNA negative within 4-8 weeks, and all except two (HIV-positive) achieved a sustained virological response. Side effects (particularly psychiatric) were common and limited treatment in 30%. Among 25 patients with acute HCV infection, fluctuating illness was common and spontaneous recovery occurred in only 20%. Anti-viral treatment with a 24-week course of peginterferon and ribavirin was highly effective, but marked by frequent and severe side effects. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers.

  20. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    PubMed

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  1. Natural History of Aerosol Exposure with Marburg Virus in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Evan C; Pratt, William D; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Shamblin, Joshua; Donnelly, Ginger; Esham, Heather; Wlazlowski, Carly; Johnson, Joshua C; Botto, Miriam; Hensley, Lisa E; Goff, Arthur J

    2016-03-30

    Marburg virus causes severe and often lethal viral disease in humans, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasures. The sporadic occurrence of Marburg outbreaks does not allow for evaluation of countermeasures in humans, so therapeutic and vaccine candidates can only be approved through the FDA animal rule-a mechanism requiring well-characterized animal models in which efficacy would be evaluated. Here, we describe a natural history study where rhesus macaques were surgically implanted with telemetry devices and central venous catheters prior to aerosol exposure with Marburg-Angola virus, enabling continuous physiologic monitoring and blood sampling without anesthesia. After a three to four day incubation period, all animals developed fever, viremia, and lymphopenia before developing tachycardia, tachypnea, elevated liver enzymes, decreased liver function, azotemia, elevated D-dimer levels and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a systemic inflammatory response with organ failure. The final, terminal period began with the onset of sustained hypotension, dehydration progressed with signs of major organ hypoperfusion (hyperlactatemia, acute kidney injury, hypothermia), and ended with euthanasia or death. The most significant pathologic findings were marked infection of the respiratory lymphoid tissue with destruction of the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and severe diffuse infection in the liver, and splenitis.

  2. Spontaneous Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunodeficient mutant scid mice. Natural history and pathobiology.

    PubMed Central

    Roths, J. B.; Marshall, J. D.; Allen, R. D.; Carlson, G. A.; Sidman, C. L.

    1990-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) poses a major clinical health problem in individuals with immune deficiency, including those patients with human immunodeficiency (HIV)-associated acquired immune deficiency disease (AIDS). Heretofore, in vivo investigations of the biology of Pc and pathogenesis of pneumocystosis have generally employed steroid-induced immune suppression with antibiotic prophylaxis and protein deprivation. This approach has many drawbacks, chief among them being the widespread, multiple interacting effects caused by the inducing agents. Athymic (nude) mice and rats have been used, but are less than ideal, as the immune defect primarily affects T lymphocytes. This article describes the natural history, pathobiology, and environmental effects on Pc pneumonitis in nonaxenically housed mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation 'severe combined immunodeficiency' (scid), which almost totally lack both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune functions. The predictability, unequivocal expression, high morbidity, and well-defined genetic basis make scid/scid mutant mice the model of choice for in vivo studies of spontaneous pneumocystosis. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:2349968

  3. Natural history of endoscopically detected hiatus herniae at late follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syeda Khadijah; Bright, Tim; Watson, David I

    2018-06-01

    Hiatus herniae are commonly seen at endoscopy. Many patients with a large hiatus hernia are endoscoped for symptoms associated with the hernia and many of these will progress to surgical treatment. However, little is known about the natural history of small to medium size hiatus herniae, and their risk of progressing to a larger hernia requiring surgery. This study aims to determine the need for subsequent surgery in these patients. A retrospective audit of the endoscopy database at Flinders Medical Centre and the Repatriation General Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia for the 2-year period 2002-2003 was performed to identify all patients with a hiatus hernia. Patients under the age of 65 and with a sliding hiatus hernia <5 cm in length were selected for this study, and sent a questionnaire which determines the long-term (>10 years) outcome of these herniae. Small- to medium-sized hiatus herniae (<5 cm length) were found at 10% of endoscopies performed. In this group, 38% had reflux as the indication for endoscopy. 1.5% subsequently progressed to anti-reflux surgery or hiatus hernia repair. Thirty-nine percent reported being on proton pump inhibitors for symptom control. No patients required emergency surgical repair of their hiatus hernia. While patients with small- to medium-sized sliding hiatus hernia commonly have symptomatic reflux, an acute problem requiring emergency surgery is unlikely over long-term follow-up. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider "second victim" after adverse patient events.

    PubMed

    Scott, S D; Hirschinger, L E; Cox, K R; McCoig, M; Brandt, J; Hall, L W

    2009-10-01

    When patients experience unexpected events, some health professionals become "second victims". These care givers feel as though they have failed the patient, second guessing clinical skills, knowledge base and career choice. Although some information exists, a complete understanding of this phenomenon is essential to design and test supportive interventions that achieve a healthy recovery. The purpose of this article is to report interview findings with 31 second victims. After institutional review board approval, second victim volunteers representing different professional groups were solicited for private, hour-long interviews. The semistructured interview covered demographics, participant recount of event, symptoms experienced and recommendations for improving institutional support. After interviews, transcripts were analyzed independently for themes, followed by group deliberation and reflective use with current victims. Participants experienced various symptoms that did not differ by sex or professional group. Our analysis identified six stages that delineate the natural history of the second victim phenomenon. These are (1) chaos and accident response, (2) intrusive reflections, (3) restoring personal integrity, (4) enduring the inquisition, (5) obtaining emotional first aid and (6) moving on. We defined the characteristics and typical questions second victims are desperate to have answered during these stages. Several reported that involvement in improvement work or patient safety advocacy helped them to once again enjoy their work. We now believe the post-event trajectory is largely predictable. Institutional programs could be developed to successfully screen at-risk professionals immediately after an event, and appropriate support could be deployed to expedite recovery and mitigate adverse career outcomes.

  5. [The clinical features and natural history of post-transfusion hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Chong, Yu-tian; Lin, Chao-shuang; Zhao, Zhi-xin; Lin, Guo-li; Li, Jian-guo; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2006-03-01

    To study the clinical features and natural history of post-transfusion hepatitis C (PTHC). Ninety-nine post-transfusion hepatitis C patients were analyzed using retrospective and prospective study and follow-up. (1) Ninety-nine post-transfusion HCV patients were infected during 1989-1994, mostly between 1990-1992. (2) Ninety patients were diagnosed as chronic hepatitis C, and 9 as hepatic cirrhosis (period of compensation). (3) The intervals between their transfusions and their initial diagnoses of PTHC were 7.4+/-6.6 years in all 99 patients, and the intervals in 9 cirrhosis patients were 12.7+/-5.8 years. (4) Among 63 male patients, 59 cases were chronic hepatitis C and 4 were cirrhosis while among 36 female patients, 31 were chronic hepatitis C and 5 were cirrhosis. There was no significant difference of the ratio for hepatitis C and cirrhosis between the male and female patients (P>0.05). (5) Repeat abnormal liver function occurred accompanied with a fluctuation of ALT elevation in those patients with cirrhosis. (6) No patient developed hepatic carcinoma during the study period. (1) The possibility of HCV infection by transfusion has declined greatly since 1995 in Guangzhou. (2) Nine of the 99 (9.1%) chronic HCV-infected patients developed a compensated cirrhosis after 12.7+/-5.8 years. (3) For those PTHC patients with repeat abnormal liver functions, interferon combined with ribavirin is recommended to prevent the development of cirrhosis.

  6. Natural history of heartburn: A 10-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. METHODS: A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. RESULTS: Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. CONCLUSION: Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life. PMID:21350713

  7. Natural history of heartburn: a 10-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-02-07

    To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  8. Natural history of acute and chronic hepatitis B: The role of HBV genotypes and mutants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Lin; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-06-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies reveal remarkable differences in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The frequency of mutants among HBV genotypes also varies. The role of HBV genotypes/mutants in the pathogenesis of HBV infection and natural history of HBV infection has been extensively investigated. The distribution of HBV genotypes in acute hepatitis B patients reflects the predominant genotypes in a given geographic area. In chronic hepatitis B patients, genotype C and D have a higher frequency of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutations than genotype A and B. HBV genotypes C, D and F carry a higher lifetime risk of cirrhosis and HCC development than genotype A and B. HBV pre-S/S gene mutations were associated with immune escape of hepatitis B immunoglobulin or vaccine-induced immunity. Mutations in the pre-S, core promoter and X regions correlate with an increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC. In summary, HBV genotypes and mutants are associated with the disease progression and long-term outcome of HBV infection. They may serve as viral genetic markers for risk stratification of chronic hepatitis B patients in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural Thermoluminescence and the Terrestrial and Orbital Histories of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akridge, Jannette Marie Cunningham

    The amount of stored thermoluminescence in a meteorite is a direct result of storage temperature and duration of radiation exposure. I have used these relationships to study the terrestrial and orbital histories of meteorites. The orbital history of a meteorite is investigated using the high temperature portion of the glow curve while the study of terrestrial histories requires the use of the low temperature region. The build-up and decay parameters for the high temperature region of the thermoluminescence glow-curve for Paragould, Lost City, Tilden, Chicora, Innisfree and Pribram have been determined. All of the samples reach saturation at 360 +/- 10 krad and have a RO value (the dose necessary to fill 63.2% of the total available traps) of 80 krad. There are four trap populations with average temperatures of 321 +/- 7.3°C, 367 +/- 5.8°C, 406 +/- 4.8°C, and 462 +/- 5.8°C and average E values of 1.27 +/- 0.02 eV, 1.38 +/- 0.04 eV, 1.45 +/- 0.01 eV, and 1.51 +/- 0.01 eV; and averages s values of 7.87 +/- 1.85 x 109 sec-1 , 9.89 +/- 7.30 x 109 sec-1, 5.95 +/- 1.66 x 109 sec-1, and 2.01 +/- 0.50 x 109 sec-1, respectively. Based on calculations using the above TL parameters, I argue that Pribram was exposed to a higher average dose rate in space than Lost City and Innisfree. It is also possible that Paragould and Tilden have perihelia similar to that of Pribram. If the albedo of the two meteorites is assumed to be similar to Pribram then the aphelion must have been less than 3.5 AU, but if their albedos were lower than Pribram's their aphelia could have been as much as 4.0 AU. Chicora probably had a perihelion similar to that of Lost City and Innisfree but its aphelion was probably less than that of Lost City. I have measured the natural TL in the ``drained zone'' of 15 meteorites. The data indicate that this technique could be used with greater accuracy than 36Cl to determine terrestrial ages of meteorites with ages <200 ka, after which TL equilibrium is reached

  10. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P < 0.0001), Schirmer test (5.7 vs 15.3 mm, P < 0.0001), corneal staining (1.4 vs 0.2, P < 0.0001), conjunctival staining (1.4 vs 0.3, P < 0.0001), and tear break-up time (5.7 vs 8.5 s, P < 0.0001). Tear cytokines levels were determined and included interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, epidermal growth factor, IL-13, IL-17, IL-1α, and inducible protein-10. The mean levels of IL-8 and IL-6 were slightly higher in the DED group at baseline. Blurred vision was reported as moderate/severe/very severe at baseline in 57.6% of DED patients vs.10.5% of normal controls (P < 0.0001). DED patients reported greater reductions in work and non-work productivity, as well as greater need for visits to ophthalmologists during the prior year. In this report of the baseline findings of a 5-year natural history study of

  11. Family History of Sudden Cardiac Death of the Young: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    White, Michelle J.; Duquette, Debra; Bach, Janice; Rafferty, Ann P.; Fussman, Chris; Sharangpani, Ruta; Russell, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death of the young (SCDY) is a devastating event for families and communities. Family history is a significant risk factor for this potentially preventable cause of death, however a complete and detailed family history is not commonly obtained during routine health maintenance visits. To estimate the proportion of adults with a family history of SCDY, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) Genomics Program included two questions within the 2007 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (MiBRFS). Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Among adults in Michigan, 6.3% reported a family history of SCDY, with a greater prevalence among blacks, those with lower household income, and those with less education. Among those reporting a family history of SCDY, 42.3% had at least one first-degree relative and 26.2% had multiple affected family members. This is the first study to demonstrate the prevalence of family history of SCDY while also highlighting key sociodemographic characteristics associated with increased prevalence. These findings should guide evidence-based interventions to reach those at greatest risk. PMID:27417815

  12. Landscape history improves detection of marginal habitats on semi-natural grasslands.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Timo P; Kumpulainen, J; Lehtinen, J; Sihvonen, M; Käyhkö, N

    2016-01-01

    Semi-natural grassland habitats have markedly declined from their historical coverage, thus causing substantial losses for agricultural biodiversity and establishing a consequent need to spot the remaining habitat patches. These patches are generally remnants of once larger habitat areas, formed by uninterrupted and low-intensity management for centuries, but then later being isolated and fragmented into smaller pieces. In the light of this development, past landscape phases have a crucial role for the present existence of semi-natural grasslands. The importance of historical factors has been indicated in many studies but evaluation of their added value, or actual site-specific effects compared to observations of only the present landscape characteristics, is not generally provided. As data related to the past is often difficult to obtain, tedious to process and challenging to interpret, assessment of its advantages and related effects - or consequences of potential exclusion - would be needed. In this study, we used maximum entropy approach to model the distribution of Fumewort (Corydalis solida) which in the study area is a good indicator of valuable semi-natural habitats. We constructed three different models - one based on only the contemporary environment with expected indicators of habitat stability, one solely on the historical landscape phases and long-term dynamics, and one combining variables from the past and the present. Predictions of the three models were validated and compared with each other, followed by an analysis indicating the similarity of model results with known Fumewort occurrences. Our results indicate that present landscapes may provide workable surrogates to delineate larger core habitats, but utilization of historical data markedly improves the detection of small outlying patches. These conclusions emphasize the importance of previous landscape phases particularly in detecting marginal semi-natural grassland habitats, existing in

  13. Natural mortality: Its ecology, how it shapes fish life histories, and why it may be increased by fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Holt, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    A stronger focus on natural mortality may be required to better understand contemporary changes in fish life histories and behaviour and their responses to anthropogenic drivers. Firstly, natural mortality is the selection under which fish evolved in the first place, so a theoretical understanding of effects of natural mortality alone is needed. Secondly, due to trade-offs, most organismal functions can only be achieved at some cost in terms of survival. Several trade-offs might need to be analysed simultaneously with effects on natural mortality being a common currency. Thirdly, there is scattered evidence that natural mortality has been increasing, some would say dramatically, in some fished stocks, which begs explanations. Fourthly, natural mortality most often implies transfer of mass and energy from one species to another, and therefore has foodweb and ecosystem consequences. We therefore analyse a model for evolution of fish life histories and behaviour, where state-dependent energy-allocation and growth strategies are found by optimization. Natural mortality is split into five different components, each specified as the outcome of individual traits and ecological trade-offs: a fixed baseline mortality; size-dependent predation; risk-dependent growth strategy; a fixed mortality when sexually mature; and mortality increasing with reproductive investment. The analysis is repeated with and without fishing. Each component of natural mortality has consequences for optimal life history strategies. Beyond earlier models, we show i) how the two types of reproductive mortality sometimes have similar and sometimes contrasting effects on life history evolution, ii) how ecosystem properties such as food availability and predation levels have stronger effects on optimal strategies than changing other mortality components, and iii) how expected changes in risk-dependent growth strategies are highly variable depending on the type of mortality changed.

  14. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Asscher, Jessica J

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents with a history of sexual offenses against younger children (CSOs; n = 341), a history of sexual offenses against peers and/or adult victims (PSOs; n = 207), and a history of nonsexual violent offenses (VOs; n = 1,356). We conducted secondary analyses on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and on general recidivism data. ANOVA, correlations, Fisher's z tests, and logistic regression analyses were applied. Results showed that, in VOs, the number of risk factors was greater than the number of protective factors, whereas in PSOs, and especially CSOs, the number of protective factors was greater than the number of risk factors. Protective factors appeared to be especially important for juveniles with a history of sexual offenses for two reasons. First, the impact of most protective factors on recidivism was larger among juveniles with a history of sexual offenses than among those with a history of violent offenses. Second, protective factors added to the predictive accuracy over and above risk factors in juveniles with a history of sexual offenses, but not in those with a history of violent offenses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Natural Product Screening Reveals Naphthoquinone Complex I Bypass Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mevers, Emily; Higgins, Kathleen W.; Fomina, Yevgenia; Zhang, Jianming; Mandinova, Anna; Newman, David; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Clardy, Jon; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of mitochondrial complex I is encountered in both rare and common diseases, but we have limited therapeutic options to treat this lesion to the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Idebenone and menadione are redox-active molecules capable of rescuing OXPHOS activity by engaging complex I-independent pathways of entry, often referred to as “complex I bypass.” In the present study, we created a cellular model of complex I deficiency by using CRISPR genome editing to knock out Ndufa9 in mouse myoblasts, and utilized this cell line to develop a high-throughput screening platform for novel complex I bypass factors. We screened a library of ~40,000 natural product extracts and performed bioassay-guided fractionation on a subset of the top scoring hits. We isolated four plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone complex I bypass factors with structural similarity to menadione: chimaphilin and 3-chloro-chimaphilin from Chimaphila umbellata and dehydro-α-lapachone and dehydroiso-α-lapachone from Stereospermum euphoroides. We also tested a small number of structurally related naphthoquinones from commercial sources and identified two additional compounds with complex I bypass activity: 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone. The six novel complex I bypass factors reported here expand this class of molecules and will be useful as tool compounds for investigating complex I disease biology. PMID:27622560

  16. Polycythemia vera: the natural history of 1213 patients followed for 20 years. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    To reassess the natural history of polycythemia vera and to obtain reliable estimates of both incidence of thrombosis and survival for use in defining the sample size for therapeutic clinical trials. Retrospective cohort study of patients with polycythemia who had been followed for 20 years. 11 Italian hematology institutions. 1213 patients with polycythemia vera, which was diagnosed according to criteria established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group and commonly used in clinical practice. All-cause mortality, venous and arterial thrombosis, and hematologic and nonhematologic neoplastic disease. Myocardial infarction and stroke were classified as major thrombotic events, and venous and peripheral arterial thrombosis were considered minor thrombotic events. The number of patients who died and the number of those who had major thrombotic events (combined end point) were used as a comprehensive measure of the benefit-risk ratio associated with the use of myelosuppressive agents. 634 fatal and nonfatal arterial and venous thromboses were recorded in 485 patients (41%); 36% of these episodes occurred during follow-up in 230 patients (19%), and 64% occurred either at presentation or before diagnosis. Thrombotic events occurred more frequently in the 2 years preceding diagnosis, suggesting a causal relation between the latent myeloproliferative disorder and the vascular event. The incidence of thrombosis during follow-up was 3.4%/y; older patients or those with a history of thrombosis had a higher risk for thrombosis. Overall mortality was 2.9/100 patients per year; thrombotic events and hematologic or nonhematologic cancers had similar effects on mortality. Patients receiving chemotherapy died three to four times more frequently than those not receiving chemotherapy. The increased risk for cancer in patients receiving myelosuppressive agents was seen approximately 6 years after diagnosis. In addition, the combined end point, computed as the sum of the hardest

  17. Natural history of aortic valve disease following intervention for rheumatic mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Narayanan; Remash, Krishnan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Shajeem, Othayoth; Nair, Krishnakumar; Titus, Thomas; Ajitkumar, Valaparambil K; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery M; Harikrishnan, Sivadasan P; Harikrishnan, Madhavankutty S; Bijulal, Sasidharan

    2009-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients who require interventions for rheumatic mitral valve (MV) disease have coexisting aortic valve (AV) disease. To date, little is known of the natural history of AV disease in these patients. The details of a cohort of 200 patients (146 females, 54 males; mean age at MV intervention 30.3 +/- 9.9 years) with rheumatic heart disease were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had undergone an index MV intervention (either closed or balloon mitral valvotomy) or MV replacement between 1994 and 1996, and received long-term regular follow up examinations. The clinical and echocardiographic data at entry and at follow up were noted. Patients were allocated to two groups, based on whether the AV disease was absent (group I, n=98) or present (group II, n=102) at baseline. The AV disease was categorized as thickening only (group IIA), isolated aortic regurgitation (AR) (group IIB), or combined aortic stenosis (AS) and AR (group IIC). No patient had isolated AS at baseline. The mean follow up period was 9.3 +/- 1.07 years; during which 10 patients in group I developed new AV disease, which included AV thickening only (n=2), trivial-mild AR (n=7) and mild AS with trivial AR (n=1). Of 16 patients in group IIA, 11 developed isolated AR, and one patient progressed to have mild AS and AR. Among 69 patients in group IIB, 22 (31.9%) developed AS, and all had either mild (n=8) or moderate (n=14) AR with mild AS. Group IIC included 17 patients with mild combined AV disease at baseline, except for moderate AS and moderate AR in one patient each. Among 16 patients with mild AS in group IIC, six progressed to moderate AS and two to severe AS. AR became moderate in 10 patients and severe in one patient. The two patients who progressed to severe AS requiring AV replacement had mild AS at baseline. No patient who developed new combined AV disease had lesions with severity more than mild AS or moderate AR. On logistic regression analysis of the variables

  18. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  19. Teaching Evolution & the Nature of Science via the History of Debates about the Levels at Which Natural Selection Operates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Students should not graduate from high school without understanding that scientific debates are essential components of scientific methodology. This article presents a brief history of ongoing debates regarding the hypothesis that group selection is an evolutionary mechanism, and it serves as an example of the role that debates play in correcting…

  20. Ron Leuschner donates over 11,000 specimens of Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ron Leuschner, Past President of the Lepidopterists’ Society, donated over 11,000 specimens of the Pyraloidea to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. This collection is strongly represented by specimens from the western United States and may prove to be on...

  1. From Teachers to Testers: How Parents Talk to Novice and Expert Children in a Natural History Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Sasha; Crowley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Informed by literature on childhood expertise in high-interest topics and parent-child conversation in museum settings, this study explored how children's level of dinosaur expertise influences family learning opportunities in a natural history museum. Interviews identified children with high and low dinosaur knowledge and assigned them to expert…

  2. 75 FR 9925 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH, that meets the definition of a ``sacred object'' under... Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. The sacred object is a wooden... when unwrapped. Thus, only part of the sacred object is currently in the collection. The pipe stem...

  3. 78 FR 21413 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural... Natural History, Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony... items have been identified as Native American sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony through...

  4. 78 FR 50107 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of sacred... University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Boulder, CO that meet the definition of sacred objects and.... Dr. Wheat acquired this item from an unknown individual. The sacred object and object of cultural...

  5. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  6. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  7. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  8. Type-1 hepatorenal syndrome associated with infections in cirrhosis: natural history, outcome of kidney function, and survival.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rogelio; Fagundes, Claudia; Guevara, Mónica; Solà, Elsa; Pereira, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Ezequiel; Graupera, Isabel; Martín-Llahí, Marta; Ariza, Xavier; Cárdenas, Andrés; Fernández, Javier; Rodés, Juan; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere

    2014-04-01

    Type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a common complication of bacterial infections in cirrhosis, but its natural history remains undefined. To assess the outcome of kidney function and survival of patients with type-1 HRS associated with infections, 70 patients diagnosed during a 6-year period were evaluated prospectively. Main outcomes were no reversibility of type-1 HRS during treatment of the infection and 3-month survival. Forty-seven (67%) of the 70 patients had no reversibility of type-1 HRS during treatment of the infection. [Correction to previous sentence added March 10, 2014, after first online publication: "Twenty-three (33%)" was changed to "Forty-seven (67%)."] The main predictive factor of no reversibility of type-1 HRS was absence of infection resolution (no reversibility: 96% versus 48% in patients without and with resolution of the infection; P < 0.001). Independent predictive factors of no reversibility of type-1 HRS were age, high baseline serum bilirubin, nosocomial infection, and reduction in serum creatinine <0.3 mg/dL at day 3 of antibiotic treatment. No reversibility was also associated with severity of circulatory dysfunction, as indicated by more marked activity of the vasoconstrictor systems. In the whole series, 3-month probability of survival was only 21%. Factors associated with poor prognosis were baseline serum bilirubin, no reversibility of type-1 HRS, lack of resolution of the infection, and development of septic shock after diagnosis of type-1 HRS. Type-1 HRS associated with infections is not reversible in two-thirds of patients with treatment of infection only. No reversibility of type-1 HRS is associated with lack of resolution of the infection, age, high bilirubin, and no early improvement of kidney function and implies a poor prognosis. These results may help advance the management of patients with type-1 HRS associated with infections. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Carbohydrates and activity of natural and recombinant tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Jennings, Mark E; Mann, Kenneth G; Butenas, Saulius

    2010-01-29

    The effect of glycosylation on tissue factor (TF) activity was evaluated, and site-specific glycosylation of full-length recombinant TF (rTF) and that of natural TF from human placenta (pTF) were studied by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The amidolytic activity of the TF.factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex toward a fluorogenic substrate showed that the catalytic efficiency (V(max)) of the complex increased in the order rTF(1-243) (Escherichia coli) < rTF(1-263) (Sf9 insect cells) < pTF for the glycosylated and deglycosylated forms. Substrate hydrolysis was unaltered by deglycosylation. In FXase, the K(m) of FX for rTF(1-263)-FVIIa remained unchanged after deglycosylation, whereas the k(cat) decreased slightly. A pronounced decrease, 4-fold, in k(cat) was observed for pTF.FVIIa upon deglycosylation, whereas the K(m) was minimally altered. The parameters of FX activation by both rTF(1-263D)-FVIIa and pTF(D)-FVIIa were identical and similar to those for rTF(1-243)-FVIIa. In conclusion, carbohydrates significantly influence the activity of TF proteins. Carbohydrate analysis revealed glycosylation on asparagines 11, 124, and 137 in both rTF(1-263) and pTF. The carbohydrates of rTF(1-263) contain high mannose, hybrid, and fucosylated glycans. Natural pTF contains no high mannose glycans but is modified with hybrid, highly fucosylated, and sialylated sugars.

  10. History and Nature of Science in High School: Building Up Parameters to Guide Educational Materials and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forato, Thaís Cyrino de Mello; de Andrade Martins, Roberto; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the main results of a research examining the didactic transposition of history and philosophy of science in high school level. The adaptation of history of science to this particular level, addressing some aspects of the nature of science aiming at the students' critical engagement, was analyzed by examining both the historiographic requirements of history of science and the pedagogical recommendations of science teaching. The research included the elaboration of a pilot course on the history of optics, with historical texts and educational activities, and its application in a high school. We used three episodes of the history of optics, addressing some epistemological points, especially criticizing the naive empirical-inductive view of science. It was possible to identify a series of obstacles in using history of science and conveying philosophical views. Their analysis resulted in devising strategies to surmount or to circumvent them. We implemented those strategies in the classroom and analyzed the data that was obtained. As a result, we substantiated several of our proposals and found that some solutions require improvement. We suggest some generalizations, which can be understood as initial parameters for guiding the use of history and philosophy of science in science teaching. We used a qualitative methodology of educational research to plan, to collect and to analyze the data, examining the interaction between students, teacher and knowledge.

  11. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke 1

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. Method: an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). Results: a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). Conclusion: an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. PMID:27878217

  12. [Definition, description, clinicopathological features, pathogenesis and natural history of endometriosis: CNGOF-HAS Endometriosis Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Borghese, B; Santulli, P; Marcellin, L; Chapron, C

    2018-03-01

    Endometriosis and adenomyosis are histologically defined. The frequency of endometriosis cannot be precisely estimated in the general population. Endometriosis is considered a disease when it causes pain and/or infertility. Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease with three well-recognized subtypes that are often associated with each other: superficial endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). DIE is frequently multifocal and mainly affects the following structures: the uterosacral ligaments, the posterior vaginal cul-de-sac, the bladder, the ureters, and the digestive tract (rectum, recto-sigmoid junction, appendix). The role of menstrual reflux in the pathophysiology of endometriosis is major and explains the asymmetric distribution of lesions, which predominate in the posterior compartment of the pelvis and on the left (NP3). All factors favoring menstrual reflux increase the risk of endometriosis (early menarche, short cycles, AUB, etc.). Inflammation and biosteroid hormones synthesis are the main mechanisms favoring the implantation and the growth of the lesions. Pain associated with endometriosis can be explained by nociception, hyperalgia, and central sensitization, associated to varying degrees in a single patient. Typology of pain (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, digestive or urinary symptoms) is correlated with the location of the lesions. Infertility associated with endometriosis can be explained by several non-exclusive mechanisms: a pelvic factor (inflammation), disrupting natural fertilization; an ovarian factor, related to oocyte quality and/or quantity; a uterine factor disrupting implantation. The pelvic factor can be fixed by surgical excision of the lesions that improves the chance of natural conception (NP2). The uterine factor can be corrected by an ovulation-blocking treatment that improves the chances of getting pregnant by in vitro fertilization (NP2). The impact of endometrioma exeresis on

  13. Natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks after snorkel/chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Tran, Kenneth; Itoga, Nathan K; Dalman, Ronald L; Lee, Jason T

    2017-04-01

    Alternative endovascular strategies using parallel or snorkel/chimney (chimney endovascular aneurysm repair [ch-EVAR]) techniques have been developed to address the lack of widespread availability and manufacturing limitations with branched/fenestrated aortic devices for the treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. Despite high technical success and midterm patency of snorkel stent configurations, concerns remain regarding the perceived increased incidence of early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and natural history of gutter-related type Ia endoleaks following ch-EVAR. Review of medical records and available imaging studies, including completion angiography and serial computed tomographic angiography, was performed for all patients undergoing ch-EVAR at our institution between September 2009 and January 2015. Only procedures involving ≥1 renal artery with or without visceral snorkel stents were included. Primary outcomes of the study were presence and persistence or resolution of early gutter-related type Ia endoleak. Secondary outcomes included aneurysm sac shrinkage and need for secondary intervention related to the presence of type Ia gutter endoleak. Sixty patients (mean age, 75.8 ± 7.6 years; male, 70.0%) underwent ch-EVAR with a total of 111 snorkel stents (97 renal [33 bilateral renal], 12 superior mesenteric artery, 2 celiac). A mean of 1.9 ± 0.6 snorkel stents were placed per patient. Early gutter-related type Ia endoleaks were noted on 30.0% (n = 18) of initial postoperative imaging studies. Follow-up imaging revealed spontaneous resolution of these gutter endoleaks in 44.3%, 65.2%, and 88.4% of patients at 6, 12, and 18 months postprocedure, respectively. Long-term anticoagulation, degree of oversizing, stent type and diameter, and other clinical/anatomic variables were not significantly associated with presence of gutter endoleaks. Two patients (3.3%) required secondary intervention related to

  14. Digitalization of the exceptional building and decorative stones collection of the Natural History Museum Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Steinwender, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Natural History Museum Vienna (NHMV) owns one of the largest building, decorative, and ornamental stones collections in Europe. This important collection dates back to the 19th century and was initiated by curator Felix Karrer after a donation of the "Union-Baugesellschaft" (Karrer, 1892). It contains rock samples used for the construction of most of the famous buildings and monuments in Vienna and in the entire Austria and surrounding countries, as well as from other famous constructions and antique (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, etc.) monuments in the world. Decorative stones that were used for the inside parts of buildings as well as artificial materials, such as stucco, tiles, and building-materials like gravel, are also part of this collection. Unfortunately, most specimens of this collection cannot be displayed at the NHMV (i.e., only 500 specimens are visible in the display Hall I) and are therefore preserved in storage rooms, and not accessible to the public. The main objective of our project of digitalization is to share our rock collection and all treasures it contains with the large majority of interested persons, and especially to provide knowledge on these rocks for people who need this information, such as people who work in cultural, architectural, scientific, and commercial fields. So far 4,500 samples from our collection have been processed with the support of the Open Up! project (Opening up the Natural History Heritage for Europeana). Our database contains all information available on these samples (including e.g., the name of the rock, locality, historic use, heritage utilization, etc.), high-quality digital photographs (with both top and bottom sides of the samples), and scanned labels (both "old" NHMV labels and other (original) labels attached to the samples). We plan to achieve the full digitalization of our unique collection within the next two years and to develop a website to provide access to the content of our database (if adequate

  15. Natural History of Cirrhosis of Liver after First Decompensation: A Prospective Study in India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Apurva S; Amarapurkar, Deepak N

    2018-03-01

    As liver cirrhosis is a dynamic condition, it is possible to improve survival in decompensated cirrhosis. Hence, we planned a prospective study to determine the natural history of cirrhosis after first decompensation. We enrolled all patients of liver cirrhosis who presented with first episode of decompensation defined by the presence of ascites, either overt or detected by Ultrasonography (UD), Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding (GEVB), and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE). All patients were followed up to death/liver transplant or at least for the period of 1 year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the risk of failure (death or Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (OLT)). In total of 110 cirrhotic patients (93 males, mean age 50 ± 11 years), the most frequent etiology was alcohol (48%), followed by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis/cryptogenic (26%), hepatitis B (10%), autoimmune hepatitis (7%), and hepatitis C (6%). The distribution of CTP classes was: 4%, 56%, and 41% in class A, B, and C, respectively. Ascites was the most common decompensation found in 88 patients (80%) followed by HE (14%) and GEVB (6%). At 1-year follow up, transplant free survival was 78%, 2 underwent OLT, 4 developed hepatocellular carcinoma, and 24 died. Cumulative incidence of failure (death or OLT) by type of decompensation after 1 year was: 22% overt ascites, 50% GEVB, 28% UD ascites, 20% HE, and 33% ascites and GEVB concomitant. Patients with UD ascites do not have a negligible mortality rate as compared to overt ascites. Patients with cirrhosis after first decompensation have better transplant free survival with treatment of etiology and complications than previously mentioned in literature.

  16. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C; Lazarus, Robin P; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4-17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. A Cohort Study of the Natural History of Odontoid Pseudoarthrosis Managed Nonoperatively in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jennifer; Zaman, Rifat; Coy, Shannon; Pastel, David; Simmons, Nathan; Ball, Perry; Mirza, Sohail; Abdu, William; Pearson, Adam; Lollis, S Scott

    2018-06-01

    Although the primary goal of treatment of type II odontoid fracture is bony union, some advocate continued nonsurgical management of minimally symptomatic older patients who have fibrous union or minimal fracture