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Sample records for factors possess distinct

  1. Plasmodium alveolins possess distinct but structurally and functionally related multi-repeat domains.

    PubMed

    Al-Khattaf, Fatimah S; Tremp, Annie Z; Dessens, Johannes T

    2015-02-01

    The invasive and motile life stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle. The pellicle is characterised by a double-layered 'inner membrane complex' (IMC) located underneath the plasma membrane, which is supported by a cytoskeletal structure termed the subpellicular network (SPN). The SPN consists of intermediate filaments, whose major constituents include a family of proteins called alveolins. Here, we re-appraise the alveolins in the genus Plasmodium with respect to their repertoire, structure and interrelatedness. Amongst 13 family members identified, we distinguish two domain types that, albeit distinct at the primary structure level, are structurally related and contain tandem repeats with a consensus 12-amino acid periodicity. Analysis in Plasmodium berghei of the most divergent alveolin, PbIMC1d, reveals a zoite-specific expression in ookinetes and a subcellular localisation in the pellicle, consistent with its predicted role as a SPN component. Knockout of PbIMC1d gives rise to a wild-type phenotype with respect to ookinete morphogenesis, tensile strength, gliding motility and infectivity, presenting the first example of apparent functional redundancy amongst alveolin family members.

  2. Cocoa procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization possess distinct activities in models of colonic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Zachary T; Glisan, Shannon L; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Ye, Liyun; O'Keefe, Sean F; Lambert, Joshua D; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Procyanidins are available in the diet from sources such as cocoa and grapes. Procyanidins are unique in that they are comprised of repeating monomeric units and can exist in various degrees of polymerization. The degree of polymerization plays a role in determining the biological activities of procyanidins. However, generalizations cannot be made regarding the correlation between procyanidin structure and bioactivity because the size-activity relationship appears to be system dependent. Our aim was to screen fractions of procyanidins with differing degrees of polymerization in vitro for anti-inflammatory activities in models of colonic inflammation. Monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa procyanidin fractions were screened using cell models of disrupted membrane integrity and inflammation in human colon cells. High-molecular-weight polymeric procyanidins were the most effective at preserving membrane integrity and reducing secretion of interleukin-8 in response to inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, oligomeric procyanidins appeared to be the least effective. These results suggest that polymeric cocoa procyanidins may be the most effective for preventing loss of gut barrier function and epithelial inflammation, which are critical steps in the pathogenesis of metabolic endotoxemia, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Therefore, further investigations of the potential health-protective benefits of cocoa procyanidins with distinct degrees of polymerization, particularly high-molecular-weight procyanidins, are warranted.

  3. Cocoa procyanidins with different degrees of polymerization possess distinct activities in models of colonic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Zachary T; Glisan, Shannon L; Dorenkott, Melanie R; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Ye, Liyun; O'Keefe, Sean F; Lambert, Joshua D; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Procyanidins are available in the diet from sources such as cocoa and grapes. Procyanidins are unique in that they are comprised of repeating monomeric units and can exist in various degrees of polymerization. The degree of polymerization plays a role in determining the biological activities of procyanidins. However, generalizations cannot be made regarding the correlation between procyanidin structure and bioactivity because the size-activity relationship appears to be system dependent. Our aim was to screen fractions of procyanidins with differing degrees of polymerization in vitro for anti-inflammatory activities in models of colonic inflammation. Monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa procyanidin fractions were screened using cell models of disrupted membrane integrity and inflammation in human colon cells. High-molecular-weight polymeric procyanidins were the most effective at preserving membrane integrity and reducing secretion of interleukin-8 in response to inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, oligomeric procyanidins appeared to be the least effective. These results suggest that polymeric cocoa procyanidins may be the most effective for preventing loss of gut barrier function and epithelial inflammation, which are critical steps in the pathogenesis of metabolic endotoxemia, inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Therefore, further investigations of the potential health-protective benefits of cocoa procyanidins with distinct degrees of polymerization, particularly high-molecular-weight procyanidins, are warranted. PMID:25869594

  4. Cocoa Procyanidins with Different Degrees of Polymerization Possess Distinct Activities in Models of Colonic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bitzer, Zachary T.; Glisan, Shannon L.; Dorenkott, Melanie R.; Goodrich, Katheryn M.; Ye, Liyun; O’Keefe, Sean F.; Lambert, Joshua D.; Neilson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Procyanidins are available in the diet from sources such as cocoa and grapes. Procyanidins are unique in that they are comprised of repeating monomeric units and can exist in various degrees of polymerization. The degree of polymerization plays a role in determining the biological activities of procyanidins. However, generalizations cannot be made regarding the correlation between procyanidin structure and bioactivity, because the size-activity relationship appears to be system-dependent. Our aim was to screen fractions of procyanidins with differing degrees of polymerization in vitro for anti-inflammatory activities in models of colonic inflammation. Monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric cocoa procyanidin fractions were screened using cell models of disrupted membrane integrity and inflammation in human colon cells. High molecular weight polymeric procyanidins were the most effective at preserving membrane integrity and reducing secretion of interleukin-8 in response to inflammatory stimuli. Conversely, oligomeric procyanidins appeared to be the least effective. These results suggest that polymeric cocoa procyanidins may be the most effective for preventing loss of gut barrier function and epithelial inflammation, which are critical steps in the pathogenesis of metabolic endotoxemia, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. Therefore, further investigations of the potential health-protective benefits of cocoa procyanidins with distinct degrees of polymerization, particularly high molecular weight procyanidins, are warranted. PMID:25869594

  5. Strains of Burkholderia cenocepacia genomovar IIIA possessing the cblA gene that are distinct from ET12.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; O'Brien, Emily; Megson, Brian; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2009-05-01

    Three strains of Burkholderia cenocepacia genomovar IIIA that were polymerase chain reaction positive for cblA, bcrA, and the epidemic strain marker, but were distinct from representatives of ET12 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, are described. One of these strains was shown to express cable pili by electron microscopy.

  6. The Expression of Possession in Medieval Russian Legal Language: Contextual Factors in the Selection of Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraskovic, Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Russian legal-administrative documents from the early fourteenth through the mid-seventeenth century (Middle Russian) show extensive variation in expressing possessivity within the noun phrase. Possessor expressions can be conveyed by morphologically derived possessive adjectives, adnominal genitives, or by combinations of those constructions…

  7. When Does the Factor-Mixture Distinction Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loken, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Von Davier, Naemi, and Roberts (this issue) present a nice summary of the statistical ambiguity often encountered in making distinctions between qualitative and quantitative constructs. In this commentary, the author begins with two broad points. The first is that the mixture/factor arguments are most intriguing when firmly embedded in a…

  8. Amyloid beta-peptide possesses a transforming growth factor-beta activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, S S; Huang, F W; Xu, J; Chen, S; Hsu, C Y; Huang, J S

    1998-10-16

    Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) of 39-42 amino acid residues is a major constituent of Alzheimer's disease neurite plaques. Abeta aggregates (fibrils) are believed to be responsible for neuronal damage and dysfunction, as well as microglia and astrocyte activation in disease lesions by multiple mechanisms. Since Abeta aggregates possess the multiple valencies of an FAED motif (20th to 23rd amino acid residues), which resembles the putative transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) active site motif, we hypothesize that Abeta monomers and Abeta aggregates may function as TGF-beta antagonists and partial agonists, analogous to previously described monovalent and multivalent TGF-beta peptide antagonists and agonists (Huang, S. S., Liu, Q., Johnson, F. E., Konish, Y., and Huang, J. S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27155-27159). Here, we report that the Abeta monomer, Abeta-(1-40) and its fragment, containing the motif inhibit radiolabeled TGF-beta binding to cell-surface TGF-beta receptors in mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu cells). Abeta-(1-40)-bovine serum albumin conjugate (Abeta-(1-40)-BSA), a multivalent synthetic analogue of Abeta aggregates, exhibited cytotoxicity toward bovine cerebral endothelial cells and rat post-mitotic differentiated hippocampal neuronal cells (H19-7 cells) and inhibitory activities of radiolabeled TGF-beta binding to TGF-beta receptors and TGF-beta-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, that were approximately 100-670 times more potent than those of Abeta-(1-40) monomers. At less than micromolar concentrations, Abeta-(1-40)-BSA but not Abeta-(1-40) monomers inhibited proliferation of Mv1Lu cells. Since TGF-beta is an organizer of responses to neurodegeneration and is also found in neurite plaques, the TGF-beta antagonist and partial agonist activities of Abeta monomers and aggregates may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Effectiveness of and Factors Related to Possession of a Mother and Child Health Handbook: An Analysis Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Sugishita, Tomohiko; Oruenjo, Kennedy; Wakhule, Stephen; Kibosia, Kennedy; Were, Eric; Honda, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mother and Child Health handbooks (MCH handbooks) serve as useful health education tools for mothers and sources of information that allow health care professionals to understand patient status. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of and identify the factors related to possession of an MCH handbook among parents in…

  10. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior.

    PubMed

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. We found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. Surprisingly, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a pronounced asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using a reinforcement learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is difficult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior.

  11. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. As expected, we found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. However, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a striking asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward strongly scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using the Reinforcement Learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is diffcult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior. PMID:25824862

  12. DNA specificity determinants associate with distinct transcription factor functions.

    PubMed

    Hollenhorst, Peter C; Chandler, Katherine J; Poulsen, Rachel L; Johnson, W Evan; Speck, Nancy A; Graves, Barbara J

    2009-12-01

    To elucidate how genomic sequences build transcriptional control networks, we need to understand the connection between DNA sequence and transcription factor binding and function. Binding predictions based solely on consensus predictions are limited, because a single factor can use degenerate sequence motifs and because related transcription factors often prefer identical sequences. The ETS family transcription factor, ETS1, exemplifies these challenges. Unexpected, redundant occupancy of ETS1 and other ETS proteins is observed at promoters of housekeeping genes in T cells due to common sequence preferences and the presence of strong consensus motifs. However, ETS1 exhibits a specific function in T cell activation; thus, unique transcriptional targets are predicted. To uncover the sequence motifs that mediate specific functions of ETS1, a genome-wide approach, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), identified both promoter and enhancer binding events in Jurkat T cells. A comparison with DNase I sensitivity both validated the dataset and also improved accuracy. Redundant occupancy of ETS1 with the ETS protein GABPA occurred primarily in promoters of housekeeping genes, whereas ETS1 specific occupancy occurred in the enhancers of T cell-specific genes. Two routes to ETS1 specificity were identified: an intrinsic preference of ETS1 for a variant of the ETS family consensus sequence and the presence of a composite sequence that can support cooperative binding with a RUNX transcription factor. Genome-wide occupancy of RUNX factors corroborated the importance of this partnership. Furthermore, genome-wide occupancy of co-activator CBP indicated tight co-localization with ETS1 at specific enhancers, but not redundant promoters. The distinct sequences associated with redundant versus specific ETS1 occupancy were predictive of promoter or enhancer location and the ontology of nearby genes. These findings demonstrate that diversity

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Possesses Two Putative Type I Signal Peptidases, LepB and PA1303, Each with Distinct Roles in Physiology and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Ruth S.; Rangarajan, Minnie; Aduse-Opoku, Joseph; Hashim, Ahmed; Curtis, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Type I signal peptidases (SPases) cleave signal peptides from proteins during translocation across biological membranes and hence play a vital role in cellular physiology. SPase activity is also of fundamental importance to the pathogenesis of infection for many bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which utilizes a variety of secreted virulence factors, such as proteases and toxins. P. aeruginosa possesses two noncontiguous SPase homologues, LepB (PA0768) and PA1303, which share 43% amino acid identity. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR showed that both proteases were expressed, while a FRET-based assay using a peptide based on the signal sequence cleavage region of the secreted LasB elastase showed that recombinant LepB and PA1303 enzymes were both active. LepB is positioned within a genetic locus that resembles the locus containing the extensively characterized SPase of E. coli and is of similar size and topology. It was also shown to be essential for viability and to have high sequence identity with SPases from other pseudomonads (≥78%). In contrast, PA1303, which is small for a Gram-negative SPase (20 kDa), was found to be dispensable. Mutation of PA1303 resulted in an altered protein secretion profile and increased N-butanoyl homoserine lactone production and influenced several quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypic traits, including swarming motility and the production of rhamnolipid and elastinolytic activity. The data indicate different cellular roles for these P. aeruginosa SPase paralogues; the role of PA1303 is integrated with the quorum-sensing cascade and includes the suppression of virulence factor secretion and virulence-associated phenotypes, while LepB is the primary SPase. PMID:22730125

  14. Nerve growth factor regulates gene expression by several distinct mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, K.O.; Skarnes, W.C. ); Minsk, B.; Palmier, S. ); Jackson-Grusby, L.; Wagner, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    To help elucidate the mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates gene expression, the authors have identified and studied four genes (a-2, d-2, d-4, and d-5) that are positively regulated by NGF in PC12 cells, including one (d-2) which has previously been identified as a putative transcription factor (NGF I-A). Three of these genes, including d-2, were induced very rapidly at the transcriptional level, but the relative time courses of transcription and mRNA accumulation of each of these three genes were distinct. The fourth gene (d-4) displayed no apparent increase in transcription that corresponded to the increase in its mRNA, suggesting that NGF may regulate its expression at a posttranscriptional level. Thus NGF positively regulates gene expression by more than one mechanism. The study of the regulation of the expression of these and other NGF-inducible genes should provide valuable new information concerning how NGF and other growth factors cause neural differentiation.

  15. DNA methylation presents distinct binding sites for human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaohui; Wan, Jun; Su, Yijing; Song, Qifeng; Zeng, Yaxue; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Shin, Jaehoon; Cox, Eric; Rho, Hee Sool; Woodard, Crystal; Xia, Shuli; Liu, Shuang; Lyu, Huibin; Ming, Guo-Li; Wade, Herschel; Song, Hongjun; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation, especially CpG methylation at promoter regions, has been generally considered as a potent epigenetic modification that prohibits transcription factor (TF) recruitment, resulting in transcription suppression. Here, we used a protein microarray-based approach to systematically survey the entire human TF family and found numerous purified TFs with methylated CpG (mCpG)-dependent DNA-binding activities. Interestingly, some TFs exhibit specific binding activity to methylated and unmethylated DNA motifs of distinct sequences. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we focused on Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), and decoupled its mCpG- and CpG-binding activities via site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, KLF4 binds specific methylated or unmethylated motifs in human embryonic stem cells in vivo. Our study suggests that mCpG-dependent TF binding activity is a widespread phenomenon and provides a new framework to understand the role and mechanism of TFs in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00726.001. PMID:24015356

  16. Turning the tables of sex distinction in craniofacial identification: Why females possess thicker facial soft tissues than males, not vice versa.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N; Preisler, Rory; Bulut, Ozgur; Bennett, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Males are universally reported to possess larger facial soft-tissue thickness (FSTT) than females, however, this observation oversimplifies the raw data yielding an underpowered assessment of FSTT sex-patterning where: differences are small (η(2)  < 5%) and inconsistent (females are routinely larger than males at the cheeks). Here we investigate body-size normalized data to assess whether more general and improved understanding of FSTT sex-variation in humans is possible. FSTTs were measured in 52 healthy living Australians aged 18 to 30 years using B-mode ultrasound. Participants' stature and body mass were also measured. Sex differences were calculated before and after normalization by the aforementioned body-composition variables. Methods were repeated in three other independent samples to evaluate reproducibility: 100 American Whites and 60 American Blacks measured by B-mode ultrasound; and 50 Turkish residents measured by regular supine CT. Compared to raw mean differences (F < M, by -6%), females displayed much thicker FSTTs than males when normalized for body mass (F > M, by +16%). Consequently, while the sexes share similar raw values, females possess much larger FSTTs for their relatively lighter bodies. The relative FSTT difference was 2.7× larger than the raw mean difference. Sex differences in FSTT are of larger magnitude and reversed direction in mass normalized data. Contrary to popular thought, females possess much larger FSTTs than males owing to their generically lighter bodies (-18 kg). These data patterns help explain why the pooling of sex-categorized FSTT does not jeopardize the sex-difference-it is encoded more strongly in terms relative to body mass. PMID:27324815

  17. Subsurface fluids from basement basalt of the Juan de Fuca Ridge possess microbial communities that are distinct from overlying sediments and surrounding seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R. M.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappe, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation of fluids through the porous and permeable ocean basement fuels a deep subsurface microbial community that remains poorly characterized due to the logistical and methodological constraints associated with sampling the sediment-covered seafloor. Ocean Drilling Program and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program holes penetrating 1.2-3.5 million-years old sediment-covered basaltic crust of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank fitted with Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) borehole observatories have enabled sampling of chemically-reducing basement fluids over the course of multiple years (2008-2013). Consistent and reliable access to pristine fluids from the ocean crust is due to improvements to CORK observatories, through incorporation of microbiologically-friendly materials, and fluid sampling techniques and equipment. By analyzing ~1.7 million reads of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene by next-generation Illumina sequencing from marine sediment, deep seawater, and 24 crustal fluid samples spanning multiple years and boreholes (1025C, U1301A, U1362A, and U1362), a distinct subseafloor biosphere dominated by the domain Bacteria was uncovered. Fluids from borehole U1301A sampled annually over the course of three years each had distinct microbial community structure and were dominated by the Proteobacteria. In contrast, fluids from boreholes 1362A and 1362B, located ~500 meters to the northeast, contained lineages phylogenetically related to the phylum Nitrospirae in highest abundance. The domain Archaea was was dominated by either the phylum Crenarchaeota (borehole U1301A) or the Euryarchaeota (boreholes 1025C, U1362A and U1362B). SSU rRNA genes phylogenetically affiliated with known lineages of methane producing Euryarchaeota (e.g. Methanobacteria) were the most abundant archaeal group detected in fluids from Holes U1362A and U1362B, predominantly within samples originating from the deepest subsurface sampling horizon (~200 meters sub

  18. GAGA Factor Isoforms Have Distinct but Overlapping Functions In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Anthony J.; Schedl, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (encoded by the Trithorax-like [Trl] gene) is required for correct chromatin architecture at diverse chromosomal sites. The Trl gene encodes two alternatively spliced isoforms of the GAGA factor (GAGA-519 and GAGA-581) that are identical except for the length and sequence of the C-terminal glutamine-rich (Q) domain. In vitro and tissue culture experiments failed to find any functional difference between the two isoforms. We made a set of transgenes that constitutively express cDNAs coding for either of the isoforms with the goal of elucidating their roles in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenes in Trl mutant background led us to the conclusion that GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 perform different, albeit largely overlapping, functions. We also expressed a fusion protein with LacZ disrupting the Q domain of GAGA-519. This LacZ fusion protein compensated for the loss of wild-type GAGA factor to a surprisingly large extent. This suggests that the Q domain either is not required for the essential functions performed by the GAGA protein or is exclusively used for tetramer formation. These results are inconsistent with a major role of the Q domain in chromatin remodeling or transcriptional activation. We also found that GAGA-LacZ was able to associate with sites not normally occupied by the GAGA factor, pointing to a role of the Q domain in binding site choice in vivo. PMID:11713290

  19. Increase in a distinct pulmonary macrophage subset possessing an antigen-presenting cell phenotype and in vitro APC activity following silica exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Migliaccio, Christopher T. . E-mail: christopher.migliaccio@umontana.edu; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Holian, Andrij

    2005-06-01

    Silica inhalation results in chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. While the role of the alveolar macrophage (AM) is considered key to the effects of silica on lung pathology, the etiology is not completely understood. Evidence suggests an increase in antigen presenting cell (APC) activity as a contributing factor to this process, as well as potential roles for both AM and interstitial macrophages (IM) in silicosis. In order to study the effects of crystalline silica on the APC activity of pulmonary macrophages, mice were exposed intranasally and changes in pulmonary macrophage populations were assessed using flow cytometry. Following intranasal instillation of silica, a significant increase in the APC activity of AM was observed, as well as a significant increase in a subset of IM expressing classic APC markers (MHC class II, CD11c). In addition, an in vitro system using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) was generated to assess the effects of silica on the APC activity of macrophages in vitro. Data using BMDM in the in vitro APC assay demonstrated a significant increase in APC activity following silica exposure, but not following exposure to saline or a control particle (TiO{sub 2}). Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments, the current study describes a significant increase in an interstitial macrophage subset with an APC phenotype, as well as an increase in the APC activity of both AM and BMDM, as a direct result of exposure to crystalline silica. These studies suggest a specific mechanism, macrophage subset activation, by which crystalline silica exposure results in chronic pulmonary inflammation and, eventually, fibrosis.

  20. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Shelley B; Schaffer, Ashleigh E; Sander, Maike

    2007-07-01

    Despite much progress in identifying transcriptional regulators that control the specification of the different pancreatic endocrine cell types, the spatiotemporal aspects of endocrine subtype specification have remained largely elusive. Here, we address the mechanism by which the transcription factors Nkx6.1 (Nkx6-1) and Nkx6.2 (Nkx6-2) orchestrate development of the endocrine alpha- and beta-cell lineages. Specifically, we assayed for the rescue of insulin-producing beta-cells in Nkx6.1 mutant mice upon restoring Nkx6 activity in select progenitor cell populations with different Nkx6-expressing transgenes. Beta-cell formation and maturation was restored when Nkx6.1 was expressed in multipotential Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, whereas no rescue was observed upon expression in committed Ngn3(+) (Neurog3(+)) endocrine progenitors. Although not excluding additional roles downstream of Ngn3, this finding suggests a first requirement for Nkx6.1 in specifying beta-cell progenitors prior to Ngn3 activation. Surprisingly, although Nkx6.2 only compensates for Nkx6.1 in alpha-but not in beta-cell development in Nkx6.1(-/-) mice, a Pdx1-promoter-driven Nkx6.2 transgene had the same ability to rescue beta-cells as the Pdx1-Nkx6.1 transgene. This demonstrates that the distinct requirements for Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 in endocrine differentiation are a consequence of their divergent spatiotemporal expression domains rather than their biochemical activities and implies that both Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess alpha- and beta-cell-specifying activities. PMID:17537793

  1. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  2. The Latent Structure of Memory: A Confirmatory Factor-Analytic Study of Memory Distinctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Douglas J.; Schooler, Carmi; Caplan, Leslie J.; Lipman, Paula Darby; Grafman, Jordan; Schoenbach, Carrie; Schwab, Karen; Johnson, Marnie L.

    2001-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to study the nature of memory distinctions underlying the performance of two samples of Vietnam veterans. One sample (n=96) had received head injuries resulting in relatively small lesions; the other (n=85) had not. A four-component model with verbal-episodic, visual-episodic, semantic, and short-term memory…

  3. C-factor has distinct aggregation and sporulation thresholds during Myxococcus development.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S K; Kaiser, D

    1991-01-01

    C-factor, the protein product of the csgA gene, acts as a short-range morphogenetic signal. It is required for fruiting body development of the gram-negative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Aggregation, sporulation, and expression of a set of genes that are C-factor dependent, all of which fail in csgA mutant cells, are completely restored by addition of purified C-factor. We report here that, depending on its concentration, C-factor can elicit two distinct morphogenetic and transcriptional responses from csgA cells. Low levels of C-factor bring about aggregation and expression of an early C-dependent gene, whereas higher levels lead to the same effects plus expression of a late C-dependent gene and spore formation. C-factor positively regulates its own transcription. An approximately fourfold net increase in csgA transcription and C-factor levels during development was measured. We propose that autoregulation and the two distinct activity thresholds allow C-factor to act as a timer, first triggering aggregation, then sporulation, thereby producing the appropriate developmental order. Images PMID:1847908

  4. Identification of an anti-lipopolysacchride factor possessing both antiviral and antibacterial activity from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Yu; Gao, Yan; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Qiu-Xia; Zeng, Chang-Lin; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-10-01

    It is well-known that anti-lipopolysacchride factors (ALFs) are involved in the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens. In this study, the full-length ALF cDNA sequence of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (termed CqALF) was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library constructed using red claw crayfish hematopoietic tissue cell (Hpt cell) cultures following challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The full-length cDNA sequence of CqALF was 863 bp, and the open reading frame encoded 123 amino acids with a signal peptide in the N-terminus and a conserved LPS-binding domain. Unlike most ALFs, which are highly expressed in haemocytes, high expression levels of CqALF were detected in epithelium, the stomach and eyestalks, while lower expression was detected in Hpt, nerves, the heart, muscle tissue, gonads, haemocytes, intestines, gills and the hepatopancreas. To further explore the biological activities of CqALF, mature recombinant CqALF protein (rCqALF) was expressed and purified using a eukaryotic expression system, and an antimicrobial activity test was carried out. rCqALF clearly exerted antiviral activity, as evidenced by the severe disruption of the envelope of intact WSSV virions following co-incubation of virions with rCqALF. Additionally, pre-incubation of WSSV with rCqALF resulted in both a significant reduction in WSSV replication in red claw crayfish Hpt cell cultures and an increased survival rate among animals. Furthermore, rCqALF was effective against both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus. A membrane integrity assay suggested that rCqALF was unlikely to disrupt bacterial membrane integrity compared to cecropin P1. Taken together, these data suggest that CqALF may play an important role in immune defence in the crustacean C. quadricarinatus. PMID:27544268

  5. Growth factor stimulation induces a distinct ER(alpha) cistrome underlying breast cancer endocrine resistance.

    PubMed

    Lupien, Mathieu; Meyer, Clifford A; Bailey, Shannon T; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Cook, Jennifer; Westerling, Thomas; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Carroll, Jason S; Rhodes, Daniel R; Liu, X Shirley; Brown, Myles

    2010-10-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in breast cancer is predictive of response to endocrine therapy; however, resistance is common in ERα-positive tumors that overexpress the growth factor receptor ERBB2. Even in the absence of estrogen, ERα can be activated by growth factors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF induces a transcriptional program distinct from estrogen; however, the mechanism of the stimulus-specific response is unknown. Here we show that the EGF-induced ERα genomic targets, its cistromes, are distinct from those induced by estrogen in a process dependent on the transcription factor AP-1. The EGF-induced ERα cistrome specifically regulates genes found overexpressed in ERBB2-positive human breast cancers. This provides a potential molecular explanation for the endocrine therapy resistance seen in ERα-positive breast cancers that overexpress ERBB2. These results suggest a central role for ERα in hormone-refractory breast tumors dependent on growth factor pathway activation and favors the development of therapeutic strategies completely antagonizing ERα, as opposed to blocking its estrogen responsiveness alone.

  6. Qualitatively distinct factors contribute to elevated rates of paranoia in autism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Amy E; Sasson, Noah J; Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Kohler, Christian G; Penn, David L

    2012-08-01

    A converging body of clinical and empirical reports indicates that autism features elevated rates of paranoia comparable to those of individuals with paranoid schizophrenia. However, the distinct developmental courses and symptom manifestations of these two disorders suggest that the nature of paranoid ideation may differ between them in important and meaningful ways. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared patterns of responses on the Paranoia Scale between actively paranoid individuals with schizophrenia (SCZP), individuals with schizophrenia who were not actively paranoid (SCZNP), adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and healthy controls. Despite an overall similar level of heightened paranoia in the ASD and SCZP groups, discriminant correspondence analysis (DiCA) revealed that these groups were characterized by unique underlying factors. Paranoia in the SCZP group was defined by a factor based upon victimization, suspicion, and threat of harm. Whereas paranoia in the ASD group was partially characterized by this factor, it was distinguished from SCZP by an additional pattern of responses reflective of increased social cynicism. These findings indicate that paranoia in ASD is supported by qualitative factors distinct from schizophrenia and highlight mechanistic differences in the formation of paranoid ideation that may inform the development of disorder-specific treatments.

  7. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated satellite cells niche perturbation promotes development of distinct sarcoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Morena, Deborah; Maestro, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Forni, Paolo Emanuele; Lingua, Marcello Francesco; Foglizzo, Valentina; Šćepanović, Petar; Miretti, Silvia; Morotti, Alessandro; Shern, Jack F; Khan, Javed; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Sala, Valentina; Crepaldi, Tiziana; Gasparini, Patrizia; Casanova, Michela; Ferrari, Andrea; Sozzi, Gabriella; Chiarle, Roberto; Ponzetto, Carola; Taulli, Riccardo

    2016-03-17

    Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS) are distinct sarcoma subtypes. Here we investigate the relevance of the satellite cell (SC) niche in sarcoma development by using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) to perturb the niche microenvironment. In a Pax7 wild type background, HGF stimulation mainly causes ERMS that originate from satellite cells following a process of multistep progression. Conversely, in a Pax7 null genotype ERMS incidence drops, while UPS becomes the most frequent subtype. Murine EfRMS display genetic heterogeneity similar to their human counterpart. Altogether, our data demonstrate that selective perturbation of the SC niche results in distinct sarcoma subtypes in a Pax7 lineage-dependent manner, and define a critical role for the Met axis in sarcoma initiation. Finally, our results provide a rationale for the use of combination therapy, tailored on specific amplifications and activated signaling pathways, to minimize resistance emerging from sarcomas heterogeneity.

  8. Phytochrome-Interacting Factors Have Both Shared and Distinct Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jinkil; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    Phytochromes are plant photoreceptors that perceive red and far-red light. Upon the perception of light in Arabidopsis, light-activated phytochromes enter the nucleus and act on a set of interacting proteins, modulating their activities and thereby altering the expression levels of ∼10% of the organism’s entire gene complement. Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) belonging to Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) subgroup 15 are key interacting proteins that play negative roles in light responses. Their activities are post-translationally countered by light-activated phytochromes, which promote the degradation of PIFs and directly or indirectly inhibit their binding to DNA. The PIFs share a high degree of similarity, but examinations of pif single and multiple mutants have indicated that they have shared and distinct functions in various developmental and physiological processes. These are believed to stem from differences in both intrinsic protein properties and their gene expression patterns. In an effort to clarify the basis of these shared and distinct functions, we compared recently published genome-wide ChIP data, developmental gene expression maps, and responses to various stimuli for the various PIFs. Based on our observations, we propose that the biological roles of PIFs stem from their shared and distinct DNA binding targets and specific gene expression patterns. PMID:23708772

  9. Regulation of GATA Factor Expression Is Distinct between Erythroid and Mast Cell Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Shin'ya; Takai, Jun; Ishijima, Yasushi; Suzuki, Mikiko; Moriguchi, Takashi; Philipsen, Sjaak; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 participate in mast cell development. Although the expression of these factors is regulated in a cell lineage-specific and differentiation stage-specific manner, their regulation during mast cell development has not been clarified. Here, we show that the GATA2 mRNA level was significantly increased while GATA1 was maintained at low levels during the differentiation of mast cells derived from mouse bone marrow (BMMCs). Unlike in erythroid cells, forced expression or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GATA1 rarely affected GATA2 expression, and vice versa, in mast cells, indicating the absence of cross-regulation between Gata1 and Gata2 genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that both GATA factors bound to most of the conserved GATA sites of Gata1 and Gata2 loci in BMMCs. However, the GATA1 hematopoietic enhancer (G1HE) of the Gata1 gene, which is essential for GATA1 expression in erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, was bound only weakly by both GATA factors in BMMCs. Furthermore, transgenic-mouse reporter assays revealed that the G1HE is not essential for reporter expression in BMMCs and peritoneal mast cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the expression of GATA factors in mast cells is regulated in a manner quite distinct from that in erythroid cells. PMID:22988301

  10. Strategies of Clausal Possession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Across languages, clauses expressing possession, location, and existence exhibit many similarities. To capture their evident affinity, it is often claimed that possessives derive--synclironically or diaclironically--from expressions of location/existence. This localist account obscures a basic contrast between two broad classes of possessive…

  11. The tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 of Sciaenops ocellatus possesses antimicrobial activity and is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2011-03-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that regulates the activation of tissue factor-induced coagulation. In teleosts, TFPI-1-like sequences have been found to exist in two species (Danio rerio and Cyprinus carpio); however, the potential function of fish TFPI-1 has not been investigated. In this study, we identified and analyzed a TFPI-1 homologue, SoTFPI-1, from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). The deduced amino acid sequence of SoTFPI-1 is 284 residues in length and contains three Kunitz domains, an acidic N-terminus, and a basic C-terminus. SoTFPI-1 shares 49.5% and 46.9% overall sequence identities with the TFPI-1 of D. rerio and C. carpio, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that constitutive SoTFPI-1 expression occurred, in increasing order, in kidney, brain, liver, gill, blood, spleen, muscle, and heart. Bacterial infection and lipopolysaccharide exposure upregulated SoTFPI-1 expression in kidney in time-dependent manners. Recombinant SoTFPI-1 (rSoTFPI-1) purified from Escherichia coli exhibits not only serine protease inhibitor activity but also bactericidal activity in a manner that is independent of any host factors. A synthetic peptide, TO17, corresponding to the C-terminal basic region of SoTFPI-1 also possesses antibacterial effect that is more potent than that of the full-length rSoTFPI-1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (i) SoTFPI-1 is a biologically active serine protease inhibitor endowed with bactericidal property; (ii) provide the first indication that teleost TFPI-1 is likely to be involved in anti-microbial infection and thus is linked to innate immune defense. PMID:20970444

  12. Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Jiadong; Malovannaya, Anna; Xi, Yuanxin; Li, Wei; Guerra, Rudy; Hawke, David H; Qin, Jun; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-21

    The current knowledge on how transcription factors (TFs), the ultimate targets and executors of cellular signalling pathways, are regulated by protein-protein interactions remains limited. Here, we performed proteomics analyses of soluble and chromatin-associated complexes of 56 TFs, including the targets of many signalling pathways involved in development and cancer, and 37 members of the Forkhead box (FOX) TF family. Using tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (TAP/MS), we performed 214 purifications and identified 2,156 high-confident protein-protein interactions. We found that most TFs form very distinct protein complexes on and off chromatin. Using this data set, we categorized the transcription-related or unrelated regulators for general or specific TFs. Our study offers a valuable resource of protein-protein interaction networks for a large number of TFs and underscores the general principle that TFs form distinct location-specific protein complexes that are associated with the different regulation and diverse functions of these TFs.

  13. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated satellite cells niche perturbation promotes development of distinct sarcoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Morena, Deborah; Maestro, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Forni, Paolo Emanuele; Lingua, Marcello Francesco; Foglizzo, Valentina; Šćepanović, Petar; Miretti, Silvia; Morotti, Alessandro; Shern, Jack F; Khan, Javed; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Sala, Valentina; Crepaldi, Tiziana; Gasparini, Patrizia; Casanova, Michela; Ferrari, Andrea; Sozzi, Gabriella; Chiarle, Roberto; Ponzetto, Carola; Taulli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS) are distinct sarcoma subtypes. Here we investigate the relevance of the satellite cell (SC) niche in sarcoma development by using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) to perturb the niche microenvironment. In a Pax7 wild type background, HGF stimulation mainly causes ERMS that originate from satellite cells following a process of multistep progression. Conversely, in a Pax7 null genotype ERMS incidence drops, while UPS becomes the most frequent subtype. Murine EfRMS display genetic heterogeneity similar to their human counterpart. Altogether, our data demonstrate that selective perturbation of the SC niche results in distinct sarcoma subtypes in a Pax7 lineage-dependent manner, and define a critical role for the Met axis in sarcoma initiation. Finally, our results provide a rationale for the use of combination therapy, tailored on specific amplifications and activated signaling pathways, to minimize resistance emerging from sarcomas heterogeneity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12116.001 PMID:26987019

  14. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Michael W.; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Kerr, Richard A.; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C.; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D.; Kim, Kwang S.; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-01

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  15. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michael W.; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Kerr, Richard A.; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C.; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D.; Kim, Kwang S.; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal–Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs. PMID:27734843

  16. Distinct Clinical Phenotypes Associated with a Mutation in the Mitochondrial Translation Elongation Factor EFTs

    PubMed Central

    Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Elpeleg, Orly; Antonicka, Hana; Diepstra, Heleen; Saada, Ann; Smits, Paulien; Sasarman, Florin; Vriend, Gert; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Shaag, Avraham; Rechavi, Gideon; Welling, Brigitte; Horst, Jürgen; Rodenburg, Richard J.; van den Heuvel, Bert; Shoubridge, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    The 13 polypeptides encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are synthesized in the mitochondrial matrix on a dedicated protein-translation apparatus that resembles that found in prokaryotes. Here, we have investigated the genetic basis for a mitochondrial protein-synthesis defect associated with a combined oxidative phosphorylation enzyme deficiency in two patients, one of whom presented with encephalomyopathy and the other with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed the same homozygous mutation (C997T) in both patients in TSFM, a gene coding for the mitochondrial translation elongation factor EFTs. EFTs functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for EFTu, another translation elongation factor that brings aminoacylated transfer RNAs to the ribosomal A site as a ternary complex with guanosine triphosphate. The mutation predicts an Arg333Trp substitution at an evolutionarily conserved site in a subdomain of EFTs that interacts with EFTu. Molecular modeling showed that the substitution disrupts local subdomain structure and the dimerization interface. The steady-state levels of EFTs and EFTu in patient fibroblasts were reduced by 75% and 60%, respectively, and the amounts of assembled complexes I, IV, and V were reduced by 35%–91% compared with the amounts in controls. These phenotypes and the translation defect were rescued by retroviral expression of either EFTs or EFTu. These data clearly establish mutant EFTs as the cause of disease in these patients. The fact that the same mutation is associated with distinct clinical phenotypes suggests the presence of genetic modifiers of the mitochondrial translation apparatus. PMID:17033963

  17. Three R2R3-MYB transcription factors regulate distinct floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.

  18. Nerve growth factor induces survival and differentiation through two distinct signaling cascades in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Klesse, L J; Meyers, K A; Marshall, C J; Parada, L F

    1999-03-25

    Nerve growth factor induces differentiation and survival of rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. The activation of the erk cascade has been implicated in transducing the multitude of signals induced by NGF. In order to explore the role of this signaling cascade in NGF mediated survival, differentiation and proliferation, we generated recombinant adenoviruses which express the intermediates of the erk cascade in their wild type, dominant negative and constitutively activated forms. We show that differentiation of PC12 cells requires activity of the ras/erk pathway, whereas inhibition of this pathway had no effect on survival or proliferation. Constitutively active forms of ras, raf and mek induced PC12 cell differentiation, while dominant interfering forms inhibited differentiation. Survival of PC12 cells in serum-free medium did not require activity of the ras/erk pathway. Instead, PI3 Kinase signaling was necessary for PC12 cell survival. Interestingly, constitutively activated versions of raf and mek were able to promote survival, but again this was dependent on activation of PI3 Kinase. Therefore, at least two distinct signaling pathways are required in PC12 cells for mediation of NGF functions.

  19. Antibody-induced Enhancement of Factor VIIa Activity through Distinct Allosteric Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lisbeth M.; Andreasen, Peter A.; Svendsen, Ivan; Keemink, Janneke; Østergaard, Henrik; Persson, Egon

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of its cofactor tissue factor (TF), coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) predominantly exists in a zymogen-like, catalytically incompetent state. Here we demonstrate that conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be used to characterize structural features determining the activity of FVIIa. We isolated two classes of mAbs, which both increased the catalytic efficiency of FVIIa more than 150-fold. The effects of the antibodies were retained with a FVIIa variant, which has been shown to be inert to allosteric activation by the natural activator TF, suggesting that the antibodies and TF employ distinct mechanisms of activation. The antibodies could be classified into two groups based on their patterns of affinities for different conformations of FVIIa. Whereas one class of antibodies affected both the Km and kcat, the other class mainly affected the Km. The antibody-induced activity enhancement could be traced to maturation of the S1 substrate binding pocket and the oxyanion hole, evident by an increased affinity for p-aminobenzamidine, an increased rate of antithrombin inhibition, an increased rate of incorporation of diisopropylfluorophosphate, and an enhanced fraction of molecules with a buried N terminus of the catalytic domain in the presence of antibodies. As demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis, the two groups of antibodies appear to have overlapping, although clearly different, epitopes in the 170-loop. Our findings suggest that binding of ligands to specific residues in the 170-loop or its spatial vicinity may stabilize the S1 pocket and the oxyanion hole, and they may have general implications for the molecular understanding of FVIIa regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22275370

  20. Antibody-induced enhancement of factor VIIa activity through distinct allosteric pathways.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lisbeth M; Andreasen, Peter A; Svendsen, Ivan; Keemink, Janneke; Østergaard, Henrik; Persson, Egon

    2012-03-16

    In the absence of its cofactor tissue factor (TF), coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) predominantly exists in a zymogen-like, catalytically incompetent state. Here we demonstrate that conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be used to characterize structural features determining the activity of FVIIa. We isolated two classes of mAbs, which both increased the catalytic efficiency of FVIIa more than 150-fold. The effects of the antibodies were retained with a FVIIa variant, which has been shown to be inert to allosteric activation by the natural activator TF, suggesting that the antibodies and TF employ distinct mechanisms of activation. The antibodies could be classified into two groups based on their patterns of affinities for different conformations of FVIIa. Whereas one class of antibodies affected both the K(m) and k(cat), the other class mainly affected the K(m). The antibody-induced activity enhancement could be traced to maturation of the S1 substrate binding pocket and the oxyanion hole, evident by an increased affinity for p-aminobenzamidine, an increased rate of antithrombin inhibition, an increased rate of incorporation of diisopropylfluorophosphate, and an enhanced fraction of molecules with a buried N terminus of the catalytic domain in the presence of antibodies. As demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis, the two groups of antibodies appear to have overlapping, although clearly different, epitopes in the 170-loop. Our findings suggest that binding of ligands to specific residues in the 170-loop or its spatial vicinity may stabilize the S1 pocket and the oxyanion hole, and they may have general implications for the molecular understanding of FVIIa regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22275370

  1. Inalienable Possession in Mandarin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliffer, Michael D.

    Inalienable possession (iposs) in Mandarin Chinese has traditionally been thought restricted to associative (genitive) phrases where the possessor is juxtaposed to the possessum. In addition to such phrases, this analysis looks at five other possibilities where intrinsically relational nouns arise: zero anaphora; double subjects; passive of bodily…

  2. Raf-1 kinase possesses distinct binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid regulates the translocation of Raf-1 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Strum, J C; Sciorra, V A; Daniel, L; Bell, R M

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the cysteine-rich amino-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase interacts selectively with phosphatidylserine (Ghosh, S., Xie, W. Q., Quest, A. F. G., Mabrouk, G. M., Strum, J. C., and Bell, R. M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10000-10007). Further analysis showed that full-length Raf-1 bound to both phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid (PA). Specifically, a carboxyl-terminal domain of Raf-1 kinase (RafC; residues 295 648 of human Raf-1) interacted strongly with phosphatidic acid. The binding of RafC to PA displayed positive cooperativity with Hill numbers between 3.3 and 6.2; the apparent Kd ranged from 4.9 +/- 0.6 to 7.8 +/- 0.9 mol % PA. The interaction of RafC with PA displayed a pH dependence distinct from the interaction between the cysteine-rich domain of Raf-1 and PA. Also, the RafC-PA interaction was unaffected at high ionic strength. Of all the lipids tested, only PA and cardiolipin exhibited high affinity binding; other acidic lipids were either ineffective or weakly effective. By deletion mutagenesis, the PA binding site within RafC was narrowed down to a 35-amino acid segment between residues 389 and 423. RafC did not bind phosphatidyl alcohols; also, inhibition of PA formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by treatment with 1% ethanol significantly reduced the translocation of Raf-1 from the cytosol to the membrane following stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These results suggest a potential role of the lipid second messenger, PA, in the regulation of translocation and subsequent activation of Raf-1 in vivo.

  3. The two subtype 1 somatostatin receptors of rainbow trout, Tsst1A and Tsst1B, possess both distinct and overlapping ligand binding and agonist-induced regulation features.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun-Yang; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Slagter, Barton J; Sheridan, Mark A

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, two isoforms of somatostatin receptor subtype one, previously obtained from the brain of rainbow trout, Tsst1A and Tsst1B, were stably transfected in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-K1) and their binding properties were characterized. High affinity binding of somatostatin by expressed receptors was saturable and ligand selective. Both Tsst1A and Tsst1B preferentially bound peptides derived from preprosomatostatin I (PPSS I; e.g., SS-14-I) over those derived from PPSS II (containing Tyr7, Gly10-SS-14-I at their C-terminus; e.g., SS-25-II). The rank order of ligand affinities for Tsst1A was SS-28-I>SS-14-I>SS-26-I?SS-28-II>SS-14-II>SS-25-II. The rank order for Tsst1B was SS-14-I>SS-28-I>SS-26-1?SS-28-II>SS-25-II>SS-14-II. Agonist-induced regulation of Tsst1A and Tsst1B was also investigated. After 30 min of SS-14-I exposure, both Tsst1A and Tsst1B underwent rapid internalization; ca. 60% of membrane Tsst1A was internalized and only about 40% of membrane Tsst1B was internalized. Prolonged agonist exposure (up to 48 h) induced up-regulation of membrane-expressed Tsst1A, but had no effect on Tsst1B. These results indicate that Tsst1s display both distinct and overlapping ligand binding and agonist-induced regulation features. Such features may form the basis of ligand-selection and have important consequences on target organ responsiveness. PMID:15253878

  4. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660

  5. Schizophrenia or possession?

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia.

  6. Distinct functional roles of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) colony-stimulating factor-1- and interleukin-34-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although Mϕ represent the most primordial immune cell subsets, the mechanisms governing their functional heterogeneity remain poorly defined. However, it is well established that the CSF-1 cytokine contributes to monopoiesis and to this heterogeneity, whereas the unrelated IL-34 also binds the CSF-1R toward poorly understood immunologic roles. To delineate the molecular and evolutionary basis behind vertebrate Mϕ functional heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive transcriptional and functional studies of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) BM (in vitro) and PER (in vivo) Mϕ derived by rXlCSF-1 and rXlIL-34. Our findings indicate that these amphibian cytokines promote morphologically and functionally distinct Mϕ populations. Mϕ induced by rXlCSF-1 possess more robust iNOS gene expression, are substantially more phagocytic, display greater NO responses, and exhibit enhanced bactericidal capacities. By contrast, rXlIL-34-derived Mϕ express greater levels of Arg-1 and NADPH oxidase components and possess greater respiratory burst responses. Most notably, whereas CSF-1 Mϕ are highly susceptible to the emerging FV3 ranavirus, rXlIL-34 Mϕ exhibit potent antiviral activity against this pathogen, which is dependent on reactive oxygen production. This work marks an advance in our understanding of the possible mechanisms governing vertebrate Mϕ functional heterogeneity. PMID:26136505

  7. Schizophrenia or possession?

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a life-long condition characterized by acute symptom exacerbations and widely varying degrees of functional disability. Some of its symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, produce great subjective psychological pain. The most common delusion types are as follows: "My feelings and movements are controlled by others in a certain way" and "They put thoughts in my head that are not mine." Hallucinatory experiences are generally voices talking to the patient or among themselves. Hallucinations are a cardinal positive symptom of schizophrenia which deserves careful study in the hope it will give information about the pathophysiology of the disorder. We thought that many so-called hallucinations in schizophrenia are really illusions related to a real environmental stimulus. One approach to this hallucination problem is to consider the possibility of a demonic world. Demons are unseen creatures that are believed to exist in all major religions and have the power to possess humans and control their body. Demonic possession can manifest with a range of bizarre behaviors which could be interpreted as a number of different psychotic disorders with delusions and hallucinations. The hallucination in schizophrenia may therefore be an illusion-a false interpretation of a real sensory image formed by demons. A local faith healer in our region helps the patients with schizophrenia. His method of treatment seems to be successful because his patients become symptom free after 3 months. Therefore, it would be useful for medical professions to work together with faith healers to define better treatment pathways for schizophrenia. PMID:23269538

  8. Ecological and inhost factors promoting distinct parasite life-history strategies in Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Haven, James; Magori, Krisztian; Park, Andrew W

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the ecology and evolution of tick-borne parasites is the foundation for preventing and managing tick-borne diseases. Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, are an emerging health threat in America, Europe, and Asia. Certain strains of Borrelia burgdorferi (the etiological agent of Lyme borreliosis) sampled in nature appear to be rapidly cleared by murine hosts. These strains, unlike their inhost-persistent counterparts, are unlikely to manifest severe disease. Their emergence and abundance in North America is unclear. Understanding why strains adopt a persistent or rapid-clearing phenotype is a crucial question in Lyme biology. Using dynamic, data-driven infectivity profiles in a competitive, two-strain mathematical model, we show that these phenotypes are differentially favored under distinct ecological conditions (i.e. vector phenology). We argue these two phenotypes represent distinct parasite life-history strategies, impacting regional Lyme disease severity across North America.

  9. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  10. Defining distinct negative beliefs about uncertainty: validating the factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Kathryn A; Dugas, Michel J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rhéaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate students and adults from the community (M age = 23.74 years, SD = 6.36; 73.0% female and 27.0% male) who participated in 16 studies in the Anxiety Disorders Laboratory at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada were randomly assigned to 2 datasets. Exploratory factor analysis with the 1st sample (n = 1,230) identified 2 factors: the beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" and that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything." This 2-factor structure provided a good fit to the data (Bentler-Bonett normed fit index = .96, comparative fit index = .97, standardized root-mean residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .07) upon confirmatory factor analysis with the 2nd sample (n = 1,221). Both factors showed similarly high correlations with pathological worry, and Factor 1 showed stronger correlations with generalized anxiety disorder analogue status, trait anxiety, somatic anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. PMID:19485672

  11. The mitochondrial elongation factors MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tong; Yu, Rong; Jin, Shao-Bo; Han, Liwei; Lendahl, Urban; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles whose morphology is regulated by a complex balance of fission and fusion processes, and we still know relatively little about how mitochondrial dynamics is regulated. MIEF1 (also called MiD51) has recently been characterized as a key regulator of mitochondrial dynamics and in this report we explore the functions of its paralog MIEF2 (also called MiD49), to learn to what extent MIEF2 is functionally distinct from MIEF1. We show that MIEF1 and MIEF2 have many functions in common. Both are anchored in the mitochondrial outer membrane, recruit Drp1 from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface and cause mitochondrial fusion, and MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. MIEF1 and MIEF2, however, also differ in certain aspects. MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. When overexpressed, MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion-promoting effect than MIEF1, and in line with this, hFis1 and Mff can only partially revert the MIEF2-induced fusion phenotype, whereas MIEF1-induced fusion is reverted to a larger extent by hFis1 and Mff. MIEF2 forms high molecular weight oligomers, while MIEF1 is largely present as a dimer. Furthermore, MIEF1 and MIEF2 use distinct domains for oligomerization: in MIEF1, the region from amino acid residues 109–154 is required, whereas oligomerization of MIEF2 depends on amino acid residues 1 to 49, i.e. the N-terminal end. We also show that oligomerization of MIEF1 is not required for its mitochondrial localization and interaction with Drp1. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mitochondrial regulators MIEF1 and MIEF2 exert partially distinct functions in mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • MIEF1 and MIEF2 recruit Drp1 to mitochondria and cause mitochondrial fusion. • MIEF2, like MIEF1, can interact with Drp1 and hFis1. • MIEF1 and MIEF2 are differentially expressed in human tissues during development. • MIEF2 exerts a stronger fusion

  12. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Joshua E; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the "arms race" of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  13. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Joshua E.; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the “arms race” of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  14. Possession in a New Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a study on the untutored acquisition of possessive constructions in Dutch by two Turkish and two Moroccan adults during the first three years of their stay in the Netherlands. The focus is on the order of the owner and the possession in possessive constructions. (28 references) (JL)

  15. Distinctive effect on nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth by two unique neolignan enantiomers from Illicium merrillianum

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xinhui; Yue, Rongcai; Zeng, Huawu; Li, Honglin; Shan, Lei; He, Weiwei; Shen, Yunheng; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Merrillianoid (1), a racemic neolignan possessing the characteristic benzo-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety, was isolated from the branches and leaves of Illicium merrillianum. Chiral separation of 1 gave two enantiomers (+)−1 and (−)−1. The structure of 1 was established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of enantiomers were determined by quantum mechanical calculation. Compound (+)−1 exhibited a better neurotrophic activity than racemate 1 by promoting nerve growth factor (NGF) induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth, while (−)−1 showed a distinctive inhibitory effect. Furthermore, a mechanism study indicated that the two enantiomers influenced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells possibly by interacting with the trkA receptor, and extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) in Ras/ERK signal cascade. But the phosphorylation level of serine/threonine kinase Akt1 and Akt2 in PI3K/Akt signal pathway showed no significant difference between (+)−1 and (−)−1. PMID:26585042

  16. Distinctive effect on nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth by two unique neolignan enantiomers from Illicium merrillianum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xinhui; Yue, Rongcai; Zeng, Huawu; Li, Honglin; Shan, Lei; He, Weiwei; Shen, Yunheng; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    Merrillianoid (1), a racemic neolignan possessing the characteristic benzo-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety, was isolated from the branches and leaves of Illicium merrillianum. Chiral separation of 1 gave two enantiomers (+)-1 and (-)-1. The structure of 1 was established by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The absolute configurations of enantiomers were determined by quantum mechanical calculation. Compound (+)-1 exhibited a better neurotrophic activity than racemate 1 by promoting nerve growth factor (NGF) induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth, while (-)-1 showed a distinctive inhibitory effect. Furthermore, a mechanism study indicated that the two enantiomers influenced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells possibly by interacting with the trkA receptor, and extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) in Ras/ERK signal cascade. But the phosphorylation level of serine/threonine kinase Akt1 and Akt2 in PI3K/Akt signal pathway showed no significant difference between (+)-1 and (-)-1.

  17. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  18. Higher Order Factor Convergence and Divergence of Two Distinct Personality Systems: Cattell's HSPQ and Jackson's PRF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroade, John B.; Bates, Paul B.

    1975-01-01

    Seeks empirical evidence of convergence of concepts measured by two personality inventories--Cattell's High School Personality Questionnaire and Jackson's Personality Research Form. Implication of the levels of factor convergence obtained in relation to theory building and prediction are discussed. (RC)

  19. Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

  20. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  1. Distinctive Information and False Recognition: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments evaluated the role of encoding-based and retrieval-based factors in the production of false recognition. The association of unusual fonts with study items, the match between study and test font, and the duration of retrieval time allotted to subjects to make recognition memory decisions were varied in order to examine the role…

  2. Identification of RNA Binding Proteins Associated with Dengue Virus RNA in Infected Cells Reveals Temporally Distinct Host Factor Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Viktorovskaya, Olga V.; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for dengue virus infection, which can cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and death. A better understanding of the host pathogen interaction is required to develop effective therapies to treat DENV. In particular, very little is known about how cellular RNA binding proteins interact with viral RNAs. RNAs within cells are not naked; rather they are coated with proteins that affect localization, stability, translation and (for viruses) replication. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventy-nine novel RNA binding proteins for dengue virus (DENV) were identified by cross-linking proteins to dengue viral RNA during a live infection in human cells. These cellular proteins were specific and distinct from those previously identified for poliovirus, suggesting a specialized role for these factors in DENV amplification. Knockdown of these proteins demonstrated their function as viral host factors, with evidence for some factors acting early, while others late in infection. Their requirement by DENV for efficient amplification is likely specific, since protein knockdown did not impair the cell fitness for viral amplification of an unrelated virus. The protein abundances of these host factors were not significantly altered during DENV infection, suggesting their interaction with DENV RNA was due to specific recruitment mechanisms. However, at the global proteome level, DENV altered the abundances of proteins in particular classes, including transporter proteins, which were down regulated, and proteins in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which were up regulated. Conclusions/Significance The method for identification of host factors described here is robust and broadly applicable to all RNA viruses, providing an avenue to determine the conserved or distinct mechanisms through which diverse viruses manage the viral RNA within cells. This study significantly increases the number of cellular factors known to interact with

  3. Hematopoietic and Leukemic Stem Cells Have Distinct Dependence on Tcf1 and Lef1 Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuyang; Li, Fengyin; Xing, Shaojun; Zhao, Tianyan; Peng, Weiqun; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2016-05-20

    Hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells (HSCs and LSCs) have self-renewal ability to maintain normal hematopoiesis and leukemia propagation, respectively. Tcf1 and Lef1 transcription factors are expressed in HSCs, and targeting both factors modestly expanded the size of the HSC pool due to diminished HSC quiescence. Functional defects of Tcf1/Lef1-deficient HSCs in multi-lineage blood reconstitution was only evident under competitive conditions or when subjected to repeated regenerative stress. These are mechanistically due to direct positive regulation of Egr and Tcf3 by Tcf1 and Lef1, and significantly, forced expression of Egr1 in Tcf1/Lef1-deficient HSCs restored HSC quiescence. In a preclinical CML model, loss of Tcf1/Lef1 did not show strong impact on leukemia initiation and progression. However, when transplanted into secondary recipients, Tcf1/Lef1-deficient LSCs failed to propagate CML. By induced deletion of Tcf1 and Lef1 in pre-established CML, we further demonstrated an intrinsic requirement for these factors in LSC self-renewal. When combined with imatinib therapy, genetic targeting of Tcf1 and Lef1 potently diminished LSCs and conferred better protection to the CML recipients. LSCs are therefore more sensitive to loss of Tcf1 and Lef1 than HSCs in their self-renewal capacity. The differential requirements in HSCs and LSCs thus identify Tcf1 and Lef1 transcription factors as novel therapeutic targets in treating hematological malignancies, and inhibition of Tcf1/Lef1-regulated transcriptional programs may thus provide a therapeutic window to eliminate LSCs with minimal side effect on normal HSC functions. PMID:27044748

  4. Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

  5. Yeast GAL11 protein is a distinctive type transcription factor that enhances basal transcription in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, H; Hiraoka, Y; Fukasawa, T

    1993-01-01

    The yeast auxiliary transcription factor GAL11, a candidate for the coactivator, was partially purified from yeast cells, and its function was characterized in a cell-free transcription system. The partially purified GAL11 protein stimulated basal transcription from the CYC1 core promoter by a factor of 4-5 at the step of preinitiation complex formation. GAL11 protein also enhanced transcription activated by general regulatory factor 1, GAL4-AH, or GAL4-VP16 to the same extent as the basal transcription. Therefore, the apparent potentiation of the activators by GAL11 was attributable to the stimulation of basal transcription. The wild-type GAL11 protein (but not a mutant-type protein) produced in bacteria stimulated transcription as effectively as GAL11 from yeast. These results suggest that GAL11 functions as a positive cofactor of basal and activator-induced transcription in a cell-free transcription system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8378310

  6. Identification of three physically and functionally distinct binding sites for C3b in human complement factor H by deletion mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A K; Pangburn, M K

    1996-01-01

    Human complement factor H controls spontaneous activation of complement in plasma and appears to play a role in distinguishing host cells from activators of the alternative pathway of complement. In both mice and humans, the protein is composed of 20 homologous short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. The size of the protein suggests that portions of the structure outside the known C3b binding site (SCR 1-4) possess a significant biological role. We have expressed the full-length cDNA of factor H in the baculovirus system and have shown the recombinant protein to be fully active. Mutants of this full-length protein have now been prepared, purified, and examined for cofactor activity and binding to C3b and heparin. The results demonstrate (i) that factor H has at least three sites that bind C3b, (ii) that one of these sites is located in SCR domains 1-4, as has been shown by others, (iii) that a second site exists in the domain 6-10 region, (iv) that a third site resides in the SCR 16-20 region, and (v) that two heparin binding sites exist in factor H, one near SCR 13 and another in the SCR 6-10 region. Functional assays demonstrated that only the first C3b site located in SCR 1-4 expresses factor I cofactor activity. Mutant proteins lacking any one of the three C3b binding sites exhibited 6- to 8-fold reductions in affinity for C3b on sheep erythrocytes, indicating that all three sites contribute to the control of complement activation on erythrocytes. The identification of multiple functionally distinct sites on factor H clarifies many of the heretofore unexplainable behaviors of this protein, including the heterogeneous binding of factor H to surface-bound C3b, the effects of trypsin cleavage, and the differential control of complement activation on activators and nonactivators of the alternative pathway of complement. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8855297

  7. Distinct responses of baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels to genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Homberger, Benjamin; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, i.e. corticosterone (CORT) in birds, support physiological homeostasis and facilitate adaptations to stressful situations. However, maintaining high GC levels are energetically costly and interfere with other physiological processes. To keep the balance of costs and benefits of GC hormones, various mechanisms act to adapt GC levels to environmental conditions on different timescales, i.e. over generations, between parents and their offspring and within the life-time of a single individual. We elucidated whether two strains (domesticated and wild) of grey partridges (Perdix perdix) differed in the developmental trajectories of baseline and stress response CORT throughout the first 80 days of life. We also explored the potential of prenatal and postnatal factors, e.g. parental origin, predictable vs. unpredictable food treatments, individual and social factors to modify these trajectories. Baseline CORT was similar between strains and unaffected by perinatal food treatments. It was negatively related to body size and body condition. Conversely, the CORT stress response was not markedly affected by physiological condition. It was stronger in wild than in domesticated birds and it increased with age. Birds subjected to prenatal unpredictable food supply exhibited an accelerated development of the CORT stress response which could reflect an adaptive maternal effect. We conclude that the vital role of baseline CORT may allow little adaptive scope since changes can quickly become detrimental. In contrast, the CORT stress response may show considerable adaptive potential which might ultimately support homeostasis in a changing environment.

  8. Identification of two distinct transactivation domains in the pluripotency sustaining factor nanog.

    PubMed

    Pan, Guang Jin; Pei, Duan Qing

    2003-12-01

    Nanog is a newly identified homeodomain gene that functions to sustain the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism through which nanog regulates stem cell pluripotency remains unknown. Mouse nanog encodes a polypeptide of 305 residues with a divergent homeodomain similar to those in the NK-2 family. The rest of nanog contains no apparent homology to any known proteins characterized so far. It is hypothesized that nanog encodes a transcription factor that regulates stem cell pluripotency by switching on or off target genes. To test this hypothesis, we constructed fusion proteins between nanog and DNA binding domains of the yeast transcription factor Gal4 and tested the transactivation potentials of these constructs. Our data demonstrate that both regions N- and C- terminal to the homeodomain have transcription activities. Despite the fact that it contains no apparent transactivation motifs, the C-terminal domain is about 7 times as active as the N-terminal one. This unique arrangement of dual transactivators may confer nanog the flexibility and specificity to regulate downstream genes critical for both pluripotency and differentiation of stem cells.

  9. Transforming growth factor beta differentially modulates the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in distinct cell types.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R S; Herschman, H R

    1993-08-31

    Nitric oxide is a mediator of paracrine cell signalling. An inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in macrophages and in Swiss 3T3 cells. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that modulates many cellular functions. We find that TGF-beta cannot induce iNOS mRNA expression, either in macrophage cell lines or in Swiss 3T3 cells. However, TGF-beta attenuates lipopolysaccharide induction of iNOS mRNA in macrophages. In contrast, TGF-beta enhances iNOS induction by phorbol ester, serum or lipopolysaccharide in 3T3 cells. Thus TGF-beta can inhibit or augment iNOS mRNA induction in response to primary inducers, depending on the cell type in question.

  10. Bidirectional Transcription Arises from Two Distinct Hubs of Transcription Factor Binding and Active Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, Benjamin S; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Nechaev, Sergei; Muse, Ginger W; Burkholder, Adam; Fargo, David C; Adelman, Karen

    2015-06-18

    Anti-sense transcription originating upstream of mammalian protein-coding genes is a well-documented phenomenon, but remarkably little is known about the regulation or function of anti-sense promoters and the non-coding RNAs they generate. Here we define at nucleotide resolution the divergent transcription start sites (TSSs) near mouse mRNA genes. We find that coupled sense and anti-sense TSSs precisely define the boundaries of a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) that is highly enriched in transcription factor (TF) motifs. Notably, as the distance between sense and anti-sense TSSs increases, so does the size of the NDR, the level of signal-dependent TF binding, and gene activation. We further discover a group of anti-sense TSSs in macrophages with an enhancer-like chromatin signature. Interestingly, this signature identifies divergent promoters that are activated during immune challenge. We propose that anti-sense promoters serve as platforms for TF binding and establishment of active chromatin to further regulate or enhance sense-strand mRNA expression.

  11. SOX2 Co-Occupies Distal Enhancer Elements with Distinct POU Factors in ESCs and NPCs to Specify Cell State

    PubMed Central

    Lodato, Michael A.; Cheng, Albert W.; Thai, Kevin K.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Boyer, Laurie A.

    2013-01-01

    SOX2 is a master regulator of both pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs); however, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how SOX2 controls these distinct stem cell populations. Here we show by genome-wide analysis that, while SOX2 bound to a distinct set of gene promoters in ESCs and NPCs, the majority of regions coincided with unique distal enhancer elements, important cis-acting regulators of tissue-specific gene expression programs. Notably, SOX2 bound the same consensus DNA motif in both cell types, suggesting that additional factors contribute to target specificity. We found that, similar to its association with OCT4 (Pou5f1) in ESCs, the related POU family member BRN2 (Pou3f2) co-occupied a large set of putative distal enhancers with SOX2 in NPCs. Forced expression of BRN2 in ESCs led to functional recruitment of SOX2 to a subset of NPC-specific targets and to precocious differentiation toward a neural-like state. Further analysis of the bound sequences revealed differences in the distances of SOX and POU peaks in the two cell types and identified motifs for additional transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that SOX2 controls a larger network of genes than previously anticipated through binding of distal enhancers and that transitions in POU partner factors may control tissue-specific transcriptional programs. Our findings have important implications for understanding lineage specification and somatic cell reprogramming, where SOX2, OCT4, and BRN2 have been shown to be key factors. PMID:23437007

  12. Distinct binding and immunogenic properties of the gonococcal homologue of meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jongerius, Ilse; Lavender, Hayley; Tan, Lionel; Ruivo, Nicola; Exley, Rachel M; Caesar, Joseph J E; Lea, Susan M; Johnson, Steven; Tang, Christoph M

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis. The bacterium recruits factor H (fH), a negative regulator of the complement system, to its surface via fH binding protein (fHbp), providing a mechanism to avoid complement-mediated killing. fHbp is an important antigen that elicits protective immunity against the meningococcus and has been divided into three different variant groups, V1, V2 and V3, or families A and B. However, immunisation with fHbp V1 does not result in cross-protection against V2 and V3 and vice versa. Furthermore, high affinity binding of fH could impair immune responses against fHbp. Here, we investigate a homologue of fHbp in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, designated as Gonococcal homologue of fHbp (Ghfp) which we show is a promising vaccine candidate for N. meningitidis. We demonstrate that Gfhp is not expressed on the surface of the gonococcus and, despite its high level of identity with fHbp, does not bind fH. Substitution of only two amino acids in Ghfp is sufficient to confer fH binding, while the corresponding residues in V3 fHbp are essential for high affinity fH binding. Furthermore, immune responses against Ghfp recognise V1, V2 and V3 fHbps expressed by a range of clinical isolates, and have serum bactericidal activity against N. meningitidis expressing fHbps from all variant groups.

  13. Shared and distinct factors driving attention and temporal processing across modalities

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Anne S.; Li, Xu; Lin, Ziyong; Lustig, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the classic finding that “sounds are judged longer than lights,” the timing of auditory stimuli is often more precise and accurate than is the timing of visual stimuli. In cognitive models of temporal processing, these modality differences are explained by positing that auditory stimuli more automatically capture and hold attention, more efficiently closing an attentional switch that allows the accumulation of pulses marking the passage of time (Block & Zakay, 1997; Meck, 1991; Penney, 2003). However, attention is a multifaceted construct, and there has been little attempt to determine which aspects of attention may be related to modality effects. We used visual and auditory versions of the Continuous Temporal Expectancy Task (CTET; O'Connell et al., 2009) a timing task previously linked to behavioral and electrophysiological measures of mind-wandering and attention lapses, and tested participants with or without the presence of a video distractor. Performance in the auditory condition was generally superior to that in the visual condition, replicating standard results in the timing literature. The auditory modality was also less affected by declines in sustained attention indexed by declines in performance over time. In contrast, distraction had an equivalent impact on performance in the two modalities. Analysis of individual differences in performance revealed further differences between the two modalities: Poor performance in the auditory condition was primarily related to boredom whereas poor performance in the visual condition was primarily related to distractibility. These results suggest that: 1) challenges to different aspects of attention reveal both modality-specific and nonspecific effects on temporal processing, and 2) different factors drive individual differences when testing across modalities. PMID:23978664

  14. Distinct binding and immunogenic properties of the gonococcal homologue of meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jongerius, Ilse; Lavender, Hayley; Tan, Lionel; Ruivo, Nicola; Exley, Rachel M; Caesar, Joseph J E; Lea, Susan M; Johnson, Steven; Tang, Christoph M

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis. The bacterium recruits factor H (fH), a negative regulator of the complement system, to its surface via fH binding protein (fHbp), providing a mechanism to avoid complement-mediated killing. fHbp is an important antigen that elicits protective immunity against the meningococcus and has been divided into three different variant groups, V1, V2 and V3, or families A and B. However, immunisation with fHbp V1 does not result in cross-protection against V2 and V3 and vice versa. Furthermore, high affinity binding of fH could impair immune responses against fHbp. Here, we investigate a homologue of fHbp in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, designated as Gonococcal homologue of fHbp (Ghfp) which we show is a promising vaccine candidate for N. meningitidis. We demonstrate that Gfhp is not expressed on the surface of the gonococcus and, despite its high level of identity with fHbp, does not bind fH. Substitution of only two amino acids in Ghfp is sufficient to confer fH binding, while the corresponding residues in V3 fHbp are essential for high affinity fH binding. Furthermore, immune responses against Ghfp recognise V1, V2 and V3 fHbps expressed by a range of clinical isolates, and have serum bactericidal activity against N. meningitidis expressing fHbps from all variant groups. PMID:23935503

  15. Constrained positive matrix factorization: Elemental ratios, spatial distinction, and chemical transport model source contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtz, Timothy M.

    Source apportionment models attempt to untangle the relationship between pollution sources and the impacts at downwind receptors. Two frameworks of source apportionment models exist: source-oriented and receptor-oriented. Source based apportionment models use presumed emissions and atmospheric processes to estimate the downwind source contributions. Conversely, receptor based models leverage speciated concentration data from downwind receptors and apply statistical methods to predict source contributions. Integration of both source-oriented and receptor-oriented models could lead to a better understanding of the implications sources have on the environment and society. The research presented here investigated three different types of constraints applied to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model within the framework of the Multilinear Engine (ME-2): element ratio constraints, spatial separation constraints, and chemical transport model (CTM) source attribution constraints. PM10-2.5 mass and trace element concentrations were measured in Winston-Salem, Chicago, and St. Paul at up to 60 sites per city during two different seasons in 2010. PMF was used to explore the underlying sources of variability. Information on previously reported PM10-2.5 tire and brake wear profiles were used to constrain these features in PMF by prior specification of selected species ratios. We also modified PMF to allow for combining the measurements from all three cities into a single model while preserving city-specific soil features. Relatively minor differences were observed between model predictions with and without the prior ratio constraints, increasing confidence in our ability to identify separate brake wear and tire wear features. Using separate data, source contributions to total fine particle carbon predicted by a CTM were incorporated into the PMF receptor model to form a receptor-oriented hybrid model. The level of influence of the CTM versus traditional PMF was

  16. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  17. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  18. Distinct Stromal Cell Factor Combinations Can Separately Control Hematopoietic Stem Cell Survival, Proliferation, and Self-Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Wohrer, Stefan; Knapp, David J.H.F.; Copley, Michael R.; Benz, Claudia; Kent, David G.; Rowe, Keegan; Babovic, Sonja; Mader, Heidi; Oostendorp, Robert A.J.; Eaves, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are identified by their ability to sustain prolonged blood cell production in vivo, although recent evidence suggests that durable self-renewal (DSR) is shared by HSC subtypes with distinct self-perpetuating differentiation programs. Net expansions of DSR-HSCs occur in vivo, but molecularly defined conditions that support similar responses in vitro are lacking. We hypothesized that this might require a combination of factors that differentially promote HSC viability, proliferation, and self-renewal. We now demonstrate that HSC survival and maintenance of DSR potential are variably supported by different Steel factor (SF)-containing cocktails with similar HSC-mitogenic activities. In addition, stromal cells produce other factors, including nerve growth factor and collagen 1, that can antagonize the apoptosis of initially quiescent adult HSCs and, in combination with SF and interleukin-11, produce >15-fold net expansions of DSR-HSCs ex vivo within 7 days. These findings point to the molecular basis of HSC control and expansion. PMID:24910437

  19. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs.

  20. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  1. Distinct XPPX sequence motifs induce ribosome stalling, which is rescued by the translation elongation factor EF-P

    PubMed Central

    Peil, Lauri; Starosta, Agata L.; Lassak, Jürgen; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Virumäe, Kai; Spitzer, Michaela; Tenson, Tanel; Jung, Kirsten; Remme, Jaanus; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are the protein synthesizing factories of the cell, polymerizing polypeptide chains from their constituent amino acids. However, distinct combinations of amino acids, such as polyproline stretches, cannot be efficiently polymerized by ribosomes, leading to translational stalling. The stalled ribosomes are rescued by the translational elongation factor P (EF-P), which by stimulating peptide-bond formation allows translation to resume. Using metabolic stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate in vivo that EF-P is important for expression of not only polyproline-containing proteins, but also for specific subsets of proteins containing diprolyl motifs (XPP/PPX). Together with a systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis, we provide a distinct hierarchy of stalling triplets, ranging from strong stallers, such as PPP, DPP, and PPN to weak stallers, such as CPP, PPR, and PPH, all of which are substrates for EF-P. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the characteristics of the specific amino acid substrates influence the fundamentals of peptide bond formation. PMID:24003132

  2. Spatial isolation and environmental factors drive distinct bacterial and archaeal communities in different types of petroleum reservoirs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Xie, Jinxia; Zeng, Bing; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of microbial communities and their drivers in petroleum reservoir environments, we performed pyrosequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA, derived from 20 geographically separated water-flooding reservoirs, and two reservoirs that had not been flooded, in China. The results indicated that distinct underground microbial communities inhabited the different reservoirs. Compared with the bacteria, archaeal alpha-diversity was not strongly correlated with the environmental variables. The variation of the bacterial and archaeal community compositions was affected synthetically, by the mining patterns, spatial isolation, reservoir temperature, salinity and pH of the formation brine. The environmental factors explained 64.22% and 78.26% of the total variance for the bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Despite the diverse community compositions, shared populations (48 bacterial and 18 archaeal genera) were found and were dominant in most of the oilfields. Potential indigenous microorganisms, including Carboxydibrachium, Thermosinus, and Neptunomonas, were only detected in a reservoir that had not been flooded with water. This study indicates that: 1) the environmental variation drives distinct microbial communities in different reservoirs; 2) compared with the archaea, the bacterial communities were highly heterogeneous within and among the reservoirs; and 3) despite the community variation, some microorganisms are dominant in multiple petroleum reservoirs. PMID:26838035

  3. Transcription Factors GATA4 and HNF4A Control Distinct Aspects of Intestinal Homeostasis in Conjunction with Transcription Factor CDX2*

    PubMed Central

    San Roman, Adrianna K.; Aronson, Boaz E.; Krasinski, Stephen D.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Verzi, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Distinct groups of transcription factors (TFs) assemble at tissue-specific cis-regulatory sites, implying that different TF combinations may control different genes and cellular functions. Within such combinations, TFs that specify or maintain a lineage and are therefore considered master regulators may play a key role. Gene enhancers often attract these tissue-restricted TFs, as well as TFs that are expressed more broadly. However, the contributions of the individual TFs to combinatorial regulatory activity have not been examined critically in many cases in vivo. We address this question using a genetic approach in mice to inactivate the intestine-specifying and intestine-restricted factor CDX2 alone or in combination with its more broadly expressed partner factors, GATA4 and HNF4A. Compared with single mutants, each combination produced significantly greater defects and rapid lethality through distinct anomalies. Intestines lacking Gata4 and Cdx2 were deficient in crypt cell replication, whereas combined loss of Hnf4a and Cdx2 specifically impaired viability and maturation of villus enterocytes. Integrated analysis of TF binding and of transcripts affected in Hnf4a;Cdx2 compound-mutant intestines indicated that this TF pair controls genes required to construct the apical brush border and absorb nutrients, including dietary lipids. This study thus defines combinatorial TF activities, their specific requirements during tissue homeostasis, and modules of transcriptional targets in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:25488664

  4. Common and distinct DNA-binding and regulatory activities of the BEN-solo transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Ren, Aiming; Westholm, Jakub O; Duan, Hong; Patel, Dinshaw J; Lai, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the BEN (BANP, E5R, and NAC1) domain was recognized as a new class of conserved DNA-binding domain. The fly genome encodes three proteins that bear only a single BEN domain ("BEN-solo" factors); namely, Insensitive (Insv), Bsg25A (Elba1), and CG9883 (Elba2). Insv homodimers preferentially bind CCAATTGG palindromes throughout the genome to mediate transcriptional repression, whereas Bsg25A and Elba2 heterotrimerize with their obligate adaptor, Elba3 (i.e., the ELBA complex), to recognize a CCAATAAG motif in the Fab-7 insulator. While these data suggest distinct DNA-binding properties of BEN-solo proteins, we performed reporter assays that indicate that both Bsg25A and Elba2 can individually recognize Insv consensus sites efficiently. We confirmed this by solving the structure of Bsg25A complexed to the Insv site, which showed that key aspects of the BEN:DNA recognition strategy are similar between these proteins. We next show that both Insv and ELBA proteins are competent to mediate transcriptional repression via Insv consensus sequences but that the ELBA complex appears to be selective for the ELBA site. Reciprocally, genome-wide analysis reveals that Insv exhibits significant cobinding to class I insulator elements, indicating that it may also contribute to insulator function. Indeed, we observed abundant Insv binding within the Hox complexes with substantial overlaps with class I insulators, many of which bear Insv consensus sites. Moreover, Insv coimmunoprecipitates with the class I insulator factor CP190. Finally, we observed that Insv harbors exclusive activity among fly BEN-solo factors with respect to regulation of Notch-mediated cell fate choices in the peripheral nervous system. This in vivo activity is recapitulated by BEND6, a mammalian BEN-solo factor that conserves the Notch corepressor function of Insv but not its capacity to bind Insv consensus sites. Altogether, our data define an array of common and distinct biochemical and functional

  5. Common and distinct DNA-binding and regulatory activities of the BEN-solo transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Ren, Aiming; Westholm, Jakub O.; Duan, Hong; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the BEN (BANP, E5R, and NAC1) domain was recognized as a new class of conserved DNA-binding domain. The fly genome encodes three proteins that bear only a single BEN domain (“BEN-solo” factors); namely, Insensitive (Insv), Bsg25A (Elba1), and CG9883 (Elba2). Insv homodimers preferentially bind CCAATTGG palindromes throughout the genome to mediate transcriptional repression, whereas Bsg25A and Elba2 heterotrimerize with their obligate adaptor, Elba3 (i.e., the ELBA complex), to recognize a CCAATAAG motif in the Fab-7 insulator. While these data suggest distinct DNA-binding properties of BEN-solo proteins, we performed reporter assays that indicate that both Bsg25A and Elba2 can individually recognize Insv consensus sites efficiently. We confirmed this by solving the structure of Bsg25A complexed to the Insv site, which showed that key aspects of the BEN:DNA recognition strategy are similar between these proteins. We next show that both Insv and ELBA proteins are competent to mediate transcriptional repression via Insv consensus sequences but that the ELBA complex appears to be selective for the ELBA site. Reciprocally, genome-wide analysis reveals that Insv exhibits significant cobinding to class I insulator elements, indicating that it may also contribute to insulator function. Indeed, we observed abundant Insv binding within the Hox complexes with substantial overlaps with class I insulators, many of which bear Insv consensus sites. Moreover, Insv coimmunoprecipitates with the class I insulator factor CP190. Finally, we observed that Insv harbors exclusive activity among fly BEN-solo factors with respect to regulation of Notch-mediated cell fate choices in the peripheral nervous system. This in vivo activity is recapitulated by BEND6, a mammalian BEN-solo factor that conserves the Notch corepressor function of Insv but not its capacity to bind Insv consensus sites. Altogether, our data define an array of common and distinct biochemical and functional

  6. A Family of Salmonella Virulence Factors Functions as a Distinct Class of Autoregulated E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    SciTech Connect

    Quezada, C.; Hicks, S; Galan, J; Stebbins, C

    2009-01-01

    Processes as diverse as receptor binding and signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and programmed cell death are manipulated by mimics of host proteins encoded by pathogenic bacteria. We show here that the Salmonella virulence factor SspH2 belongs to a growing class of bacterial effector proteins that harness and subvert the eukaryotic ubiquitination pathway. This virulence protein possesses ubiquitination activity that depends on a conserved cysteine residue. A crystal structure of SspH2 reveals a canonical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that interacts with a unique E{sub 3} ligase [which we have termed NEL for Novel E{sub 3} Ligase] C-terminal fold unrelated to previously observed HECT or RING-finger E{sub 3} ligases. Moreover, the LRR domain sequesters the catalytic cysteine residue contained in the NEL domain, and we suggest a mechanism for activation of the ligase requiring a substantial conformational change to release the catalytic domain for function. We also show that the N-terminal domain targets SspH2 to the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells and propose a model whereby binding of the LRR to proteins at the target site releases the ligase domain for site-specific function.

  7. IL-13 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Have Critical but Distinct Roles in Epithelial Cell Mucin Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Guohua; Park, Sung Woo; Nguyenvu, Louis T.; Rodriguez, Madeleine W.; Barbeau, Rebecca; Paquet, Agnes C.; Erle, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Overproduction of mucus is a central feature of asthma. The cytokine, IL-13, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and transcription factor, FOXA2, have each been implicated in mucus production, but the mechanistic relationships between these molecules are not yet well understood. To address this, we established a primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell culture system with IL-13–induced mucus production and gene transcript expression changes similar to those seen in vivo in mice. IL-13 did not stimulate release of the EGFR ligand, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α. However, there was constitutive release of TGF-α from normal human bronchial epithelial cells, and inhibition of TGF-α or EGFR reduced both constitutive and IL-13–induced mucin production. Microarray analysis revealed that IL-13 and the EGFR pathway appear to have almost completely independent effects on transcript expression. IL-13 induced a relatively small set of transcripts, including several novel transcripts that might play a role in pathogenesis of allergic airway disease. In contrast, EGFR activity had extensive effects, including altered expression of many transcripts associated with cell metabolism, survival, transcription, and differentiation. One of the few common effects of IL-13 and EGFR signaling was decreased expression of FOXA2, which is known to prevent mucus production. We conclude that the IL-13 and EGFR pathways make critical but quite distinct contributions to gene regulation in airway epithelial cells, and that both pathways affect expression of the key transcription factor, FOXA2, a known regulator of mucus production. PMID:16980555

  8. Distinct pathways of cell migration and antiapoptotic response to epithelial injury: structure-function analysis of human intestinal trefoil factor.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Taupin, D R; Itoh, H; Podolsky, D K

    2000-07-01

    The trefoil peptide intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) plays a critical role in the protection of colonic mucosa and is essential to restitution after epithelial damage. These functional properties are accomplished through coordinated promotion of cell migration and inhibition of apoptosis. ITF contains a unique three-looped trefoil motif formed by intrachain disulfide bonds among six conserved cysteine residues, which is thought to contribute to its marked protease resistance. ITF also has a seventh cysteine residue, which permits homodimer formation. A series of cysteine-to-serine substitutions and a C-terminally truncated ITF were made by PCR site-directed mutagenesis. Any alteration of the trefoil motif or truncation resulted in loss of protease resistance. However, neither an intact trefoil domain nor dimerization was required to promote cell migration. This pro-restitution activity correlated with the ability of the ITF mutants to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase independent of phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In contrast, only intact ITF retained both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the EGF receptor-dependent antiapoptotic effect in HCT116 and IEC-6 cells. The inability to block apoptosis correlated with a loss of trefoil peptide-induced transactivation of the EGF receptor or Akt kinase in HT-29 cells. In addition to defining structural requirements for the functional properties of ITF, these findings demonstrate that distinct intracellular signaling pathways mediate the effects of ITF on cell migration and apoptosis.

  9. Distinct Pathways of Cell Migration and Antiapoptotic Response to Epithelial Injury: Structure-Function Analysis of Human Intestinal Trefoil Factor

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Koichi; Taupin, Douglas R.; Itoh, Hiroshi; Podolsky, Daniel K.

    2000-01-01

    The trefoil peptide intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) plays a critical role in the protection of colonic mucosa and is essential to restitution after epithelial damage. These functional properties are accomplished through coordinated promotion of cell migration and inhibition of apoptosis. ITF contains a unique three-looped trefoil motif formed by intrachain disulfide bonds among six conserved cysteine residues, which is thought to contribute to its marked protease resistance. ITF also has a seventh cysteine residue, which permits homodimer formation. A series of cysteine-to-serine substitutions and a C-terminally truncated ITF were made by PCR site-directed mutagenesis. Any alteration of the trefoil motif or truncation resulted in loss of protease resistance. However, neither an intact trefoil domain nor dimerization was required to promote cell migration. This pro-restitution activity correlated with the ability of the ITF mutants to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase independent of phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. In contrast, only intact ITF retained both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the EGF receptor-dependent antiapoptotic effect in HCT116 and IEC-6 cells. The inability to block apoptosis correlated with a loss of trefoil peptide-induced transactivation of the EGF receptor or Akt kinase in HT-29 cells. In addition to defining structural requirements for the functional properties of ITF, these findings demonstrate that distinct intracellular signaling pathways mediate the effects of ITF on cell migration and apoptosis. PMID:10848594

  10. Factors influencing the therapeutic effect of muscle afferent block for oromandibular dystonia and dyskinesia: implications for their distinct pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Kaji, R; Shibasaki, H; Iizuka, T

    2002-10-01

    Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary masticatory and/or lingual muscle contractions. Muscle afferent block (MAB) by injecting anaesthetic and alcohol intramuscularly is recently used for the treatment of OMD. To study the factors affecting the efficacy of MAB, 44 patients with OMD were treated by local injection of lidocaine and ethanol. They were divided into four groups (spastic, rhythmic, dyskinetic, and task-specific) according to the pattern of incisal movement and involuntary contraction. We used a clinical scaling protocol in terms of four parameters (mastication, speech, pain, and discomfort) to evaluate the change of symptoms objectively. The relationship of improvement in clinical scores with various parameters was assessed statistically. The overall objective improvement was 60.2 +/- 29.5%. The scores decreased significantly (P<0.0001, paired t-test) after MAB. The maximal incisal velocity significantly correlated inversely with the clinical improvement, and MAB was particularly effective for spastic contraction. Dyskinetic and rhythmic groups showed variable and significantly less improvements than the spastic group. MAB is highly effective for OMD, but not for the patients with dyskinetic symptoms. The jaw movement pattern is an important factor for predicting the outcome. The difference in the response to MAB in OMD and oral and/or orofacial dyskinesia suggests the distinct pathophysiology between the two.

  11. Three R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors Regulate Distinct Floral Pigmentation Patterning in Phalaenopsis spp.1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, You-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Orchidaceae are well known for their fascinating floral morphologic features, specialized pollination, and distinctive ecological strategies. With their long-lasting flowers of various colors and pigmentation patterning, Phalaenopsis spp. have become important ornamental plants worldwide. In this study, we identified three R2R3-MYB transcription factors PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12. Their expression profiles were concomitant with red color formation in Phalaenopsis spp. flowers. Transient assay of overexpression of three PeMYBs verified that PeMYB2 resulted in anthocyanin accumulation, and these PeMYBs could activate the expression of three downstream structural genes Phalaenopsis spp. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase5, Phalaenopsis spp. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase1, and Phalaenopsis spp. Anthocyanidin synthase3. In addition, these three PeMYBs participated in the distinct pigmentation patterning in a single flower, which was revealed by virus-induced gene silencing. In the sepals/petals, silencing of PeMYB2, PeMYB11, and PeMYB12 resulted in the loss of the full-red pigmentation, red spots, and venation patterns, respectively. Moreover, different pigmentation patterning was regulated by PeMYBs in the sepals/petals and lip. PeMYB11 was responsive to the red spots in the callus of the lip, and PeMYB12 participated in the full pigmentation in the central lobe of the lip. The differential pigmentation patterning was validated by RNA in situ hybridization. Additional assessment was performed in six Phalaenopsis spp. cultivars with different color patterns. The combined expression of these three PeMYBs in different ratios leads to a wealth of complicated floral pigmentation patterning in Phalaenopsis spp. PMID:25739699

  12. Modeling the Human Kinetic Adjustment Factor for Inhaled Volatile Organic Chemicals: Whole Population Approach versus Distinct Subpopulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Valcke, M.; Nong, A.; Krishnan, K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of whole- and sub-population-related variabilities on the determination of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) used in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Monte Carlo simulations were applied to a steady-state algorithm to generate population distributions for blood concentrations (CAss) and rates of metabolism (RAMs) for inhalation exposures to benzene (BZ) and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D). The simulated population consisted of various proportions of adults, elderly, children, neonates and pregnant women as per the Canadian demography. Subgroup-specific input parameters were obtained from the literature and P3M software. Under the “whole population” approach, the HKAF was computed as the ratio of the entire population's upper percentile value (99th, 95th) of dose metrics to the median value in either the entire population or the adult population. Under the “distinct subpopulation” approach, the upper percentile values in each subpopulation were considered, and the greatest resulting HKAF was retained. CAss-based HKAFs that considered the Canadian demography varied between 1.2 (BZ) and 2.8 (1,4-D). The “distinct subpopulation” CAss-based HKAF varied between 1.6 (BZ) and 8.5 (1,4-D). RAM-based HKAFs always remained below 1.6. Overall, this study evaluated for the first time the impact of underlying assumptions with respect to the interindividual variability considered (whole population or each subpopulation taken separately) when determining the HKAF. PMID:22523487

  13. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in follicular fluid from morphologically distinct healthy and atretic bovine antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Catanzariti, K D; Master, M; Grant, P A; Owens, P C; Rodgers, R J

    2003-01-01

    In bovine follicles 2-5 mm in diameter, two morphologically distinct types of healthy follicles and two types of atretic follicles have been described recently. Healthy follicles either have columnar basal granulosa cells with follicular basal lamina composed of many layers or 'loops' or they have rounded basal cells with a conventional single-layered, aligned follicular basal lamina. In atretic follicles, cell death either commences at the basal layer and progresses to the antrum (basal atresia) with macrophage penetration of the membrana granulosa or death progresses from the antrum in a basal direction (antral atresia). Little is known about how these different phenotypes develop. To determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) levels in follicular fluid differ between these different types of follicles, we measured IGFBP levels in fluids from these follicles. A total of 61 follicles were assessed by light microscopy and characterized by morphological analysis as either healthy, with columnar or rounded basal granulosa cells, or as undergoing antral or basal atresia. The IGFBP concentration in the follicular fluid of individual follicles from the four groups (n = 12-20 per group) was identified by Western ligand blots using (125)I-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II as a probe. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 2, 3 (44 and 40 kDa), 4 (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) and 5 were observed. The levels (per volume of fluid) of IGFBPs 2, 4 and 5 were greater in atretic follicles than in healthy follicles. However, there were no statistical differences in levels of each IGFBP between either the two types of healthy follicle or between the two types of atretic follicles. Thus, IGFBP levels are not related to the different types of healthy or atretic follicles. PMID:12921699

  14. Paralogs of Atlantic salmon myoblast determination factor genes are distinctly regulated in proliferating and differentiating myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A

    2010-06-01

    The mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD1 (myoblast determination factor) gene paralogs, and their regulation by amino acids and insulin-like growth factors were investigated in primary cell cultures isolated from fast myotomal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The cell cycle and S phase were determined as 28.1 and 13.3 h, respectively, at 18 degrees C. Expression of myoD1b and myoD1c peaked at 8 days of culture in the initial proliferation phase and then declined more than sixfold as cells differentiated and was correlated with PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression (R = 0.88, P < 0.0001; R = 0.70, P < 0.0001). In contrast, myoD1a transcripts increased from 2 to 8 days and remained at elevated levels as myotubes were formed. mRNA levels of myoD1c were, on average, 3.1- and 5.7-fold higher than myoD1a and myoD1b, respectively. Depriving cells of amino acids and serum led to a rapid increase in pax7 and a decrease in myoD1c and PCNA expression, indicating a transition to a quiescent state. In contrast, amino acid replacement in starved cells produced significant increases in myoD1c (at 6 h), PCNA (at 12 h), and myoD1b (at 24 h) and decreases in pax7 expression as cells entered the cell cycle. Our results are consistent with temporally distinct patterns of myoD1c and myoD1b expression at the G(1) and S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle. Treatment of starved cells with insulin-like growth factor I or II did not alter expression of the myoD paralogs. It was concluded that, in vitro, amino acids alone are sufficient to stimulate expression of genes regulating myogenesis in myoblasts involving autocrine/paracrine pathways. The differential responses of myoD paralogs during myotube maturation and amino acid treatments suggest that myoD1b and myoD1c are primarily expressed in proliferating cells and myoD1a in differentiating cells, providing evidence for their subfunctionalization following whole genome and local duplications in

  15. Wounding Sheets of Epithelial Cells Activates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor through Distinct Short- and Long-Range Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.

    2008-01-01

    Wounding epithelia induces activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is absolutely required for induction of motility. ATP is released from cells after wounding; it binds to purinergic receptors on the cell surface, and the EGFR is subsequently activated. Exogenous ATP activates phospholipase D, and we show here that ATP activates the EGFR through the phospholipase D2 isoform. The EGFR is activated in cells far (>0.3 cm) from wounds, which is mediated by diffusion of extracellular ATP because activation at a distance from wounds is abrogated by eliminating ATP in the medium with apyrase. In sharp contrast, activation of the EGFR near wounds is not sensitive to apyrase. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that cells exhibit increased motilities near edges of wounds; this increase in motility is not sensitive to apyrase, and apyrase does not detectably inhibit healing of wounds in epithelial sheets. This novel ATP/PLD2-independent pathway activates the EGFR by a transactivation process through ligand release, and it involves signaling by a member of the Src family of kinases. We conclude that wounding activates two distinct signaling pathways that induce EGFR activation and promote healing of wounds in epithelial cells. One pathway signals at a distance from wounds through release of ATP, and another pathway acts locally and is independent on ATP signaling. PMID:18799627

  16. Distinct roles for lymphotoxin-alpha and tumor necrosis factor in the control of Leishmania donovani infection.

    PubMed

    Engwerda, Christian R; Ato, Manabu; Stäger, Simona; Alexander, Clare E; Stanley, Amanda C; Kaye, Paul M

    2004-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical for the control of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani. However, the role of the related cytokine lymphotoxin (LT) alpha in this infection is unknown. Here we report that C57BL/6 mice deficient in TNF (B6.TNF(-/-)) or LT alpha (B6.LT alpha(-/-)) have increased susceptibility to hepatic L. donovani infection. Furthermore, the outcome of infection in bone marrow chimeric mice is dependent on donor hematopoietic cells, indicating that developmental defects in lymphoid organs were not responsible for increased susceptibility to L. donovani. Although both LT alpha and TNF regulated the migration of leukocytes into the sinusoidal area of the infected liver, their roles were distinct. LT alpha was essential for migration of leukocytes from periportal areas, an event consistent with LT alpha-dependent up-regulation of VCAM-1 on liver sinusoid lining cells, whereas TNF was essential for leukocyte recruitment to the liver. During visceral leishmaniasis, both cytokines were produced by radio-resistant cells and by CD4(+) T cells. LT alpha and TNF production by the former was required for granuloma assembly, while production of these cytokines by CD4(+) T cells was necessary to control parasite growth. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase was also found to be deficient in TNF- and LT alpha-deficient infected mice. These results demonstrate that both LT alpha and TNF are required for control of L. donovani infection in noncompensatory ways. PMID:15579454

  17. A Novel Approach to Identify Two Distinct Receptor Binding Surfaces of Insulin-like Growth Factor II*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Alvino, Clair L.; McNeil, Kerrie A.; Ong, Shee Chee; Delaine, Carlie; Booker, Grant W.; Wallace, John C.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Forbes, Briony E.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the residues important for the interaction of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) with the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and the insulin receptor (IR). Insulin, to which IGF-II is homologous, is proposed to cross-link opposite halves of the IR dimer through two receptor binding surfaces, site 1 and site 2. In the present study we have analyzed the contribution of IGF-II residues equivalent to insulin's two binding surfaces toward the interaction of IGF-II with the IGF-1R and IR. Four “site 1” and six “site 2” analogues were produced and analyzed in terms of IGF-1R and IR binding and activation. The results show that Val43, Phe28, and Val14 (equivalent to site 1) are critical to IGF-1R and IR binding, whereas mutation to alanine of Gln18 affects only IGF-1R and not IR binding. Alanine substitutions at Glu12, Asp15, Phe19, Leu53, and Glu57 analogues resulted in significant (>2-fold) decreases in affinity for both the IGF-1R and IR. Furthermore, taking a novel approach using a monomeric, single-chain minimized IGF-1R we have defined a distinct second binding surface formed by Glu12, Phe19, Leu53, and Glu57 that potentially engages the IGF-1R at one or more of the FnIII domains. PMID:19139090

  18. Splice variants of the SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factor Domino have distinct functions during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Kenneth; Becker, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    SWR1-type nucleosome remodeling factors replace histone H2A by variants to endow chromatin locally with specialized functionality. In Drosophila melanogaster a single H2A variant, H2A.V, combines functions of mammalian H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcription regulation and the DNA damage response. A major role in H2A.V incorporation for the only SWR1-like enzyme in flies, Domino, is assumed but not well documented in vivo. It is also unclear whether the two alternatively spliced isoforms, DOM-A and DOM-B, have redundant or specialized functions. Loss of both DOM isoforms compromises oogenesis, causing female sterility. We systematically explored roles of the two DOM isoforms during oogenesis using a cell type-specific knockdown approach. Despite their ubiquitous expression, DOM-A and DOM-B have non-redundant functions in germline and soma for egg formation. We show that chromatin incorporation of H2A.V in germline and somatic cells depends on DOM-B, whereas global incorporation in endoreplicating germline nurse cells appears to be independent of DOM. By contrast, DOM-A promotes the removal of H2A.V from stage 5 nurse cells. Remarkably, therefore, the two DOM isoforms have distinct functions in cell type-specific development and H2A.V exchange. PMID:27578180

  19. Distinct roles for mammalian target of rapamycin complexes in the fibroblast response to transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Rod A; Andrianifahanana, Mahefatiana; Wilkes, Mark C; Edens, Maryanne; Kottom, Theodore J; Blenis, John; Leof, Edward B

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) promotes a multitude of diverse biological processes, including growth arrest of epithelial cells and proliferation of fibroblasts. Although the TGF-beta signaling pathways that promote inhibition of epithelial cell growth are well characterized, less is known about the mechanisms mediating the positive response to this growth factor. Given that TGF-beta has been shown to promote fibrotic diseases and desmoplasia, identifying the fibroblast-specific TGF-beta signaling pathways is critical. Here, we investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a known effector of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and promoter of cell growth, in the fibroblast response to TGF-beta. We show that TGF-beta activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in fibroblasts but not epithelial cells via a PI3K-Akt-TSC2-dependent pathway. Rapamycin, the pharmacologic inhibitor of mTOR, prevents TGF-beta-mediated anchorage-independent growth without affecting TGF-beta transcriptional responses or extracellular matrix protein induction. In addition to mTORC1, we also examined the role of mTORC2 in TGF-beta action. mTORC2 promotes TGF-beta-induced morphologic transformation and is required for TGF-beta-induced Akt S473 phosphorylation but not mTORC1 activation. Interestingly, both mTOR complexes are necessary for TGF-beta-mediated growth in soft agar. These results define distinct and overlapping roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in the fibroblast response to TGF-beta and suggest that inhibitors of mTOR signaling may be useful in treating fibrotic processes, such as desmoplasia. PMID:19117990

  20. Two different factors act separately or together to specify functionally distinct activities at a single transcriptional enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, D; Yamamoto, K R

    1986-01-01

    The expression of genes fused downstream of the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MoMSV) long terminal repeat is stimulated by glucocorticoids. We mapped the glucocorticoid response element that conferred this hormonal regulation and found that it is a hormone-dependent transcriptional enhancer, designated Sg; it resides within DNA fragments that also carry a previously described enhancer element (B. Levinson, G. Khoury, G. Vande Woude, and P. Gruss, Nature [London] 295:568-572, 1982), here termed Sa, whose activity is independent of the hormone. Nuclease footprinting revealed that purified glucocorticoid receptor bound at multiple discrete sites within and at the borders of the tandemly repeated sequence motif that defines Sa. The Sa and Sg activities stimulated the apparent efficiency of cognate or heterologous promoter utilization, individually providing modest enhancement and in concert yielding higher levels of activity. A deletion mutant lacking most of the tandem repeat but retaining a single receptor footprint sequence lost Sa activity but still conferred Sg activity. The two enhancer components could also be distinguished physiologically: both were operative within cultured rat fibroblasts, but only Sg activity was detectable in rat exocrine pancreas cells. Therefore, the sequence determinants of Sa and Sg activity may be interdigitated, and when both components are active, the receptor and a putative Sa factor can apparently bind and act simultaneously. We concluded that MoMSV enhancer activity is effected by at least two distinct binding factors, suggesting that combinatorial regulation of promoter function can be mediated even from a single genetic element. Images PMID:3023887

  1. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and platelet-derived growth factor activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase by distinct pathways in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, T; Tsiani, E; Lekas, P; Bergman, A; Cherepanov, V; Whiteside, C; Downey, G P

    2001-10-19

    We have investigated the signaling pathways initiated by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) leading to activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in L6 myotubes. Insulin but not IGF-I or PDGF-induced ERK activation was abrogated by Ras inhibition, either by treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTP III, or by actin disassembly by cytochalasin D, previously shown to inhibit Ras activation. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide abolished PDGF but not IGF-I or insulin-induced ERK activation. ERK activation by insulin, IGF-I, or PDGF was unaffected by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin but was abolished by the MEK inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, activation of the pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) was mediated similarly by all three receptors, through a PI 3-kinase-dependent but Ras- and actin-independent pathway. We conclude that ERK activation is mediated by distinct pathways including: (i) a cytoskeleton- and Ras-dependent, PKC-independent, pathway utilized by insulin, (ii) a PKC-dependent, cytoskeleton- and Ras-independent pathway used by PDGF, and (iii) a cytoskeleton-, Ras-, and PKC-independent pathway utilized by IGF-I.

  2. Bacillus cereus enterotoxins act as major virulence factors and exhibit distinct cytotoxicity to different human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jeßberger, Nadja; Dietrich, Richard; Bock, Stefanie; Didier, Andrea; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis on the relevance of the Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe (nonhemolytic enterotoxin), HBL (haemolysin BL) and CytK (cytotoxin K) was accomplished, concerning their toxic activity towards different target cell lines. Overall, among the components secreted by the reference strains for Nhe and HBL, the enterotoxin complexes accounted for over 90% of the total toxicity. Vero and primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) were highly susceptible to Nhe, whereas Hep-G2, Vero and A549 reacted most sensitive to Nhe plus HBL. For CytK the highest toxicity was observed on CaCo-2 cells. As HBL positive strains always produce Nhe in parallel, the specific contribution of both enterotoxin complexes to the overall observed cytotoxic effects was determined by consecutively removing their single components. While in most cell lines Nhe and HBL contributed more or less equally (40-60%) to cytotoxicity, the relative activity of Nhe was approximately 90% in HUVEC, and that of HBL 75% in A549 cells. With U937, a nearly Nhe resistant cell line was identified for the first time. This distinct susceptibility of cell lines was confirmed by investigating a set of 37 B. cereus strains. Interestingly, whereas Nhe is the enterotoxin mainly responsible for cell death as determined by WST-1 bioassays, more rapid pore formation was observed when HBL was present, pointing to a different mode of action of the two enterotoxin complexes. Furthermore, correlation was observed between cytotoxicity of solely Nhe producing strains and NheB. Cytotoxicity of Nhe/HBL producing isolates correlated with the expression of HBL L1, NheB and HBL B. In conclusion, the observed susceptibilities of target cell lines of different histological origin underline that B. cereus enterotoxins represent major virulence factors and that toxicity is not restricted to gastrointestinal infections. The varying contribution of Nhe and HBL to total cytotoxicity strongly indicates that Nhe as well as HBL specific B

  3. Real-time monitoring of inflammation status in 3T3-L1 adipocytes possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B response element

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaki, Haruka; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Aoki, Naohito

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation status in adipocytes can be monitored by the new assay system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only an aliquot of conditioned medium is required without cell lysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently. -- Abstract: We have established 3T3-L1 cells possessing a secretory Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) gene under the control of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) response element. The 3T3-L1 cells named 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc could differentiate into adipocyte as comparably as parental 3T3-L1 cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-1{beta} induced GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. GLuc secretion of 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes was also induced when cultured with RAW264.7 macrophages and was dramatically enhanced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. An NF-{kappa}B activation inhibitor BAY-11-7085 and an antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages. Finally, we found that rosemary-derived carnosic acid strongly suppressed GLuc secretion induced by macrophages and on the contrary up-regulated adiponectin secretion. Collectively, by using 3T3-L1-NF-{kappa}B-RE-GLuc adipocytes, inflammation status can be monitored in real time and inflammation-attenuating compounds can be screened more conveniently.

  4. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering. PMID:22746214

  5. Involuntary mass spirit possession among the Miskitu.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the outbreaks and the development of grisi siknis, a form of mass spirit possession among the Miskitu of north-eastern Nicaragua. Earlier documented outbreaks typically involved a few adolescents, however, in recent years, violent large-scale epidemics have taken place, involving many people of all ages. This has coincided with recent developments in Miskitu society marked by conflicts, contradictions and tense social relations. The anthropological field technique of participant-observation was used. The research took place during 11 months from 2005 to 2008 in the port town of Puerto Cabezas. A total of 38 informants were interviewed. Group discussions, narratives and informal and semi-structured interviews were carried out, as well as participation in healing rituals. The paper shows that socio-economic, cultural, personal as well as environmental factors all contribute to outbreaks of grisi siknis. The affliction has previously been considered a 'culture-bound syndrome' only occurring among the Miskitu. However, when viewed in a more contemporary context and cross-cultural perspective, grisi siknis shows similarities with other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession, particularly in the ways it is manifested, experienced and appears to be spreading. The paper argues that the phenomenon should no longer be considered a 'culture-bound condition' but in fact a Miskitu version of involuntary mass spirit possession. Further research that seeks to understand other forms of involuntary mass spirit possession should emphasize the social, personal and environmental context as well as cross-cultural comparisons in order to encompass fully the role of culture in relation to illness and suffering.

  6. 50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 20.33 Section 20.33...) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall...

  7. Two Arabidopsis loci encode novel eukaryotic initiation factor 4E isoforms that are functionally distinct from the conserved plant eukaryotic initiation factor 4E.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Ryan M; Mayberry, Laura K; Choy, Grace; Woodard, Lauren E; Liu, Joceline S; White, Allyson; Mullen, Rebecca A; Tanavin, Toug M; Latz, Christopher A; Browning, Karen S

    2014-04-01

    Canonical translation initiation in eukaryotes begins with the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4F (eIF4F) complex, made up of eIF4E, which recognizes the 7-methylguanosine cap of messenger RNA, and eIF4G, which serves as a scaffold to recruit other translation initiation factors that ultimately assemble the 80S ribosome. Many eukaryotes have secondary EIF4E genes with divergent properties. The model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes two such genes in tandem loci on chromosome 1, EIF4E1B (At1g29550) and EIF4E1C (At1g29590). This work identifies EIF4E1B/EIF4E1C-type genes as a Brassicaceae-specific diverged form of EIF4E. There is little evidence for EIF4E1C gene expression; however, the EIF4E1B gene appears to be expressed at low levels in most tissues, though microarray and RNA Sequencing data support enrichment in reproductive tissue. Purified recombinant eIF4E1b and eIF4E1c proteins retain cap-binding ability and form functional complexes in vitro with eIF4G. The eIF4E1b/eIF4E1c-type proteins support translation in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) but promote translation initiation in vitro at a lower rate compared with eIF4E. Findings from surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that eIF4E1b and eIF4E1c are unlikely to bind eIF4G in vivo when in competition with eIF4E. This study concludes that eIF4E1b/eIF4E1c-type proteins, although bona fide cap-binding proteins, have divergent properties and, based on apparent limited tissue distribution in Arabidopsis, should be considered functionally distinct from the canonical plant eIF4E involved in translation initiation.

  8. Two Arabidopsis Loci Encode Novel Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E Isoforms That Are Functionally Distinct from the Conserved Plant Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Ryan M.; Mayberry, Laura K.; Choy, Grace; Woodard, Lauren E.; Liu, Joceline S.; White, Allyson; Mullen, Rebecca A.; Tanavin, Toug M.; Latz, Christopher A.; Browning, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Canonical translation initiation in eukaryotes begins with the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4F (eIF4F) complex, made up of eIF4E, which recognizes the 7-methylguanosine cap of messenger RNA, and eIF4G, which serves as a scaffold to recruit other translation initiation factors that ultimately assemble the 80S ribosome. Many eukaryotes have secondary EIF4E genes with divergent properties. The model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes two such genes in tandem loci on chromosome 1, EIF4E1B (At1g29550) and EIF4E1C (At1g29590). This work identifies EIF4E1B/EIF4E1C-type genes as a Brassicaceae-specific diverged form of EIF4E. There is little evidence for EIF4E1C gene expression; however, the EIF4E1B gene appears to be expressed at low levels in most tissues, though microarray and RNA Sequencing data support enrichment in reproductive tissue. Purified recombinant eIF4E1b and eIF4E1c proteins retain cap-binding ability and form functional complexes in vitro with eIF4G. The eIF4E1b/eIF4E1c-type proteins support translation in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) but promote translation initiation in vitro at a lower rate compared with eIF4E. Findings from surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that eIF4E1b and eIF4E1c are unlikely to bind eIF4G in vivo when in competition with eIF4E. This study concludes that eIF4E1b/eIF4E1c-type proteins, although bona fide cap-binding proteins, have divergent properties and, based on apparent limited tissue distribution in Arabidopsis, should be considered functionally distinct from the canonical plant eIF4E involved in translation initiation. PMID:24501003

  9. Targeted gene knockdown in zebrafish reveals distinct intraembryonic functions for insulin-like growth factor II signaling.

    PubMed

    White, Yvonne A R; Kyle, Joshua T; Wood, Antony W

    2009-09-01

    IGF-II is the predominant IGF ligand regulating prenatal growth in all vertebrates, including humans, but its central role in placental development has confounded efforts to fully elucidate its functions within the embryo. Here we use a nonplacental model vertebrate (zebrafish) to interrogate the intraembryonic functions of IGF-II signaling. The zebrafish genome contains two coorthologs of mammalian IGF2 (igf2a, igf2b), which exhibit distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Expression of igf2a mRNA is restricted to the notochord, primarily during segmentation/neurulation. By contrast, igf2b mRNA is expressed in midline tissues adjacent to the notochord, with additional sites of expression in the ventral forebrain, and the pronephros. To identify their intraembryonic functions, we suppressed the expression of each gene with morpholino oligonucleotides. Knockdown of igf2a led to defects in dorsal midline development, characterized by delayed segmentation, notochord undulations, and ventral curvature. Similarly, suppression of igf2b led to defects in dorsal midline development but also induced ectopic fusion of the nephron primordia, and defects in ventral forebrain development. Subsequent onset of severe body edema in igf2b, but not igf2a morphants, further suggested a distinct role for igf2b in development of the embryonic kidney. Simultaneous knockdown of both genes increased the severity of dorsal midline defects, confirming a conserved role for both genes in dorsal midline development. Collectively, these data provide evidence that the zebrafish orthologs of IGF2 function in dorsal midline development during segmentation/neurulation, whereas one paralog, igf2b, has evolved additional, distinct functions during subsequent organogenesis.

  10. DNA affinity labeling of adenovirus type 2 upstream promoter sequence-binding factors identifies two distinct proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Safer, B.; Cohen, R.B.; Garfinkel, S.; Thompson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid affinity labeling procedure with enhanced specificity was developed to identify DNA-binding proteins. /sup 32/P was first introduced at unique phosphodiester bonds within the DNA recognition sequence. UV light-dependent cross-linking of pyrimidines to amino acid residues in direct contact at the binding site, followed by micrococcal nuclease digestion, resulted in the transfer of /sup 32/P to only those specific protein(s) which recognized the binding sequence. This method was applied to the detection and characterization of proteins that bound to the upstream promoter sequence (-50 to -66) of the human adenovirus type 2 major late promoter. We detected two distinct proteins with molecular weights of 45,000 and 116,000 that interacted with this promoter element. The two proteins differed significantly in their chromatographic and cross-linking behaviors.

  11. Distinctive Expression of Bcl-2 Factors in Regulatory T Cells Determines a Pharmacological Target to Induce Immunological Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Sarah Sharon; Bon, Nina; Chen, Jin; Wekerle, Thomas; Bushell, Andrew; Fehr, Thomas; Cippà, Pietro Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Distinctive molecular characteristics of functionally diverse lymphocyte populations may represent novel pharmacological targets for immunotherapy. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway is differently regulated among conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Targeted pharmacological modulation of this pathway with a small molecule Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-737) caused a selective depletion of effector T cells and a relative enrichment of Tregs in vivo. Treatment with ABT-737 resulted in a tolerogenic milieu, which was exploited to alleviate graft-versus-host disease, to prevent allograft rejection in a stringent fully MHC-mismatched skin transplantation model and to induce immunological tolerance in combination with bone marrow transplantation. This concept has the potential to find various applications for immunotherapy, since it allows pharmacologic exploitation of the immunomodulatory properties of Tregs without the need for cell manipulation ex vivo. PMID:26973650

  12. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  13. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  14. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  15. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  16. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.125 - Possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner, operator, and crew of a charter or party... a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures in § 648.120. (b.... Compliance with the daily possession limit will be determined by dividing the number of scup on board by...

  18. Determination of ligand-binding specificity by alternative splicing: Two distinct growth factor receptors encoded by a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, T.; Bottaro, D.P.; Fleming, T.P.; Smith, C.L.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Burgess, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Expression cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) revealed identity with one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors encoded by the bek gene (FGFR-2), except for a divergent stretch of 49 amino acids in their extracellular domains. Binding assays demonstrated that the KGFR was a high-affinity receptor for both KGF and acidic FGF, while FGFR-2 showed high affinity for basic and acidic FGF but no detectable binding by KGF. Genomic analysis of the bek gene revealed two alternative exons responsible for the region of divergence between the two receptors. The KGFR transcript was specific to epithelial cells, and it appeared to be differentially regulated with respect to the alternative FGFR-2 transcript. Thus, two growth factor receptors with different ligand-binding specificities and expression patterns are encoded by alternative transcripts of the same gene.

  19. Identification of distinct Bacillus thuringiensis 4A4 nematicidal factors using the model nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Iatsenko, Igor; Nikolov, Angel; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-14

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been extensively used for the biological control of insect pests. Nematicidal B. thuringiensis strains have also been identified; however, virulence factors of such strains are poorly investigated. Here, we describe virulence factors of the nematicidal B. thuringiensis 4A4 strain, using the model nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that B. thuringiensis 4A4 kills both nematodes via intestinal damage. Whole genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 4A4 identified Cry21Ha, Cry1Ba, Vip1/Vip2 and β-exotoxin as potential nematicidal factors. Only Cry21Ha showed toxicity to C. elegans, while neither Cry nor Vip toxins were active against P. pacificus, when expressed in E. coli. Purified crystals also failed to intoxicate P. pacificus, while autoclaved spore-crystal mixture of B. thuringiensis 4A4 retained toxicity, suggesting that primary β-exotoxin is responsible for P. pacificus killing. In support of this, we found that a β-exotoxin-deficient variant of B. thuringiensis 4A4, generated by plasmid curing lost virulence to the nematodes. Thus, using two model nematodes we revealed virulence factors of the nematicidal strain B. thuringiensis 4A4 and showed the multifactorial nature of its virulence.

  20. Public and Private School Distinction, Regional Development Differences, and Other Factors Influencing the Success of Primary School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulku, Seher Nur; Abdioglu, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing the success of students in primary schools in Turkey. TIMSS 2011 data for Turkey, measuring the success of eighth-grade students in the field of mathematics, were used in an econometric analysis, performed using classical linear regression models. Two hundred thirty-nine schools participated in the…

  1. A Histologically Distinctive Interstitial Pneumonia Induced by Overexpression of the Interleukin 6, Transforming Growth Factor β1, or Platelet-Derived Growth Factor B Gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Sakuma, Junko; Hayashi, Seiji; Abe, Kin'ya; Saito, Izumu; Harada, Shizuko; Sakatani, Mitsunoir; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsumoto, Norinao; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Kishmoto, Tadamitsu

    1995-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is characterized by alveolitis with resulting fibrosis of the interstitium. To determine the relevance of humoral factors in the pathogenesis of interstitial pneumonia, we introduced expression vectors into Wistar rats via the trachea to locally overexpress humoral factors in the lungs. Human interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-6 receptor genes induced lymphocytic alveolitis without marked fibroblast proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of human transforming growth factor β1 or human platelet-derived growth factor B gene induced only mild or apparent cellular infiltration in the alveoli, respectively. However, both factors induced significant proliferation of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen fibrils. These histopathologic changes induced by the transforming growth factor β1 and platelet-derived growth factor B gene are partly akin to those changes seen in lung tissues from patients with pulmonary fibrosis and markedly contrast with the changes induced by overexpression of the IL-6 and IL-6 receptor genes that mimics lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

  2. Epidemic population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence for a clone that is pathogenic to the eye and that has a distinct combination of virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, J A; Poulsen, K; Kilian, M

    2001-10-01

    The genetic structure of a population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and contact lens-associated red eye, contact lens storage cases, urine, ear, blood, lungs, wounds, feces, and the environment was determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The presence and characteristics of virulence factors were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with DNA probes for lasA, lasB, aprA, exoS, exoT, exoU, and ctx and by zymography of staphylolysin, elastase, and alkaline protease. These analyses revealed an epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, characterized by frequent recombination in which a particular successful clone may increase, predominate for a time, and then disappear as a result of recombination. Epidemic clones were found among isolates from patients with keratitis. They were characterized by high activity of a hitherto-unrecognized size variant of elastase, high alkaline protease activity, and possession of the exoU gene encoding the cytotoxic exoenzyme U. These virulence determinants are not exclusive traits in strains causing keratitis, as strains with other properties may cause keratitis in the presence of predisposing conditions. There were no uniform patterns of characteristics of isolates from other types of infection; however, all strains from urinary tract infections possessed the exoS gene, all strains from environment and feces and the major part of keratitis and wound isolates exhibited high elastase and alkaline protease activity, and all strains from feces showed high staphylolysin activity, indicating that these virulence factors may be important in the pathogenesis of these infectious diseases.

  3. Transcription factors GAF and HSF act at distinct regulatory steps to modulate stress-induced gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Fuda, Nicholas J.; Mahat, Dig B.; Core, Leighton J.; Guertin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level is fundamental to development and homeostasis. Inducible systems are invaluable when studying transcription because the regulatory process can be triggered instantaneously, allowing the tracking of ordered mechanistic events. Here, we use precision run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) to examine the genome-wide heat shock (HS) response in Drosophila and the function of two key transcription factors on the immediate transcription activation or repression of all genes regulated by HS. We identify the primary HS response genes and the rate-limiting steps in the transcription cycle that GAGA-associated factor (GAF) and HS factor (HSF) regulate. We demonstrate that GAF acts upstream of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) formation (likely at the step of chromatin opening) and that GAF-facilitated Pol II pausing is critical for HS activation. In contrast, HSF is dispensable for establishing or maintaining Pol II pausing but is critical for the release of paused Pol II into the gene body at a subset of highly activated genes. Additionally, HSF has no detectable role in the rapid HS repression of thousands of genes. PMID:27492368

  4. Female infertility in mice deficient in midkine and pleiotrophin, which form a distinct family of growth factors.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Hisako; Zou, Peng; Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Ichihara-Tanaka, Keiko; Maruyama, Kiyoko; Inoh, Kazuhiko; Sakai, Takayuki; Chen, Lan; Sato, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Midkine and pleiotrophin form a family of growth factors. Mice deficient in one of the genes show few abnormalities on reproduction and development. To understand their roles in these processes, we produced mice deficient in both genes; the double deficient mice were born in only one third the number expected by Mendelian segregation and 4 weeks after birth weighed about half as much as wild-type mice. Most of the female double deficient mice were infertile. In these mice, the numbers of mature follicles and of ova at ovulation were reduced compared to numbers in wild-type mice. Both midkine and pleiotrophin were expressed in the follicular epithelium and granulosa cells of the ovary. The expression of these factors in the uterus was dramatically altered during the estrous cycle. The diestrus and proestrus periods were long and the estrus period was short in the double deficient mice, indicating the role of the factors in the estrous cycle. Furthermore, vaginal abnormality was found in about half of the double deficient mice. These abnormalities in combination resulted in female infertility. Therefore, midkine and pleiotrophin, together with their signaling receptors, play important roles in the female reproductive system.

  5. Two distinct factors bind to the rabbit uteroglobin TATA-box region and are required for efficient transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Klug, J; Knapp, S; Castro, I; Beato, M

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit uteroglobin gene is expressed in a variety of epithelial cell types like the lung Clara cells and the glandular and luminal epithelial cells of the endometrium. Expression in Clara cells is on a high constitutive level, whereas expression in the rabbit endometrium is under tight hormonal control. One important element of the rabbit uteroglobin gene mediating its efficient transcription in two epithelial cell lines from human endometrium (Ishikawa) and lung (NCI-H441) is its noncanonical TATA box (TACA). Here, we show that two factors (TATA core factor [TCF] and TATA palindrome factor [TPF]) different from the TATA-box binding protein bind to the DNA major groove at two adjacent sites within the uteroglobin TATA-box region and that one of them (TCF) is specifically expressed in cell lines derived from uteroglobin-expressing tissues. The binding sites for TCF and TPF, respectively, are both required for efficient transcription in Ishikawa and NCI-H441 cells. Mutation of the TACA box, which we show is a poor TATA box in functional terms, to a canonical TATA motif does not affect TCF and TPF binding. Therefore, we suggest that the function of the unusual cytosine could be to reduce rabbit uteroglobin expression in cells lacking TCF and that the interaction of TATA-box binding protein with the weak TACA site is facilitated in TCF- and TPF-positive cells. Images PMID:8065353

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Disrupts Claudin-5 Endothelial Tight Junction Barriers in Two Distinct NF-κB-Dependent Phases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Paul R.; Kim, Richard K.; Pober, Jordan S.; Kluger, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Capillary leak in severe sepsis involves disruption of endothelial cell tight junctions. We modeled this process by TNF treatment of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) monolayers, which unlike human umbilical vein endothelial cells form claudin-5-dependent tight junctions and a high-resistance permeability barrier. Continuous monitoring with electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing revealed that TNF disrupts tight junction-dependent HDMEC barriers in discrete steps: an ~5% increase in transendothelial electrical resistance over 40 minutes; a decrease to ~10% below basal levels over 2 hours (phase 1 leak); an interphase plateau of 1 hour; and a major fall in transendothelial electrical resistance to < 70% of basal levels by 8–10 hours (phase 2 leak), with EC50 values of TNF for phase 1 and 2 leak of ~30 and ~150 pg/ml, respectively. TNF leak is reversible and independent of cell death. Leak correlates with disruption of continuous claudin-5 immunofluorescence staining, myosin light chain phosphorylation and loss of claudin-5 co-localization with cortical actin. All these responses require NF-κB signaling, shown by inhibition with Bay 11 or overexpression of IκB super-repressor, and are blocked by H-1152 or Y-27632, selective inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase that do not block other NF-κB-dependent responses. siRNA combined knockdown of Rho-associated kinase-1 and -2 also prevents myosin light chain phosphorylation, loss of claudin-5/actin co-localization, claudin-5 reorganization and reduces phase 1 leak. However, unlike H-1152 and Y-27632, combined Rho-associated kinase-1/2 siRNA knockdown does not reduce the magnitude of phase 2 leak, suggesting that H-1152 and Y-27632 have targets beyond Rho-associated kinases that regulate endothelial barrier function. We conclude that TNF disrupts TJs in HDMECs in two distinct NF-κB-dependent steps, the first involving Rho-associated kinase and the second likely to involve an as yet

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor triggers distinct mechanisms of Asef and Tiam1 activation to induce endothelial barrier enhancement.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Katherine; Tian, Yufeng; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Shah, Alok; Birukova, Anna A

    2014-11-01

    Previous reports described an important role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in mitigation of pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction and cell injury induced by pathologic agonists and mechanical forces. HGF protective effects have been associated with Rac-GTPase signaling pathway activated by Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 and leading to enhancement of intercellular adherens junctions. This study tested involvement of a novel Rac-specific activator, Asef, in endothelial barrier enhancement by HGF and investigated a mechanism of HGF-induced Asef activation. Si-RNA-based knockdown of Tiam1 and Asef had an additive effect on attenuation of HGF-induced Rac activation and endothelial cell (EC) barrier enhancement. Tiam1 and Asef activation was abolished by pharmacologic inhibitors of HGF receptor and PI3-kinase. In contrast to Tiam1, Asef interacted with APC and associated with microtubule fraction upon HGF stimulation. EC treatment by low dose nocodazole to inhibit peripheral microtubule dynamics partially attenuated HGF-induced Asef peripheral translocation, but had negligible effect on Tiam1 translocation. These effects were associated with attenuation of HGF-induced barrier enhancement in EC pretreated with low ND dose and activation of Rac and its cytoskeletal effectors PAK1 and cortactin. These data demonstrate, that in addition to microtubule-independent Tiam1 activation, HGF engages additional microtubule- and APC-dependent pathway of Asef activation. These mechanisms may complement each other to provide the fine tuning of Rac signaling and endothelial barrier enhancement in response to various agonists.

  8. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene variants are associated with multiple sclerosis in three distinct populations

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, G; Sandling, J K; Bonetti, A; Roos, I M; Milani, L; Wang, C; Gustafsdottir, S M; Sigurdsson, S; Lundmark, A; Tienari, P J; Koivisto, K; Elovaara, I; Pirttilä, T; Reunanen, M; Peltonen, L; Saarela, J; Hillert, J; Olsson, T; Landegren, U; Alcina, A; Fernández, O; Leyva, L; Guerrero, M; Lucas, M; Izquierdo, G; Matesanz, F; Syvänen, A-C

    2008-01-01

    Background: IRF5 is a transcription factor involved both in the type I interferon and the toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Previously, IRF5 has been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether polymorphisms in the IRF5 gene would be associated with yet another disease with features of autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms and one insertion-deletion polymorphism in the IRF5 gene in a collection of 2337 patients with MS and 2813 controls from three populations: two case–control cohorts from Spain and Sweden, and a set of MS trio families from Finland. Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) (rs4728142, rs3807306), and a 5 bp insertion-deletion polymorphism located in the promoter and first intron of the IRF5 gene, showed association signals with values of p<0.001 when the data from all cohorts were combined. The predisposing alleles were present on the same common haplotype in all populations. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays we observed allele specific differences in protein binding for the SNP rs4728142 and the 5 bp indel, and by a proximity ligation assay we demonstrated increased binding of the transcription factor SP1 to the risk allele of the 5 bp indel. Conclusion: These findings add IRF5 to the short list of genes shown to be associated with MS in more than one population. Our study adds to the evidence that there might be genes or pathways that are common in multiple autoimmune diseases, and that the type I interferon system is likely to be involved in the development of these diseases. PMID:18285424

  9. Transcription Factors Pcr1 and Atf1 Have Distinct Roles in Stress- and Sty1-Dependent Gene Regulation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sansó, Miriam; Gogol, Madelaine; Ayté, José; Seidel, Chris; Hidalgo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Upon stress activation, Sty1 reversibly accumulates in the nucleus, where it stimulates gene expression via the Atf1 transcription factor. The Atf1 protein forms a heterodimer with Pcr1, but the specific role of this association is controversial. We have carried out a comparative analysis of strains lacking these proteins individually. We demonstrate that Atf1 and Pcr1 have similar but not identical roles in S. pombe, since cells lacking Pcr1 do not share all the phenotypes reported for Δatf1 cells. Northern blot and microarray analyses demonstrate that the responses to specific stresses of cells lacking either Pcr1 or Atf1 do not fully overlap, and even though most Atf1-dependent genes induced by osmotic stress are also Pcr1 dependent, a subset of genes require only the presence of Atf1 for their induction. Whereas binding of Atf1 to most stress-dependent genes requires the presence of Pcr1, we demonstrate here that Atf1 can bind to the Pcr1-independent promoters in a Δpcr1 strain in vivo. Furthermore, these analyses show that both proteins have a global repressive effect on stress-dependent and stress-independent genes. PMID:18375616

  10. Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor is a novel immunomarker in distinction of well-differentiated HCC from dysplastic nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Jin, Guangzhi; Jin, Haojie; Gu, Dishui; Tao, Xuemei; Huo, Xisong; Ge, Tianxiang; Cong, Wenming; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC) and high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDNs) represents a challenge for pathologists. Several immunohistochemistry markers have been identified to distinguish hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from HGDNs. However, sensitivity or specificity of the individual marker is still limited. In this study, we analyzed dynamic alteration of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) and CD34 during hepatocarcinogenesis from dysplastic nodules to small HCC. The diagnostic performance of LIFR and CD34 combination in WD-HCC and HGDNs was investigated by logistic regression models and validated in an independent validation cohort. LIFR was decreased and CD34 was increased along with stepwise progression of hepatocarcinogenesis from low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDNs) to small HCC. The sensitivity and specificity of the LIFR and CD34 combination for WD-HCC detection were 93.5% and 90.5%, respectively. In addition, colony formation assay was used to explore the role of LIFR in tumorigenesis. Silencing of LIFR could significantly promote colony formation of HCC cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of LIFR resulted in impaired ability of colony formation of HCC cells. These findings indicate that LIFR and CD34 combination may be used as an available differential diagnostic model for WD-HCC from HGDNs in clinical practice. PMID:25749520

  11. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end.

  12. Distinctive expression patterns of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase following hypergravity exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun; Oh, Choong Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the level and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the hearts and livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. Hypergravity-induced hypoxia and the subsequent post-exposure reoxygenation significantly increased cardiac HIF-1α levels. Furthermore, the levels and activity of cardiac eNOS also showed significant increase immediately following hypergravity exposure and during the reoxygenation period. In contrast, the expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) showed significant elevation only during the reoxygenation period. These data raise the possibility that the increase in cardiac HIF-1α expression induced by reoxygenation involves a cascade of signaling events, including activation of the Akt and ERK pathways. In the liver, HIF-1α expression was significantly increased immediately after hypergravity exposure, indicating that hypergravity exposure to causes hepatocellular hypoxia. The hypergravity-exposed livers showed significantly higher eNOS immunoreactivity than did those of control mice. Consistent with these results, significant increases in eNOS activity and nitrate/nitrite levels were also observed. These findings suggest that hypergravity-induced hypoxia plays a significant role in the upregulation of hepatic eNOS. PMID:27191892

  13. Transcription factors Pcr1 and Atf1 have distinct roles in stress- and Sty1-dependent gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Sansó, Miriam; Gogol, Madelaine; Ayté, José; Seidel, Chris; Hidalgo, Elena

    2008-05-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 is essential for the regulation of transcriptional responses that promote cell survival in response to different types of environmental stimuli in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Upon stress activation, Sty1 reversibly accumulates in the nucleus, where it stimulates gene expression via the Atf1 transcription factor. The Atf1 protein forms a heterodimer with Pcr1, but the specific role of this association is controversial. We have carried out a comparative analysis of strains lacking these proteins individually. We demonstrate that Atf1 and Pcr1 have similar but not identical roles in S. pombe, since cells lacking Pcr1 do not share all the phenotypes reported for Deltaatf1 cells. Northern blot and microarray analyses demonstrate that the responses to specific stresses of cells lacking either Pcr1 or Atf1 do not fully overlap, and even though most Atf1-dependent genes induced by osmotic stress are also Pcr1 dependent, a subset of genes require only the presence of Atf1 for their induction. Whereas binding of Atf1 to most stress-dependent genes requires the presence of Pcr1, we demonstrate here that Atf1 can bind to the Pcr1-independent promoters in a Deltapcr1 strain in vivo. Furthermore, these analyses show that both proteins have a global repressive effect on stress-dependent and stress-independent genes. PMID:18375616

  14. Secreted Phospholipases A2 Are Intestinal Stem Cell Niche Factors with Distinct Roles in Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schewe, Matthias; Franken, Patrick F; Sacchetti, Andrea; Schmitt, Mark; Joosten, Rosalie; Böttcher, René; van Royen, Martin E; Jeammet, Louise; Payré, Christine; Scott, Patricia M; Webb, Nancy R; Gelb, Michael; Cormier, Robert T; Lambeau, Gérard; Fodde, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal stem cell niche provides cues that actively maintain gut homeostasis. Dysregulation of these cues may compromise intestinal regeneration upon tissue insult and/or promote tumor growth. Here, we identify secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) as stem cell niche factors with context-dependent functions in the digestive tract. We show that group IIA sPLA2, a known genetic modifier of mouse intestinal tumorigenesis, is expressed by Paneth cells in the small intestine, while group X sPLA2 is expressed by Paneth/goblet-like cells in the colon. During homeostasis, group IIA/X sPLA2s inhibit Wnt signaling through intracellular activation of Yap1. However, upon inflammation they are secreted into the intestinal lumen, where they promote prostaglandin synthesis and Wnt signaling. Genetic ablation of both sPLA2s improves recovery from inflammation but increases colon cancer susceptibility due to release of their homeostatic Wnt-inhibitory role. This "trade-off" effect suggests sPLA2s have important functions as genetic modifiers of inflammation and colon cancer. PMID:27292189

  15. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I stimulates growth and has distinct effects on organ size in hypophysectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Guler, H P; Zapf, J; Scheiwiller, E; Froesch, E R

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) was infused subcutaneously into hypophysectomized rats for as long as 18 days. Three hundred micrograms (39 nmol) of rhIGF-I per day and 200 milliunits (4.5 nmol) of human growth hormone (hGH) per day increased body weight, tibial epiphyseal width, longitudinal bone growth, and trabecular bone formation similarly. Weight gains of the kidneys and spleen, however, were greater with rhIGF-I than with hGH, whereas the weight of the epididymal fat pads was reduced with rhIGF-I. The weight of the thymus was increased by rhIGF-I treatment. Thus, IGF-I administered over a prolonged period of time mimics GH effects in hypophysectomized rats. Quantitative differences between rhIGF-I and hGH treatment with respect to organ weights may be related to different forms of circulating IGF-I or may be due to independent effects of GH and IGF-I. The results support the somatomedin hypothesis, but they also stress the role of GH as a modulator of IGF-I action. Images PMID:3387445

  16. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples. PMID:17904254

  17. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  18. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  19. Chemical Profiles of Two Pheromone Glands Are Differentially Regulated by Distinct Mating Factors in Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Elina L.; Malka, Osnat; Hefetz, Abraham; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones mediate social interactions among individuals in a wide variety of species, from yeast to mammals. In social insects such as honey bees, pheromone communication systems can be extraordinarily complex and serve to coordinate behaviors among many individuals. One of the primary mediators of social behavior and organization in honey bee colonies is queen pheromone, which is produced by multiple glands. The types and quantities of chemicals produced differ significantly between virgin and mated queens, and recent studies have suggested that, in newly mated queens, insemination volume or quantity can affect pheromone production. Here, we examine the long-term impact of different factors involved during queen insemination on the chemical composition of the mandibular and Dufour's glands, two of the major sources of queen pheromone. Our results demonstrate that carbon dioxide (an anesthetic used in instrumental insemination), physical manipulation of genital tract (presumably mimicking the act of copulation), insemination substance (saline vs. semen), and insemination volume (1 vs. 8 µl) all have long-term effects on mandibular gland chemical profiles. In contrast, Dufour's gland chemical profiles were changed only upon insemination and were not influenced by exposure to carbon dioxide, manipulation, insemination substance or volume. These results suggest that the chemical contents of these two glands are regulated by different neuro-physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, workers responded differently to the different mandibular gland extracts in a choice assay. Although these studies must be validated in naturally mated queens of varying mating quality, our results suggest that while the chemical composition of Dufour's gland is associated with mating status, that of the mandibular glands is associated with both mating status and insemination success. Thus, the queen appears to be signaling both status and reproductive quality to the workers, which may impact

  20. Possession and Morality in Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    From the moment children say "mine!" by two years of age, objects of possession change progressively from being experienced as primarily unalienable property (i.e., something that is absolute or nonnegotiable), to being alienable (i.e., something that is negotiable in reciprocal exchanges). As possession begins to be experienced as alienable, the…

  1. 50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic...

  2. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from or in the EEZ from any herring management area, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  3. 50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or harvested from the EEZ, unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a black...

  4. 50 CFR 648.105 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... crew of a charter or party boat issued a summer flounder moratorium permit are subject to the... boat, or more than three crew members for a charter boat. This possession limit may be adjusted... possession limit with more than one person on board may be pooled in one or more containers. Compliance...

  5. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Castley, Alison; Williams, Leah; James, Ian; Guelfi, George; Berry, Cassandra; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile) and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p<0.001), sCD163 was significantly reduced among ‘aviraemic’ patients only (p = 0.02), while sCD14 was unaffected by virological status under 10,000 copies/mL (p>0.2). Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05) and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02) were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI), with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04). Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002), with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045). Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation. PMID:27355513

  6. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Castley, Alison; Williams, Leah; James, Ian; Guelfi, George; Berry, Cassandra; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile) and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p<0.001), sCD163 was significantly reduced among 'aviraemic' patients only (p = 0.02), while sCD14 was unaffected by virological status under 10,000 copies/mL (p>0.2). Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05) and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02) were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI), with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04). Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002), with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045). Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation.

  7. Possession and carrying of firearms among suburban youth.

    PubMed Central

    Sheley, J F; Brewer, V E

    1995-01-01

    Despite a growing body of anecdotal evidence suggesting the spread of firearms to suburban juvenile populations, most studies of firearm activity by juveniles focus either on urban youth or on nationally representative samples that blur urban and nonurban distinctions. This study represents the first systematic empirical investigation specifically of a suburban population of juveniles. The authors examine both ownership and carrying behaviors, distinguish types of handguns involved, and assess the influence of drug activity, violent criminality, and the perception of one's social environment as dangerous upon the possession and carrying of firearms. Among the variables linked at the bivariate level to possession and carrying of guns were sex, involvement in criminal activity, involvement in drug activity, and most indicators of a dangerous social environment. At the multivariate level, however, only sex was associated with possession of a revolver, and only sex, criminal activity (for boys only), and one indicator of dangerous environment (having been threatened with a gun, for girls only) were associated with possession of an automatic or semiautomatic handgun. Aside from sex, criminal and drug activities were associated with gun carrying. Despite its importance among urban samples, in this study the dangerous environment was not linked to firearm activity. Possible reasons for this difference are explored in the conclusion. PMID:7838938

  8. Tobacco bZIP transcription factor TGA2.2 and related factor TGA2.1 have distinct roles in plant defense responses and plant development.

    PubMed

    Thurow, Corinna; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Krawczyk, Stefanie; Butterbrodt, Thomas; Nickolov, Kaloian; Gatz, Christiane

    2005-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial internal signaling molecule needed for the induction of plant defense responses upon attack of a variety of pathogens. Basic leucine zipper transcription factors of the TGA family bind to activating sequence-1 (as-1)-like elements which are SA-responsive cis elements found in promoters of 'immediate early' and 'late' SA-inducible genes. TGA2.2 constitutes the main component of tobacco as-1-binding factor-1 (ASF-1). TGA2.1, which differs from TGA2.2 by being able to activate transcription in yeast, constitutes a minor fraction of the complex. Both proteins interact with NPR1, a protein essential for SA inducibility of 'late' genes. Here we demonstrate using dsRNAi mediated gene silencing that reducing the amount of TGA2.2 and TGA2.1 correlates with a significant decrease in ASF-1 activity and with a decreased inducibility of both 'immediate early' and 'late' genes. In contrast, reducing the amount of TGA2.1 alone had no effect on the expression of these target genes suggesting that TGA2.1 is dispensable for SA-inducible gene expression from the as-1 element. Expression of a TGA2.2 mutant unable to form heterodimers with the endogenous pool of TGA factors led to reduced SA-inducibility of 'immediate early' gene Nt103, indicating that the native leucine zipper is important for the protein to act positively on transcription. Plants with reduced amounts of TGA2.1 developed petal like stamens indicating a regulatory role of TGA2.1 in defining organ identity in tobacco flowers. A model is suggested that unifies conflicting results on the function of tobacco TGA factors with respect to activation of the 'late' PR-1a promoter.

  9. Distinct patterns of angiogenic factor expression as a predictive factor of response to chemotherapy in stage IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Koufos, Nikolaos; Syrios, John; Michailidou, Despina; Xynos, Ioannis D.; Lazaris, Andreas; Kavantzas, Nicolaos; Tomos, Periclis; Kakaris, Stamatis; Kosmas, Christos; Tsavaris, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The expression of various angiogenic factors was assessed in tumour samples of patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and further evaluated in terms of response to induction paclitaxel-ifosfamide-cisplatin chemotherapy. Freshly isolated lung tumour specimens obtained by bronchoscopy from 70 stage IIIA NSCLC chemotherapy-naïve patients were sampled and analysed for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Microvessel density was assessed through evaluating the angiogenic markers CD34 and CD105. Immunostaining scores were calculated by multiplying the percentage of labeled cells by the intensity of staining for each examined parameter. The overall mean immunostaining score value from all NSCLC samples was 7.83, 5.56 and 15.86 for VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, respectively. The overall mean value of the endothelial antigen CD34 was 16.29, whereas the expression of the CD105 antigen in endothelial cells yielded a multivariate distribution. Patients who responded to chemotherapy expressed significantly higher VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-3 mean values compared with non-responders (P<0.001). No significant difference was noted in VEGFR-2 mean values between these two groups (P=0.06). The CD34 mean value was significantly higher in responders (P<0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in CD105 expression between the two groups (P=0.07). Angiogenic marker expression proved to be a potential predictive factor of response to chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC. which merits further investigation.

  10. Binding of transcription factor GabR to DNA requires recognition of DNA shape at a location distinct from its cognate binding site

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zyoud, Walid A.; Hynson, Robert MG.; Ganuelas, Lorraine A.; Coster, Adelle CF.; Duff, Anthony P.; Baker, Matthew AB.; Stewart, Alastair G.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Ho, Joshua WK.; Gaus, Katharina; Liu, Dali; Lee, Lawrence K.; Böcking, Till

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms for transcription factor recognition of specific DNA base sequences are well characterized and recent studies demonstrate that the shape of these cognate binding sites is also important. Here, we uncover a new mechanism where the transcription factor GabR simultaneously recognizes two cognate binding sites and the shape of a 29 bp DNA sequence that bridges these sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering and multi-angle laser light scattering are consistent with a model where the DNA undergoes a conformational change to bend around GabR during binding. In silico predictions suggest that the bridging DNA sequence is likely to be bendable in one direction and kinetic analysis of mutant DNA sequences with biolayer interferometry, allowed the independent quantification of the relative contribution of DNA base and shape recognition in the GabR–DNA interaction. These indicate that the two cognate binding sites as well as the bendability of the DNA sequence in between these sites are required to form a stable complex. The mechanism of GabR–DNA interaction provides an example where the correct shape of DNA, at a clearly distinct location from the cognate binding site, is required for transcription factor binding and has implications for bioinformatics searches for novel binding sites. PMID:26681693

  11. Distinct Roles of Ser-764 and Lys-773 at the N Terminus of von Willebrand Factor in Complex Assembly with Coagulation Factor VIII*

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Núñez, Lydia; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte G.; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation between coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) is of critical importance to protect FVIII from rapid in vivo clearance and degradation. We have now employed a chemical footprinting approach to identify regions on VWF involved in FVIII binding. To this end, lysine amino acid residues of VWF were chemically modified in the presence of FVIII or activated FVIII, which does not bind VWF. Nano-LC-MS analysis showed that the lysine residues of almost all identified VWF peptides were not differentially modified upon incubation of VWF with FVIII or activated FVIII. However, Lys-773 of peptide Ser-766–Leu-774 was protected from chemical modification in the presence of FVIII. In addition, peptide Ser-764–Arg-782, which comprises the first 19 amino acid residues of mature VWF, showed a differential modification of both Lys-773 and the α-amino group of Ser-764. To verify the role of Lys-773 and the N-terminal Ser-764 in FVIII binding, we employed VWF variants in which either Lys-773 or Ser-764 was replaced with Ala. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competition studies revealed that VWF(K773A) exhibited reduced binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain, which harbors the VWF-binding site. In contrast, VWF(S764A) revealed more effective binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain compared with WT VWF. The results of our study show that the N terminus of VWF is critical for the interaction with FVIII and that Ser-764 and Lys-773 have opposite roles in the binding mechanism. PMID:23168412

  12. Distinct roles of Ser-764 and Lys-773 at the N terminus of von Willebrand factor in complex assembly with coagulation factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Lydia; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation between coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) is of critical importance to protect FVIII from rapid in vivo clearance and degradation. We have now employed a chemical footprinting approach to identify regions on VWF involved in FVIII binding. To this end, lysine amino acid residues of VWF were chemically modified in the presence of FVIII or activated FVIII, which does not bind VWF. Nano-LC-MS analysis showed that the lysine residues of almost all identified VWF peptides were not differentially modified upon incubation of VWF with FVIII or activated FVIII. However, Lys-773 of peptide Ser-766-Leu-774 was protected from chemical modification in the presence of FVIII. In addition, peptide Ser-764-Arg-782, which comprises the first 19 amino acid residues of mature VWF, showed a differential modification of both Lys-773 and the α-amino group of Ser-764. To verify the role of Lys-773 and the N-terminal Ser-764 in FVIII binding, we employed VWF variants in which either Lys-773 or Ser-764 was replaced with Ala. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competition studies revealed that VWF(K773A) exhibited reduced binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain, which harbors the VWF-binding site. In contrast, VWF(S764A) revealed more effective binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain compared with WT VWF. The results of our study show that the N terminus of VWF is critical for the interaction with FVIII and that Ser-764 and Lys-773 have opposite roles in the binding mechanism. PMID:23168412

  13. Decriminalizing Possession of All Controlled Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzman, Marc G.

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from the Minnesota Bar Association's Blue Ribbon Committee report of findings and recommendations, with regard to dealing with possession of heroin and other controlled substances, are presented here. (Author/DS)

  14. Mexico decriminalizes small-scale drug possession.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 20 August 2009, the Mexican government adopted legislation decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs. According to the new law, possession amounts for "personal and immediate use"--defined as up to half a gram of cocaine, five grams of marijuana, 50 milligrams of heroin, 40 milligrams of methamphetamine and 0.015 milligrams of LSD--will not lead to criminal prosecution. PMID:20225507

  15. Possession of cannabis legal for now.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2003-04-01

    In two recent rulings the Ontario Court of Justice threw out charges of possession of cannabis contrary to section 4(I) of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). The courts found that the accused in each case had been charged with an offence not known to law. Parliament never re-enacted the CDSA section prohibiting simple possession of cannabis (marijuana) after it was struck down by the Ontario Court of Appeal in the Parker case. PMID:12924322

  16. Global gene expression profiling reveals widespread yet distinctive translational responses to different eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-targeting stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Julia B; Selley, Julian N; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Carroll, Kathleen; Eddy, A Alan; McCarthy, John E G; Hubbard, Simon J; Pavitt, Graham D; Grant, Chris M; Ashe, Mark P

    2005-11-01

    Global inhibition of protein synthesis is a hallmark of many cellular stress conditions. Even though specific mRNAs defy this (e.g., yeast GCN4 and mammalian ATF4), the extent and variation of such resistance remain uncertain. In this study, we have identified yeast mRNAs that are translationally maintained following either amino acid depletion or fusel alcohol addition. Both stresses inhibit eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, but via different mechanisms. Using microarray analysis of polysome and monosome mRNA pools, we demonstrate that these stress conditions elicit widespread yet distinct translational reprogramming, identifying a fundamental role for translational control in the adaptation to environmental stress. These studies also highlight the complex interplay that exists between different stages in the gene expression pathway to allow specific preordained programs of proteome remodeling. For example, many ribosome biogenesis genes are coregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels following amino acid starvation. The transcriptional regulation of these genes has recently been connected to the regulation of cellular proliferation, and on the basis of our results, the translational control of these mRNAs should be factored into this equation.

  17. 22 CFR 72.15 - Action when possession is impractical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action when possession is impractical. 72.15....15 Action when possession is impractical. (a) A consular officer should not take physical possession... take physical possession....

  18. Syntactic Constraints on the Expression of Possession in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempchinsky, Paula

    1992-01-01

    In a discussion of possessives in Spanish, it is shown that three morphosyntactic constructs are systematically linked. The possessive dative construction, inalienable possession and nonrestrictive adjectives, and inalienable possession with subjects are examined. (25 references) (LB)

  19. Possession Divestment by Sales in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, David J.; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-01-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers’ capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers’ efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. PMID:26162722

  20. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    PubMed

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view.

  1. Distinct roles of enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) sites in plasmacytoma and osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kunder, Sandra; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou . E-mail: fsp@mb.au.dk

    2005-04-10

    Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) can be lymphomagenic and bone pathogenic. In this work, the possible roles of two distinct proviral enhancer nuclear factor 1 (NF1) binding sites in osteopetrosis and tumor induction by B-lymphomagenic Akv1-99 MLV were investigated. Akv1-99 and mutants either with NF1 site 1, NF1 site 2 or both sites disrupted induced tumors (plasma cell proliferations by histopathology) with remarkably similar incidence and mean latency in inbred NMRI mice. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement detection, by Southern analysis, confirmed approximately half of the tumors induced by each virus to be plasmacytomas while the remaining lacked detectable clonally rearranged Ig genes and were considered polyclonal; a demonstration that enhancer NF1 sites are dispensable for plasmacytoma induction by Akv1-99. In contrast, X-ray analysis revealed significant differences in osteopetrosis induction by the four viruses strongly indicating that NF1 site 2 is critical for viral bone pathogenicity, whereas NF1 site 1 is neutral or moderately inhibitory. In conclusion, enhancer NF1 sites are major determinants of osteopetrosis induction by Akv1-99 without significant influence on viral oncogenicity.

  2. Glial fibrillary acidic protein gene promoter is differently modulated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in astrocytes from distinct brain regions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vivian de Oliveira; Romão, Luciana; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Gomes, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara

    2004-04-01

    The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein of mature astrocytes, is regulated under developmental and pathological conditions. Recently, we have investigated GFAP gene modulation by using a transgenic mouse bearing part of the GFAP gene promoter linked to the beta-galactosidase reporter gene. We demonstrated that cerebral cortex neurons activate the GFAP gene promoter, inducing transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) secretion by astrocytes. Here, we report that cortical neurons or conditioned medium derived from them do not activate the GFAP gene promoter of transgenic astrocytes derived from midbrain and cerebellum suggesting a neuroanatomical regional specificity of this phenomenon. Surprisingly, they do induce synthesis of TGF-beta 1 by these cells. Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays revealed wild distribution of TGF receptor in all subpopulations of astrocytes and expression of TGF-beta 1 in neurons derived from all regions, thus indicating that the unresponsiveness of the cerebellar and midbrain GFAP gene to TGF-beta 1 is not due to a defect in TGF-beta 1 signalling. Together, our data highlight the great complexity of neuron-glia interactions and might suggest a distinct mechanism underlying modulation of the GFAP gene in the heterogeneous population of astrocytes throughout the central nervous system.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 induction of the epidermal growth factor receptor is mediated through a TRAF signaling pathway distinct from NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, W E; Mosialos, G; Kieff, E; Raab-Traub, N

    1997-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded LMP1 protein induces several cellular changes including induction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. Two domains within the carboxy terminus have been identified that activate NF-kappaB. In this study, mutational analysis of the LMP1 protein indicated that the proximal NF-kappaB activation domain, which is identical to the TRAF interaction domain (amino acids 187 to 231), is essential for induction of the EGFR. The distal NF-kappaB activation domain (amino acids 352 to 386) did not induce expression of the EGFR. In contrast, the two domains both independently activated a kappaB-CAT reporter gene and induced expression of the NF-kappaB-regulated A20 gene in C33A epithelial cells. These results indicate that induction of the EGFR by LMP1 involves the TRAF interaction domain and that activation of NF-kappaB alone is not sufficient. Northern blot analysis revealed that induction of EGFR and A20 expression is likely to be at the transcriptional level. Interestingly expression of CD40 in the C33A cells also induced expression of the EGFR. Overexpression of either TRAF3 or an amino-terminal-truncated form of TRAF3 (TRAF3-C) inhibited signaling from the LMP1 TRAF interaction domain but did not affect signaling from the distal NF-kappaB activation domain. These data further define the mechanism by which LMP1 induces expression of the EGFR and indicate that TRAF signaling from LMP1 and CD40 activates a downstream transcription pathway distinct from NF-kappaB that induces expression of the EGFR. PMID:8985387

  4. Distinct activation properties of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) isoforms NFATc3 and NFATc4 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jason D; Kim, Man-Su; Houlihan, Patrick R; Shutov, Leonid P; Mohapatra, Durga P; Strack, Stefan; Usachev, Yuriy M

    2012-11-01

    The Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) is implicated in regulating dendritic and axonal development, synaptogenesis, and neuronal survival. Despite the increasing appreciation for the importance of NFAT-dependent transcription in the nervous system, the regulation and function of specific NFAT isoforms in neurons are poorly understood. Here, we compare the activation of NFATc3 and NFATc4 in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons following electrically evoked elevations of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). We find that NFATc3 undergoes rapid dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation that are essentially complete within 20 min, although NFATc4 remains phosphorylated and localized to the cytosol, only exhibiting nuclear localization following prolonged (1-3 h) depolarization. Knocking down NFATc3, but not NFATc4, strongly diminished NFAT-mediated transcription induced by mild depolarization in neurons. By analyzing NFATc3/NFATc4 chimeras, we find that the region containing the serine-rich region-1 (SRR1) mildly affects initial NFAT translocation, although the region containing the serine-proline repeats is critical for determining the magnitude of NFAT activation and nuclear localization upon depolarization. Knockdown of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) significantly increased the depolarization-induced nuclear localization of NFATc4. In contrast, inhibition of p38 or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinases had no significant effect on nuclear import of NFATc4. Thus, electrically evoked [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in neurons rapidly and strongly activates NFATc3, whereas activation of NFATc4 requires a coincident increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and suppression of GSK3β, with differences in the serine-proline-containing region giving rise to these distinct activation properties of NFATc3 and NFATc4.

  5. 50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. Link to an amendment... Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season... the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP if it finds that action is necessary to meet or...

  6. Commonalities of French and Mandarin Inalienable Possession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliffer, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines inalienable possession in French and Mandarin with the aim of bringing out typological affinities. In particular, two unresolved issues are re-examined: Haiman's Iconicity Hypothesis and the question of the protypical semantic categories of iposs. (32 references) (Author/CK)

  7. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and crew of a charter or party boat issued a bluefish commercial permit are not subject to the... party boat and three for a charter boat. (b) Bluefish harvested by vessels subject to the possession limit with more than one person on board may be pooled in one or more containers. Compliance with...

  8. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits α-smooth muscle actin transcription during myofibroblast differentiation via distinct mechanisms of modulation of serum response factor and myocardin-related transcription factor-A.

    PubMed

    Penke, Loka R K; Huang, Steven K; White, Eric S; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2014-06-13

    Differentiation of lung fibroblasts into contractile protein-expressing myofibroblasts by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Transcription of the contractile protein α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is mediated by the transcription factor serum-response factor (SRF) along with its co-activator, myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A). The endogenous lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts anti-fibrotic effects, including the inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation. However, the mechanism by which PGE2 inhibits α-SMA expression is incompletely understood. Here, we show in normal lung fibroblasts that PGE2 reduced the nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A·SRF complexes and consequently inhibited α-SMA promoter activation. It did so both by independently inhibiting SRF gene expression and nuclear import of MRTF-A. We identified that p38 MAPK is critical for TGF-β1-induced SRF gene expression and that PGE2 inhibition of SRF expression is associated with its ability to inhibit p38 activation. Its inhibition of MRTF-A import occurs via activation of cofilin 1 and inactivation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Similar effects of PGE2 on SRF gene expression were observed in fibroblasts from the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, PGE2 is the first substance described to prevent myofibroblast differentiation by disrupting, via distinct mechanisms, the actions of both SRF and MRTF-A.

  9. Traumatic Experience and Somatoform Dissociation Among Spirit Possession Practitioners in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Schaffler, Yvonne; Cardeña, Etzel; Reijman, Sophie; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in African contexts have revealed a strong association between spirit possession and severe trauma, with inclusion into a possession cult serving at times a therapeutic function. Research on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic has so far not included quantitative studies of trauma and dissociation. This study evaluated demographic variables, somatoform dissociative symptoms, and potentially traumatizing events in the Dominican Republic with a group of Vodou practitioners that either do or do not experience spirit possession. Inter-group comparisons revealed that in contrast to non-possessed participants (n = 38), those experiencing spirit possession (n = 47) reported greater somatoform dissociation, more problems with sleep, and previous exposure to mortal danger such as assaults, accidents, or diseases. The two groups did not differ significantly in other types of trauma. The best predictor variable for group classification was somatoform dissociation, although those items could also reflect the experience of followers during a possession episode. A factor analysis across variables resulted in three factors: having to take responsibility early on in life and taking on a professional spiritual role; traumatic events and pain; and distress/dissociation. In comparison with the non-possessed individuals, the possessed ones did not seem to overall have a remarkably more severe story of trauma and seemed to derive economic gains from possession practice.

  10. Possession Versus Position: Strategic Evaluation in AFL.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Darren M

    2006-01-01

    In sports like Australian Rules football and soccer, teams must battle to achieve possession of the ball in sufficient space to make optimal use of it. Ultimately the teams need to score, and to do that the ball must be brought into the area in front of goal - the place where the defence usually concentrates on shutting down space and opportunity time. Coaches would like to quantify the trade-offs between contested play in good positions and uncontested play in less promising positions, in order to inform their decision-making about where to put their players, and when to gamble on sending the ball to a contest rather than simply maintain possession. To evaluate football strategies, Champion Data has collected the on-ground locations of all 350,000 possessions and stoppages in the past two seasons of AFL (2004, 2005). By following each chain of play through to the next score, we can now reliably estimate the scoreboard "equity "of possessing the ball at any location, and measure the effect of having sufficient time to dispose of it effectively. As expected, winning the ball under physical pressure (through a "hard ball get") is far more difficult to convert into a score than winning it via a mark. We also analyse some equity gradients to show how getting the ball 20 metres closer to goal is much more important in certain areas of the ground than in others. We conclude by looking at the choices faced by players in possession wanting to maximise their likelihood of success. Key PointsEquity analysis provides a way of estimating the net value of actions on the sporting field.Combined with spatial data analysis, the relative merits of gaining position or maintaining possession can be judged.The advantage of having time and space to use the ball is measured in terms of scoreboard value, and is found to vary with field position.Each sport has identifiable areas of the field with high equity gradients, meaning that it is most important to gain territory there.

  11. Distinct structural specificities for functional coupling of the epidermal growth factor receptor to calcium-signalling versus phospholipase A2 responses.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Margolis, B L; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J; Skorecki, K L

    1991-05-01

    Activation of phospholipase C (PLC), leading to a rise in cytosolic Ca2+, and of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) leading to a release of arachidonic acid, are among the early transmembrane signalling events that have been demonstrated in response to occupancy of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. The tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor has been shown to be necessary for both of these responses. This requirement for the tyrosine kinase activity could conceivably implicate a role for receptor autophosphorylation in the activation of PLA2. We now demonstrate that coupling of the EGF receptor to PLA2 was not impaired in a deletion mutant (CD126) devoid of the 126 amino acids from the C-terminus which include four major autophosphorylation sites. Functional coupling of the EGF receptor to PLA2 was demonstrated using three different experimental designs: (1) release of [14C]arachidonic acid from prelabelled intact cells. (2) release of [3H]arachidonic acid from prelabelled cells permeabilized with glass beads, and (3) direct measurement of PLA2 enzymic activity in cell-free extracts using an 'in vitro' assay employing exogenous phospholipid substrate. Functional coupling of the EGF receptor to PLA2 occurred despite the absence of a demonstrable Ca(2+)-signalling response and the detection of diminished but persistent PLC-gamma phosphorylation on tyrosine residues in the CD126 deletion mutants. These results point to a clear distinction in the biochemical mechanism and role for receptor autophosphorylation in functional coupling of the EGF receptor to PLA2 activation versus Ca2+ signalling.

  12. Concurrent and distinct transcription and translation of transforming growth factor-beta type I and type II receptors in rodent embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mariano, J M; Montuenga, L M; Prentice, M A; Cuttitta, F; Jakowlew, S B

    1998-11-01

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional regulatory polypeptides that play a crucial role in many cell processes and function through a set of cell surface protein receptors that includes TGF-beta type I (RI) and type II (RII). The present study reports a comprehensive comparison of the patterns of expression of TGF-beta RI and RII proteins and mRNAs in the developing mouse embryo using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses. Although widespread expression of both TGF-beta receptors was detected throughout the embryonic development period so that many similarities occur in localization of the TGF-beta receptors, TGF-beta RI was expressed in a well-defined, non-uniform pattern that was different in many respects from that of TGF-beta RII. Whereas higher levels of TGF-beta RI compared to TGF-beta RII were detected in some tissues of the embryo at the beginning of organogenesis, the level of TGF-beta RII increased more dramatically than that of TGF-beta RI during late organogenesis; this was especially true in many neural structures where TGF-beta RI and RII were comparable by day 16. The lung, kidney and intestine, in which epithelial-mesenchymal interactions occur, showed a complex pattern of TGF-beta RI and Rll expression. Additionally, northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification showed non-uniform expression of the transcripts for TGF-beta RI and RII in embryonic and adult mouse and rat tissues. These data show that regulation of TGF-beta1 RI and RII occurs concurrently, but distinctly, in a spatial and temporal manner in rodent embryogenesis which may allow control of signal transduction of TGF-beta during development. PMID:9879710

  13. Tracking the actions and possessions of agents

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Stilwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set (either that it belonged to the participant, or that it possessed a particular label), and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension (preference) immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and only regarding the taught fact (not the unrelated dimension). These findings suggest that the special attention that children and adults pay to agents readily extends to include inanimate objects. That young children track an object’s history, despite their reliance on surface features on many cognitive tasks, suggests that unobservable historical features are foundational in human cognition. PMID:25111732

  14. Different mutagenic potential of HIV-1 restriction factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F is determined by distinct single-stranded DNA scanning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ara, Anjuman; Love, Robin P; Chelico, Linda

    2014-03-01

    The APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminase family functions as host restriction factors that can block replication of Vif (virus infectivity factor) deficient HIV-1 virions to differing degrees by deaminating cytosines to uracils in single-stranded (-)HIV-1 DNA. Upon replication of the (-)DNA to (+)DNA, the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase incorporates adenines opposite the uracils, thereby inducing C/G→T/A mutations that can functionally inactivate HIV-1. Although both APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are expressed in cell types HIV-1 infects and are suppressed by Vif, there has been no prior biochemical analysis of APOBEC3F, in contrast to APOBEC3G. Using synthetic DNA substrates, we characterized APOBEC3F and found that similar to APOBEC3G; it is a processive enzyme and can deaminate at least two cytosines in a single enzyme-substrate encounter. However, APOBEC3F scanning movement is distinct from APOBEC3G, and relies on jumping rather than both jumping and sliding. APOBEC3F jumping movements were also different from APOBEC3G. The lack of sliding movement from APOBEC3F is due to an ¹⁹⁰NPM¹⁹² motif, since insertion of this motif into APOBEC3G decreases its sliding movements. The APOBEC3G NPM mutant induced significantly less mutations in comparison to wild-type APOBEC3G in an in vitro model HIV-1 replication assay and single-cycle infectivity assay, indicating that differences in DNA scanning were relevant to restriction of HIV-1. Conversely, mutation of the APOBEC3F ¹⁹¹Pro to ¹⁹¹Gly enables APOBEC3F sliding movements to occur. Although APOBEC3F ¹⁹⁰NGM¹⁹² could slide, the enzyme did not induce more mutagenesis than wild-type APOBEC3F, demonstrating that the unique jumping mechanism of APOBEC3F abrogates the influence of sliding on mutagenesis. Overall, we demonstrate key differences in the impact of APOBEC3F- and APOBEC3G-induced mutagenesis on HIV-1 that supports a model in which both the processive DNA scanning mechanism and preferred deamination motif

  15. Different Mutagenic Potential of HIV-1 Restriction Factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F Is Determined by Distinct Single-Stranded DNA Scanning Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjuman; Love, Robin P.; Chelico, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminase family functions as host restriction factors that can block replication of Vif (virus infectivity factor) deficient HIV-1 virions to differing degrees by deaminating cytosines to uracils in single-stranded (−)HIV-1 DNA. Upon replication of the (−)DNA to (+)DNA, the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase incorporates adenines opposite the uracils, thereby inducing C/G→T/A mutations that can functionally inactivate HIV-1. Although both APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are expressed in cell types HIV-1 infects and are suppressed by Vif, there has been no prior biochemical analysis of APOBEC3F, in contrast to APOBEC3G. Using synthetic DNA substrates, we characterized APOBEC3F and found that similar to APOBEC3G; it is a processive enzyme and can deaminate at least two cytosines in a single enzyme-substrate encounter. However, APOBEC3F scanning movement is distinct from APOBEC3G, and relies on jumping rather than both jumping and sliding. APOBEC3F jumping movements were also different from APOBEC3G. The lack of sliding movement from APOBEC3F is due to an 190NPM192 motif, since insertion of this motif into APOBEC3G decreases its sliding movements. The APOBEC3G NPM mutant induced significantly less mutations in comparison to wild-type APOBEC3G in an in vitro model HIV-1 replication assay and single-cycle infectivity assay, indicating that differences in DNA scanning were relevant to restriction of HIV-1. Conversely, mutation of the APOBEC3F 191Pro to 191Gly enables APOBEC3F sliding movements to occur. Although APOBEC3F 190NGM192 could slide, the enzyme did not induce more mutagenesis than wild-type APOBEC3F, demonstrating that the unique jumping mechanism of APOBEC3F abrogates the influence of sliding on mutagenesis. Overall, we demonstrate key differences in the impact of APOBEC3F- and APOBEC3G-induced mutagenesis on HIV-1 that supports a model in which both the processive DNA scanning mechanism and preferred deamination motif (APOBEC3F, 5

  16. Weapon Possession Among College Students: A Study From a Midwestern University.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunseok; Kang, Ji Hyon; Dierenfeldt, Rick; Lindsteadt, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Weapon possession on college campuses causes great concern, but there remains a lack of research examining the determinants of this phenomenon. Previous studies addressing weapon possession have primarily focused on either K-12 or the general adult population. Unlike previous studies, this study examined the weapon possession among college students using data collected from a mid-sized university in Missouri, and 451 students participated. Weapon possession and other theoretical factors were measured through the self-administered survey. Logistical regression analysis revealed that weapon socialization was the most significant factor in predicting student weapon carrying. Also, gender and age were significant factors in explaining campus-based weapon possession. This research has a limitation with generalizability because the data were collected from only a single university with convenient sampling. Future studies need to cover a wider range of college students from a variety of different universities with random sampling.

  17. 50 CFR 648.295 - Recreational possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational possession limit. 648.295... Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.295 Recreational possession limit. Any person fishing from a vessel... possession limit....

  18. β-Arrestin1 and distinct CXCR4 structures are required for stromal derived factor-1 to downregulate CXCR4 cell-surface levels in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Clift, Ian C; Bamidele, Adebowale O; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Christie; Kremer, Kimberly N; Hedin, Karen E

    2014-04-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located on the cell surface that signals upon binding the chemokine stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1; also called CXCL 12). CXCR4 promotes neuroblastoma proliferation and chemotaxis. CXCR4 expression negatively correlates with prognosis and drives neuroblastoma growth and metastasis in mouse models. All functions of CXCR4 require its expression on the cell surface, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate CXCR4 cell-surface levels in neuroblastoma are poorly understood. We characterized CXCR4 cell-surface regulation in the related SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell lines. SDF-1 treatment caused rapid down-modulation of CXCR4 in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacologic activation of protein kinase C similarly reduced CXCR4, but via a distinct mechanism. Analysis of CXCR4 mutants delineated two CXCR4 regions required for SDF-1 treatment to decrease cell-surface CXCR4 in neuroblastoma cells: the isoleucine-leucine motif at residues 328 and 329 and residues 343-352. In contrast, and unlike CXCR4 regulation in other cell types, serines 324, 325, 338, and 339 were not required. Arrestin proteins can bind and regulate GPCR cell-surface expression, often functioning together with kinases such as G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Using SK-N-SH cells which are naturally deficient in β-arrestin1, we showed that β-arrestin1 is required for the CXCR4 343-352 region to modulate CXCR4 cell-surface expression following treatment with SDF-1. Moreover, GRK2 overexpression enhanced CXCR4 internalization, via a mechanism requiring both β-arrestin1 expression and the 343-352 region. Together, these results characterize CXCR4 structural domains and β-arrestin1 as critical regulators of CXCR4 cell-surface expression in neuroblastoma. β-Arrestin1 levels may therefore influence the CXCR4-driven metastasis of neuroblastoma as well as prognosis. PMID:24452472

  19. Roots from distinct plant developmental stages are capable of rapidly selecting their own microbiome without the influence of environmental and soil edaphic factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbes live in close association with plants and are crucial for plant health and fitness. Recent literature revealed that specific microbes were cultured at distinct developmental stages of Arabidopsis. It is not clear how fast the roots, depending on their developmental stage, can alter the...

  20. Cherished Possessions and Adaptation of Older People to Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Seymour; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined cherished possessions and adaptation to nursing home of 100 nursing home residents. Findings showed those with possessions were better adapted; possessions served functions of historical continuity, comfort, and belongingness; and more women than men had cherished possessions. (Author/PVV)

  1. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  2. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504... possessions. Whenever reference is made to the territories and possessions of the United States in this..., said territories and possessions shall be deemed to include only the Virgin Islands of the...

  3. 50 CFR 20.35 - Field possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Field possession limit. 20.35 Section 20... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.35 Field possession limit. No...

  4. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  5. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  6. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  7. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  8. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  9. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society." PMID:4093598

  10. Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Olga; Schüler, Margarete; Schumann, Peter; Schneider, Alexander; Boedeker, Christian; Jogler, Mareike; Bollschweiler, Daniel; Rohde, Manfred; Mayer, Christoph; Engelhardt, Harald; Spring, Stefan; Jogler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain a peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall, which is critical for maintenance of shape and important for cell division. In contrast, Planctomycetes have been proposed to produce a proteinaceous cell wall devoid of PG. The apparent absence of PG has been used as an argument for the putative planctomycetal ancestry of all bacterial lineages. Here we show, employing multiple bioinformatic methods, that planctomycetal genomes encode proteins required for PG synthesis. Furthermore, we biochemically demonstrate the presence of the sugar and the peptide components of PG in Planctomycetes. In addition, light and electron microscopic experiments reveal planctomycetal PG sacculi that are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. Finally, cryo-electron tomography demonstrates that Planctomycetes possess a typical PG cell wall and that their cellular architecture is thus more similar to that of other Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings shed new light on the cellular architecture and cell division of the maverick Planctomycetes. PMID:25964217

  11. [The phenomenon of possession. Conception and experiences of possession in youth].

    PubMed

    Bron, B

    1975-01-01

    In the last few years, a trend to the multiplication of experiences of possession has been observed in young people. On the basis of four typical examples, the author examines this phenomenon in the light of the psychiatric, psychoanalytic and theological understanding of possession. It involves mostly young people, who do not have hysterical fits or psychotic episodes during spiritualist practices but who specially tend to take a strong interest in occultism, who very often consume drugs and have contacts with groups in which the interest for demonology plays an important part. PMID:1192724

  12. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects and furnishings, works of art, and book and wine collections, unless such items are of such...

  13. 22 CFR 72.14 - Nominal possession; property not normally taken into physical possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... possession. (a) When a consular officer take articles of a decedent's personal property from a foreign... Department discharging the consular officer of any responsibility for the articles transferred. (b) A... effects and furnishings, works of art, and book and wine collections, unless such items are of such...

  14. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here.

  15. Cultural variations in interpretation of postnatal illness: Jinn possession amongst Muslim communities.

    PubMed

    Hanely, Jane; Brown, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Maternal experience of emotional and physical disturbance during the postnatal period is a worldwide occurrence but may be interpreted differently according to cultural background. Little is known about different expressions and treatment of cultural phenomena during the postnatal period such as the affliction of Jinn possession in Arabic cultures. Jinn are considered to be evil spirits, which cause emotional and physical distress at times of vulnerability such as the postnatal period. The aim of this paper was to explore maternal experience of Jinn possession and draw parallels with Western interpretations of postnatal illness. Ten women in an Arabian Gulf state who had recently given birth and identified themselves as having Jinn possession were interviewed as to their experiences of Jinn possession. Mothers described the Jinn as evil spirits who cause symptoms such as sadness, anxiety and physical malaise during the postnatal period. Numerous risk factors for possession emerged such as lack of familial support, poverty and a traumatic birth. Clear parallels emerged between Western concepts of postnatal illness and Jinn possession. Mothers in Muslim cultures may experience Jinn possession during the postnatal period, which reflects similar symptoms and aetiology to Western concepts of postnatal illness. With increasing multiculturalism in the UK, understanding the origins and perception of Jinn possession is important for health professionals working in Muslim communities here. PMID:23955293

  16. Unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae from conjunctivitis encode variant traits and belong to a distinct phylogenetic cluster.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Michael D; McGuire, Abigail Manson; Rosch, Jason W; Bispo, Paulo J M; Burnham, Corinna; Sanfilippo, Christine M; Carter, Robert A; Zegans, Michael E; Beall, Bernard; Earl, Ashlee M; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Morris, Timothy W; Haas, Wolfgang; Gilmore, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an inhabitant of the upper respiratory mucosa, causes respiratory and invasive infections as well as conjunctivitis. Strains that lack the capsule, a main virulence factor and the target of current vaccines, are often isolated from conjunctivitis cases. Here we perform a comparative genomic analysis of 271 strains of conjunctivitis-causing S. pneumoniae from 72 postal codes in the United States. We find that the vast majority of conjunctivitis strains are members of a distinct cluster of closely related unencapsulated strains. These strains possess divergent forms of pneumococcal virulence factors (such as CbpA and neuraminidases) that are not shared with other unencapsulated nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae. They also possess putative adhesins that have not been described in encapsulated pneumococci. These findings suggest that the unencapsulated strains capable of causing conjunctivitis utilize a pathogenesis strategy substantially different from that described for S. pneumoniae at other infection sites. PMID:25388376

  17. Unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae from conjunctivitis encode variant traits and belong to a distinct phylogenetic cluster.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Michael D; McGuire, Abigail Manson; Rosch, Jason W; Bispo, Paulo J M; Burnham, Corinna; Sanfilippo, Christine M; Carter, Robert A; Zegans, Michael E; Beall, Bernard; Earl, Ashlee M; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Morris, Timothy W; Haas, Wolfgang; Gilmore, Michael S

    2014-11-12

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, an inhabitant of the upper respiratory mucosa, causes respiratory and invasive infections as well as conjunctivitis. Strains that lack the capsule, a main virulence factor and the target of current vaccines, are often isolated from conjunctivitis cases. Here we perform a comparative genomic analysis of 271 strains of conjunctivitis-causing S. pneumoniae from 72 postal codes in the United States. We find that the vast majority of conjunctivitis strains are members of a distinct cluster of closely related unencapsulated strains. These strains possess divergent forms of pneumococcal virulence factors (such as CbpA and neuraminidases) that are not shared with other unencapsulated nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae. They also possess putative adhesins that have not been described in encapsulated pneumococci. These findings suggest that the unencapsulated strains capable of causing conjunctivitis utilize a pathogenesis strategy substantially different from that described for S. pneumoniae at other infection sites.

  18. Creating Distinctiveness: Lessons from Uncommon Colleges and Universities. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.; And Others

    This brief report summarizes a longer document with the same title. Distinctive colleges and universities possess a unifying theme or vision that is expressed in all their activities. They also usually respond to newly emerging societal or community needs unmet by existing schools of higher education. Distinctiveness, however, can limit the…

  19. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  20. 50 CFR 622.277 - Bag and possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.277 Bag and possession limits. Section 622.11(a) provides the general applicability for bag and possession limits. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo. Bag and possession limits are as follows: (1) Dolphin—10, not to exceed 60 per vessel,...

  1. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  2. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  3. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  4. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or...

  5. 50 CFR 648.235 - Possession and landing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession and landing restrictions. 648... Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.235 Possession and landing restrictions. (a) Quota Period 1... calendar day. (c) Regulations governing the harvest, possession, landing, purchase, and sale of shark...

  6. 5 CFR 930.111 - State license in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State license in possession. 930.111... Operators § 930.111 State license in possession. An operator or incidental operator will have a State license in his or her possession at all times while driving a Government-owned or -leased motor vehicle...

  7. 50 CFR 20.39 - Termination of possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of possession. 20.39 Section... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.39 Termination of...

  8. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.62 Baggage in possession of traveler. For baggage arriving in the actual possession of a traveler, his declaration shall be accepted...

  9. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for...

  10. 32 CFR 552.120 - Possession and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Possession and control. 552.120 Section 552.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.120 Possession and control. (a) Possession of weapons on the post...

  11. 18 CFR 1306.3 - Surrender of possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of possession... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.3 Surrender of possession. Possession of real property will not be taken until the owner has been paid the agreed purchase price or...

  12. 32 CFR 507.12 - Possession and wearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Possession and wearing. 507.12 Section 507.12... Possession and wearing. (a) The wearing of any decoration, service medal, badge, service ribbon, lapel button... possession by a person of any of the articles prescribed in § 507.8 of this part is authorized provided...

  13. 24 CFR 27.45 - Transfer of title and possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of title and possession... Foreclosure of Multifamily Mortgages § 27.45 Transfer of title and possession. (a) If the Secretary is the....20, any commercial tenant and any residential tenant remaining in possession after the expiration...

  14. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly...

  15. 32 CFR 538.3 - Restrictions on possession and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restrictions on possession and use. 538.3 Section 538.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.3 Restrictions on possession and use. (a) Possession or use...

  16. 50 CFR 20.35 - Field possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Field possession limit. 20.35 Section 20.35 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.35 Field possession limit. No...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  18. New Women's Suitcases: The Possessive-Adjective Switch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Deborah Mandelbaum

    An analysis of the structure of possessive-adjective phrases (e.g., "women's new suitcases, new women's suitcases") in English looks at some data that appear to conflict with the intuitive order of S-structure possessives preceding adjectives. A solution to this apparent anomaly is proposed: it is not the compounding of possessive-noun combination…

  19. Subunits of the Heterotrimeric Transcription Factor NF-Y Are Imported into the Nucleus by Distinct Pathways Involving Importin β and Importin 13

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Joerg; Baake, Matthias; Doenecke, Detlef; Albig, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The transcriptional activator NF-Y is a heterotrimeric complex composed of NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, which specifically binds the CCAAT consensus present in about 30% of eukaryotic promoters. All three subunits contain evolutionarily conserved core regions, which comprise a histone fold motif (HFM) in the case of NF-YB and NF-YC. Our results of in vitro binding studies and nuclear import assays reveal two different transport mechanisms for NF-Y subunits. While NF-YA is imported by an importin β-mediated pathway, the NF-YB/NF-YC heterodimer is translocated into the nucleus in an importin 13-dependent manner. We define a nonclassical nuclear localization signal (ncNLS) in NF-YA, and mutational analysis indicates that positively charged amino acid residues in the ncNLS are required for nuclear targeting of NF-YA. Importin β binding is restricted to the monomeric, uncomplexed NF-YA subunit. In contrast, the nuclear import of NF-YB and NF-YC requires dimer formation. Only the NF-YB/NF-YC dimer, but not the monomeric components, are recognized by importin 13 and are imported into the nucleus. Importin 13 competes with NF-YA for binding to the NF-YB/NF-YC dimer. Our data suggest that a distinct binding platform derived from the HFM of both subunits, NF-YB/NF-YC, mediates those interactions. PMID:15964792

  20. Ball Possession Effectiveness in Men's Elite Floorball According to Quality of Opposition and Game Period.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Prieto, Miguel; Pérez, Javier; Sampaio, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the importance of floorball tactical variables to predict ball possession effectiveness, when controlling quality of opposition and game periods. The sample was composed by 1500 ball possessions, corresponding to 14 games randomly selected from the International Championships played during 2008 and 2010 (World Championship, Four nations tournament and classificatory phases for World Championship) by teams from different competition levels (HIGH, INTERMEDIATE and LOW). The effects of the predictor variables on successful ball possessions according to the three game contexts (HIGH vs. HIGH; HIGH vs. LOW; LOW vs. LOW games) were analyzed using Binomial Logistic Regressions. The results showed no interaction with the game period. In HIGH vs. HIGH games, quality of opposition showed an association with ball possession effectiveness with ending zone, offensive system, possession duration, height of shooting and defensive pressures previous to the shot. In HIGH vs. LOW games the important factors were the starting zone, possession duration, defensive pressure previous to the last pass and to the shot, technique of shooting and the number players involved in each ball possession. Finally, in LOW vs. LOW games, the results emphasized the importance of starting and ending zones, the number of passes used and the technique of shooting. In conclusion, elite floorball performance is mainly affected by quality of opposition showing different game patterns in each context that should be considered by coaches when preparing practices and competitions.

  1. Regulation of energy metabolism by the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) s factors of Arcobacter butzleri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) s factors are fundamental for bacterial adaptation to distinct environments and for survival under different stress conditions. The emerging pathogen Arcobacter butzleri possesses seven putative pairs of s/anti-s factors belonging to the ECF family. Here, we repor...

  2. Two distinct conformational states of Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulent factor early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa are behind the discrepancy around its biological functions.

    PubMed

    Refai, Amira; Haoues, Meriam; Othman, Houcemeddine; Barbouche, Mohamed Ridha; Moua, Philippe; Bondon, Arnaud; Mouret, Liza; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Essafi, Makram

    2015-11-01

    Early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP-10) are complex proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that play a major role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. However, studies focusing on the biological functions of ESAT-6 led to discordant results and the role of ESAT-6 remains controversial. In the present study, we aim to address a potential explanation for this discrepancy and to highlight the physiological impact of two conformational states of ESAT-6. Analysis of a recombinant form of ESAT-6 by native gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and CD spectroscopy revealed that ESAT-6 forms dimers/multimers with higher molecular weight, which disappeared under the action of the detergent amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB), giving rise to another conformational state of the protein. NMR has further indicated that ASB-treated versus nontreated ESAT-6 adopted distinct structural forms but with no well defined tertiary structure. However, protein-protein docking analysis favored a dimeric state of ESAT-6. Interestingly, the two preparations presented opposing effects on mycobacterial infectivity, as well as macrophage survival, interferon-γ secretion and membrane pore formation. Thereafter, we generated a recombinant form of the physiological heterodimer ESAT-6/CFP-10 that ASB was also able to dissociate and which showed functions similar to those of ESAT-6 dimers/multimers. Our data suggest that, in the absence of CFP-10, the hydrophobic regions of the ESAT-6 can form dimers/multimers, mimicking the ESAT-6/CFP-10 heterodimer, whereas their dissociation generates a protein presenting entirely different activities. Overall, the present study clarifies the intriguing divergences between reports that could be attributed to the ESAT-6 oligomeric state and sheds light on its importance for a better comprehension of the physiopathology of tuberculosis.

  3. The selective post-translational processing of transcription factor Nrf1 yields distinct isoforms that dictate its ability to differentially regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiguo; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Qiu, Lu; Zhao, Huakan; Hayes, John D

    2015-01-01

    Upon translation, the N-terminal homology box 1 (NHB1) signal anchor sequence of Nrf1 integrates it within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whilst its transactivation domains [TADs, including acidic domain 1 (AD1), the flanking Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and AD2] are transiently translocated into the ER lumen, whereupon the NST domain is glycosylated to yield an inactive 120-kDa glycoprotein. Subsequently, these TADs are retrotranslocated into extra-luminal subcellular compartments, where Nrf1 is deglycosylated to yield an active 95-kDa isoform. Herein, we report that AD1 and AD2 are required for the stability of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein, but not that of the non-glycosylated/de-glycosylated 95-kDa isoform. Degrons within AD1 do not promote proteolytic degradation of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein. However, repositioning of AD2-adjoining degrons (i.e. DSGLS-containing SDS1 and PEST2 sequences) into the cyto/nucleoplasm enables selective topovectorial processing of Nrf1 by the proteasome and/or calpains to generate a cleaved active 85-kDa Nrf1 or a dominant-negative 36-kDa Nrf1γ. Production of Nrf1γ is abolished by removal of SDS1 or PEST2 degrons, whereas production of the cleaved 85-kDa Nrf1 is blocked by deletion of the ER luminal-anchoring NHB2 sequence (aa 81-106). Importantly, Nrf1 activity is positively and/or negatively regulated by distinct doses of proteasome and calpain inhibitors. PMID:26268886

  4. The selective post-translational processing of transcription factor Nrf1 yields distinct isoforms that dictate its ability to differentially regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiguo; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Qiu, Lu; Zhao, Huakan; Hayes, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Upon translation, the N-terminal homology box 1 (NHB1) signal anchor sequence of Nrf1 integrates it within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whilst its transactivation domains [TADs, including acidic domain 1 (AD1), the flanking Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and AD2] are transiently translocated into the ER lumen, whereupon the NST domain is glycosylated to yield an inactive 120-kDa glycoprotein. Subsequently, these TADs are retrotranslocated into extra-luminal subcellular compartments, where Nrf1 is deglycosylated to yield an active 95-kDa isoform. Herein, we report that AD1 and AD2 are required for the stability of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein, but not that of the non-glycosylated/de-glycosylated 95-kDa isoform. Degrons within AD1 do not promote proteolytic degradation of the 120-kDa Nrf1 glycoprotein. However, repositioning of AD2-adjoining degrons (i.e. DSGLS-containing SDS1 and PEST2 sequences) into the cyto/nucleoplasm enables selective topovectorial processing of Nrf1 by the proteasome and/or calpains to generate a cleaved active 85-kDa Nrf1 or a dominant-negative 36-kDa Nrf1γ. Production of Nrf1γ is abolished by removal of SDS1 or PEST2 degrons, whereas production of the cleaved 85-kDa Nrf1 is blocked by deletion of the ER luminal-anchoring NHB2 sequence (aa 81–106). Importantly, Nrf1 activity is positively and/or negatively regulated by distinct doses of proteasome and calpain inhibitors. PMID:26268886

  5. The combination matters - distinct impact of lifestyle factors on sperm quality: a study on semen analysis of 1683 patients according to MSOME criteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor sperm quality can negatively affect embryonic development and IVF outcome. This study is aimed at investigating the influence of various lifestyle factors on semen quality according to MSOME (motile sperm organelle morphology examination) criteria. Methods 1683 male patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in our clinic were surveyed about their age, BMI (body mass index), ejaculation frequency, nutrition, sports, sleeping habits and social behavior. Semen samples were collected and evaluation of semen parameters according to MSOME and WHO criteria was performed. Results were grouped and statistically analyzed. Results Although single parameters had minor effects on sperm parameter, the combination of age, BMI, coffee intake, ejaculatory frequency and duration of sexual abstinence were identified as factors having a negative effect on sperm motility. Additionally, we could demonstrate that MSOME quality was reduced. The negative impact of age, BMI and coffee intake on sperm quality could be compensated if patients had a high ejaculation frequency and shorter periods of sexual abstinence. Conclusions Combinations of adverse lifestyle factors could have a detrimental impact on sperm, not only in terms of motility and sperm count but also in terms of sperm head vacuolization. This negative impact was shown to be compensated by higher ejaculation frequency and a shorter period of sexual abstinence. The compensation is most likely due to a shorter storage time in the male gonads, thus reducing the duration of sperms’ exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:23265183

  6. Distinct domains of hTAFII100 are required for functional interaction with transcription factor TFIIF beta (RAP30) and incorporation into the TFIID complex.

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovskaya, V; Lavigne, A C; Davidson, I; Acker, J; Staub, A; Tora, L

    1996-01-01

    TFIID is the DNA binding component of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and is composed of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs). Here we report the characterization of a new human TAF, hTAFII100, which is the human homologue of Drosophila TAFII80 and yeast TAFII90. hTAFII100 interacts strongly with hTAFII250, hTAFII55 and hTAFII28, less with hTAFII20 and hTAFII18, weakly with TBP and not at all with delta NTAFII135 and hTAFII30. Deletion analysis revealed that the C-terminal half of hTAFII100, which contains six WD-40 repeats, is not required for incorporation into the TFIID complex. Our results suggest that hTAFII100 can be divided into two domains, the N-terminal region responsible for interactions within the TFIID complex and the C-terminal WD repeat-containing half responsible for interactions between hTAFII100 and other factors. An anti-hTAFII100 antibody, raised against a C-terminal epitope, selectively inhibited basal TFIID-dependent in vitro transcription and the specific interaction between hTAFII100 and the 30 kDa subunit of TFIIF (RAP30). We demonstrate that the hTAFII100-TFIIF interaction supports pre-initiation complex formation in the presence of TFIID. Thus, this is the first demonstration that a TAFII functionally interacts with a basal transcription factor in vitro. Images PMID:8758937

  7. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  8. A case of possessive state with onset influenced by 'door-to-door' sales.

    PubMed

    Satoh, S; Obata, S; Seno, E; Okada, T; Morita, N; Saito, T; Yoshikawa, M; Yamagami, A

    1996-12-01

    Recently in Japan, 'door-to-door sales' has become of concern because it has created numerous legal and social problems. In this paper, a 47 year old dissociative trance disorder case who presented with possession by God is discussed. Specific types of door-to-door sales is known to use superstition and folk beliefs as tools to lure customers. In this particular case, these religious factors seemed to have played an important role in the precipitation of the disorder and its presentation. In addition, the brain-washing environment observed in video lectures used in door-to-door sales seemed to play an important role in the development of the possessive state. We also performed social psychiatric analysis of the occurrence of the possessive state in a city area, which has been considered to develop within traditional culture. Phenomenological classification by one of the authors was useful for diagnosing underlying disorders in the possessive state.

  9. Firearm Possession Among Adolescents Presenting to an Urban Emergency Department for Assault

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Newton, Manya F.; Clery, Michael; Whiteside, Lauren K.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Firearm violence is a leading cause of death among youth. The objectives of this study were (1) determine firearm possession rates and associated correlates among youth seeking care for assault in an emergency department (ED); (2) understand differences in risk factors for youth with firearm possession; and (3) identify firearm possession characteristics in this population: type, reason for possession, and source of firearms. METHODS: Youth (14 to 24 years old) presenting to a Level 1 ED with assault were administered a computerized screening survey. Validated instruments were administered, measuring demographics, firearm rates and characteristics, attitudes toward aggression, substance use, and previous violence history. RESULTS: Among 689 assault-injured youth, 23% reported firearm possession in the past 6 months. Only 17% of those reporting firearm possession obtained the gun from a legal source; 22% reported ownership of highly lethal automatic/semiautomatic weapons and 37.1% reported having a firearm for protection. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlates of firearm possession, including male gender, higher socioeconomic status, illicit drug use, recent serious fight, and retaliatory attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: ED assault-injured youth had high rates of firearm possession (23.1%), most of which were not obtained from legal sources. Youth with firearm possession were more likely to have been in a recent serious fight, and to endorse aggressive attitudes that increase their risk for retaliatory violence. Future prevention efforts should focus on minimizing illegal firearm access among high-risk youth, nonviolent alternatives to retaliatory violence, and substance use prevention. PMID:23837181

  10. Tyrosines 559 and 807 in the cytoplasmic tail of the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor play distinct roles in osteoclast differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xu; Takeshita, Sunao; Namba, Noriyuki; Wei, Shi; Teitelbaum, Steven L; Ross, F Patrick

    2002-12-01

    Osteoclast (OC) differentiation requires that precursors, such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent bone marrow macrophages, receive signals transduced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANK) and c-Fms, receptors for RANK ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF, respectively. Activated c-Fms autophosphorylates cytoplasmic tail tyrosine residues, which, by recruiting adaptor molecules, initiate specific signaling pathways. To identify which tyrosine residues are involved in c-Fms signaling in primary cells, we retrovirally transduced M-CSF-dependent bone marrow macrophages with a chimera comprising the external domain of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor linked to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of c-Fms. Transduced cells differentiate into bone-resorbing osteoclasts when treated with RANKL and either M-CSF or Epo, confirming that both endogenous and chimeric receptors transmit osteoclastogenic signals. Cells expressing chimeric receptors with Y(697)F, Y(706)F, Y(721)F, and Y(921)F single point mutations generate normal numbers of bone-resorbing OCs, with normal bone-resorbing activity when treated with RANKL and Epo. In contrast, those expressing Y(559)F generate fewer OCs, whereas theY807F mutant is incapable of osteoclastogenesis. Finally, although mature OCs expressing Y(559)F exhibit impaired bone resorption, those bearing Y807F do not. Thus, we have identified specific tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of c-Fms that are critical for transmitting M-CSF-initiated signals individually required for OC formation or function, respectively.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ regulates genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling and lipid metabolism during adipogenesis through functionally distinct enhancer classes.

    PubMed

    Oger, Frédérik; Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Gheeraert, Céline; Avner, Stéphane; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Salbert, Gilles; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2014-01-10

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a transcription factor whose expression is induced during adipogenesis and that is required for the acquisition and control of mature adipocyte functions. Indeed, PPAR induces the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and storage through enhancers activated during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we show that PPAR also binds to enhancers already active in preadipocytes as evidenced by an active chromatin state including lower DNA methylation levels despite higher CpG content. These constitutive enhancers are linked to genes involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway that are transcriptionally induced during adipogenesis but to a lower extent than lipid metabolism genes, because of stronger basal expression levels in preadipocytes. This is consistent with the sequential involvement of hormonal sensitivity and lipid handling during adipocyte maturation and correlates with the chromatin structure dynamics at constitutive and activated enhancers. Interestingly, constitutive enhancers are evolutionary conserved and can be activated in other tissues, in contrast to enhancers controlling lipid handling genes whose activation is more restricted to adipocytes. Thus, PPAR utilizes both broadly active and cell type-specific enhancers to modulate the dynamic range of activation of genes involved in the adipogenic process.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Regulates Genes Involved in Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor Signaling and Lipid Metabolism during Adipogenesis through Functionally Distinct Enhancer Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Oger, Frédérik; Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Gheeraert, Céline; Avner, Stéphane; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Salbert, Gilles; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a transcription factor whose expression is induced during adipogenesis and that is required for the acquisition and control of mature adipocyte functions. Indeed, PPARγ induces the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and storage through enhancers activated during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we show that PPARγ also binds to enhancers already active in preadipocytes as evidenced by an active chromatin state including lower DNA methylation levels despite higher CpG content. These constitutive enhancers are linked to genes involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway that are transcriptionally induced during adipogenesis but to a lower extent than lipid metabolism genes, because of stronger basal expression levels in preadipocytes. This is consistent with the sequential involvement of hormonal sensitivity and lipid handling during adipocyte maturation and correlates with the chromatin structure dynamics at constitutive and activated enhancers. Interestingly, constitutive enhancers are evolutionary conserved and can be activated in other tissues, in contrast to enhancers controlling lipid handling genes whose activation is more restricted to adipocytes. Thus, PPARγ utilizes both broadly active and cell type-specific enhancers to modulate the dynamic range of activation of genes involved in the adipogenic process. PMID:24288131

  13. Recognition of distinct HLA-DQA1 promoter elements by a single nuclear factor containing Jun and Fos or antigenically related proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Neve Ombra, M; Autiero, M; DeLerma Barbaro, A; Barretta, R; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J

    1993-01-01

    The activity of MHC class II promoters depends upon conserved regulatory signals one of which, the extended X-box, contains in its X2 subregion a sequence related to the cAMP response element, CRE and to the TPA response element, TRE. Accordingly, X2 is recognized by the AP-1 factor and by other c-Jun or c-Fos containing heterodimers. We report that the X-box dependent promoter activity of the HLA-DQA1 gene is down-modulated by an array of DNA elements each of which represented twice either in an invertedly or directly repeated orientation. In this frame, we describe a nuclear binding factor, namely DBF, promiscuously interacting with two of these additional signals, delta and sigma, and with a portion of the X-box, namely the X-core, devoid of X2. The presence of a single factor recognizing divergent DNA sequences was indicated by the finding that these activities were co-eluted from a heparin-Sepharose column and from DNA affinity columns carrying different DNA binding sites as ligands. Competition experiments made with oligonucleotides representing wild type and mutant DNA elements showed that each DNA element specifically inhibited the binding of the others, supporting the contention that DBF is involved in recognition of different targets. Furthermore, we found that DBF also exhibits CRE/TRE binding activity and that this activity can be competed out by addition of an excess of sigma, delta and X-core oligonucleotides. Anti-Jun peptide and anti-Fos peptide antibodies blocked not only the binding activity of DBF, but also its X-core and sigma binding; this blockade was removed by the addition of the Jun or Fos peptides against which the antibodies had been raised. In vitro synthesized Jun/Fos was able to bind to all these boxes, albeit with seemingly different affinities. The cooperativity of DBF interactions may explain the modulation of the X-box dependent promoter activity mediated by the accessory DNA elements described here. Images PMID:8493100

  14. The Regulatory T Cell Lineage Factor Foxp3 Regulates Gene Expression through Several Distinct Mechanisms Mostly Independent of Direct DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kristian G.; Hebenstreit, Daniel; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Betz, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The lineage factor Foxp3 is essential for the development and maintenance of regulatory T cells, but little is known about the mechanisms involved. Here, we demonstrate that an N-terminal proline-rich interaction region is crucial for Foxp3’s function. Subdomains within this key region link Foxp3 to several independent mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Our study suggests that Foxp3, even in the absence of its DNA-binding forkhead domain, acts as a bridge between DNA-binding interaction partners and proteins with effector function permitting it to regulate a large number of genes. We show that, in one such mechanism, Foxp3 recruits class I histone deacetylases to the promoters of target genes, counteracting activation-induced histone acetylation and thereby suppressing their expression. PMID:26107960

  15. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII) is functionally distinct from eIF4AI and eIF4AII.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Imataka, H; Morino, S; Rogers, G W; Richter-Cook, N J; Merrick, W C; Sonenberg, N

    1999-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is an RNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is thought to melt the 5' proximal secondary structure of eukaryotic mRNAs to facilitate attachment of the 40S ribosomal subunit. eIF4A functions in a complex termed eIF4F with two other initiation factors (eIF4E and eIF4G). Two isoforms of eIF4A, eIF4AI and eIF4AII, which are encoded by two different genes, are functionally indistinguishable. A third member of the eIF4A family, eIF4AIII, whose human homolog exhibits 65% amino acid identity to human eIF4AI, has also been cloned from Xenopus and tobacco, but its function in translation has not been characterized. In this study, human eIF4AIII was characterized biochemically. While eIF4AIII, like eIF4AI, exhibits RNA-dependent ATPase activity and ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity, it fails to substitute for eIF4AI in an in vitro-reconstituted 40S ribosome binding assay. Instead, eIF4AIII inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate system. In addition, whereas eIF4AI binds independently to the middle and carboxy-terminal fragments of eIF4G, eIF4AIII binds to the middle fragment only. These functional differences between eIF4AI and eIF4AIII suggest that eIF4AIII might play an inhibitory role in translation under physiological conditions.

  16. Distinct roles for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensing revealed by RNA silencing.

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Qian, Qingwen; Cullen, Peter J; Rutter, Guy A

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) for glucose-regulated insulin secretion and gene expression in pancreatic islet beta-cells is at present unresolved. Here, we have used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to silence the expression of each receptor selectively in clonal MIN6 beta-cells. Reduction of IR levels by >90% completely inhibited glucose (30 mM compared with 3 mM)-induced insulin secretion, but had no effect on depolarization-stimulated secretion. IR depletion also blocked the accumulation of preproinsulin (PPI), pancreatic duodenum homoeobox-1 (PDX-1) and glucokinase (GK) mRNAs at elevated glucose concentrations, as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis (TaqMan). Similarly, depletion of IGF-1R inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion but, in contrast with the effects of IR silencing, had little impact on the regulation of gene expression by glucose. Moreover, loss of IGF-1R, but not IR, markedly inhibited glucose-stimulated increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP, suggesting a role for IGF-1R in the maintenance of oxidative metabolism and in the generation of mitochondrial coupling factors. RNA silencing thus represents a useful tool for the efficient and selective inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases in isolated beta-cells. By inhibiting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through the inactivation of IGF-1R, this approach also demonstrates the existence of insulin-independent mechanisms whereby elevated glucose concentrations regulate PPI, PDX-1 and GK gene expression in beta-cells. PMID:14563207

  17. Models for Prediction of Factor VIII Half-Life in Severe Haemophiliacs: Distinct Approaches for Blood Group O and Non-O Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathelijn; van Dijk, Karin; Denis, Cécile V.; van den Berg, H. Marijke; Lenting, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is critical for the in vivo survival of factor VIII (FVIII). Since FVIII half-life correlates with VWF-antigen pre-infusion levels, we hypothesized that VWF levels are useful to predict FVIII half-life. Methodology Standardized half-life studies and analysis of pre-infusion VWF and VWF-propeptide levels were performed in a cohort of 38 patients with severe haemophilia A (FVIII <1 IU/ml), aged 15–44 years. Nineteen patients had blood-group O. Using multivariate linear regression-analysis (MVLR-analysis), the association of VWF-antigen, VWF-propeptide, age and body-weight with FVIII half-life was evaluated. Principal Findings FVIII half-life was shorter in blood-group O-patients compared to non-O-patients (11.5±2.6 h versus 14.3±3.0 h; p = 0.004). VWF-antigen levels correlated with FVIII half-life considerably better in patients with blood-group non-O than O (Pearson-rank = 0.70 and 0.47, respectively). Separate prediction models evolved from MVLR-analysis for blood-group O and non-O patients, based on VWF-antigen and VWF/propeptide ratio. Predicted half-lives deviated less than 3 h of observed half-life in 34/38 patients (89%) or less than 20% in 31/38 patients (82%). Conclusion Our approach may identify patients with shorter FVIII half-lives, and adapt treatment protocols when half-life studies are unavailable. In addition, our data indicate that survival of FVIII is determined by survival of endogenous VWF rather than VWF levels per se. PMID:19707594

  18. NFAT activation by membrane potential follows a calcium pathway distinct from other activity-related transcription factors in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Juan Antonio; Gaggero, Eduardo; Hidalgo, Jorge; Leal, Nancy; Jaimovich, Enrique; Carrasco, M Angélica

    2008-03-01

    Depolarization of skeletal muscle cells triggers intracellular Ca2+ signals mediated by ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors. Previously, we have reported that K+-induced depolarization activates transcriptional regulators ERK, cAMP response element-binding protein, c-fos, c-jun, and egr-1 through IP3-dependent Ca2+ release, whereas NF-kappa B activation is elicited by both ryanodine and IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals. We have further shown that field stimulation with electrical pulses results in an NF-kappa B activation increase dependent of the amount of pulses and independent of their frequency. In this work, we report the results obtained for nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-mediated transcription and translocation generated by both K+ and electrical stimulation protocols in primary skeletal muscle cells and C2C12 cells. The Ca2+ source for NFAT activation is through release by ryanodine receptors and extracellular Ca2+ entry. We found this activation to be independent of the number of pulses within a physiological range of stimulus frequency and enhanced by long-lasting low-frequency stimulation. Therefore, activation of the NFAT signaling pathway differs from that of NF-kappa B and other transcription factors. Calcineurin enzyme activity correlated well with the relative activation of NFAT translocation and transcription using different stimulation protocols. Furthermore, both K+-induced depolarization and electrical stimulation increased mRNA levels of the type 1 IP3 receptor mediated by calcineurin activity, which suggests that depolarization may regulate IP3 receptor transcription. These results confirm the presence of at least two independent pathways for excitation-transcription coupling in skeletal muscle cells, both dependent on Ca2+ release and triggered by the same voltage sensor but activating different intracellular release channels. PMID:18184878

  19. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2 Are Isoforms Exhibiting Distinct Functional Differences in Supporting Translation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2016-01-15

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is required during protein synthesis to promote the assembly of several factors involved in the recruitment of a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, the eIF4G isoforms in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization but both can interact with eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4E isoforms, and the poly(A)-binding protein. Nevertheless, eIF4G and eIFiso4G from wheat exhibit preferences in the mRNAs they translate optimally. For example, mRNA containing the 5'-leader (called Ω) of tobacco mosaic virus preferentially uses eIF4G in wheat germ lysate. In this study, the eIF4G isoform specificity of Ω was used to examine functional differences of the eIF4G isoforms in Arabidopsis. As in wheat, Ω-mediated translation was reduced in an eif4g null mutant. Loss of the eIFiso4G1 isoform, which is similar in sequence to wheat eIFiso4G, did not substantially affect Ω-mediated translation. However, loss of the eIFiso4G2 isoform substantially reduced Ω-mediated translation. eIFiso4G2 is substantially divergent from eIFiso4G1 and is present only in the Brassicaceae, suggesting a recent evolution. eIFiso4G2 isoforms exhibit sequence-specific differences in regions representing partner protein and RNA binding sites. Loss of any eIF4G isoform also resulted in a substantial reduction in reporter transcript level. These results suggest that eIFiso4G2 appeared late in plant evolution and exhibits more functional similarity with eIF4G than with eIFiso4G1 during Ω-mediated translation.

  20. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor eIFiso4G1 and eIFiso4G2 Are Isoforms Exhibiting Distinct Functional Differences in Supporting Translation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2016-01-15

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G is required during protein synthesis to promote the assembly of several factors involved in the recruitment of a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, the eIF4G isoforms in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization but both can interact with eIF4A, eIF4B, eIF4E isoforms, and the poly(A)-binding protein. Nevertheless, eIF4G and eIFiso4G from wheat exhibit preferences in the mRNAs they translate optimally. For example, mRNA containing the 5'-leader (called Ω) of tobacco mosaic virus preferentially uses eIF4G in wheat germ lysate. In this study, the eIF4G isoform specificity of Ω was used to examine functional differences of the eIF4G isoforms in Arabidopsis. As in wheat, Ω-mediated translation was reduced in an eif4g null mutant. Loss of the eIFiso4G1 isoform, which is similar in sequence to wheat eIFiso4G, did not substantially affect Ω-mediated translation. However, loss of the eIFiso4G2 isoform substantially reduced Ω-mediated translation. eIFiso4G2 is substantially divergent from eIFiso4G1 and is present only in the Brassicaceae, suggesting a recent evolution. eIFiso4G2 isoforms exhibit sequence-specific differences in regions representing partner protein and RNA binding sites. Loss of any eIF4G isoform also resulted in a substantial reduction in reporter transcript level. These results suggest that eIFiso4G2 appeared late in plant evolution and exhibits more functional similarity with eIF4G than with eIFiso4G1 during Ω-mediated translation. PMID:26578519

  1. 1. FRONT FACADE (Photograph of photograph in possession of Turner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT FACADE (Photograph of photograph in possession of Turner Associates and Nicholas Satterlee Associates, Washington, DC, 1973.) - 1 & 2 Logan Circle (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Distinct and separable roles of the complement system in factor H-deficient bone marrow chimeric mice with immune complex disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Aneziokoro, O G B; Chang, Anthony; Hack, Bradley K; Markaryan, Adam; Jacob, Alexander; Luo, Roger; Thirman, Michael; Haas, Mark; Quigg, Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Plasma complement factor H (Cfh) is a potent complement regulator, whereas Cfh on the surface of rodent platelets is responsible for immune complex processing. For dissection between the two, bone marrow chimeras between Cfh-deficient (Cfh(-/-)) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were created. Platelet Cfh protein was tracked with the Cfh status of the bone marrow donor, indicating that platelet Cfh is of intrinsic origin. In an active model of immune complex disease, Cfh(-/-) mice that were reconstituted with wild-type bone marrow had levels of platelet-associated immune complexes comparable to those of wild-type mice and were protected against the excessive glomerular deposition of immune complexes seen in Cfh(-/-) mice, yet these mice still developed glomerular inflammation. In contrast, wild-type mice with Cfh(-/-) bone marrow had reduced platelet-associated immune complexes and extensive glomerular deposition of complement-activating immune complexes, but they did not develop glomerular pathology. The large quantities of glomerular C3 in wild-type mice with Cfh(-/-) bone marrow were in the form of iC3b and C3dg, whereas active C3b remained in Cfh(-/-) recipients of wild-type bone marrow. These data show that plasma Cfh limits complement activation in the circulation and other accessible sites such as the glomerulus, whereas platelet Cfh is responsible for immune complex processing.

  3. The high-mobility group A-type protein CarD of the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a transcription factor for several distinct vegetative genes.

    PubMed Central

    Galbis-Martínez, Marisa; Fontes, Marta; Murillo, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    CarD is the only reported prokaryotic protein showing structural and functional features typical of eukaryotic high-mobility group A transcription factors. In prokaryotes, proteins similar to CarD appear to be confined primarily to myxobacteria. In Myxococcus xanthus, CarD has been previously shown to act as a positive element in two different regulatory networks: one for light-induced synthesis of carotenoids and the other for starvation-induced fruiting body formation. We have now tested the effect of a loss-of-function mutation in the carD gene (carD1) on the expression of a random collection of lacZ-tagged genes, which are normally expressed in the dark during vegetative growth in rich medium. Our results indicate that CarD plays a significant role in the transcriptional regulation of various indicated genes. The carD1 mutation downregulates some genes and upregulates others. Also reported here is the isolation of several mutations that suppress the strong effect of carD1 on the expression of a particular vegetative gene. One of them (sud-2) also suppresses the effect of carD1 on other vegetative genes and on fruiting-body formation. Thus, CarD and the sud-2 gene product appear to participate in a single mechanism, which underlies various apparently diverse regulatory phenomena ascribed to CarD. PMID:15342500

  4. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Possess any liquor bottle in which...

  5. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any person... circumstances: (a) The owner or occupant of any premises on which the used bottles have been lawfully...

  6. 12 CFR 558.1 - Procedure upon taking possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure upon taking possession. 558.1 Section 558.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY POSSESSION BY CONSERVATORS AND RECEIVERS FOR FEDERAL AND STATE SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 558.1 Procedure upon taking...

  7. 25 CFR 11.452 - Possession of a controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unlawful for a person to knowingly or intentionally possess any controlled substance listed in 21 CFR Part... by 21 CFR 1308.21 through 1308.35, as amended; or (3) The provisions of 42 U.S.C. 1996a (regarding... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of a controlled substance. 11.452 Section...

  8. 24 CFR 27.117 - Transfer of title and possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of title and possession. 27.117 Section 27.117 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Foreclosure of Single Family Mortgages § 27.117 Transfer of title and possession. (a) If the Secretary is...

  9. An Interpretive Approach to Inalienable Possession in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    The Lexicalist-interpretive approach to inalienable possession adopted in this paper proposes that body parts are generated with either the article (the unmarked determiner) or the possessive adjective (the marked determiner). The unmarked body part is codesignate with the indirect object; in the case of pseudo-transitives--a clearly delimited…

  10. 9. Photocopy of 1845 manuscript (original in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of 1845 manuscript (original in the possession of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, N.Y.; photocopy in the possession of the Onondaga Historical Association) ENTRY IN A. J. DAVIS' (ARCHITECT) ACCOUNT BOOK, SHOWING SKETCH OF WEST ELEVATION AND FIRST LEVEL PLAN, AND SCHEDULE OF TEN DRAWINGS - Sedgewick House, 742 James Street, Syracuse, Onondaga County, NY

  11. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  12. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  13. 50 CFR 640.23 - Bag/possession limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management... daily bag or possession limit for spiny lobster in or from the EEZ off the southern Atlantic states... fishing season specified in § 640.20(b)(1), the daily bag or possession limit of spiny lobster in or...

  14. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught... maximum probability of survival. (b) Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such Atlantic salmon were taken in violation of this regulation. Evidence that such fish...

  15. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught... maximum probability of survival. (b) Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such Atlantic salmon were taken in violation of this regulation. Evidence that such fish...

  16. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught... maximum probability of survival. (b) Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such Atlantic salmon were taken in violation of this regulation. Evidence that such fish...

  17. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught... maximum probability of survival. (b) Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such Atlantic salmon were taken in violation of this regulation. Evidence that such fish...

  18. 50 CFR 648.40 - Prohibition on possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Salmon § 648.40 Prohibition on possession. (a) Incidental catch. All Atlantic salmon caught... maximum probability of survival. (b) Presumption. The possession of Atlantic salmon is prima facie evidence that such Atlantic salmon were taken in violation of this regulation. Evidence that such fish...

  19. Pre-Posed Possessive Constructions in Russian and Polish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Erik Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Contemporary Standard Russian (CSR) and Contemporary Standard Polish (CSP) nominal possession is conveyed by means of the adnominal genitive. In this construction the dependent follows the noun it modifies and is marked morphologically for possession in the genitive case. The head noun is marked morphologically for any one of the six…

  20. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing...

  1. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing...

  2. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing...

  3. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. (a) Atlantic tunas. Persons that own or operate a fishing...

  4. 50 CFR 635.30 - Possession at sea and landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic coastal port, including ports in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, must have all fins and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession at sea and landing. 635.30....30 Possession at sea and landing. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57702, Sept. 22, 2010....

  5. 22 CFR 72.15 - Action when possession is impractical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action when possession is impractical. 72.15 Section 72.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY....15 Action when possession is impractical. (a) A consular officer should not take physical...

  6. The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2012-01-01

    The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

  7. 45 CFR 670.6 - Prior possession exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prior possession exception. 670.6 Section 670.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Prohibited Acts, Exceptions § 670.6 Prior possession exception....

  8. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  9. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way. PMID:21667381

  10. Does Possession of Apolipoprotein E[superscript E]4 Benefit Cognitive Function in Healthy Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, David; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Burns, Richard; Christensen, Helen; Easteal, Simon

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the apolipoprotein E (APOE)[superscript E]4 allele is associated with cognitive deficits in older persons, and is a risk factor for dementia. However, it has recently been suggested that possession of the [superscript E]4 allele may benefit cognition in early adulthood. We tested this possibility in 5445…

  11. Dissociative trance disorder: clinical and Rorschach findings in ten persons reporting demon possession and treated by exorcism.

    PubMed

    Ferracuti, S; Sacco, R; Lazzari, R

    1996-06-01

    Although dissociative trance disorders, especially possession disorder, are probably more common than is usually though, precise clinical data are lacking. Ten persons undergoing exorcisms for devil trance possession state were studied with the Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic Schedule and the Rorschach test. These persons had many traits in common with dissociative identity disorder patients. They were overwhelmed by paranormal experiences. Despite claiming possession by a demon, most of them managed to maintain normal social functioning. Rorschach findings showed that these persons had a complex personality organization: Some of them displayed a tendency to oversimplify stimulus perception whereas others seemed more committed to psychological complexity. Most had severe impairment of reality testing, and 6 of the participants had an extratensive coping stile. In this group of persons reporting demon possession, dissociative trance disorder seems to be a distinct clinical manifestation of a dissociative continuum, sharing some features with dissociative identity disorder.

  12. Distinct Regulatory Changes Underlying Differential Expression of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR Genes Associated with Petal Variations in Zygomorphic Flowers of Petrocosmea spp. of the Family Gesneriaceae1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes, belonging to the plant-specific TCP transcription factor family that is named after TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYC from Antirrhinum majus, and the PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (PCF) from rice (Oryza sativa), have conserved dorsal identity function in patterning floral zygomorphy mainly through specific expression in dorsal petals of a flower. Their expression changes are usually related to morphological diversity of zygomorphic flowers. However, it is still a challenge to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying their expression differentiation. It is also unknown whether CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TCP genes, locally controlling cell growth and proliferation, are involved in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. To address these questions, we selected two closely related species, i.e. Petrocosmea glabristoma and Petrocosmea sinensis, with distinct petal morphology to conduct expression, hybridization, mutant, and allele-specific expression analyses. The results show that the size change of the dorsal petals between the two species is mainly mediated by the expression differentiation of CYC1C and CYC1D, while the shape variation of all petals is related to the expression change of CIN1. In reciprocal F1 hybrids, the expression of CYC1C, CYC1D, and CIN1 conforms to an additive inheritance mode, consistent with the petal phenotypes of hybrids. Through allele-specific expression analyses, we find that the expression differentiation of these TCP genes is underlain by distinctly different types of regulatory changes. We suggest that highly redundant paralogs with identical expression patterns and interspecific expression differentiation may be controlled by remarkably different regulatory pathways because natural selection may favor different regulatory modifications rather than coding sequence changes of key developmental genes in generating morphological diversity. PMID:26351309

  13. Distinct Regulatory Changes Underlying Differential Expression of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR Genes Associated with Petal Variations in Zygomorphic Flowers of Petrocosmea spp. of the Family Gesneriaceae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Zhi-Jing; Dong, Yang; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2015-11-01

    CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes, belonging to the plant-specific TCP transcription factor family that is named after TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYC from Antirrhinum majus, and the PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (PCF) from rice (Oryza sativa), have conserved dorsal identity function in patterning floral zygomorphy mainly through specific expression in dorsal petals of a flower. Their expression changes are usually related to morphological diversity of zygomorphic flowers. However, it is still a challenge to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying their expression differentiation. It is also unknown whether CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TCP genes, locally controlling cell growth and proliferation, are involved in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. To address these questions, we selected two closely related species, i.e. Petrocosmea glabristoma and Petrocosmea sinensis, with distinct petal morphology to conduct expression, hybridization, mutant, and allele-specific expression analyses. The results show that the size change of the dorsal petals between the two species is mainly mediated by the expression differentiation of CYC1C and CYC1D, while the shape variation of all petals is related to the expression change of CIN1. In reciprocal F1 hybrids, the expression of CYC1C, CYC1D, and CIN1 conforms to an additive inheritance mode, consistent with the petal phenotypes of hybrids. Through allele-specific expression analyses, we find that the expression differentiation of these TCP genes is underlain by distinctly different types of regulatory changes. We suggest that highly redundant paralogs with identical expression patterns and interspecific expression differentiation may be controlled by remarkably different regulatory pathways because natural selection may favor different regulatory modifications rather than coding sequence changes of key developmental genes in generating morphological diversity. PMID:26351309

  14. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    PubMed

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-11-01

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection. PMID:25237144

  15. A VICTIM OF AN EPIDEMIC OF POSSESSION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY A case of young man who got possessed by a god and two spirits alternatively is reported. He was one of the four victims of an epidemic of possession by two spirits (Mohini). The epidemic occurred following the prediction that the two women who committed suicide, would become Mohinis and liaunt adult men. It appeared that the strong belief and expectation in the local culture made the index person who was otherwise well adjusted in life to get possessed. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:22058566

  16. Possession syndrome at high altitude ( 4575 m/15000 ft ).

    PubMed

    Khan, I D; Sahni, A K

    2013-01-01

    In a first of its kind, a 20 year old Hindu, highlander, working girl presented with abnormal behavior, unrelenting symptoms, had limited benefit by usual treatment and was diagnosed as possession syndrome. Exorcism offered symptomatic relief. The girl resumed normal activities with no recurrence in a 12 month follow up. Possession syndrome is explained in both medical and theological perspectives. Modern medicine associates it with a mental illness though True Possession syndrome without associated mental illness has been reported. Theological perspective can be amalgamated with current scientific theory and practice, thereby complimenting existing concepts.

  17. Must an inventor "possess" an invention to patent it?

    PubMed

    Woessner, Warren D; Chadwick, Robin A

    2014-09-18

    The requirements for patenting inventions relating to biotechnology have become increasingly strict and complicated in recent years. Despite early patent rulings that there is no need for an inventor to "reduce to practice" an invention, the courts are now ruling that an inventor must "possess" his or her invention before filing for patent. This review discusses what such "possession" may mean and describes decisions in which courts have found that an inventor has met or failed the possession test before filing for patent protection.

  18. 16. Photographic copy of drawing, dated September 1924, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of drawing, dated September 1924, in possession of San Carlos Irrigation Project. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. PIMA LATERAL HEADWORKS, RADIAL GATES - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Pima Lateral, Main Canal at Sacaton Dam, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University) Henry Austin, architect, 1850 SOUTHEAST (FRONT) ELEVATION - Moses Yale Beach House, 86 North Main Street, Wallingford, New Haven County, CT

  20. 2. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University) Henry Austin, architect, 1850 NORTHEAST ELEVATION - Moses Yale Beach House, 86 North Main Street, Wallingford, New Haven County, CT

  1. 6. Photocopy of photograph (Original print in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (Original print in possession of the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Smithsonian Institute) SIMILAR BRIDGE IN FRAMINGHAM MASSACHUSETTS - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of the Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Smithsonian Institute) PARKER TRUSS BRIDGE IN MAINE - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  3. 10. Photocopy of a measured drawing (original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of a measured drawing (original in the possession of the Kunstakademiets, Copenhagen, Denmark; catalogued under the 'Vestindienstudier', 1961) ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF TWO SECOND-FLOOR DOORS - Kompagnigade 51 (House), 51 Company Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  4. 1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. 'VILLAGE OF WEST TROY EMBRACING WATER VLIET' BY S. A. BEERS, 1845. - Watervliet Arsenal, South Broadway, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 2. Photocopy of photograph (Original in possession of Woodstock Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (Original in possession of Woodstock Historical Society) date unknown. Reproduced by permission. LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS GEORGE PERKINS MARSH HISTORICAL LANDMARK - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  6. 3. Photocopy of photograph (Original in possession of Woodstock Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (Original in possession of Woodstock Historical Society) date unknown. Reproduced by permission. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD GEORGE PERKINS MARSH NATIONAL HISTORICAL LANDMARK - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  7. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  8. 14. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 6. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATIONS, 1871. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ATTIC PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION AND DETAILS, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. BASEMENT PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 10. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FRONT ELEVATION, 1873. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION, 1874; TRACING, 1935. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, 1920. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 6. photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATIONS AND PLANS FOR POWDER BARREL RACK, 1889. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. Photographic copy of photograph (circa 1927) (original print in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (circa 1927) (original print in possession of Brunner and Brunner, Architect and Engineers, Inc., St. Joseph, Missouri) VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER - Old City Auditorium, 404-424 North Fourth Street, Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, MO

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Brunner and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Brunner and Brunner, Architect and Engineers, Inc., St. Joseph, Missouri). Photographer unknown. VIEW OF EAST FRONT BEFORE ALTERATIONS - Old City Auditorium, 404-424 North Fourth Street, Saint Joseph, Buchanan County, MO

  13. 26. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) HEADER BUILDING, ELEVATIONS OF WEST SIDE ON COL LINE AH AND AP, 1920 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  14. 27. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) FACTORY BUILDING, PLAN OF FLOOR B, 1928, NOTE OPEN COURTS - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  15. 5. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) FIRST FLOOR PLAN, BOILER AND POWER HOUSE, 1922 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Power House, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  16. 28. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) FACTORY BUILDING, PLAN OF FLOOR B, MACHINERY LAYOUT, 1943, NOTE INFILLED COURTS - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  17. 25. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) COURT 4, SECTION BETWEEN COLS. 51 AND 52, LOOKING NORTH, NOTE MONITOR WINDOW, 1920 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Factory Building, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  18. Photocopy of drawing (original In possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original In possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) WELL WATER RESERVOIR, 1926 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Cooling Tower, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  19. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Allegany County, Cumberland, MD) CEMENT HOUSE FLOOR PLAN, 1942 - Kelly-Springfield Tire Plant, Cement House, 701 Kelly Road, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  20. 5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original in possession of Trinity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original in possession of Trinity Episcopal Cathedral) Edward Tuckerman Potter, architect ca. 1867 CROSS SECTION, LOOKING NORTH - Grace Episcopal Cathedral, 1121 Main Street, Davenport, Scott County, IA

  1. 4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original in possession of Trinity ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original in possession of Trinity Episcopal Cathedral) Edward Tuckerman Potter, architect ca. 1867 WEST FACADE, ELEVATION - Grace Episcopal Cathedral, 1121 Main Street, Davenport, Scott County, IA

  2. 20. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of WACC), photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of WACC), photographer unknown, c.1920's BOY WITH DEER STANDING IN EAST YARD OF MAIN HOUSE WITH WELL AND SCREENED PORCH PICTURED IN LEFT BACKGROUND - Faraway Ranch, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  3. 42. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of Wilkes-Barre City Engineer's Office) ALTERNATE DESIGN - South Street Bridge, Spans Pennsylvania Avenue, Wilkes-Barre Boulevard, Pocono Northeast Railroad, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  4. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). FINAL INSPECTION - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  5. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). OLIVING - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  6. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). PASTING JEWEL BLANKS, PREPARATION FOR DRILLING. - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  7. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). LARGE HOLE-OPENING - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  8. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). DRILLING - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  9. Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph (original print in possession of William Langer Jewel Bearing Plant, Rolla, North Dakota). MACHINE SHOP - Turtle Mountain Ordnance Plant, 213 First Street Northwest, Rolla, Rolette County, ND

  10. 6. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Topo-Metrics, Inc, 1992. Aerial view of the Brooklyn Army Terminal - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  11. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Photographer unknown, circa 1983) OVERALL VIEW OF THE BROOKLYN ARMY TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  12. 17. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Signal Corps, USA, 1947 VIEW OF PIER 4 AND PIER 5-BROOKLYN ARMY BASE TERMINAL - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  13. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) US Army Photograph, 1952 VIEW OF TEST HOLES BETWEEN PIERS - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  14. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Signal Corp, USA, 1946 VIEW OF PIERS 2, 3, AND 4-BROOKLYN ARMY BASE TERMINAL - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Signal Corps, USA, 1945 INTERIOR VIEW OF PIER SHED - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  16. 9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) Photographer and date unknown VIEW BETWEEN PIERS 2 AND 3, LOOKING FROM WAREHOUSE ROOF - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 2, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. 22. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. William Strickland, architect, circa December 1833. SECOND STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 33. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Walter F. Price, architect, June 5, 1913. PROPOSED COVERED PASSAGES FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA HOSPITAL - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 17. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE BASEMENT STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 27. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John C. Trautwine, architect and engineer, circa December 1833. NORTH FRONT and EAST & WEST FRONTS - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 29. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Thomas U. Walter, architect, November 25, 1833. PLAN OF PRINCIPAL STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 20. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PINE STREET FRONT - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 25. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John C. Trautwine, architect and engineer, circa December 1833. PLAN OF THE BASEMENT - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 21. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. William Strickland, architect, circa December 1833. BASEMENT STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 15. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John Haviland, architect, December 1833. ELEVATION OF THE NORTH OR PRINCIPAL FRONT - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 18. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE PRINCIPAL STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 31. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Thomas U. Walter, architect, November 25, 1833. FRONT ELEVATION - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 24. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. William Strickland, architect, circa December 1833. NORTH FRONT - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 30. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Thomas U. Walter, architect, November 25, 1833. PLAN OF THIRD STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 16. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John Haviland, architect, December 1833. LONGITUDINAL SECTION FROM EAST TO WEST - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 26. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John C. Trautwine, architect and engineer, circa December 1833. PLAN OF THE PRINCIPAL STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 28. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Thomas U. Walter, architect, November 25, 1833. PLAN OF BASEMENT STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 19. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE THIRD STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 23. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. William Strickland, architect, circa December 1833. THIRD STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 14. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. John Haviland, architect, December 1833. PLAN OF THE PRINCIPAL FLOOR - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated CHILDREN POISED AT EDGE OF FILLED SWIMMING POOL - Faraway Ranch, Swimming Pool, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  17. First possession, history, and young children's ownership judgments.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ori; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Defeyter, Margaret A; Neary, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    It is impossible to perceive who owns an object; this must be inferred. One way that children make such inferences is through a first possession bias--when two agents each use an object, children judge the object belongs to the one who used it first. Two experiments show that this bias does not result from children directly inferring ownership from first possession; the experiments instead support an alternative account according to which the first possession bias reflects children's historical reasoning. In Experiment 1, eighty-five 3- to 5-year-olds only based inferences on first possession when it was informative about the past. In Experiment 2, thirty-two 5-year-olds based ownership judgments on testimony about past contact, while disregarding testimony about future contact.

  18. The concept possession hypothesis of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Savanah, Stephane

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that concept possession is sufficient and necessary for self-consciousness. If this is true it provides a yardstick for gauging the validity of different research paradigms in which claims for self-consciousness in animals or human infants are made: a convincing demonstration of concept possession in a research subject, such as a display of inferential reasoning, may be taken as conclusive evidence of self-consciousness. Intuitively, there appears to be a correlation between intelligence in animals (which presupposes concept possession) and the existence of self-consciousness. I present three discussions to support the hypothesis: an analogy between perception and conception, where both are self-specifying; an argument that any web of concepts will always include the self-concept; and a fresh interpretation of Bermũdez (1998) showing how his theory of non-conceptual content provides strong support for the concept possession hypothesis.

  19. 6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of an architectural drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ELEVATION, 1874. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. MAP OF ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL, 1919, REVISED 1938 - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 9. Photocopy of Charles H. Parkers Patent (Original in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of Charles H. Parkers Patent (Original in possession of United States Patent Office) PATENT DRAWING OF C. H. PARKER TRUSS BRIDGE - Elm Street Bridge, Spanning Ottauquechee River, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  2. 10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National Monument), photographer unknown, c.1910 JA HU STAFFORD AND YOUNGEST DAUGHTER IN FRONT OF WEST SIDE OF CABIN - Faraway Ranch, Stafford-Riggs Cabin, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  3. 20. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. SOUTH ELEVATION, 1964. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FIRST FLOOR PLAN, 1936. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 19. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. NORTH ELEVATION, 1964. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 17. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. SECOND FLOOR PLAN, 1936. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. COMMANDING OFFICER'S OFFICE, FIRST FLOOR. DATED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 18. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS, 1964. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing Authority, Atlanta GA). Photographer unknown, circa 1940. VIEW OF APARTMENT INTERIOR. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1920's RARE VIEW OF BUNKHOUSE LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Guest Quarters-Bunkhouse, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  12. 4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated NEIL ERICKSON WORKING OUTSIDE OFFICE/GARAGE WHEN IT WAS NEW - Faraway Ranch, Office-Garage, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  13. 34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center, (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, c.1910 MAIN HOUSE - Faraway Ranch, Erickson-Riggs Ranch House, State Highway 181, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  14. 5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Western Archeological and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated BARN AND CORRAL LOOKING NORTHEAST - Faraway Ranch, Barn & Tool Shed, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  15. 6. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of Western Archaeologial and Conservation Center (WACC), Tucson, Arizona), photographer unknown, undated AERIAL VIEW OF FARAWAY RANCH AND VICINITY - Faraway Ranch, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  16. The epistemological significance of possession entering the DSM.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Craig

    2015-09-01

    The discourse of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM reflects the inherently dialogic or contradictory nature of its stated mandate to demonstrate both 'nosological completeness' and cultural 'inclusiveness'. Psychiatry employs the dialogic discourse of the DSM in a one-sided, positivistic manner by identifying what it considers universal mental disease entities stripped of their cultural context. In 1992 the editors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders proposed to introduce possession into their revisions. A survey of the discussions about introducing 'possession' as a dissociative disorder to be listed in the DSM-IV indicates a missed epistemological break. Subsequently the editors of the DSM-5 politically 'recuperated' possession into its official discourse, without acknowledging the anarchic challenges that possession presents to psychiatry as a cultural practice.

  17. 8. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Coronado ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Coronado Historical Association). Photographer Unknown, circa 1922. HEILMAN VILLAS FROM ORANGE AVENUE - Heilman Villas, 706-720 Orange Avenue & 1060-1090 Seventh Street, Coronado, San Diego County, CA

  18. 9. Photocopy of plan (original plan in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of plan (original plan in the possession of the City of Spokane, Department of Public Works) DETAIL OF FRAMEWORK FOR ARCH CENTERING - Washington Street Bridge, Spanning Spokane River at Washington Street, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  19. 15. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the Cooper County Court) Photographer Lloyd Grotjan (1987). ORIGINAL BLUEPRINT OF NORTH END APPROACH STRUCTURE - Roberts Bluff Bridge, .5 mile East of Blackwater, Blackwater, Cooper County, MO

  20. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the Cooper County Court) Photographer Lloyd Grotjan (1987). VIEW OF MAIN SPAN PROPOSAL - Roberts Bluff Bridge, .5 mile East of Blackwater, Blackwater, Cooper County, MO

  1. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  2. 39. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of bridge drawing, 1923 (original in possession of Wilkes-Barre City Engineer's Office) STRESS SHEET TRUSS SPANS - South Street Bridge, Spans Pennsylvania Avenue, Wilkes-Barre Boulevard, Pocono Northeast Railroad, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  3. Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of original drawing (original in possession of National Passenger Railroad Corporation). Canopy Plans, Sections, and Details (n.d.) - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Lieutenant Giellerup, delineator, May 1829 PROPOSED ALTERATIONS OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  5. 5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Lieutenant Giellerup, delineator, May 1829 PLAN PROPOSED ALTERATIONS OF SECOND FLOOR OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  6. 6. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of measured drawing (original drawing in the possession of the Rigsarkivet (Royal Archives), Copenhagen, Denmark) Ludvig Schellerup, architect, August 1864 PLAN OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE - Government House, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  7. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Butt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Butt Booth). Photograph dated ca. 1908. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING ATTACHED OXEN AND ENGINE SHEDS - Baker-Booth Blacksmith Shop, Lear Hill Road, West of Route 10, Goshen, Sullivan County, NH

  8. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of George ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original print in possession of George Pavlica, Bovey, MN) 1913, photographer unknown, cityscape with tower in background - Bovey Water Tower, Eighth Avenue & T.H. 169, Bovey, Itasca County, MN

  9. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. Details for two country rooms, third floor. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  10. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. Details of Fifth Street entrance, staircase, elevator. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  11. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. West elevation. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  12. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. Rear (southern) elevation). - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  13. Photographic copy of the original (1934) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1934) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. Fifth Street (north) elevation and south (west) elevation - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  14. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. North elevation of Fifth Street. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  15. Photographic copy of the original (1934) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1934) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. Rear (south) elevation. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  16. Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of the original (1896) architectural drawing in possession of U.S. Postal Service, Pueblo, Colorado. East elevation on Main Street. - Pueblo Federal Building & Post Office, 421 North Main Street, Pueblo, Pueblo County, CO

  17. 20. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (original in possession of NYC Economic Development Corp.) US Army photograph, 1949 VIEW SOUTH ELEVATION, OUTER END-PIER 4 - Brooklyn Army Supply Base, Pier 4, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  18. 13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. BASEMENT PLAN, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 4, Terrace Avenue between Gillespie & East Avenues, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN, UNDATED. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 64, Rodman Avenue between Second & Third Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 50 CFR 648.52 - Possession and landing limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or possess more than 50 bu (17.6 hL) of in-shell scallops shoreward of the VMS Demarcation Line. Such....2 hL) of in-shell scallops seaward of the VMS demarcation line on a properly declared IFQ scallop... vessel may possess up to 50 bu (17.6 hL) of in-shell scallops seaward of the VMS demarcation line on...

  1. Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures. PMID:19762675

  2. Distinctive interactions of the Arabidopsis homolog of the 30 kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30) with other polyadenylation factor subunits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30 kD subunit of the mammalian Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (AtCPSF30) is an RNA-binding endonuclease that is associated with other Arabidopsis CPSF subunits (orthologs of the 160, 100, and 73 kD subunits of CPSF). In order to better u...

  3. Escherichia coli K-12 possesses multiple cryptic but functional chaperone-usher fimbriae with distinct surface specificities.

    PubMed

    Korea, Charalampia-Georgia; Badouraly, Réana; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    Commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli adherence to host and environmental surfaces is mediated by a variety of adhesins. Although extensively studied as a model bacterium, 34% of the genes in the E. coli K-12 genome have no known function. We hypothesized that some of them may correspond to functional adhesins. We characterized E. coli K-12 ycb, ybg, yfc, yad, yra, sfm and yeh operons, which display sequence and organizational homologies to type 1 fimbriae exported by the chaperone/usher pathway. We showed that, although these operons are poorly expressed under laboratory conditions, six of them are nevertheless functional when expressed, and promote adhesion to abiotic and/or epithelial cell surfaces. While the studied fimbriae display different binding specificities, we obtained evidence of synergy/interference with other adhesins such as Ag43 or type 1 fimbriae. We showed that their expression is under the negative control of H-NS and, except for yad, subjected to cAMP receptor protein-mediated activation and carbon catabolite repression. These results therefore demonstrate that ycb, yfc, yad, yra, sfm and yeh operons encode cryptic but functional fimbriae adhesins whose expression following environmental modifications could contribute to E. coli's ability to adhere to and colonize a wide diversity of surfaces in its various ecological niches.

  4. An Autopsy Case of Two Distinct, Acquired Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma: Small Cell Carcinoma Transformation and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor T790M Mutation.

    PubMed

    Furugen, Makoto; Uechi, Kayoko; Hirai, Jun; Aoyama, Hajime; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki; Kinjo, Takeshi; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a 63-year-old man who died from relapsed epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) exon 19 deletion lung adenocarcinoma treated with erlotinib. According to the autopsy results, he was confirmed to have small cell carcinoma without the EGFR T790M mutation in his pancreas and left kidney metastatic specimens, while the adenocarcinoma metastatic lesion in his right kidney had the EGFR T790M mutation; both retained the somatic EGFR exon 19 deletion. We herein report an autopsy case of resistance to an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor via small cell carcinoma transformation and the EGFRT790M mutation in separate metastatic organs. PMID:26424310

  5. To do, to have, or to share? Valuing experiences over material possessions depends on the involvement of others.

    PubMed

    Caprariello, Peter A; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that spending discretionary money with the intention of acquiring life experiences-events that one lives through-makes people happier than spending money with the intention of acquiring material possessions-tangible objects that one obtains and possesses. We propose and show that experiences are more likely to be shared with others, whereas material possessions are more prone to solitary use and that this distinction may account for their differential effects on happiness. In 4 studies, we present evidence demonstrating that the inclusion of others is a key dimension of how people derive happiness from discretionary spending. These studies showed that when the social-solitary and experiential-material dimensions were considered simultaneously, social discretionary spending was favored over solitary discretionary spending, whereas experiences showed no happiness-producing advantage relative to possessions. Furthermore, whereas spending money on socially shared experiences was valued more than spending money on either experiences enacted alone or material possessions, solitary experiences were no more valued than material possessions. Together, these results extend and clarify the basic findings of prior research and add to growing evidence that the social context of experiences is critical for their effects on happiness.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-derived growth factor-BB induce directed migration of human arterial smooth muscle cells via signaling pathways that are distinct from those of proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Bornfeldt, K E; Raines, E W; Nakano, T; Graves, L M; Krebs, E G; Ross, R

    1994-01-01

    Directed migration or chemotaxis of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) contributes to intimal SMC accumulation, a key event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions and in restenosis after angioplasty. The present study compares and contrasts insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) as chemoattractants and mitogens for human arterial SMC. Compared with PDGF-BB, IGF-I is a weaker SMC mitogen. Thus, PDGF-BB, but not IGF-I, evokes a strong and rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase and MAP kinase. However, IGF-I is a potent stimulator of directed migration of human arterial SMC, as measured in a Boyden chamber assay. The half-maximal concentration for migration is similar to the Kd for IGF-I receptor interaction. An IGF-I receptor-blocking antibody blocks the effects of IGF-I, IGF-II, and insulin, indicating that the effects are indeed mediated through the IGF-I receptor. The maximal effect of IGF-I on directed migration ranges between 50% and 100% of the effect of PDGF-BB, the strongest known chemoattractant for SMC. The ability of IGF-I and PDGF-BB to induce chemotaxis coincides with their ability to stimulate phosphatidylinositol turnover, diacylglycerol formation, and intracellular Ca2+ flux and suggests that these signaling pathways, but not activation of the MAP kinase cascade, are required for chemotaxis of human arterial SMC. PMID:8132765

  7. First possession: an assumption guiding inferences about who owns what.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ori

    2008-04-01

    How do we determine who owns what? This article reports evidence indicating that we typically assume that the first person who possesses an object is its owner. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants read cartoons in which two children each take a turn playing with a toy. Participants selected the character who first possessed the toy when judging who owned it, but not when judging which character liked it more. In Experiment 3, participants read stories based on the Pierson v. Post (1805) property law case. In line with the appellate court's ruling in that case, participants selected the character who first captured and possessed an animal as its owner over another character who had pursued it earlier. Together, these findings provide evidence for an assumption that specifically guides our reasoning about ownership and that may lead everyday intuitions about property to be generally consistent with property law.

  8. Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

    1981-01-01

    This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome.

  9. Immunogenetic risk and protective factors for the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: distinct HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1, and -DQA1 allelic profiles distinguish European American patients with different myositis autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Targoff, Ira N; Arnett, Frank C; Reveille, John D; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Oddis, Chester V; Morel, Penelope A; Malley, James D; Malley, Karen; Shamim, Ejaz A; Rider, Lisa G; Chanock, Stephen J; Foster, Charles B; Bunch, Thomas; Blackshear, Perry J; Plotz, Paul H; Love, Lori A; Miller, Frederick W

    2006-03-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are systemic connective tissue diseases defined by chronic muscle inflammation and weakness associated with autoimmunity. We have performed low to high resolution molecular typing to assess the genetic variability of major histocompatibility complex loci (HLA-A, -B, -Cw, -DRB1, and -DQA1) in a large population of European American patients with IIM (n = 571) representing the major myositis autoantibody groups. We established that alleles of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1 AH) are important risk factors for the development of IIM in patients producing anti-synthetase/anti-Jo-1, -La, -PM/Scl, and -Ro autoantibodies. Moreover, a random forests classification analysis suggested that 8.1 AH-associated alleles B*0801 and DRB1*0301 are the principal HLA risk markers. In addition, we have identified several novel HLA susceptibility factors associated distinctively with particular myositis-specific (MSA) and myositis-associated autoantibody (MAA) groups of the IIM. IIM patients with anti-PL-7 (anti-threonyl-tRNA synthetase) autoantibodies have a unique HLA Class I risk allele, Cw*0304 (pcorr = 0.046), and lack the 8.1 AH markers associated with other anti-synthetase autoantibodies (for example, anti-Jo-1 and anti-PL-12). In addition, HLA-B*5001 and DQA1*0104 are novel potential risk factors among anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody-positive IIM patients (pcorr = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively). Among those patients with MAA, HLA DRB1*11 and DQA1*06 alleles were identified as risk factors for myositis patients with anti-Ku (pcorr = 0.041) and anti-La (pcorr = 0.023) autoantibodies, respectively. Amino acid sequence analysis of the HLA DRB1 third hypervariable region identified a consensus motif, 70D (hydrophilic)/71R (basic)/74A (hydrophobic), conferring protection among patients producing anti-synthetase/anti-Jo-1 and -PM/Scl autoantibodies. Together, these data demonstrate that HLA signatures, comprising both risk

  10. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  11. 29. Photocopy of photograph (original slide in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (original slide in possession of the Preservation Society of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina; Collection of Dr. and Mrs. E. L. Powers, Charleston, South Carolina) Photographer unknown, Christmas 1935 DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ROOM, MANTELPIECE AND CHIMNEY BREAST, LOOKING WEST - 8 Court House Square (House), Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. 41. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Sacramento Archives and Museum Collection Center, Sacramento, California) Original photographer and year unknown. A WHEAT FIELD ON THE NATOMAS LANDS. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT USED IN MANUFACTURE OF MACHINE GUN PARTS. SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND IS A PRATT & WHITNEY VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE. DATED JANUARY 21, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 1. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. No date, circa 1940. Photographer unknown. HEADQUARTERS OFFICE, 205 W. ROOSEVELT, COOLIDGE, AZ. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Carlos Irrigation Project Headquarters, 205 West Roosevelt, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. 16. Photocopy of drawing (Original in the possession of Richard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of drawing (Original in the possession of Richard F. McCann, F.A.I.A., Seattle, WA) B. Marcus Priteca, Architect, Date unknown SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN (Negative is 4' x 5') - Pantages Theatre & Jones Building, 901-909 Broadway, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  16. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  17. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  18. 50 CFR 648.106 - Summer flounder possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flounder are filleted into single (butterfly) fillets, each fillet is deemed to be from one whole summer... trawl vessels issued a permit under § 648.4(a)(3) that fish with or possess nets or pieces of net on... for inspection in standard 100-lb (45.3-kg) totes or fish boxes having a liquid capacity of 18.2...

  19. Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy. Educator's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Amy L.

    The exhibition, "Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy," consists of approximately 200 objects drawn from the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities collection of fine and decorative arts. Each item in the exhibition has been selected for its ability to tell a story and to place the history of that item within the larger…

  20. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in the possession of the Allen County Museum, Ebesole Studio Glass Plate Negative Collection, circa 1900), photographer unknown VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOLLAND BLOCK BUILDING AND ANNEX - Holland Block Annex, 112-116 East High Street, Lima, Allen County, OH

  1. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photocopy in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photocopy in the possession of the Allen County Museum, circa 1900), photographer unknown VIEW SOUTHEAST SHOWING HOLLAND BLOCK BUILDING AND ANNEX DURING A PARADE FOR THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC - Holland Block Annex, 112-116 East High Street, Lima, Allen County, OH

  2. 15. Photocopy of photograph (original photocopy in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (original photocopy in the possession of the Allen County Museum, circa 1930), photographer unknown VIEW OF THE HOLLAND BUILDING AND ANNEX FOLLOWING THE 1929 FIRE - Holland Block Annex, 112-116 East High Street, Lima, Allen County, OH

  3. 23. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) 7 X 10 FOOT SONIC WIND TUNNEL, FAN HOUSING ASSEMBLY, 1952 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  4. 14. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) WIND TUNNEL, FRAMING PLAN, TOP AND BOTTOM, 1941 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. 15. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) WIND TUNNEL, ELEVATIONS E-E TO H-H AND SECTIONS, 1941 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. 20. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) 7 X 10 FOOT SONIC WIND TUNNEL FIRST FLOOR PLANS AND DETAILS, 1948 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. 12. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) WIND TUNNEL BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR PLAN, NOTE OPEN SHOP, 1941 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  8. 21. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) 7 X 10 FOOT SONIC WIND TUNNEL, LABORATORY AND OFFICE BUILDING, 1950 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 13. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) WIND TUNNEL BUILDING, ELEVATIONS, 1941 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  10. 11. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING, SECTIONS AND DETAILS, MECHANICAL, 1947 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  11. 19. Photocopy of drawing (original In possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of drawing (original In possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) 7 X 10 FOOT SONIC WIND TUNNEL PLOT AND GRADING PLAN, 1952 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. 10. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING, GROUND FLOOR PLAN, 1947 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 22. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) 7 X 10 FOOT SONIC WIND TUNNEL, INSTALLATION OF POWER EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES, 1950 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  14. 15. Photograph of a photograph in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of a photograph in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF BOILER HOUSE (UNIT 5) BEFORE STACK WAS REMOVED. UNDATED. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 40, Broadway between Dalliba & Watervliet Avenues, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photograph of a photograph in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE CONSTRUCTION OF HIGH BAY AND REMOVAL OF STACK ON BOILER HOUSE AT THE RIGHT. DATED OCTOBER 9, 1913. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 7. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of the Ralph M. Parsons Company, Los Angeles, California). Photography by Ralph M. Parsons Co. circa August 1959. AERIAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION OF POINT ARGUELLO LAUNCH COMPLEX 1 (SLC-3) FROM THE SOUTHEAST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 12. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing (original in possession of Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD) SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL, STEEL VACUUM SPHERE, FOUNDATION PLAN, ELEVATION AND DETAILS, 1947 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  18. 2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing Authority, Atlanta, GA). Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Aerial view of Clark Howell Homes, center, Techwood Homes, left, Georgia Institute of Technology, bottom. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  19. 1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of Atlanta Housing Authority, Atlanta, GA). Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Aerial view, Clark Howell Homes, left, Techwood Homes, right, Georgia Institute of Technology, top, right. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. 15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FIREPROOFING DETAILS, 1903. ARCHITECT: RALPH MODJESKI. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 131, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, DOMED PLATE DECK FROM BELOW. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  2. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW OF SOUTH ABUTMENT. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  3. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  4. 15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. BASEMENT, FIRST FLOOR, AND SECOND FLOOR PLAN PUBLISHED IN OFFICERS QUARTERS AT THE ARSENALS AND ARMORY, WASHINGTON, D.C.: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1876, P. 40. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 1, Mettler Road between Dalliba Avenue & Bricker Lane, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. BASEMENT, FIRST FLOOR, AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS PUBLISHED IN OFFICERS QUARTERS AT THE ARSENALS AND ARMORY, WASHINGTON, D.C.: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1876, P. 41. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 6, Mettler Road, North of Mordecai Drive, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  6. 11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of line drawing in possession of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum, New York. BASEMENT, FIRST FLOOR, AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS PUBLISHED IN OFFICERS QUARTERS AT THE ARSENALS AND ARMORY, WASHINGTON, D.C.: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1876, P. 42. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 4, Mordecai Drive, West of Mettler Road, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  7. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 4, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SASH WITH CONCRETE BLOCK. DATED APRIL 27, 1956. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. FRONT (WEST) ELEVATION, 1877. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ASSEMBLING OF 75MM GUN CARRIAGES. DATED AUGUST 23, 1918. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR OF STEEL-FRAMED SECTION showing ASSEMBLING OF GUN MOUNTS. DATED MAY 24, 1939. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 210, Rodman Avenue & Gronen Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS IN FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED C. 1870. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH; BUILDING IS SHOWN WITH ORIGINAL COPING. DATED C. 1873. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET. DATED MARCH 8, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 251, Gillespie Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, IN UNALTERED CONDITION. PROBABLY TAKEN ABOUT 1910. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS (ABOVE) DURING FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1922. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 210, Rodman Avenue & Gronen Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. FIRST FLOOR, WEST WING; SHOWING PRATT & WHITNEY RIFLING MACHINES FOR MANUFACTURING 1903 MODEL SPRING-FIELD RIFLE. DATED JULY 4, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 60, Rodman Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING POWER PRESSES FOR LEATHER WORKING IN HARNESS SHOP. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, DOCUMENTING ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. DATED C. 1875. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 225, Rodman Avenue between Flagler Street & Gillespie Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS AFTER ADDITION OF BRICK STAIR TOWERS ON SOUTH FACADE. DATED NOVEMBER 1, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SECOND FLOOR; WOOD WORKING EQUIPMENT IN CARPENTRY SHOP, ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS DURING FINAL STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION. DATED 1871. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 104, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION BEFORE REPLACEMENT OF STEEL SASH WITH CONCRETE BLOCK. DATED NOVEMBER 11, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS; EAST (REAR) AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEYS AND ADDITION OF WING TO CENTER OF EAST FACADE. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR FLOOR PLAN. DATED C. 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STORAGE OF LUMBER. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 8. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. PLAN AND SECTION, AUGUST 24, 1874. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR SHOWING STORAGE OF WALNUT FOR GUN STOCKS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1922. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 140, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMODELING OF PARAPET AND AFTER REMOVAL OF SMOKESTACK FROM SOUTH ELEVATION. DATED APRIL 7, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 133, Gillespie Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF VENTILATORS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS BEFORE REMOVAL OF STRAP-HINGE DOOR. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ASSEMBLING OF ARTILLERY GUN CARRIAGES. DATED MAY 12, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 7. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of line drawing in possession of Engineering Plans and Services Division, Rock Island Arsenal. ROOF PLAN, 1871. DELINEATOR: W. OTTO GRONEN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 18. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH END, LOOKING EAST; MOTORIZED MACHINING EQUIPMENT (MILLS, PROFILERS, DRILL PRESSES, SCREW MACHINES) USED IN SMALL ARMS PRODUCTION. DATED APRIL 7, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. FIRST FLOOR, EAST WING, SHOWING BELT-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT (LATHES, DRILLS, SCREW MACHINES) USED IN MACHINING COMPONENTS FOR ARTILLERY GUN CARRIAGES. DATED MAY 12, 1904. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 56. Photograph of Original Plan (original plans in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photograph of Original Plan (original plans in the possession of the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal Corporation) BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS UNIT, MAIN FLOOR AND BOILER ROOM PLANS, SECTIONS IV-V - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CONCRETE PIPE SIPHON, NORTH SIDE CANAL, STATION 171+04 TO 172+34 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, North Side Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW SHOWING PIPE LAID IN TRENCH, ALSO SHOWING OPENING WHERE MONOLITHIC SECTION WAS BUILT AND IN WHICH A MAN HOLE AND STAND PIPE VENT WAS INSTALLED - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, GATE FOR DELIVERY TO LATERAL ON RIGHT, TRASH RACK AT SIPHON ENTRANCE, VENT OR STAND PIPE AND STEVENS AUTOMATIC GAGING STATION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. 6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW OF LAST SECTION OF PIPE BEING LOWERED IN THE TRENCH FEBRUARY 17, 1935 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 9. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, GENERAL VIEW OF PIPE YARD AFTER MOST OF THE PIPE WAS MANUFACTURED - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF REINFORCED-CONCRETE SECTION WITH CYCLONE SEPARATOR. DATED NOVEMBER 11, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 105, South Avenue between Gillespie Avenue & Second Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the Handel og Sofartsmuseet pea Kronborg Trade and Seafaring Museum, Helsingor, Denmark) H. P. Thorsoe, painter, c. 1825 VIEW OF CHRISTIANSTED HARBOR FROM SEA, SHIPS IN FOREGROUND, HARBOR IN BACKGROUND - City of Christiansted (General Views), Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  6. 25 CFR 11.452 - Possession of a controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unlawful for a person to knowingly or intentionally possess any controlled substance listed in 21 CFR Part... by 21 CFR 1308.21 through 1308.35, as amended; or (3) The provisions of 42 U.S.C. 1996a (regarding... to be contraband. Upon proof of a violation of this section, the controlled substance must...

  7. 18. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. SIDE (EAST) ELEVATION & SIDE (WEST) ELEVATION; DRAWING 1-9R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  8. 3. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. DINING HALL BUILDING #2, LOOKING NE; DATED JANUARY 31, 1942. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 2, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  9. 23. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. TYPICAL LOBBY DETAILS; DRAWING 1-21R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  10. 4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. (PLANS, ELEVATIONS & DETAILS); DRAWING 13-1R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 13, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  11. 1. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. (PLANS & ELEVATIONS); DRAWING 14-1R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 14, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  12. 15. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. HOSPITAL BUILDING #1; E & N (FRONT) ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SW; DATED MAY 18, 1942. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  13. 4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. (PLANS, ELEVATIONS & DETAILS); DRAWING 8-1R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 8, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  14. 16. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photograph of an historic photograph in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. HOSPITAL BUILDING #1, LOOKING NE; DATED NOVEMBER 30, 1941. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  15. 22. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. MAIN LOBBY & ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAILS; DRAWING 1-20R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  16. 19. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. DETAILS MAIN STEPS & PLATFORM (SIDE ELEVATION, HALF PLAN, SECTIONS); DRAWING 1-12R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  17. 1. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. (PLAN, ELEVATIONS, & SECTIONS); DRAWING 15-1R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 15, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  18. 21. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. 3/4' SCALE DETAIL - MAIN ENTRANCE UNIT, HALF ELEVATION & SECTION; DRAWING 1-15R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  19. 17. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, IL Veterans Administration Medical Center. FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION; DRAWING 1-7R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  20. 4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a line drawing in the possession of the Engineer's Office of the Marion, Illinois Veterans Administration Medical Center. WEST ELEVATION, SOUTH ELEVATION, EAST ELEVATION, NORTH ELEVATION; DRAWING 2-3R, DATED SEPTEMBER 4, 1940. (8 x 10 negative) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 2, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL