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Sample records for factory advanced ring

  1. NEUTRINO FACTORY BASED ON MUON-STORAGE-RINGS TO MUON COLLIDERS: PHYSICS AND FACILITIES.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-06-18

    Intense muon sources for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams ({nu} factory) represents very interesting possibilities. If successful, such efforts would significantly advance the state of muon technology and provides intermediate steps in technologies required for a future high energy muon collider complex. High intensity muon: production, capture, cooling, acceleration and multi-turn muon storage rings are some of the key technology issues that needs more studies and developments, and will briefly be discussed here. A muon collider requires basically the same number of muons as for the muon storage ring neutrino factory, but would require more cooling, and simultaneous capture of both {+-} {mu}. We present some physics possibilities, muon storage ring based neutrino facility concept, site specific examples including collaboration feasibility studies, and upgrades to a full collider.

  2. Neutrino-factory storage ring with multiple baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D. B.; Fukui, Y.; Garren, A.

    2001-10-01

    We designed a noble bow tie storage ring to provide neutrino beams for multiple neutrino detectors around the world with a baseline length of about 1000-9000 km. We present a preliminary lattice that could provide non-planar straight sections. We describe the amount of non-planarity of the third or fourth baseline and the space angles between the baselines and the local surface angles at possible site locations for neutrino factories and at the possible detector locations. We describe the detectors at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, and at the new laboratory at Carlsbad, NM.

  3. Advances in microbicide vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, R Karl; Edwards, Karen-Leigh; Kiser, Patrick; Romano, Joseph; Smith, Thomas J

    2010-12-01

    Vaginal ring devices capable of providing sustained/controlled release of incorporated actives are already marketed for steroidal contraception and estrogen replacement therapy. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in developing similar ring devices for the administration of microbicidal compounds to prevent vaginal HIV transmission. Intended to be worn continuously, such coitally independent microbicide rings are being developed to maintain effective vaginal microbicide concentrations over many weeks or months, thereby overcoming issues around timing of product application, user compliance and acceptability associated with more conventional semi-solid formulations. In this article, an overview of vaginal ring technologies is presented, followed by a review of recent advances and issues pertaining to their application for the delivery of HIV microbicides. This article forms part of a special supplement on presentations covering intravaginal rings, based on the symposium "Trends in Microbicide Formulations", held on 25 and 26 January 2010, Arlington, VA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, Uli

    2003-05-30

    The 9 GeV High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B Factory is an electron storage ring under construction at SLAC. Significant progress has been made in the last year on all systems. As of mid 1996, all 192 dipoles have been installed, with installation of the quadrupoles underway. The vacuum system, for design currents up to 3 A average, is in production using a recently commissioned e-beam welder. Beam instrumentation systems are being fabricated. The interaction region will bring the HER beam into collision with the 3 GeV beam of the Low Energy Ring; design of this section of the HER is in an advanced stage.

  5. Status of the PEP-II B-factory high energy ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, U.; Reuter, E.; Bellomo, P.; Daly, E.; Fisher, A.; Gracia, J.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Pietryka, M.

    1996-01-01

    The 9 GeV High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B Factory is an electron storage ring under construction at SLAC. Significant progress has been made in the last year on all systems. As of mid 1996, all 192 dipoles have been installed, with installation of the quadrupoles underway. The vacuum system, for design currents up to 3 A average, is in production using a recently commissioned e-beam welder. Beam instrumentation systems are being fabricated. The interaction region will bring the HER beam into collision with the 3 GeV beam of the Low Energy Ring; design of this section of the HER is in an advanced stage. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Superconducting Ring Cyclotron for Riken RI Beam Factory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, H.; Dantsuka, T.; Yamada, K.; Kase, M.; Maie, T.; Kamigaito, O.

    2010-04-01

    Since 1997, RIKEN Nishina Center has been constructing the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) and succeeded in beam commissioning of its accelerator complex at the end of 2006. The world's first superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC) is the final booster in the RIBF accelerator complex which is able to accelerate all-element heavy ions to a speed of about 70% of the velocity of light. The ring cyclotron consists of 6 major superconducting sector magnets with a maximum field of 3.8 T. The total stored energy is 235 MJ, and its overall sizes are 19 m diameter, 8 m height and 8,300 tons. The magnet system assembly was completed in August 2005, and successfully reached the maximum field in November 2005. The first beam was extracted at the end of 2006 and the first uranium beam was extracted in March 2007. However operation of the helium refrigerator was not satisfactory although the commissioning of SRC was successful. Operation was stopped every two month due to degradation of its cooling power. In February 2008 the reason of the degradation was revealed to be oil contamination. Operation of the cryogenic system was restarted from August 2008 after hard task to clean up the helium refrigerator and to add oil separators to the compressor. After restoration long-term steady operation to keep the magnet superconducting continued for about 8 months with no sign of degradation of cooling capacity.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Tompos, E.; Kessler, B.; Rath, P.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about the Building America expert meeting on advanced envelope research for factory built housing, hosted by the ARIES Collaborative on October 11, 2011, in Phoenix, Arizona. The goals of this meeting were to provide a comprehensive solution to the use of three previously selected advanced alternatives for factory-built wall construction, assess each option focusing on major issues relating to viability and commercial potential, and determine additional steps are required to reach this potential.

  9. Beamline front end for in-vacuum short period undulator at the photon factory storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Tahara, Toshihiro Asaoka, Seiji

    2016-07-27

    The straight-section upgrade project of the Photon Factory created four new short straight sections capable of housing in-vacuum short period undulators. The first to fourth short period undulators SGU#17, SGU#03, SGU#01 and SGU#15 were installed at the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2013, respectively. The beamline front end for SGU#15 is described in this paper.

  10. 20 - 50 GeV muon storage rings for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, G.H.; Johnstone, C.; Meot, F.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-01

    Muon decay rings are under study as part of an International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future Neutrino Factory. Both isosceles triangle- and racetrack-shaped rings are being considered for a 20 GeV muon energy, but with upgrade potentials of 40 or 50 GeV. Both rings are designed with long straights to optimize directional muon decay. The neutrinos from muon decay pass to one or two distant detectors; the racetrack ring has one very long production straight aligned with one detector while the triangular ring has two straights which can be aligned with two detectors. Decay ring specifications and lattice studies are the primary topic of this paper. Injection, collimation, and the RF system are covered in a second contribution to these proceedings.

  11. Single-pass BPM system of the Photon Factory storage ring.

    PubMed

    Honda, T; Katoh, M; Mitsuhashi, T; Ueda, A; Tadano, M; Kobayashi, Y

    1998-05-01

    At the 2.5 GeV ring of the Photon Factory, a single-pass beam-position monitor (BPM) system is being prepared for the storage ring and the beam transport line. In the storage ring, the injected beam position during the first several turns can be measured with a single injection pulse. The BPM system has an adequate performance, useful for the commissioning of the new low-emittance lattice. Several stripline BPMs are being installed in the beam transport line. The continuous monitoring of the orbit in the beam transport line will be useful for the stabilization of the injection energy as well as the injection beam orbit.

  12. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  13. BPM Breakdown Potential in the PEP-II B-factory Storage Ring Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    High current B-Factory BPM designs incorporate a button type electrode which introduces a small gap between the button and the beam chamber. For achievable currents and bunch lengths, simulations indicate that electric potentials can be induced in this gap which are comparable to the breakdown voltage. This study characterizes beam induced voltages in the existing PEP-II storage ring collider BPM as a function of bunch length and beam current.

  14. Construction of rare-RI ring at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Wakasugi, M.; Uesaka, T.; Ozawa, A.; Abe, Y.; Fujinawa, T.; Kase, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kubo, T.; Kumagai, K.; Maie, T.; Nagae, D.; Ohnishi, J.; Suzaki, F.; Tokuchi, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamasawa, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Zenihiro, J.; Yano, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An isochronous mass spectroscopy system using a newly constructed storage ring named the “rare-RI ring” is expected to be implemented at the RIKEN Nishina Center to determine the masses of short-lived rare nuclei including those in the r-process region with a relative precision of the order of 10-6 even for only one particle. In an isochronous storage ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus. Our rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four bending magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install ten trim coils to half of the bending magnets. A fast-response and fast-charging kicker system enables selective and efficient injection of the produced rare nuclei into the ring one by one, along with facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles for time-of-flight measurement. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012 at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015.

  15. Vacuum system of the high energy ring of an asymmetric B-factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A.; Calderon, M.O.; Wong, R. ); Jenkins, T.M. )

    1991-05-07

    The multi-ampere currents required for high luminosity operation of an asymmetric B factory leads to extremely stressing requirements on a vacuum system suitable for maintaining long beam-gas lifetimes and acceptable background levels in the detector. We present the design for a Cu alloy vacuum chamber and its associated pumping system for the 9 GeV electron storage ring of the proposed B factory based on PEP. The excellent thermal and photo-desorption properties of Cu allows handling the high proton flux in a conventional, single chamber design with distributed ion pumps. The x-ray opacity of the Cu is sufficiently high that no additional lead shielding is necessary to protect the dipoles from the intense synchrotron radiation generated by the beam. The design allows chamber commissioning in <500 hr of operation. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Beam-induced radiation in a muon storage ring for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov and Carol J. Johnstone

    2000-09-14

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for a 30-GeV and a 50-GeV muon storage ring designed for a neutrino factory. Calculations include power dissipation and residual dose rates on lattice components. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets quench stability can be achieved along with residual dose rates which allow hands-on maintenance. Studies on tunnel shielding further showed that unlimited-occupancy areas could be achieved during machine operation if such enclosures are placed to the inside of the ring. Finally, neutrino-induced radiation levels were computed to large distances for outside the arcs and downstream of the production straights.

  17. X-324: An upgrade to the NSLS X-Ray Ring using B factory technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.

    1993-12-02

    Through much of the last decade, the NSLS has been America`s preeminent source of synchrotron radiation. In the near future, The NSLS will face formidable competition from the third generation light sources, designed to produce high brightness beams from undulators. Because of the lattice design of the NSLS rings and the limited number of straight sections for new undulators it will be impossible to compete with the new rings in brightness at short wavelengths. It is not clear, however, how many experiments really need brightness and how many just need flux. A good strategy could lie in keeping the NSLS the highest flux synchrotron light source in the country and leaving the brightness frontier to the third generation rings. By using the technology developed for the SLAC B factory we can simultaneously raise the X-Ray Ring energy to 3.0 GeV and the current to 2.4 Amp. From these parameters I am calling the proposed upgrade X-324. After the X-324 upgrade, the X-Ray Ring will produce twenty times more synchrotron radiation power than is produced by today`s 250 mA, 2.5 GeV beams. This is a qualitative change from today`s conditions and will place great demands on the RF and vacuum systems. The requirements are similar to those for the SLAC PEP-II B factory. PEP-II will have two rings, one at 3.1 GeV and the other at 9 GeV. The maximum design current in both rings is 3 Amp although the operating current will not be as large. The PEP-II design calls for high power, single cell, 476 MHz RF cavities and a cooper vacuum chamber to cope with the intense synchrotron radiation emitted. We can adapt these designs for X-324. In this paper I will be describing some estimates that I have made about certain aspects of the upgrade. I will not be presenting a complete design but I hope to show that more detailed planning is warranted.

  18. Status and Early Commissioning Results for the PEP-IIB-Factory High Energy Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienands, H.-Ulrich

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER) is a 2.2 km 9 GeV electron ring for 1 A beam current, construction of which is currently being completed at SLAC. The HER beam will collide with positrons from the 3.1 GeV, 2 A Low Energy Ring which is on a one-year later schedule. The SLAC linac will serve as high-intensity, low-emittance injector for the facility. By March 1997 the HER magnet and power system will have been installed and checked out. The vacuum system---capable of absorbing 10 MW of synchrotron radiation---will be closed and evacuated. Two initial rf stations with four cavities each, sufficient to support beams up to several hundred mA, will have been installed. The beam-position monitor (BPM) system consists of about 300 button-type BPM and is capable of single-turn data acquisition. A sophisticated beam-loss monitor system using Cherenkov detectors is capable of localizing losses over a 10-6 intensity range. A phased commissioning plan has been adopted with initial beam commissioning activities scheduled to commence in spring 1997, focusing on lattice optics diagnosis and tuning. We will present our experience checking out the various accelerator systems and our beam commissioning plans. First results of beam commissioning will be presented as they are available.

  19. A proposed NSLS x-ray ring upgrade using B factory technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    A proposed upgrade to the NSLS X-Ray Ring is described that will allow the storage of a 2.4 A. 3 GeV electron beam using technology developed for the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. In this configuration, a peak flux of greater than 10{sup 16} photons/sec/0.1% bandwidth/5 mrad will be produced. The four existing 53 MHz RF cavities will be replaced with eight 476 MHz cavities. Two 952 MHz cavities will also be used to lengthen the bunch, increasing the Touschek life-time. A copper vacuum chamber will be needed to absorb the increased synchrotron radiation and a feedback system may be needed to prevent multi-bunch instabilities.

  20. Lattice design for the high energy ring of the SLAC B-Factory (PEP-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Cai, Y.; Irwin, J.

    1995-04-01

    The design of the lattice for the High Energy Ring (HER) of the SLAC B-Factory has several special features, notably provision for octupole compensation of amplitude dependent tune shift effects and a beta-beat scheme for semi-local chromaticity correction. In the arcs adjacent to the interaction point (IP) the beta functions are enhanced to allow the use of non-interlaced sextupoles to compensate the chromaticity of the interaction region. A closed bump of beta {open_quotes}mismatch{close_quotes} is generated by two vertically focusing quadrupoles spaced 2 betatron wavelengths apart. The beta-beat has two advantages: it enhances the ratio between the horizontal and vertical beta functions at the sextupoles and, because of the locally higher beta function, allows weaker sextupoles to be used. The standard design uses a 60 degree/cell lattice but a 90 degree/cell lattice may also be used if lower emittances and momentum compaction factor are desired.

  1. Vertical displacement of the storage ring floor due to building distortion in the Photon Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Tomotaro; Fujita, Yutaka

    1991-11-01

    The Light Source Building of the Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to induce the displacement of magnets in the storage ring. This resulted in drifting of the beam orbit. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress, such as diurnal changes of the solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated with a layer of polyethylene foam. The building distortion was measured in terms of vertical floor displacements along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic level measuring system. Results of the measurement were compared with those of a model simulation based on the finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated results showed good agreement before the insulation applied to the roof. After the insulation, the measured floor displacements reduced to about one half and were also comparable to the simulated results. A full description of the subject is given in T. Katsura, Ed., KEK Internal 90-32 (in Japanese) Jan. (1991).

  2. Damping higher order modes in the PEP-II B-Factory storage ring collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathersby, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory storage ring collider at SLAC provides crucial experimental evidence for the physics of CP violation. To investigate rare B-meson decays requires high luminosity which comes mainly from increasing bunch currents and reducing bunch sizes. Electromagnetic effects of intense bunch fields in the form of wake fields couple into accelerator components, inducing Joule heating at levels detrimental to vacuum chamber components. Additionally, wake fields contribute to beam instability, decreasing luminosity. These effects are limiting B-factory performance. Computer simulations and experimental evidence indicate that beam collimators produce wake fields in the form of dipole and quadrupole waveguide modes which can propagate tens of meters from their source before depositing energy at remote locations. Simulations confirm that coupling through narrow slots into bellows cavities occurs for beam pipe modes. Two proposals are set forth to mitigate wake field effects. The first proposal is to reduce the quality factor of resonant structures with a water cooled dielectric lossy material. Electromagnetic energy coupling into resonant structures can be isolated and safely dissipated. Prototype devices have been built and have been shown to reduce resistive heating in large pumping chambers coupled to the beam chamber. Designs and simulations which incorporate such techiques into bellows devices are presented. The second proposal incorporates novel devices introduced in the accelerator vacuum chamber which selectively traps dipole and quadrupole propagating wake fields before they can couple into sensitive beam line components without introducing impedance to the beam. Scattering parameter analysis is used to tailor device response to specific modes. Dangerous modes are extracted from the beam chamber, trapped and dissipated in a water cooled lossy material. Modes which represent an impedance to the beam are not affected. After design optimization, production

  3. Ground-up circular Higgs Factory ring design and cell length optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard

    2017-02-01

    A “ground-up” Higgs Factory design methodology is described. For concreteness, numerical parameter choices are drawn primarily from CEPC, the Circular Electron Positron Collider. The goals are to find: (i) optimal parameters, (ii) improved understanding , (iii) a tentative lattice design. As illustration of the method, six chromaticity-corrected lattices, with cell lengths ranging from 45 m to 280 m, all with identical βy = 2 mm or βy = 10 mm intersection region optics, are designed and their properties compared. For simplicity only a single “toy ring,” circumference (76 km), with one interaction point, and a single beam energy (120 GeV) is considered. For the cell-length optimization a figure of merit FOM (essentially integrated luminosity) is maximized consistent with a dimensionless “fine tuning penalty function” or figure of demerit FOD not being allowed to exceed a conservatively chosen upper limit. The tentative recommendation from this investigation is that the optimal CEPC route is (except for obvious changes) to simply copy LEP: 80 m cell length and two-in-one single-ring operation. The main luminosity-increasing improvements are increased radius and power, top-off-full-energy-injection, noninterleaved sextupoles, more than 100 beam bunch operation, and improved intersection region design. Local chromaticity compensation (with its inevitable intense hard X-rays incident on the detectors) is found to be unnecessary. With these changes luminosity in excess of 1034cm‑2s‑1 is projected to be achievable.

  4. (Advanced accelerator physics featuring the problems of small rings)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-10-16

    The traveler attended the CERN Accelerator School and Uppsala University short course on Advanced Accelerator Physics held on the University campus, Uppsala, Sweden, from September 18-29, 1989. The course, attended by 81 people, was well conceived, well presented, and informative. The course was organized and specialized on the problems of small rings. The traveler also visited the CELSIUS ring facility of Uppsala University and the CRYRING ring facility of the Manne Siegbahn Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

  5. Measurement of storage ring motion at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The mechanical stability of the Advanced Light Source storage ring is examined over a period of 1.5 years from the point of view of floor motion. The storage ring beam position monitor stability is examined under various operating conditions.

  6. A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2006-09-05

    At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

  7. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels.

  8. Cellulose factories: advancing bioenergy production from forest trees.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2012-04-01

    Fast-growing, short-rotation forest trees, such as Populus and Eucalyptus, produce large amounts of cellulose-rich biomass that could be utilized for bioenergy and biopolymer production. Major obstacles need to be overcome before the deployment of these genera as energy crops, including the effective removal of lignin and the subsequent liberation of carbohydrate constituents from wood cell walls. However, significant opportunities exist to both select for and engineer the structure and interaction of cell wall biopolymers, which could afford a means to improve processing and product development. The molecular underpinnings and regulation of cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis are rapidly being elucidated, and are providing tools to strategically develop and guide the targeted modification required to adapt forest trees for the emerging bioeconomy. Much insight has already been gained from the perturbation of individual genes and pathways, but it is not known to what extent the natural variation in the sequence and expression of these same genes underlies the inherent variation in wood properties of field-grown trees. The integration of data from next-generation genomic technologies applied in natural and experimental populations will enable a systems genetics approach to study cell wall carbohydrate production in trees, and should advance the development of future woody bioenergy and biopolymer crops.

  9. Development of advanced therapies in Italy: Management models and sustainability in six Italian cell factories.

    PubMed

    Gaipa, Giuseppe; Introna, Martino; Golay, Josee; Nolli, Maria Luisa; Vallanti, Giuliana; Parati, Eugenio; Giordano, Rosaria; Romagnoli, Luca; Melazzini, Mario; Biondi, Andrea; Biagi, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    On November 10, 2014, the representatives of all six certified Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) cell factories operating in the Lombardy Region of Italy convened a 1-day workshop in Milan titled "Management Models for the Development And Sustainability of Cell Factories: Public-Private Partnership?" The speakers and panelists addressed not only the many scientific, technological and cultural challenges faced by Lombardy Cell Factories, but also the potential impact of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) on public health and the role played by translational research in this process. Future perspectives for research and development (R&D) and manufacturing processes in the field of regenerative medicine were discussed as well. This report summarizes the most important issues raised by the workshop participants with particular emphasis on strengths and limitations of the R&D and manufacturing processes for innovative therapeutics in Lombardy and what can be improved in this context while maintaining GMP standards. The participants highlighted several strategies to translate patient-specific advanced therapeutics into scaled manufacturing products for clinical application. These included (i) the development of a synergistic interaction between public and private institutions, (ii) better integration with Italian regulatory agencies and (iii) the creation of a network among Lombardy cell factories and other Italian and European institutions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cavity Ring down Spectroscopy Experiment for an Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacewicz, T.; Wasylczyk, P.; Kowalczyk, P.; Semczuk, M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment is described that permits advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of the cavity ring down spectroscopy technique. The apparatus is used for measurements of low concentrations of NO[subscript 2] produced in air by an electric discharge. We present the setup, experimental procedure, data analysis and some…

  11. Advanced light source storage ring rf system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.; Baptiste, K.; Lancaster, H.; Lo, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    The short electron bunch length (30ps design target) of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) stored beam is capable exciting a wide spectrum of higher order mode (HOM) frequencies. Further, the small aperture and low cut off frequency of the beam enveloping components does not allow for transmission and consequent attenuation of the lower frequency HOM components. The small cross section and divergence of the high brightness electron beam will allow for more sophisticated high resolution experiments by synchrotron radiation users. A more stringent requirement on beam position stability results, however. In this area transmitted mechanical vibration becomes a problem. The ALS RF system splits 300kW of CW 500MHz power between two single cell cavities. Compared to past practice this power rating is high. The use of only two cavities however has some advantages, it simplifies the waveguide feed system and releases room in straight sections for insertion devices, more important it reduces HOM and beam impedance problems. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. A 50 Hz dipole magnet for the TRIUMF KAON Factory booster ring

    SciTech Connect

    Otter, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The 3 GeV Booster synchrotron for TRIUMF's KAON Factory will need 24 dipole magnets each 3.0 m long operating with a resonant power system designed to give a 50 Hz ac field superimposed onto a dc field. The maximum and minimum field levels are 1.118 and 0.295 T respectively. In this paper the magnet design is presented and compared with measured results from a prototype which was constructed to evaluate fabrication procedures and to verify the ac loss calculations. The experiences gained from this fabrication are described.

  13. STORAGE RING AND INTERACTION REGION MAGNETS FOR A μ+μ- HIGGS FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A. V.; Alexahin, Y. I.; Kappin, V. V.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Mokhov, N. V.; Striganov, S. I.; Tropin, I. S.

    2013-09-25

    A low-energy Muon Collider (MC) offers unique opportunities to study the recently found Higgs boson. However, due to a relatively large beam emittance with moderate cooling in this machine, large-aperture high- field superconducting (SC) magnets are required. The magnets need also an adequate margin to operate at a large radiation load from the muon decay showers. General specifications of the SC dipoles and quadrupoles for the 125 GeV c.o.m. Higgs Factory with an average luminosity of ~2x10**31 cm-2s-1 are formulated. Magnet conceptual designs and parameters are reported. The impact of the magnet fringe fields on the beam dynamics as well as the IR and lattice magnet protection from radiation are also reported and discussed.

  14. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. This work is part of a multiphase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). This report describes Phase 3, which was completed in two stages and continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  15. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  16. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Whole-House Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective envelope designs that can be effectively integrated into the plant production process while meeting the thermal requirements of the 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing new envelope technologies. This work is part of a multi-phase effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three methods for building high performance walls. Phase 2 focused on developing viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped narrow the research focus to perfecting a stud wall design with exterior continuous insulation (CI). Phase 3, completed in two stages, continued the design development effort, exploring and evaluating a range or methods for applying CI to factory built homes. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing. During this phase, a home was built with CI, evaluated, and placed in service. The experience of building a mock up wall section with CI and then constructing on line a prototype home resolved important concerns about how to integrate the material into the production process. First steps were taken toward finding least expensive approaches for incorporating CI in standard factory building practices and a preliminary assessment suggested that even at this early stage the technology is attractive when viewed from a life cycle cost perspective.

  17. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G; Morley, Steven K

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  18. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  19. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  20. Neutrino factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ13. The accelerator facility will deliver 1021 muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δCP that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δCP coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  1. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  2. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Kessler, B.; Mullens, M.; Rath, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  3. Storage ring: An advanced tool in modern research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, P.

    1998-11-01

    These introductory notes give a personal flavoured view on the developments, opportunities and perspectives of ion storage rings with cooling devices including some highlights of applications in various fields of research. First some historical remarks are made on the development of cooler rings and cooling techniques, highlighted by the observation of “orderliness” in cooled heavy ion beams. In the main part recent experimental highlights from storage rings in the fields of particle-, nuclear and atomic physics are reviewed. The lecture will end with a look at future projects and a dream.

  4. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  5. Advanced textile composite ring for Ilizarov external fixator system.

    PubMed

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of a radiolucent composite material permits easier and more accurate radiographic evaluation of the bone healing process, and results in a much lighter system. The finite element method (FEM) is employed to determine the worst possible in-service loading condition and the ring dimensions are modified accordingly. Half-ring prototypes are produced using two types of composite materials: knitted aramid fibre fabric reinforced epoxy and random short carbon (RSC) fibre reinforced epoxy. The in-plane compressive strength and axial stiffness of the complete frame are tested according to ASTM specifications. The performance is evaluated, and compared with an existing system in simulated in-service conditions.

  6. [INVITED] New advances in fiber cavity ring-down technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, S. O.; Magalhães, R.; Marques, M. B.; Frazão, O.

    2016-04-01

    A brief review in the cavity ring-down technique (CRD) is presented. In this review, there will only be considered the conventional fiber CRD configuration, i.e., there will only be presented researches involving cavities with two couplers with 99:1 ratios, due to the large amount of publications involving this spectroscopy method. The presented survey is divided in different topics related to the measurement of physical parameters, such as strain and temperature, curvature, pressure, refractive index, gas and biochemical sensing.

  7. Fabrication and test of prototype ring magnets for the ALS (Advanced Light Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, J.; Avery, R.; Caylor, R.; Green, M.I.; Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Hernandez, S.; Humphries, D.; Kajiyama, Y.; Keller, R.; Low, W.; Marks, S.; Milburn, J.; Yee, D.

    1989-03-01

    Prototype Models for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole, Quadrupole and Sextupole and the Storage Ring Gradient Magnet, Quadrupole and Sextupole have been constructed. The Booster Magnet Prototypes have been tested. The Storage Ring Magnets are presently undergoing tests and magnetic measurements. This paper reviews the designs and parameters for these magnets, briefly describes features of the magnet designs which respond to the special constraints imposed by the requirements for both accelerator rings, and reviews some of the results of magnet measurements for the prototype. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors.

  9. Analytical model for ring heater thermal compensation in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

    PubMed

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Wang, Haoyu; Heintze, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Advanced laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses, causing aberrations in the main laser beam that must be minimized by the actuation of "ring heaters," which are additional heater elements that are aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors. In this article we derive the first, to the best of our knowledge, analytical model of the temperature field generated by an ideal ring heater. We express the resulting optical aberration contribution to the main laser beam in this axisymmetric case. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  10. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  11. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  12. High flux circularly polarized gamma beam factory: coupling a Fabry-Perot optical cavity with an electron storage ring

    PubMed Central

    Chaikovska, I.; Cassou, K.; Chiche, R.; Cizeron, R.; Cornebise, P.; Delerue, N.; Jehanno, D.; Labaye, F.; Marie, R.; Martens, A.; Peinaud, Y.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Cormier, E.; Lhermite, J.; Dolique, V.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Sassolas, B.; Akagi, T.; Araki, S.; Honda, Y.; Omori, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Miyoshi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshitama, H.

    2016-01-01

    We report and discuss high-flux generation of circularly polarized γ-rays by means of Compton scattering. The γ-ray beam results from the collision of an external-cavity-enhanced infrared laser beam and a low emittance relativistic electron beam. By operating a non-planar bow-tie high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot cavity coupled to a storage ring, we have recorded a flux of up to (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 photons per second with a mean measured energy of 24 MeV. The γ-ray flux has been sustained for several hours. In particular, we were able to measure a record value of up to 400 γ-rays per collision in a full bandwidth. Moreover, the impact of Compton scattering on the electron beam dynamics could be observed resulting in a reduction of the electron beam lifetime correlated to the laser power stored in the Fabry-Perot cavity. We demonstrate that the electron beam lifetime provides an independent and consistent determination of the γ-ray flux. Furthermore, a reduction of the γ-ray flux due to intrabeam scattering has clearly been identified. These results, obtained on an accelerator test facility, warrant potential scaling and revealed both expected and yet unobserved effects. They set the baseline for further scaling of the future Compton sources under development around the world. PMID:27857146

  13. High flux circularly polarized gamma beam factory: coupling a Fabry-Perot optical cavity with an electron storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovska, I.; Cassou, K.; Chiche, R.; Cizeron, R.; Cornebise, P.; Delerue, N.; Jehanno, D.; Labaye, F.; Marie, R.; Martens, A.; Peinaud, Y.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Cormier, E.; Lhermite, J.; Dolique, V.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Sassolas, B.; Akagi, T.; Araki, S.; Honda, Y.; Omori, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Miyoshi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshitama, H.

    2016-11-01

    We report and discuss high-flux generation of circularly polarized γ-rays by means of Compton scattering. The γ-ray beam results from the collision of an external-cavity-enhanced infrared laser beam and a low emittance relativistic electron beam. By operating a non-planar bow-tie high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot cavity coupled to a storage ring, we have recorded a flux of up to (3.5 ± 0.3) × 108 photons per second with a mean measured energy of 24 MeV. The γ-ray flux has been sustained for several hours. In particular, we were able to measure a record value of up to 400 γ-rays per collision in a full bandwidth. Moreover, the impact of Compton scattering on the electron beam dynamics could be observed resulting in a reduction of the electron beam lifetime correlated to the laser power stored in the Fabry-Perot cavity. We demonstrate that the electron beam lifetime provides an independent and consistent determination of the γ-ray flux. Furthermore, a reduction of the γ-ray flux due to intrabeam scattering has clearly been identified. These results, obtained on an accelerator test facility, warrant potential scaling and revealed both expected and yet unobserved effects. They set the baseline for further scaling of the future Compton sources under development around the world.

  14. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  15. Preparing for Advanced LIGO: A Star–Galaxy Separation Catalog for the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. A.; Kulkarni, M. K.; Cao, Y.; Laher, R. R.; Masci, F. J.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    The search for fast optical transients, such as the expected electromagnetic counterparts to binary neutron star mergers, is riddled with false positives (FPs) ranging from asteroids to stellar flares. While moving objects are readily rejected via image pairs separated by ∼1 hr, stellar flares represent a challenging foreground, significantly outnumbering rapidly evolving explosions. Identifying stellar sources close to and fainter than the transient detection limit can eliminate these FPs. Here, we present a method to reliably identify stars in deep co-adds of Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) imaging. Our machine-learning methodology utilizes the random forest (RF) algorithm, which is trained using > 3× {10}6 sources with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. When evaluated on an independent test set, the PTF RF model outperforms the SExtractor star classifier by ∼4%. For faint sources (r\\prime ≥slant 21 mag), which dominate the field population, the PTF RF model produces a ∼19% improvement over SExtractor. To avoid false negatives in the PTF transient-candidate stream, we adopt a conservative stellar classification threshold, corresponding to a galaxy misclassification rate of 0.005. Ultimately, ∼1.70× {10}8 objects are included in our PTF point-source catalog, of which only ∼106 are expected to be galaxies. We demonstrate that the PTF RF catalog reveals transients that otherwise would have been missed. To leverage its superior image quality, we additionally create an SDSS point-source catalog, which is also tuned to have a galaxy misclassification rate of 0.005. These catalogs have been incorporated into the PTF real-time pipelines to automatically reject stellar sources as non-extragalactic transients.

  16. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  17. Commissioning of the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER): Advances toward multiturn operationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Mark; Bai, G.; Bernal, S.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T.; Haber, I.; Holloway, M.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Papadopoulos, C.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Stratakis, D.; Tobin, C.; Wilson, M.

    2006-05-01

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) is a low-energy, high current recirculator for beam physics research [M. Reiser et al., in Proceedings of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, NY (IEEE, New York, 1999), p. 234]. Ring construction is completed for multiturn operation of beams over a broad range of intensities and initial conditions. UMER is an extremely versatile experimental platform with a beam current of up to 100mA and a pulse length as long as 100ns. UMER is addressing issues in beam physics relevant to many applications that require intense beams of high quality, such as advanced concept accelerators, free electron lasers, spallation neutron sources, and future heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion. The primary focus of this paper is to present experimental results in the areas of beam steering and multiturn operation of the ring. Unique beam steering algorithms now include measurement of the beam response matrix at each quadrupole and matrix inversion by singular value decomposition. With these advanced steering methods, transport of an intense beam over four turns (144 full lattice periods) of the ring has been achieved.

  18. Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-23

    We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.

  19. New generation electron-positron factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Mikhail

    2011-09-01

    In 2010 we celebrate 50 years since commissioning of the first particle storage ring ADA in Frascati (Italy) that also became the first electron-positron collider in 1964. After that date the particle colliders have increased their intensity, luminosity and energy by several orders of magnitude. Namely, because of the high stored beam currents and high rate of useful physics events (luminosity) the modern electron-positron colliders are called "factories". However, the fundamental physics has required luminosities by 1-2 orders of magnitudes higher with respect to those presently achieved. This task can be accomplished by designing a new generation of factories exploiting the potential of a new collision scheme based on the Crab Waist (CW) collision concept recently proposed and successfully tested at Frascati. In this paper we discuss the performance and limitations of the present generation electron-positron factories and give a brief overview of new ideas and collision schemes proposed for further collider luminosity increase. In more detail we describe the CW collision concept and the results of the crab waist collision tests in DAϕNE, the Italian ϕ-factory. Finally, we briefly describe most advanced projects of the next generation factories based on the CW concept: SuperB in Italy, SuperKEKB in Japan and SuperC-Tau in Russia.

  20. Successful use of ring pessary with support for advanced pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Chen, Chun; Song, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Mou; Zhu, Lan

    2015-10-01

    Support pessaries are not recommended for patients with advanced prolapse. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of the ring pessary with support for the treatment of advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We conducted this prospective study on pessary fittings performed between November 2013 and September 2014 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Beijing. A total of 109 patients with stage III or IV POP completed a detailed history. A successful fitting was defined as the continued use of the device for over 3 months from the initial fitting. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, independent sample t tests, continuity correction χ(2) tests, and Fisher's exact test. A total of 74.3 % (81/109) of the patients were successfully fitted with the ring pessary with support at the initial visit. Among those women with a successful initial fitting, the failure rate was less than 10 % (8/81) at 3 months. Furthermore, 82.7 % (67/81) of the patients were able to manage the pessary by themselves. Seven patients experienced vaginal erosion. There was no association of prolapse stage and the predominant prolapse compartment with pessary trial outcome. The average vaginal length of the patients with successful pessary use was 7.58 cm. The ring pessary with support was successfully fitted in patients with advanced POP with a high success rate and few complications. Older patients were more likely to prefer the ring pessary with support due to its convenient use.

  1. Status of magnet power supply development for the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, D.

    1989-01-01

    To simplify installation and speed testing of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring magnets, vacuum chambers and magnet power supplies, a modular approach was developed. All but the dipole magnets are independently controlled. Pulse width modulated dc-to-dc converters are used to power the individual magnets, with 12-pulse power supplies providing the raw dc to the converters. A magnet support base is the heart of a module and may hold as many as 7 magnets with 8 individually powered coils. The dc-to-dc converters are part of each magnet base module. This paper will show the modular approach which is used for the storage ring magnet systems and will give the test results of the prototype topology for the dc-to-dc converters that are being built and tested to power 680 quadrupole and sextupole magnets. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Field configuration of beam excited modes in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S. O.; Kustom, R. L.; Uslenghi, P. L.E.

    1994-05-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is in the process of building a positron accelerator and storage ring, the Advanced Photo source (APS). The RF system for the APS storage ring uses 16 cylindrical TM010-like, reentrant cavities operating at 351.93 MHz to resupply energy lost by the beam due to synchrotron radiation. The stored beam will have approximately 60 bunches, 5 mA per bunch, for a total beam current of 300 mA. Calculations of the threshold current for coupled-bench instabilities in the storage ring have indicated that several beam-induced higher-order modes (HOMs) will reduce the threshold for beam stability and therefore should be damped. Previous data taken using a pillbox cavity showed that it is likely that some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the electric and magnetic field configuration of each HOM present in the waveguide. A pillbox and a prototype storage ring cavity, together with various WR2300 waveguide components, are used to obtain the measurements needed for the determination of the mode configuration of the HOMs at the frequencies of interest. To avoid the development of beam instabilities due to the existence of these HOMs in the rf cavity, damping of the modes will be required. The HOMs present in the rf cavity coupling into the loop coupler and traveling through the coupler into the waveguide, may allow damping of some of the HOMs by insertion of dampers into the waveguide adjacent to each cavity.

  3. Advanced Imaging Lacks Clinical Utility in Treating Geriatric Pelvic Ring Injuries Caused by Low-Energy Trauma.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Roman M; Fogel, Harold A; Holt, Daniel; Schiff, Adam; Bernstein, Mitchell; Summers, Hobie D; Lack, William

    2017-04-01

    Is advanced imaging necessary in the evaluation of pelvic fractures caused by low-energy trauma in elderly patients? Retrospective review. Single institution, Level 1 Trauma Center. Age ≥60 years old treated for low-energy traumatic pelvic ring injuries. None. Posterior pelvic ring injuries diagnosed on advanced imaging, radiographic displacement, admission status, hospital length of stay, change in weight-bearing status recommendations, and whether operative treatment was pursued. Eighty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 42 had advanced imaging to evaluate the posterior pelvic ring (10 magnetic resonance imaging, 32 computed tomography). More posterior pelvic ring injuries were identified with advanced imaging compared with radiographs alone (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in rate of admission (P = 0.5) or hospital length of stay (P = 0.31) between patients with radiographs alone compared with patients evaluated with radiographs plus advanced imaging. The rate of displacement >1 cm at presentation and 6-week follow-up was unaffected by the presence of a posterior injury diagnosed on advanced imaging. Treatment for all 87 patients remained weight-bearing as tolerated with assist device irrespective of advanced imaging findings, and no patient underwent surgical intervention by 12-week follow-up. Despite frequent identification of posterior pelvic ring injuries in patients evaluated with advanced imaging, admission status, length of hospital stay, radiographic displacement, and treatment recommendations were unaffected by these findings. The use of advanced imaging in elderly patients with low-energy traumatic pelvic ring fractures may not be necessary. Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  5. Transcription factories

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes. PMID:23109938

  6. X-Ray microprobe characterization of materials: the case for undulators on advanced storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C.J.; Ice, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The unique properties of X-rays offer many advantages over electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X-rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic X-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signals to backgrounds than obtained with electrons. Detectable limits for X-rays are a few parts per billion and are 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -5/ less than obtained with electrons. Energy deposition in the sample by X-rays is 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ less than for electrons for the same detectable concentration. High-brightness storage rings, especially in the 6 GeV class with undulators, will be approximately 10/sup 3/ brighter in the X-ray energy range from 5 keV to 35 keV than existing storage rings and provide for X-ray microprobes that are as bright as the most advanced electron probes. Such X-ray microprobes will produce unprecedented low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectoscopies for both chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will be wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine.

  7. Vacuum system development status for the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wherle, R.; Nielson, R.; Kim, S.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the design and fabrication of a prototype sector of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 26.5-m-long prototype sector will be assembled within a full-scale magnet and tunnel mockup to study interspacial component relationships for maintenance, as well as the vacuum system operational performance. Each completed vacuum section is mounted as an integral part of the modular structure that contains the magnets and magnet power supplies on a common base. Unique automatic machine welding designs and techniques are employed in the fabrication of the aluminium vacuum chambers from extrusions. Special chamber bending procedures and measurements checks are used to maintain the required flatness of the insider chamber light gap surfaces. Photo-electron yields due to low-energy photons in the narrow channel gap of the vacuum chamber and their potential effects on the overall outgassing rate are found to be negligible. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  9. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  10. UHV seal studies for the advanced photon source storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Ferry, R.J.; Niemann, R.C.; Roop, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring Vacuum Chambers (SRVC) are constructed of aluminum. The chamber design incorporates aluminum alloy 2219-T87 Conflat flanges welded to an aluminum alloy 6063-T5 extruded chamber body. Vacuum connections to the aluminum Conflat chamber flanges are by means of 304 stainless steel Conflat flanges. To evaluate the Conflat seal assemblies relative to vacuum bake cycles, a Conflat Bake Test Assembly (CBTA) was constructed, and thermal cycling tests were performed between room temperature and 150{degrees}C on both stainless steel to aluminum Conflat assemblies and aluminum to aluminum Conflat assemblies. A Helicoflex Bake Test Assembly (HBTA) was similarly constructed to evaluate Helicoflex seals. Both Conflat and Helicoflex seals were studied in a SRVC Sector String Test arrangement of five SRVC sections. The CBTA, HBTA and SRVC tests and their results are reported. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  12. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  13. Prognosis and value of preoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chun-Run; Wang, Rui; Wang, Mo-Jin; Ping, Jie; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    As well known, signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare histological subtype of colorectal adenocarcinoma, which has been associated with poor prognosis and resistant to non-surgery therapy compared with common adenocarcinoma. In this study, we assessed the effect of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) for locally advanced rectal SRCC in a large patient group from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER, 1988–2011) database. SRCC was found in 0.9% (n = 622) rectal cancer (RC) patients in our study. In the PRT setting, SRCC had significantly worse cancer-specific survival than mucinous adenocarcinoma and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma patients (log-rank, P < 0.001). In terms of SRCC, stage III RC patients benefited from PRT (log-rank, P < 0.001) while stage II did not (P = 0.095). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that PRT was an independent benefit factor in stage III rectal SRCC patients (HR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.407–0.919; P = 0.018). In conclusion, SRCC was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in stage III RC patients, but not in stage II. In the PRT setting of locally advanced RC, SRCC patients had significantly worse prognosis. PRT was an independent prognostic factor associated with improved survival in stage III rectal SRCC. PMID:28345614

  14. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  15. Effects of construction and alignment errors on the orbit functions of the advanced photon source storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bizek, H.; Crosbie, E.; Lessner, E.; Teng, L.; Wirsbinski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The orbit functions for the Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring have been studied using the simulation code RACETRACK. Non-linear elements are substituted into the storage ring lattice to simulate the effects of construction and alignment errors in the quadrupole, dipole, and sextupole magnets. The effects of these errors on the orbit distortion, dispersion, and beta functions are then graphically analyzed to show the rms spread of the functions across several machines. The studies show that the most significant error is displacement of the quadrupole magnets. Further studies using a 3 bump correction routine show that these errors can be corrected to acceptable levels. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  17. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; ...

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  18. An advanced EPR stopped-flow apparatus based on a dielectric ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassmann, Günter; Schmidt, Peter Paul; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    A novel EPR stopped-flow accessory is described which allows time-dependent cw-EPR measurements of rate constants of reactions involving paramagnetic species after rapid mixing of two liquid reagents. The EPR stopped-flow design represents a state-of-the-art, computer controlled fluid driving system, a miniresonant EPR structure with an integrated small ball mixer, and a stopping valve. The X-band EPR detection system is an improved version of that reported by Sienkiewicz et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 65 (1994) 68], and utilizes a resonator with two stacked ceramic dielectric rings separated by a variable spacer. The resonator with the mode TE( H) 011 is tailored particularly for conditions of fast flowing and rapidly stopped aqueous solutions, and for a high time resolution. The short distance between the ball mixer and the small EPR active volume (1.8 μl) yields a measured dead time of 330 μs. A compact assembly of all parts results in minimization of disturbing microphonics. The computer controlled driving system from BioLogic with two independent stepping motors was optimized for EPR stopped-flow with a hard-stop valve. Performance tests on the EPR spectrometer ESP 300E from BRUKER using redox reactions of nitroxide radicals revealed the EPR stopped-flow accessory as an advanced, versatile, and reliable instrument with high reproducibility.

  19. Recent advances in the treatment of corneal ectasia with intrastromal corneal ring segments.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, David M; Kang, Joann J

    2015-07-01

    To review the recent advances and reported outcomes in the use of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) for the treatment of corneal ectasia. ICRS are a well-tolerated and effective treatment for patients with corneal ectasia, particularly keratoconus, offering long-term improvement in visual, refractive, and keratometric measures. ICRS do not consistently decrease corneal aberrations. Patients with mild-to-moderate keratoconus, known to have less predictable outcomes with ICRS, may be better selected and treated with the use of customized nomograms, accounting for factors such as internal astigmatism. Corneal collagen cross-linking performed after ICRS implantation is an important complementary treatment in preventing the progression of ectasia, whereas subsequent treatment with either photorefractive keratectomy or toric intraocular lens implantation offers a significantly improved visual and refractive result. ICRS are an important component to the treatment of corneal ectasia. Knowledge of outcomes among specific groups of patients should improve treatment planning and nomograms. Combined treatments with ICRS allow for notable improvements in corneal stability and refractive error, in addition to the improvement in irregular astigmatism seen with ICRS.

  20. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  1. Numerical Analysis of the Measurement of Near-Beam Electron Cloud Density in Field-Free Region at KEK B-Factory Low-Energy Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Puneet; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Suetsugu, Yusuke

    2010-11-01

    A large number of electrons in the so-called electron cloud are accumulated in beam chambers in positron storage rings. These electrons interact with the beam and can make the beam unstable. The density information of the electron cloud near the beam is therefore fundamental for studying beam instability and mitigation techniques related to the electron cloud. Recently, a method to measure the density of the electron cloud near the beam has been proposed by Kanazawa et al. The method enables the measurement of high-energy electrons selectively using a retarding field analyzer located on a chamber wall, noting that the electrons near the beam receive a strong kick by the beam. They calculated the density of the electron cloud simply assuming that the electrons that receive a kick are stationary. We examined the measurement technique in detail using a new computer code developed by us. The analysis showed that the volume near the beam occupied by the detected electrons, i.e., the observed volume, was strongly deformed owing to the horizontal velocity of the electrons; nevertheless this volume calculated assuming that the stationary electrons can still be used for calculating the density of the electron cloud in their measurement conditions.

  2. Statistical analyses of the magnet data for the advanced photon source storage ring magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Carnegie, D.W.; Doose, C.; Hogrefe, R.; Kim, K.; Merl, R.

    1995-05-01

    The statistics of the measured magnetic data of 80 dipole, 400 quadrupole, and 280 sextupole magnets of conventional resistive designs for the APS storage ring is summarized. In order to accommodate the vacuum chamber, the curved dipole has a C-type cross section and the quadrupole and sextupole cross sections have 180{degrees} and 120{degrees} symmetries, respectively. The data statistics include the integrated main fields, multipole coefficients, magnetic and mechanical axes, and roll angles of the main fields. The average and rms values of the measured magnet data meet the storage ring requirements.

  3. Using tree-rings to constrain terrestrial carbon cycling: advances, pitfalls, and opportunities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, D. C.; Klesse, S.; Babst, F.; Cuny, H.; Fonti, P.; Rathgeber, C.; Poulter, B.; Joos, F.

    2016-12-01

    The frontiers remain wide open with opportunities to use tree-ring data to provide novel constraints on terrestrial carbon cycling. Here we highlight some of our recent work developing a tree-ring biomass network spanning a large climate gradient in Europe. Estimates of climate sensitivity in above ground woody biomass will be presented and compared with analogous assessments from Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM), whereby some of the challenges to ensure directly comparable biomass metrics / scale between the models and observations will be addressed. Moreover, we will show insights on the dynamics of structural carbon allocation at sub-annual time-scales made possible by combining wood formation monitoring with wood anatomical data. We aim to promote discussion amongst a community interested in developing or using tree-ring data for carbon cycle applications, and will accordingly put forth ideas on which measurements are needed, for example, to reduce uncertainties and potential biases associated with upscaling tree-ring data to the level of woody and total tree biomass.

  4. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  5. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  6. Pulse advancement and delay in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit: direct experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Uranus, H P; Zhuang, L; Roeloffzen, C G H; Hoekstra, H J W M

    2007-09-01

    We report experimental observations of the negative-group-velocity (v(g)) phenomenon in an integrated-optical two-port ring-resonator circuit. We demonstrate that when the v(g) is negative, the (main) peak of output pulse appears earlier than the peak of a reference pulse, while for a positive v(g), the situation is the other way around. We observed that a pulse splitting phenomenon occurs in the neighborhood of the critical-coupling point. This pulse splitting limits the maximum achievable delay and advancement of a single device as well as facilitating a smooth transition from highly advanced to highly delayed pulse, and vice versa, across the critical-coupling point.

  7. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  8. Status of the PEP-II B-Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, John T.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory project was given DOE authorization in 1994 to construct an e^+e^- colliding beam storage ring complex on the SLAC site. PEP-II is designed to produce a luminosity of 3 × 10^33 cm-2s-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 10.6 GeV with unequal energy beams of 3.1 and 9.0 GeV. The particle physics goal is to study CP violation in the B meson system. The project is being built by a collaboration of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The asymmetric beam energies require two storage rings with the low energy ring supported above the high energy ring. The rings are filled using on-energy injection. There will be one interaction point with head-on collisions requiring, magnetic separation of the beams, low beta function values, and magnetic elements inside the solenoid of the BaBar physics detector. The high luminosity necessitates the use of a large number of beam bunches which require advances in the vacuum design, damped RF cavities, and bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. Status of this project is given including recent commissioning results and projections for beam-beam collisions in summer of 1998.

  9. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogacz, S.A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  10. Targeting cullin-RING ligases for cancer treatment: rationales, advances and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuju; Yu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    New therapeutic intervention strategies for the treatment of human malignancies are always desired. Approval of bortezomib as a front-line treatment for multiple myeloma highlighted the significance of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) as a promising therapeutic target. However, due to the broad impact of proteasome inhibition, deleterious side effects have been reported with bortezomib treatment. Cullin RING ligases (CRLs)-mediated ubiquitin conjugation process is responsible for the ubiquitin conjugation of 20 % cellular proteins that are designated for degradation through the UPS, most of them are critical proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signaling transduction and apoptosis. Studies have depicted the upstream NEDDylation pathway that controls the CRL activity by regulating the conjugation of an ubiquitin-like-protein NEDD8 to the cullin protein in the complex. A specific pharmaceutical inhibitor of NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE; E1) MLN4924 was recently developed and has been promoted to Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of several human malignancies. This article summarizes the most recent understanding about the process of NEDD8 conjugation, its relevance for cancer therapy and molecular mechanisms responsible for the potent anti-tumor activity of MLN4924.

  11. Signet Ring Cells and Efficacy of First-line Chemotherapy in Advanced Gastric or Oesogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathalie; Adenis, Antoine; Bouche, Olivier; Duhamel, Alain; Heurgue, Alexandra; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Amela, Eric; Salleron, Julia; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of first-line palliative chemotherapy, regarding the presence of signet ring cells (SRC). Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with locally advanced or metastatic gastric or oesogastric junction adenocarcinoma who received first-line chemotherapy. Response to chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between SRC and non-SRC (NSRC) groups. Two hundred and three patients were treated, with 57 (28%) having SRC adenocarcinoma. Objective response rate was significantly lower in SRC patients (5.3% vs. 28.1%, p=0.0004). PFS was not significantly different between SRC and NSRC patients (median=3.8 vs. 4.9 months, p=0.07). OS was significantly shorter in SRC patients (median=5.6 vs. 9.4 months, p<0.008). In multivariate analysis SRC was not an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio (HR)=1.28, p=0.15). Patients with advanced SRC adenocarcinomas seemed to benefit less from chemotherapy, whereas the presence of SRC was not an independent survival prognostic factor. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Saturn's Spectacular Ring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's beautiful rings have fascinated astronomers since they were first observed by Galileo in 1610. The main rings consist of solid particles mostly in the 1 cm - 10 m range, composed primarily of water ice. The ring disk is exceptionally thin - the typical local thickness of the bright rings is tens of meters, whereas the diameter of the main rings is 250,000 km! The main rings exhibit substantial radial variations "ringlets", many of which are actively maintained via gravitational perturbations from Saturn's moons. Exterior to the main rings lie tenuous dust rings, which have little mass but occupy a very large volume of space. This seminar will emphasize the physics of ring-moon interactions, recent advances in our understanding of various aspects of the rings obtained from observations taken during 1995 when the rings appeared edge-on to the Earth and then to the Sun, and observations in subsequent years from HST.

  13. The eldercare factory.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly.

  14. Recent advances in metamaterial split-ring-resonator circuits as biosensors and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    RoyChoudhury, Sohini; Rawat, Vaishali; Jalal, Ahmed Hasnain; Kale, S N; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2016-12-15

    Potential applications of thin film metamaterials are diverse and their realization to offer miniaturized waveguides, antennas and shielding patterns are on anvil. These artificially engineered structures can produce astonishing electromagnetic responses because of their constituents being engineered at much smaller dimensions than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave, hence behaving as artificial materials. Such micro-nano dimensions of thin film metamaterial structures can be customized for various applications due to their exclusive responses to not only electromagnetic, but also to acoustic and thermal waves that surpass the natural materials' properties. In this paper, the recent major advancements in the emerging fields of diagnostics (sensors) and therapeutics involving thin film metamaterials have been reviewed and underlined; discussing their edge over conventional counterpart techniques; concentrating on their design considerations and feasible ways of achieving them. Challenges faced in sensitivity, precision, accuracy and factors that interfere with the degree of performance of the sensors are also dealt with, herein.

  15. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  16. Calibration of Fast Fiber-Optic Beam Loss Monitors for the Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Superconducting Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Sajaev, V.; Xiao, A.; Vella, Andrea K.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the calibration and use of fast fiber-optic (FO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring (SR). A superconducting undulator prototype (SCU0) has been operating in SR Sector 6 (“ID6”) since the beginning of CY2013, and another undulator SCU1 (a 1.1-m length undulator that is three times the length of SCU0) is scheduled for installation in Sector 1 (“ID1”) in 2015. The SCU0 main coil often quenches during beam dumps. MARS simulations have shown that relatively small beam loss (<1 nC) can lead to temperature excursions sufficient to cause quenchingwhen the SCU0windings are near critical current. To characterize local beam losses, high-purity fused-silica FO cables were installed in ID6 on the SCU0 chamber transitions and in ID1 where SCU1 will be installed. These BLMs aid in the search for operating modes that protect the SCU structures from beam-loss-induced quenching. In this paper, we describe the BLM calibration process that included deliberate beam dumps at locations of BLMs. We also compare beam dump events where SCU0 did and did not quench.

  17. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  18. Report of the B-factory group: II, Accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; Cassel, D.G.; Feldman, G.J.; Alam, M.S.; Aleksan, R.; Atwood, W.B.; Bartelt, J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Boyce, J.R.; Cline, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on B-factory accelerators: Storage rings for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuing Linear colliders for the {Upsilon}(4S) and continuum; and storage rings and linear colliders for the Z. 52 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  20. Changes in Prolapse and Urinary Symptoms After Successful Fitting of a Ring Pessary With Support in Women With Advanced Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Chen, Chun; Song, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Mou; Zhu, Lan

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the percentage of improvement in prolapse and urinary symptoms and adverse effects in women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after 3 months of use of a ring pessary with support. In this prospective study, 109 consecutive women with advanced POP were fitted with a ring pessary with support; 73 (73/109, 67.0%) of the women had a successful 3-month pessary fitting trial. Prolapse symptoms, urinary symptoms, and urinary flow parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 months. Adverse effects were assessed within 3 months. McNemar's test and paired-sample t tests were performed. Prolapse and urinary symptoms improved from baseline to 3 months, including bulging (90.4% to 23.3%; P <.001) and pressure (64.4% to 13.7%; P <.001). Voiding difficulty improved in 97.8% of the women (45/46; P <.001), splinting improved in 100% (19/19; P <.001), urge urinary incontinence improved in 76.9% (30/39; P <.001), and stress urinary incontinence improved in 58.1% (18/31; P = .025) after 3 months. After pessary treatment, the differences in maximum flow rate, mean flow rate, void volume, and postvoid residual at baseline and 3 months were statistically significant (P <.05). Vaginal discharge (32/73, 43.8%) was the most common adverse event. Vaginal ulcers developed in 7 (7/73, 9.6%) of the women. The ring pessary with support was successfully fitted in patients with advanced POP with a high success rate and few complications. The pessary could resolve more than half of the prolapse and urinary symptoms. Therefore, initial conservative treatment with a ring pessary with support in advanced POP is worthwhile. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. An asymmetric B-meson factory at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.; Zisman, M.S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1989-03-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, log-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. An Asymmetric B-Meson Factory at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chin, Y.; Oddone, P.J.; Zisman, Michael S.; Donald, M.; Feldman, G.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for a B-factory has been made using asymmetric collisions between positrons in the PEP storage ring and electrons in a new, low-energy ring. The design utilizes small-aperture, permanent-magnet quadrupoles close to the interaction point (IP). Optimization of optical and beam parameters at the IP will be discussed, as well as the lattice design of the interaction region and of the rings.

  3. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  4. What's Up in Factories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A school-to-work curriculum (What's Up in Factories?) developed by a New York PBS station is giving some Ohio students a view of factory careers in the 1990s. Students are surprised at the level of job skills needed and are discovering the importance of teamwork, willingness to take responsibility, punctuality, effective communication, and…

  5. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  6. What's Up in Factories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A school-to-work curriculum (What's Up in Factories?) developed by a New York PBS station is giving some Ohio students a view of factory careers in the 1990s. Students are surprised at the level of job skills needed and are discovering the importance of teamwork, willingness to take responsibility, punctuality, effective communication, and…

  7. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of selected elastomer O-ring pump seals for service at the Wilsonville, Alabama, Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility. [Ethylenepropylenediene monomer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Skena, C.C.; Keiser, J.R.

    1986-08-01

    Previous laboratory tests of elastomer O-rings in coal liquefaction solvents conducted at L'Garde, Inc., indicated that certain ethylenepropylenediene monomer (EPDM) compounds provided the best performance when a backup ring was used to limit swelling. Before service testing in a pump at the Wilsonville, Alabama, Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, tests of six selected elastomers in the appropriate Wilsonville-produced solvent were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ORNL tests measured the elastomers' changes in cross section, weight, density, and relative flexibility. Although two perfluoroelastomers showed less degradation of most properties during these tests, it was decided to proceed with service testing of two EPDM elastomers because of their much lower cost. 5 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  10. Aromatic Ring Currents Illustrated--NMR Spectra of Tin(IV) Porphyrin Complexes. An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Dennis P.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to show that in the closed loops of cyclic structures the protons situated in conic regions above and below the ring will be shielded. Uses the diamagnetic and air stable octahedral tin(IV) complexes of porphyrins for study. Notes complexes crystallize easily and offer spectacular purple colors. (MVL)

  11. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999.

  12. Unbunched beam electron-proton instability in the PSR and advanced hadron facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen; Pisent, A.; Neuffer, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    We studied the possibility of the occurrence of transverse instability induced by trapped electrons in unbunched beams in the Proton Storage Ring and the proposed Advance Hadron Facility (AHF) at Los Alamos, as well as in the proposed Kaon Factory at TRIUMF. We found that the e-p instability may be possible for unbunched beams in the PSR but is unlikely to occur in the advanced hadron facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Cell Factory Engineering.

    PubMed

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  15. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  16. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  17. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-01

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  18. IONIZATION COOLING SCENARIO FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; PALMER, R.B.; LEBRUN, P.L.

    2001-06-18

    The neutrino factory program aims to produce well-characterized neutrino fluxes, orders of magnitude larger than those available from conventional beams. An important feature of the machine design is a cooling section for reducing the muon transverse emittance to a level that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators and be contained in the storage ring. We describe simulations of a high-performance ionization cooling channel for the front end of a neutrino factory. The design considered here consists of a solenoidal lattice with alternating polarity and 2.75 m and 1.65 m cell lengths. Simulations show that the cooling increases the phase space density into the acceptance of the following linac by a factor of 3.

  19. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  20. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  1. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  2. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  3. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  4. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  5. Testing of advanced technique for linear lattice and closed orbit correction by modeling its application for iota ring at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, A.

    2016-10-09

    Many modern and most future accelerators rely on precise configuration of lattice and trajectory. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) at Fermilab that is coming to final stages of construction will be used to test advanced approaches of control over particles dynamics. Various experiments planned at IOTA require high flexibility of lattice configuration as well as high precision of lattice and closed orbit control. Dense element placement does not allow to have ideal configuration of diagnostics and correctors for all planned experiments. To overcome this limitations advanced method of lattice an beneficial for other machines. Developed algorithm is based on LOCO approach, extended with various sets of other experimental data, such as dispersion, BPM BPM phase advances, beam shape information from synchrotron light monitors, responses of closed orbit bumps to variations of focusing elements and other. Extensive modeling of corrections for a big number of random seed errors is used to illustrate benefits from developed approach.

  6. Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

    2011-09-08

    The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

  7. Status of RF deflecting cavity design for the generation of short x-ray pulses in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G.; Borland, M.; Chae, Y.C.; Harkay, K.; Horan, D.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is exploring the possibility of using radio frequency deflection to generate x-ray radiation pulses on the order of 1 pico-second (Delta t - 70%) or less. This scheme is based on a proposal by A. Zholents et al. that relies on manipulating the transverse momentum of the electrons in a bunch by using an rf deflecting cavity to induce a longitudinally dependent vertical deflection of the beam. The beam will then travel through a number of undulators before arriving at a second set of deflecting cavities where the deflection is reversed such that the remainder of the storage ring is largely unperturbed. Considerable effort has been expended on the design of a superconducting rf deflecting cavity operating in the S-band at 2.8 GHz to address fundamental design issues including cavity geometry, deflecting voltage, rf power coupling, tuning, and damping of higher-order and lower-order modes. In this paper we present simulation results and analysis of an optimized superconducting rf deflecting cavity design for the APS storage ring.

  8. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  9. Engineering the smart factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  10. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  11. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  12. Analysis of Factorial Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    The pro- bability that y 13 is bad is .37. Choosing Q greater than .37 ends the iteration. Choos - ing Q so that Y 13 is identified as a bad...ances as a Fraction of Their Total. Annals of Eugenics , 11, 47-52. Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1957) Experimental Designs. New York: John Wiley...Experiments. London: Oliver and Boyd. Finney, D. J. (1945) The Fractional Replication of Factorial Arrangements. Annals of Eugenics , 12, 291-301

  13. SLAC B Factory computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics.

  14. Clusters, factories and domains

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    During S-phase of the cell cycle, chromosomal DNA is replicated according to a complex replication timing program, with megabase-sized domains replicating at different times. DNA fiber analysis reveals that clusters of adjacent replication origins fire near-synchronously. Analysis of replicating cells by light microscopy shows that DNA synthesis occurs in discrete foci or factories. The relationship between timing domains, origin clusters and replication foci is currently unclear. Recent work, using a hybrid Xenopus/hamster replication system, has shown that when CDK levels are manipulated during S-phase the activation of replication factories can be uncoupled from progression through the replication timing program. Here, we use data from this hybrid system to investigate potential relationships between timing domains, origin clusters and replication foci. We suggest that each timing domain typically comprises several replicon clusters, which are usually processed sequentially by replication factories. We discuss how replication might be regulated at different levels to create this complex organization and the potential involvement of CDKs in this process. PMID:20724827

  15. Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    The rings are changing before our eyes; structure varies on all timescales and unexpected things have been discovered. Many questions have been answered, but some answers remain elusive (see Cuzzi et al 2010 for a review). Here we highlight the major ring science progress over the mission to date, and describe new observations planned for Cassini's final three years. Ring Composition and particle sizes: The rings are nearly all water ice with no other ices - so why are they reddish? The C Ring and Cassini Division are "dirtier" than the more massive B and A Rings, as shown by near-IR and, recently, microwave observations. Particle sizes, from stellar and radio occultations, vary from place to place. Ring structure, micro and macro: numerous spiral density waves and ubiquitous "self-gravity wakes" reveal processes which fostered planet formation in the solar system and elsewhere. However, big puzzles remain regarding the main ring divisions, the C Ring plateau structures, and the B Ring irregular structure. Moonlets, inside and out, seen and unseen: Two gaps contain sizeable moonlets, but more gaps seem to contain none; even smaller embedded "propeller" objects wander, systematically or randomly, through the A ring. Rubble pile ringmoons just outside the rings may escaped from the rings, and the recently discovered "Peggy" may be trying this as we watch. Impact bombardment of the rings: Comet fragments set the rings to rippling on century-timescales, and boulders crash through hourly; meanwhile, the constant hail of infalling Kuiper belt material has a lower mass flux than previously thought. Origin and Age of the Rings: The ring mass and bombardment play key roles. The ring mass is well known everywhere but in the B Ring (where most of it is). New models suggest how tidal breakup of evolving moons may have formed massive ancient rings, of which the current ring is just a shadow. During its last three years, the Cassini tour profile will allow entirely new

  16. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  18. Neptune's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged. Also visible in this image is the inner faint ring and the faint band which extends smoothly from the ring roughly halfway between the two bright rings. Both of these newly discovered rings are broad and much fainter than the two narrow rings. The bright glare is due to over-exposure of the crescent on Neptune. Numerous bright stars are evident in the background. Both bright rings have material throughout their entire orbit, and are therefore continuous. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  19. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  20. Neptune Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-29

    This 591-second exposure of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  1. Ring Backdrop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    Saturn moon Enceladus brightly reflects sunlight before a backdrop of the planet rings and the rings shadows cast onto the planet. NASA Cassini spacecraft captured this snapshot during its flyby of the moon on Nov. 30, 2010.

  2. Heavy Metal Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  3. Cost-effective design for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2006-01-01

    There have been active efforts in the U.S., Europe, and Japan on the design of a neutrino factory. This type of facility produces intense beams of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a high-energy storage ring. In the U.S., a second detailed feasibility study (FS2) for a neutrino factory was completed in 2001. Since that report was published, new ideas in bunching, cooling, and acceleration of muon beams have been developed. We have incorporated these ideas into a new facility design, which we designate as study 2B (ST2B), that should lead to significant cost savings over the FS2 design.

  4. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  5. The role of superconductivity and cryogenics in the neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Green; E. L. Black; R. C. Gupta; M. A. Iarocci; V. Lebedev; J. R. Miller; R. B. Palmer; H. S. Padamsee; B. L. Parker; S. Prestemon; R. J. Weggel

    2002-05-10

    The proposed neutrino factory will produce a defined beam of neutrinos from the decay of muons in a storage ring [1,2,3]. The storage ring will be oriented so that the neutrinos can be detected at one or more detectors several thousand kilometers from the storage ring. This report presents an overview of the proposed neutrino factory and its subsystems that use cryogenics. Superconducting magnets will be used in the following ways in the neutrino factory; (1) the outsert solenoid for the 20 T pion capture system, (2) the decay channel where pions decay to muons, (3) the muon phase rotation system, (4) the muon cooling system, (5) focusing during the first stage of muon acceleration, (6) bending and focusing magnets in the re-circulating linac accelerator and (7) bending and focusing magnets in the muon storage ring where the neutrino beams are generated. Low temperature superconducting RF cavities will be used to accelerate the muons from about 200 MeV to 20 GeV. The muon cooling system uses liquid hydrogen absorbers at 20 K to reduce the emittance of the muon beam before it is accelerated to full energy.

  6. Engineering Robustness of Microbial Cell Factories.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens; Zhou, Yongjin J

    2017-08-31

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offer great prospects in developing microbial cell factories capable of converting renewable feedstocks into fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. However, prohibitively low production rate and mass concentration remain the major hurdles in industrial processes even though the biosynthetic pathways are comprehensively optimized. These limitations are caused by a variety of factors unamenable for host cell survival, such as harsh industrial conditions, fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates, and toxic compounds including metabolic intermediates and valuable target products. Therefore, engineered microbes with robust phenotypes is essential for achieving higher yield and productivity. In this review, the recent advances in engineering robustness and tolerance of cell factories is described to cope with these issues and briefly introduce novel strategies with great potential to enhance the robustness of cell factories, including metabolic pathway balancing, transporter engineering, and adaptive laboratory evolution. This review also highlights the integration of advanced systems and synthetic biology principles toward engineering the harmony of overall cell function, more than the specific pathways or enzymes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  8. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  9. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  10. Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Quimby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) was designed to explicitly to chart the transient sky with a particular focus on events which lie in the nova-supernova gap. With its innovative two-telescope architecture it achieves both high cadence and large areal rate of coverage. PTF was commissioned during the summer of 2009. PTF is now finding an extragalactic transient every 20 minutes and a Galactic (strong) variable every 10 minutes. Spectroscopy undertaken at Keck and Palomar has allowed us: identify an emerging class of ultra-luminous supernovae, discover luminous red novae, undertake UV spectroscopy of Ia supernovae, discover supernovae powered by something other than Nickel-56, clarification of sub-classes of core collapse and thermo-nuclear explosions, map the systematics of core collapse supernovae, a trove of eclipsing binaries and many others.

  11. Plant cells as pharmaceutical factories.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Ritala, Anneli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Miralpeix, Bruna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2013-01-01

    Molecules derived from plants make up a sizeable proportion of the drugs currently available on the market. These include a number of secondary metabolite compounds the monetary value of which is very high. New pharmaceuticals often originate in nature. Approximately 50% of new drug entities against cancer or microbial infections are derived from plants or micro-organisms. However, these compounds are structurally often too complex to be economically manufactured by chemical synthesis, and frequently isolation from naturally grown or cultivated plants is not a sustainable option. Therefore the biotechnological production of high-value plant secondary metabolites in cultivated cells is potentially an attractive alternative. Compared to microbial systems eukaryotic organisms such as plants are far more complex, and our understanding of the metabolic pathways in plants and their regulation at the systems level has been rather poor until recently. However, metabolic engineering including advanced multigene transformation techniques and state-of-art metabolomics platforms has given us entirely new tools to exploit plants as Green Factories. Single step engineering may be successful on occasion but in complex pathways, intermediate gene interventions most often do not affect the end product accumulation. In this review we discuss recent developments towards elucidation of complex plant biosynthetic pathways and the production of a number of highvalue pharmaceuticals including paclitaxel, tropane, morphine and terpenoid indole alkaloids in plants and cell cultures.

  12. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  13. Tau physics and tau factories

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial progress in tau lepton physics requires larger and cleaner samples of /tau/'s produced in e/sup +/e/sup minus/ ..-->.. /tau//sup +//tau//sup minus/. Single-tagging of the /tau/ pair is crucial. Possibilities for such progress at particle factories are discussed with emphasis on the Tau-Charm Factory concept. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. General B factory design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences.

  15. Vortex rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The vortex-ring problem in fluid mechanics is examined generally in terms of formation, the steady state, the duration of the rings, and vortex interactions. The formation is studied by examining the generation of laminar and turbulent vortex rings and their resulting structures with attention given to the three stages of laminar ring development. Inviscid dynamics is addressed to show how core dynamics affects overall ring motion, and laminar vortex structures are described in two dimensions. Viscous and inviscid structures are related in terms of 'leapfrogging', head-on collisions, and collisions with a no-slip wall. Linear instability theory is shown to successfully describe observational data, although late stages in the breakdown are not completely understood. This study of vortex rings has important implications for key aerodynamic issues including sound generation, transport and mixing, and vortex interactions.

  16. Flavour physics at B factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Križan, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the impact of B factories in the era of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. It presents the advantages of experiments at a B factory and at a super B factory, and their complementarity to the studies at the LHC. As examples, some selected recent results from B factories are presented; precision measurements of the unitarity triangle, studies of rare B decays, full reconstruction of events in D meson decays and searches for lepton violating τ lepton decays. The paper also reviews the status of the preparation of the next step, a super B factory at KEK, with the SuperKEKB high luminosity asymmetric electron-positron collider and the detector Belle II. Finally a summary and an outlook are given.

  17. Translucent Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-08

    Although solid-looking in many images, Saturn's rings are actually translucent. In this picture, we can glimpse the shadow of the rings on the planet through (and below) the A and C rings themselves, towards the lower right hand corner. For centuries people have studied Saturn's rings, but questions about the structure and composition of the rings lingered. It was only in 1857 when the physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that the rings must be composed of many small particles and not solid rings around the planet, and not until the 1970s that spectroscopic evidence definitively showed that the rings are composed mostly of water ice. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 17 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 12, 2014 in near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 24 degrees. Image scale is 85 miles (136 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18295

  18. Study of low-energy neutrino factory at the Fermilab to DUSEL baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Kyberd, Paul; Ellis, Malcolm; Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Mena, Olga; Long, Ken; Pascoli, Silvia; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; McDonald, Kirk; Huber, Patrick; /Virginia Tech.

    2009-07-01

    This note constitutes a Letter of Interest to study the physics capabilities of, and to develop an implementation plan for, a neutrino physics program based on a Low-Energy Neutrino Factory at Fermilab providing a {nu} beam to a detector at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. It has been over ten years since the discovery of neutrino oscillations [1] established the existence of neutrino masses and leptonic mixing. Neutrino oscillations thus provide the first evidence of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Most of the present neutrino oscillation data are well described by the 3{nu} mixing model. While a number of the parameters in this model have already been measured, there are several key parameters that are still unknown, namely, the absolute neutrino mass scale, the precise value of the mixing angles, the CP phase {delta} and hence the presence or absence of observable CP-violation in the neutrino sector. Future measurements of these parameters are crucial to advance our understanding of the origin of neutrino masses and of the nature of flavor in the lepton sector. The ultimate goal of a program to study neutrino oscillations goes beyond a first measurement of parameters, and includes a systematic search for clues about the underlying physics responsible for the tiny neutrino masses, and, hopefully, the origin of the observed flavor structure in the Standard Model, as well as the possible source of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. To achieve this goal will almost certainly require precision measurements that go well beyond the presently foreseen program. One of the most promising experimental approaches to achieve some of the goals mentioned above is to build a Neutrino Factory and its corresponding detector. The Neutrino Factory produces neutrino beams from muons which have been accelerated to an energy of, for example, 25 GeV. The muons are stored in a race-track shaped decay ring and then decay along

  19. Widening Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-18

    Saturn rings and its moon Rhea are imaged before a crescent of the planet in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The shadows of the rings continue to grow wider after their disappearing act during the planet August 2009 equinox.

  20. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  1. Ring Slicer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    Saturn's moon Prometheus, seen here looking suspiciously blade-like, is captured near some of its sculpting in the F ring. Prometheus' (53 miles or 86 kilometers across) orbit sometimes takes it into the F ring. When it enters the ring, it leaves a gore where its gravitational influence clears out some of the smaller ring particles. Below Prometheus, the dark lanes interior to the F ring's bright core provide examples of previous ring-moon interactions. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 7 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 15, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 286,000 miles (461,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 115 degrees. Image scale is 1.7 miles (2.8 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18324

  2. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  3. A design of a quasi-isochronous storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1993-07-01

    Isochronous electron storage rings may offer advantages for future high luminosity meson factories. A Quasi-isochronous lattice based on the design principle of flexible {gamma}{tau} lattice is studied. The emittance and chromatic properties of such a lattice are studied. Applications of this design techniques for electron storage rings will be discussed.

  4. Separators for SLAC B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, Dave

    2002-08-21

    In order to separate the beams during injection, a closed vertical bump will be introduced in the B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER) using four dedicated, pulsed magnets. The design field in the magnets is B{sub 0} = 660 G; the field integrals of the magnets are nominally: {integral} Hdl = 0.0450 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0420 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0756 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0832 T{center_dot}m. The magnet apertures are 15 cm horizontal along the field direction and 10 cm in the vertical direction. The beams will be separated with a rise time of about 200 ms at the end of a coast and brought back into collision within about 1 ms. A good-field-region of {+-} 4.1 cm in the horizontal and {+-} 2.1 cm in the vertical direction with field non-uniformity less than 0.2% is aimed for, and fast magnetic field switch-off even through the present steel vacuum pipe of about 4 mm thickness. A 15% variation in each magnet current is done with variable shunts to allow tuning of the bump for different lattice configurations. The magnets have to fit into the existing constrained space of the B-factory. The magnets have been made and tested successfully at BINP and at SLAC. The whole system including pulsed power supply and shunts were also tested successfully.

  5. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  6. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  7. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  8. Environmental assessment for the proposed B-Factory (Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document presents the potential environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of an Asymmetric Electron Positron Collider, also known as a B-Factory. DOE proposes to modify either the existing Positron-Electron Project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) or the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) at Cornell University. PEP and CESR provide the most technically promising and practical options for a B-Factory. A B-Factory can be constructed by modifying the existing facilities and with minor or no conventional construction. Details involved with the upgrade along with two alternatives to the proposed action are described.

  9. Ring King

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    Saturn reigns supreme, encircled by its retinue of rings. Although all four giant planets have ring systems, Saturn's is by far the most massive and impressive. Scientists are trying to understand why by studying how the rings have formed and how they have evolved over time. Also seen in this image is Saturn's famous north polar vortex and hexagon. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 37 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on May 4, 2014 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 752 nanometers. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 2 million miles (3 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 110 miles (180 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18278

  10. West Virginia's Byrd Institute: Teaching Factory for New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing Systems at Marshall University (Huntington, West Virginia) is part of a nationwide network of teaching factories where manufacturers can learn new, more competitive production technologies. The institute has helped several local manufacturing companies develop computer programs to…

  11. West Virginia's Byrd Institute: Teaching Factory for New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Institute for Advanced Flexible Manufacturing Systems at Marshall University (Huntington, West Virginia) is part of a nationwide network of teaching factories where manufacturers can learn new, more competitive production technologies. The institute has helped several local manufacturing companies develop computer programs to…

  12. Synchrotron radiation leakage from the B-factory beam pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, T.M.; Nelson, W.R.; Ipe, N.

    1990-09-20

    The high-energy ring (HER) of the B-Factory, running at an energy of 9 GeV, generates the synchrotron spectrum when applied to a ring with the PEP bending radius. The B-Factory HER may also run at 12 GeV, producing the harder spectrum. Depending upon beam-pipe material and thickness, some of this radiation may escape and deposit energy in the surrounding material. This was originally pointed out in PEP-109 during the initial design of PEP, and subsequently verified by measurements at both PEP and PETRA at DESY. Of concern to the B Factory is magnet insulation, though other adjacent materials such as wire insulation and cooling water hoses are even more radiosensitive. Radiation damage to magnets is a function of the type of material used in the potting compound. The PEP magnets, which hopefully can be used for the high-energy ring of the B-Factory, are insulated with an epoxy composed of DER-332, DER-732, NMA and aluminum oxide. It is estimated that this epoxy compound should tolerate doses near the 10{sup 10} rad range. To summarize the results of these calculations, 0.87 cm of copper is needed at the point of maximum dose from 12-GeV operation in order to reach the dose criterion if a rectangular beam pipe is used. The copper needs to be only 0.7-cm thick for an octagonal beam pipe and the same energy. For 9-GeV operation, an octagonal copper pipe needs only to be 0.25-cm thick. An octagonal aluminum pipe that is 0.5-cm thick also needs 0.3 cm of lead on the outside to reach the same criterion for 12-GeV operation. For 9-GeV operation, the aluminum pipe still requires a lead liner.

  13. Vascular rings.

    PubMed

    Backer, Carl L; Mongé, Michael C; Popescu, Andrada R; Eltayeb, Osama M; Rastatter, Jeffrey C; Rigsby, Cynthia K

    2016-06-01

    The term vascular ring refers to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that compress the esophagus and trachea, causing symptoms related to those two structures. The most common vascular rings are double aortic arch and right aortic arch with left ligamentum. Pulmonary artery sling is rare and these patients need to be carefully evaluated for frequently associated tracheal stenosis. Another cause of tracheal compression occurring only in infants is the innominate artery compression syndrome. In the current era, the diagnosis of a vascular ring is best established by CT imaging that can accurately delineate the anatomy of the vascular ring and associated tracheal pathology. For patients with a right aortic arch there recently has been an increased recognition of a structure called a Kommerell diverticulum which may require resection and transfer of the left subclavian artery to the left carotid artery. A very rare vascular ring is the circumflex aorta that is now treated with the aortic uncrossing operation. Patients with vascular rings should all have an echocardiogram because of the incidence of associated congenital heart disease. We also recommend bronchoscopy to assess for additional tracheal pathology and provide an assessment of the degree of tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. The outcomes of surgical intervention are excellent and most patients have complete resolution of symptoms over a period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Saturn Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-12

    Like Earth, Saturn has an invisible ring of energetic ions trapped in its magnetic field. This feature is known as a "ring current." This ring current has been imaged with a special camera on Cassini sensitive to energetic neutral atoms. This is a false color map of the intensity of the energetic neutral atoms emitted from the ring current through a processed called charged exchange. In this process a trapped energetic ion steals and electron from cold gas atoms and becomes neutral and escapes the magnetic field. The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument's ion and neutral camera records the intensity of the escaping particles, which provides a map of the ring current. In this image, the colors represent the intensity of the neutral emission, which is a reflection of the trapped ions. This "ring" is much farther from Saturn (roughly five times farther) than Saturn's famous icy rings. Red in the image represents the higher intensity of the particles, while blue is less intense. Saturn's ring current had not been mapped before on a global scale, only "snippets" or areas were mapped previously but not in this detail. This instrument allows scientists to produce movies (see PIA10083) that show how this ring changes over time. These movies reveal a dynamic system, which is usually not as uniform as depicted in this image. The ring current is doughnut shaped but in some instances it appears as if someone took a bite out of it. This image was obtained on March 19, 2007, at a latitude of about 54.5 degrees and radial distance 1.5 million kilometres (920,000 miles). Saturn is at the center, and the dotted circles represent the orbits of the moon's Rhea and Titan. The Z axis points parallel to Saturn's spin axis, the X axis points roughly sunward in the sun-spin axis plane, and the Y axis completes the system, pointing roughly toward dusk. The ion and neutral camera's field of view is marked by the white line and accounts for the cut-off of the image on the left. The

  15. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  16. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  17. Generalized Rules for Calculating the Magnitude of an Effect in Factorial and Repeated Measures ANOVA Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderson, Judith S.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to advance the use of measures of association patterned after omega squared in factorial and repeated analysis of variance designs by simplifying the computational procedure through use of a set of generalized rules. (Authors)

  18. Quality of life in men with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with leuprorelin and radiotherapy with or without zoledronic acid (TROG 03.04 RADAR): secondary endpoints from a randomised phase 3 factorial trial.

    PubMed

    Denham, James W; Wilcox, Chantelle; Joseph, David; Spry, Nigel A; Lamb, David S; Tai, Keen-Hun; Matthews, John; Atkinson, Chris; Turner, Sandra; Christie, David; Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Kenny, Lizbeth; Duchesne, Gillian; Delahunt, Brett; McElduff, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Adjuvant androgen suppression and bisphosphonates with escalating doses of radiotherapy might improve efficacy outcomes in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether these treatments had a detrimental effect on patient-reported-outcome (PRO) scores. We undertook a phase 3 trial with a 2×2 factorial design in 23 centres in Australia and New Zealand in men with non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate (stage T2b-4 or T2a, Gleason score ≥7, and baseline prostate-specific antigen concentration [PSA] ≥10 μg/L), and without previous lymph node or systemic metastases or comorbidities that could reduce life expectancy to less than 5 years. The men were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to 6 months of neoadjuvant (short-term) androgen suppression (STAS) with leuprorelin (22·5 mg every 3 months, intramuscularly) or an additional 12 months (intermediate-term androgen suppression [ITAS]) of leuprorelin with or without 18 months of zoledronic acid (4 mg every 3 months, intravenously). Study drug administration commenced at randomisation after which radiotherapy started within the fifth month in all groups. Treatment allocation was open-label, and computer-generated randomisation, stratified by centre, baseline concentrations of PSA, clinical stage of the tumour, Gleason score, and use of a brachytherapy boost, was done by use of the minimisation technique. PRO scores were calculated from European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life and prostate-specific quality-of-life module questionnaires and compared with multiple regression models at baseline, and end of radiotherapy, and 18 months and 36 months according to group and radiation dose. The trial is ongoing and the primary endpoint, prostate-cancer-specific mortality, will be reported in 2014. This study is the final report of PRO scores (a secondary endpoint). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Clinical

  19. The Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia; Mena, Olga

    2010-03-30

    We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

  20. Luminescent Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This view shows the unlit face of Saturn's rings, visible via scattered and transmitted light. In these views, dark regions represent gaps and areas of higher particle densities, while brighter regions are filled with less dense concentrations of ring particles.

    The dim right side of the image contains nearly the entire C ring. The brighter region in the middle is the inner B ring, while the darkest part represents the dense outer B Ring. The Cassini Division and the innermost part of the A ring are at the upper-left.

    Saturn's shadow carves a dark triangle out of the lower right corner of this image.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on June 8, 2005, at a distance of approximately 433,000 kilometers (269,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 22 kilometers (14 miles) per pixel.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

    For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

  1. Cave Rings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-13

    hypothesis, that cave rings are formed in the same manner as coffee rings[3], that is, due to the enhanced deposition at the edges of sessile drops ...Literature The ‘splash ring’ conjecture is described in [5]. It is claimed that 45◦ is the most probable angle for secondary drops to be ejected at, and that...ring’ is the deposit formed when a sessile drop of a solution containing dissolved particles, such as coffee or salt, dries. This was investigated by

  2. Advanced Ring-Shaped Microelectrode Assay Combined with Small Rectangular Electrode for Quasi-In vivo Measurement of Cell-to-Cell Conductance in Cardiomyocyte Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Hamada, Tomoyo; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2013-06-01

    To predict the risk of fatal arrhythmia induced by cardiotoxicity in the highly complex human heart system, we have developed a novel quasi-in vivo electrophysiological measurement assay, which combines a ring-shaped human cardiomyocyte network and a set of two electrodes that form a large single ring-shaped electrode for the direct measurement of irregular cell-to-cell conductance occurrence in a cardiomyocyte network, and a small rectangular microelectrode for forced pacing of cardiomyocyte beating and for acquiring the field potential waveforms of cardiomyocytes. The advantages of this assay are as follows. The electrophysiological signals of cardiomyocytes in the ring-shaped network are superimposed directly on a single loop-shaped electrode, in which the information of asynchronous behavior of cell-to-cell conductance are included, without requiring a set of huge numbers of microelectrode arrays, a set of fast data conversion circuits, or a complex analysis in a computer. Another advantage is that the small rectangular electrode can control the position and timing of forced beating in a ring-shaped human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPS)-derived cardiomyocyte network and can also acquire the field potentials of cardiomyocytes. First, we constructed the human iPS-derived cardiomyocyte ring-shaped network on the set of two electrodes, and acquired the field potential signals of particular cardiomyocytes in the ring-shaped cardiomyocyte network during simultaneous acquisition of the superimposed signals of whole-cardiomyocyte networks representing cell-to-cell conduction. Using the small rectangular electrode, we have also evaluated the response of the cell network to electrical stimulation. The mean and SD of the minimum stimulation voltage required for pacing (VMin) at the small rectangular electrode was 166+/-74 mV, which is the same as the magnitude of amplitude for the pacing using the ring-shaped electrode (179+/-33 mV). The results showed that the

  3. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  4. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  5. An advancement in removing extraneous color from wood for low-magnification reflected-light image analysis of conifer tree rings

    Treesearch

    Paul R. Sheppard; Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the removal of extraneous color from increment cores of conifers prior to reflected-light image analysis of tree rings. Ponderosa pine in central New Mexico was chosen for study. Peroxide bleaching was used as a pretreatment to remove extraneous color and still yield usable wood for image analysis. The cores were bleached in 3% peroxide raised to...

  6. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  7. A messy star factory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-15

    This sprinkle of cosmic glitter is a blue compact dwarf galaxy known as Markarian 209. Galaxies of this type are blue-hued, compact in size, gas-rich, and low in heavy elements. They are often used by astronomers to study star formation, as their conditions are similar to those thought to exist in the early Universe. Markarian 209 in particular has been studied extensively. It is filled with diffuse gas and peppered with star-forming regions towards its core. This image captures it undergoing a particularly dramatic burst of star formation, visible as the lighter blue cloudy region towards the top right of the galaxy. This clump is filled with very young and hot newborn stars. This galaxy was initially thought to be a young galaxy undergoing its very first episode of star formation, but later research showed that Markarian 209 is actually very old, with an almost continuous history of forming new stars. It is thought to have never had a dormant period — a period during which no stars were formed — lasting longer than 100 million years. The dominant population of stars in Markarian 209 is still quite young, in stellar terms, with ages of under 3 million years. For comparison, the Sun is some 4.6 billion years old, and is roughly halfway through its expected lifespan. The observations used to make this image were taken using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys, and span the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared parts of the spectrum. A scattering of other bright galaxies can be seen across the frame, including the bright golden oval that could, due to a trick of perspective, be mistaken as part of Markarian 209 but is in fact a background galaxy. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble's Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Nick Rose. Links: Nick Rose’s Hidden Treasures entry on Flickr

  8. Rural "Dropout Factories" Often Overshadowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the northwest corner of South Carolina, high schools' attempts to curb student dropouts may not match what many people picture when they hear talk of the nation's "dropout factories." Yet one-fifth of the 2,000 high schools nationwide categorized that way by researchers at Johns Hopkins…

  9. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  10. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  11. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  12. A Sampled Master Oscillator for the PEP-II B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-18

    A sampled phase-locked loop synchronizes the PEP-II B Factory rings to their SLAC Linac injector. The injection of both electrons and positrons into the separate rings and into their proper rf buckets requires phase shifting the linac rf with respect to the PEP rings. One of every three machine cycles provides the PEP ring an undisturbed reference while the other two thirds of the time the reference is unusable due to the injection scheme. The ring rf must be tunable about its nominal frequency for machine physics use. A sampled phase-locked loop handles the task of synchronizing the PEP-II rf to the linac while maintaining good phase noise. The input reference is sampled at 120 Hz and provides a ring rf signal with less than 0.1{degree} of rms phase jitter at 476 MHz.

  13. Supernova Dust Factory in M74

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-09

    Astronomers using NASA Spitzer Space Telescope have spotted a dust factory 30 million light-years away in the spiral galaxy M74. The factory is located at the scene of a massive star explosive death, or supernova.

  14. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing. PMID:23204872

  15. R AND D TOPICS FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY ACCELERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT,J.S.

    2007-08-06

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  16. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  17. New paleoclimatic database for the Iberian Peninsula since AD 1700 inferred from tree-ring records and documentary evidence: advances in temperature and drought variability reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; de Luis, Martín; Esper, Jan; Barriendos, Mariano; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Novak, Klemen; Longares, Luis Alberto; Martínez-del Castillo, Edurne; María Cuadrat, José

    2017-04-01

    A substantial increase of surface air temperatures in the upcoming decades, particularly significant in the Mediterranean basin, has been reported by the IPCC (IPCC, 2013). It is therefore particularly important to study past climate extremes and variability in this region, which will in turn support the accuracy of future climate scenarios. Yet, our knowledge of past climate variability and trends is limited by the shortage of instrumental data prior to the twentieth century, which prompts to the need of discovering new sources with which to reconstruct past climate. We here present a new paleoclimatic database for the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula based on tree-ring records, documentary evidence and instrumental data. The network includes 774 tree-ring, earlywood and latewood width series from Pinus uncinata, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra trees in the Pyrenees and Iberian Range reaching back to AD 1510. Three reconstructions are developed using these samples; an annual drought reconstruction since AD 1694, a summer drought reconstruction since AD 1734, and a maximum temperature reconstruction since AD 1604. Additionally, the documentary records from 16 locations in the Ebro Valley are examined focusing on climate-related 'rogations'. We differentiated three types of rogations, considering the importance of religious acts, to identify the severity of drought and pluvial events. Finally, an attempt to explore the links between documentary and tree-ring based reconstructions is presented.

  18. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  19. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  20. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  1. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more than...

  2. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  3. On KEK B-Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  4. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  5. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  6. Safety in Royal Filling Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-01

    Risks to personnel at R.F.F.s - Clean conditions 6 - Fireproof clothing 5 - Protection from Explosion 4,5 - Protection against Lightning 5 Royal...Last War Accident Records New factory planning methods Industrial safety Section 3 METHODS General Safety principles Test of clothing Clean...Instruction (1799) B. Report on safety aspects of certain explosives by the Government Committee of 1914/18* C. Standard tests on D.B. clothing

  7. Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  8. Ringing wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplya, R.A.; Molina, C.

    2005-06-15

    We investigate the response of traversable wormholes to external perturbations through finding their characteristic frequencies and time-domain profiles. The considered solution describes traversable wormholes between the branes in the two brane Randall-Sundrum model and was previously found within Einstein gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field. The evolution of perturbations of a wormhole is similar to that of a black hole and represents damped oscillations (ringing) at intermediately late times, which are suppressed by power-law tails (proportional to t{sup -2} for monopole perturbations) at asymptotically late times.

  9. A Survey of Small Factories*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferys, Margot; Wood, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    This survey was undertaken by a group of doctors, nurses, and lecturers in the Department of Public Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as part of the teaching programme for the Diploma in Public Health. Fifty small factories in an area of a metropolitan borough were invited to answer questions concerning their industrial processes, their labour force, their premises, their first-aid provision, and the visits they received from officials of local and central government. Forty-eight of these factories responded and observations were made by teams of three recording independently of each other in 45. A variety of industries was represented in these 48 firms, half of which employed less than 10 workers. The working environment, in respect of sanitary arrangements, cleanliness and tidiness, lighting on stairs and passage ways, was considered to be unsatisfactory in many firms. Some instances of inadequate safeguards of machines were seen. The accident rate was found to be rather less than the computed national rate for manufacturing industry in 1956. First-aid equipment and workers were also considered to be deficient in a number of instances. In case of accident and for the treatment of minor ailments most firms made use of a local casualty and out-patient department of a general hospital. This service was considered quite adequate. Many firms had not been visited by the Factory Inspector or his deputy during the previous year. Rather more had received visits from the local authority health inspectors. Many firms expressed confusion about the duties and functions of their various official visitors. The conclusions drawn from this limited enquiry were that the working conditions in small factories are often unsatisfactory; that in areas such as the one surveyed it is unrealistic to think in terms of development of an industrial health service similar to those operating in Slough and Harlow; and that the greatest impact on environmental

  10. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  11. Database Design and Data Retrieval for the PHENIX RPC Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Justine

    2007-10-01

    Database Design and Data Retrieval for the PHENIX RPC Factory Justine Ide, Muhlenberg College, PHENIX Collaboration -- One of the primary goals of the PHENIX experiment, located on the accelerator ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), is to determine how the components of a proton contribute to its total spin. In particular, the muon trigger upgrade is designed to allow us to determine the flavor separated quark and antiquark polarizations of the proton. We will achieve this by enhancing our ability to trigger on high transverse momentum single muons that result from the decay of W bosons produced in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC. Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) will play a pivotal role in the upgrade, and much of last summer was devoted to creating an RPC factory to build and test the new subsystem. A database was constructed in order store the data for numerous quality control tests, as well as information about environmental conditions, and the location of, the gas gaps and modules. This archived information will be used to select the best gas gaps during construction and will be useful during future data analysis. This poster will focus on the RPC factory database design and the retrieval of the stored information.

  12. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  13. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  14. Manufacturing data analytics using a virtual factory representation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Shao, Guodong; Shin, Seung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Large manufacturers have been using simulation to support decision-making for design and production. However, with the advancement of technologies and the emergence of big data, simulation can be utilised to perform and support data analytics for associated performance gains. This requires not only significant model development expertise, but also huge data collection and analysis efforts. This paper presents an approach within the frameworks of Design Science Research Methodology and prototyping to address the challenge of increasing the use of modelling, simulation and data analytics in manufacturing via reduction of the development effort. The use of manufacturing simulation models is presented as data analytics applications themselves and for supporting other data analytics applications by serving as data generators and as a tool for validation. The virtual factory concept is presented as the vehicle for manufacturing modelling and simulation. Virtual factory goes beyond traditional simulation models of factories to include multi-resolution modelling capabilities and thus allowing analysis at varying levels of detail. A path is proposed for implementation of the virtual factory concept that builds on developments in technologies and standards. A virtual machine prototype is provided as a demonstration of the use of a virtual representation for manufacturing data analytics.

  15. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a

  16. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  17. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  18. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  19. eRHIC ring-ring design with head-on beam-beam compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Montag,C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Pozdeyev, E.; Fischer, W.; MacKay, W. W.

    2009-05-04

    The luminosity of the eRHIC ring-ring design is limited by the beam-beam effect exerted on the electron beam. Recent simulation studies have shown that the beam-beam limit can be increased by means of an electron lens that compensates the beam-beam effect experienced by the electron beam. This scheme requires proper design of the electron ring, providing the correct betatron phase advance between interaction point and electron lens. We review the performance of the eRHIC ring-ring version and discuss various parameter sets, based on different cooling schemes for the proton/ion beam.

  20. Present status of Rare-RI Ring facility at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T Yamaguchithe Rare-RI Ring Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A new storage ring facility called the Rare-RI Ring is currently under preparation at the RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in RIKEN. The storage ring is dedicated to the single-ion precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich exotic nuclei. The masses are essential to elucidate the evolution of the nuclear shell structure far from the β stability and to determine the pathway of astrophysical nucleosynthesis. Such exotic nuclei are provided by the large-acceptance superconducting fragment separator, BigRIPS, at the RIBF accelerator complex. The experimental principle of the Rare-RI Ring mass measurements is based on isochronous mass spectrometry combined with the individual injection technique. This novel technique enables exotic species of interest to be produced randomly, in time to be sequentially stored in the storage ring. The Rare-RI Ring facility realizes the most efficient measurements for rare isotopes. An overview of the project is presented, along with its present status.

  1. Kinetics of ring formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2011-06-01

    We study reversible polymerization of rings. In this stochastic process, two monomers bond and, as a consequence, two disjoint rings may merge into a compound ring or a single ring may split into two fragment rings. This aggregation-fragmentation process exhibits a percolation transition with a finite-ring phase in which all rings have microscopic length and a giant-ring phase where macroscopic rings account for a finite fraction of the entire mass. Interestingly, while the total mass of the giant rings is a deterministic quantity, their total number and their sizes are stochastic quantities. The size distribution of the macroscopic rings is universal, although the span of this distribution increases with time. Moreover, the average number of giant rings scales logarithmically with system size. We introduce a card-shuffling algorithm for efficient simulation of the ring formation process and we present numerical verification of the theoretical predictions.

  2. Status and Early Commissioning Results for the PEP-II High Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, Uli

    2003-05-05

    The High Energy Ring of the PEP-II B-Factory has been constructed in the PEP tunnel. It is now beginning beam commissioning. This report will address the status of the ring systems and our experience in commissioning the systems as well as the first beam running.

  3. A Non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient Accelerator for the Final Acceleration Stage of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.S.; Aslaninejad, M.; Pasternak, J.; Witte, H.; Bliss, N. Cordwell M.; Jones, T.; Muir, A., Kelliher, D.; Machida, S.

    2011-09-04

    The International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) has recently completed its Interim Design Report (IDR), which presents our current baseline design of the neutrino factory. To increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of acceleration, the IDR design uses a linear non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG) for its final acceleration stage. We present the current lattice design of that FFAG, including the main ring plus its injection and extraction systems. We describe parameters for the main ring magnets, kickers, and septa, as well as the power supplies for the kickers. We present a first pass at an engineering layout for the ring and its subsystems.

  4. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  5. The metabolomics of carotenoids in engineered cell factory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guan-Nan; Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2009-07-01

    Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, and antheraxanthin have plenty of scientific and commercial value. The comprehensive investigation of carotenoids drives people to improve and develop all kinds of analytical techniques to approach or even achieve "versatile" analysis. The metabolic engineering efforts in plants and algae have progressed rapidly, aiming to enable the use of plants and algae as "cell factories" for producing specific or novel carotenoids, such as beta-carotene (provitamin A) in Gold rice, while the emerging technologies of metabolomics support it by providing comprehensive analysis of carotenoids biochemical characterizations. This review describes metabolomics as a high-throughput platform to study carotenoids, including the engineering methods in the plants or algae, the bioinformatics for metabolomics, and the metabolomics of carotenoids in engineered cell factory. Modern systems biology tools, together with the development of genomics and metabolomics databases, will dramatically facilitate the advancement of our knowledge in gene-to-metabolite networks in plants. Metabolomics accompanying genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics as well as bioinformatics facilitate metabolic engineering efforts towards designing superior biocatalysts in cell factories. Ongoing advances in biological techniques coupled with crucial metabolic networks will further promote plants and algae as attractive platforms for the production of numerous high-value compounds such as carotenoids.

  6. Localized Chromaticity Correction of Low-Beta Insertions in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Moshammer, I.H.; Forest, E.; Robin, David; Zholents, A.A.; Sullivan, M.; Irwin, J.

    1993-05-01

    The correction of the chromaticity of low-beta insertions in the storage rings is usually made with sextupole lenses in the ring's arcs. When decreasing the beta functions at the insertion point (IP), this technique becomes fairly ineffective, since it fails to properly correct the higher order chromatic aberrations. Here we consider the approach where the chromatic effects of the quadrupole lenses generating low beta functions at the IP are corrected locally with two families of sextupoles, one family for each plane. Each family has two pairs of sextupoles which are located symmetrically on both sides of the IP. The sextupole-like aberrations of individual sextupoles are eliminated by utilizing optics forming a -I transformation between sextupoles in the pair. The optics also includes bending magnets which preserve equal dispersion functions at the two sextupoles in each pair. At sextupoles in one family, the vertical beta function is made large and the horizontal is made small. The situation is reversed in the sextupoles of the other family. The betatron phase advances from the IP to the sextupoles are chosen to eliminate a second order chromatic aberration. The application of the localized chromatic correction is demonstrated using as an example the lattice design for the Low Energy Ring of the SLAC/LBL/LLNL PEP-II B Factory.

  7. Ringing phenomenon of the fiber ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2007-08-01

    A resonator fiber-optic gyro (R-FOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A fiber ring resonator is the core sensing element in the R-FOG. When the frequency of the fiber ring resonator input laser is swept linearly with time, ringing of the output resonance curve is observed. The output field of the fiber ring resonator is derived from the superposition of the light transmitted through the directional coupler directly and the multiple light components circulated in the fiber ring resonator when the frequency of the laser is swept. The amplitude and phase of the output field are analyzed, and it is found that the difference in time for different light components in the fiber ring resonator to reach a point of destructive interference causes the ringing phenomenon. Finally the ringing phenomenon is observed in experiments, and the experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis well.

  8. Recent advances in long-term climate and moisture reconstructions from the Baltic region: Exploring the potential for a new multi-millennial tree-ring chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Corona, Christophe; Mažeika, Jonas; Pukienė, Rutile; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first results from an ongoing initiative to develop a multi-millennial Baltic tree-ring width (TRW) chronology consisting of 12 floating records from subfossil Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) extracted from three Lithuanian peat-mining areas. The floating series have been complemented with absolutely dated TRW chronologies which were obtained from living trees growing in unmanaged and unexploited peatland areas adjacent to each of the above study sites. The subfossil material has been dated by radiocarbon and shows a temporal spread over the last 6000 years, with assemblages of trees during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8000-4000 BP) and the onset of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 900-1350). Annual tree growth and sample replication of peatland pines reflect moisture variations and long-term climate variability. The importance of extending the TRW chronologies should not therefore be underestimated as (1) climate records of comparable length and resolution do not exist for the Baltic region, but also as (2) a result of a widespread lack of detailed moisture proxies spanning several millennia. Our data clearly show that a 6000-yr, continuous pine chronology from the Baltic region is a realistic objective, and would doubtlessly fill a major geographic gap in an ecologically sensitive region located at the interface between the temperate and boreal vegetation zones.

  9. The Ring Sculptor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-08

    Prometheus zooms across the Cassini spacecraft field of view, attended by faint streamers and deep gores in the F ring. This movie sequence of five images shows the F ring shepherd moon shaping the ring inner edge

  10. Beyond Bright Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-30

    The tiny moon Pandora appears beyond the bright disk of Saturn rings in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Pandora orbits outside the F ring and, in this image, is farther from Cassini than the rings are.

  11. Asymmetric dipolar ring

    DOEpatents

    Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.

    2010-11-16

    A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

  12. Charmonium production at neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.A.; Torma, T.

    1999-11-01

    At existing and planned neutrino factories (high energy and high intensity neutrino beam facilities) precision studies of QCD in neutrino-nucleon interactions are a realistic opportunity. We investigate charmonium production in fixed target neutrino experiments. We find that J/{psi} production in neutrino-nucleon collisions is dominated by the color octet {sup 3}S{sub 1} nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) matrix element in a neutral current process, which is not accessible in photoproduction or leptoproduction. Neutrino experiments at a future Muon Collider will acquire a sufficient event rate to accurately measure color octet matrix element contributions. The currently running high energy neutrino experiments NOMAD and NuTeV could also observe several such events. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Future Accelerators, Muon Colliders, and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A Carrigan, Jr.

    2001-12-19

    Particle physics is driven by five great topics. Neutrino oscillations and masses are now at the fore. The standard model with extensions to supersymmetry and a Higgs to generate mass explains much of the field. The origins of CP violation are not understood. The possibility of extra dimensions has raised tantalizing new questions. A fifth topic lurking in the background is the possibility of something totally different. Many of the questions raised by these topics require powerful new accelerators. It is not an overstatement to say that for some of the issues, the accelerator is almost the experiment. Indeed some of the questions require machines beyond our present capability. As this volume attests, there are parts of the particle physics program that have been significantly advanced without the use of accelerators such as the subject of neutrino oscillations and many aspects of the particle-cosmology interface. At this stage in the development of physics, both approaches are needed and important. This chapter first reviews the status of the great accelerator facilities now in operation or coming on within the decade. Next, midrange possibilities are discussed including linear colliders with the adjunct possibility of gamma-gamma colliders, muon colliders, with precursor neutrino factories, and very large hadron colliders. Finally visionary possibilities are considered including plasma and laser accelerators.

  14. Recent progress in neutrino factory and muon collider research within the Muon Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharo'A, Mohammad M.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Atac, Muzaffer; Autin, Bruno R.; Balbekov, Valeri I.; Barger, Vernon D.; Benary, Odette; Bennett, J. Roger; Berger, Michael S.; Berg, J. Scott; Berz, Martin; Black, Edgar L.; Blondel, Alain; Bogacz, S. Alex; Bonesini, M.; Bracker, Stephen B.; Bross, Alan D.; Bruno, Luca; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Caldwell, Allen C.; Campanelli, Mario; Cassel, Kevin W.; Catanesi, M. Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Chou, Weiren; Cline, David B.; Coney, Linda R.; Conrad, Janet M.; Corlett, John N.; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cummings, Mary Anne; Darve, Christine; Dejongh, Fritz; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drumm, Paul; Elvira, V. Daniel; Errede, Deborah; Fabich, Adrian; Fawley, William M.; Fernow, Richard C.; Ferrario, Massimo; Finley, David A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Fukui, Yasuo; Furman, Miguel A.; Gabriel, Tony A.; Galea, Raphael; Gallardo, Juan C.; Garoby, Roland; Garren, Alper A.; Geer, Stephen H.; Gilardoni, Simone; van Ginneken, Andreas J.; Ginzburg, Ilya F.; Godang, Romulus; Goodman, Maury; Gosz, Michael R.; Green, Michael A.; Gruber, Peter; Gunion, John F.; Gupta, Ramesh; Haines, John R.; Hanke, Klaus; Hanson, Gail G.; Han, Tao; Haney, Michael; Hartill, Don; Hartline, Robert E.; Haseroth, Helmut D.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Hoffman, Kara; Holtkamp, Norbert; Holzer, E. Barbara; Johnson, Colin; Johnson, Rolland P.; Johnstone, Carol; Jungmann, Klaus; Kahn, Stephen A.; Kaplan, Daniel M.; Keil, Eberhard K.; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Kwang-Je; King, Bruce J.; Kirk, Harold G.; Kuno, Yoshitaka; Ladran, Tony S.; Lau, Wing W.; Learned, John G.; Lebedev, Valeri; Lebrun, Paul; Lee, Kevin; Lettry, Jacques A.; Laveder, Marco; Li, Derun; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lu, Changguo; Makino, Kyoko; Malkin, Vladimir; Marfatia, D.; McDonald, Kirk T.; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miller, John R.; Mills, Frederick E.; Mocioiu, I.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Moretti, Alfred; Mori, Yoshiharu; Neuffer, David V.; Ng, King-Yuen; Norem, James H.; Onel, Yasar; Oreglia, Mark; Ozaki, Satoshi; Padamsee, Hasan; Pakvasa, Sandip; Palmer, Robert B.; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Penn, Gregory; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Popovic, Milorad B.; Qian, Zubao; Radicioni, Emilio; Raja, Rajendran; Ravn, Helge L.; Reed, Claude B.; Reginato, Louis L.; Rehak, Pavel; Rimmer, Robert A.; Roberts, Thomas J.; Roser, Thomas; Rossmanith, Robert; Samulyak, Roman V.; Scanlan, Ronald M.; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schwandt, Peter; Sessler, Andrew M.; Shaevitz, Michael H.; Shrock, Robert; Sievers, Peter; Silvestrov, Gregory I.; Simos, Nick; Skrinsky, Alexander N.; Solomey, Nickolas; Spampinato, Philip T.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Stefanski, R.; Stoltz, Peter; Stumer, Iuliu; Summers, Donald J.; Teng, Lee C.; Thieberger, Peter A.; Tigner, Maury; Todosow, Michael; Tollestrup, Alvin V.; Torun, Yaǧmur; Trbojevic, Dejan; Usubov, Zafar U.; Vsevolozhskaya, Tatiana A.; Wah, Yau; Wang, Chun-Xi; Wang, Haipeng; Weggel, Robert J.; Whisnant, K.; Willen, Erich H.; Wilson, Edmund J.; Winn, David R.; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Wu, Vincent; Yokoi, Takeichiro; Yoon, Moohyun; York, Richard; Yu, Simon; Zeller, Al; Zhao, Yongxiang; Zisman, Michael S.

    2003-08-01

    We describe the status of our effort to realize a first neutrino factory and the progress made in understanding the problems associated with the collection and cooling of muons towards that end. We summarize the physics that can be done with neutrino factories as well as with intense cold beams of muons. The physics potential of muon colliders is reviewed, both as Higgs factories and compact high-energy lepton colliders. The status and time scale of our research and development effort is reviewed as well as the latest designs in cooling channels including the promise of ring coolers in achieving longitudinal and transverse cooling simultaneously. We detail the efforts being made to mount an international cooling experiment to demonstrate the ionization cooling of muons.

  15. Perspectives on signet ring stromal cell tumor and related signet ring cell lesions of the gonads.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Ramzy, Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we discuss advances in our knowledge of the pathology of signet ring stromal cell tumor and related signet ring cell lesions of the ovary and a single case of signet ring stromal cell tumor of the testis. We divide ovarian signet ring cell lesions into 3 categories that reflect differences in their pathogenesis and histologic appearance. With 1 exception, all authentic cases of signet ring stromal cell tumor have been unilateral. Cases of ovarian signet ring stromal cell tumor from the literature can arise in 2 ways. The majority of cases arise multifocally from fibroma, whereas the remainder likely arise directly from the ovarian stroma. In difficult cases, immunocytochemistry provides improved diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing signet ring stromal cell tumor and its mimics from Krukenberg tumor. The most useful antibodies in this regard are epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin.

  16. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory as...

  17. Saturn's Rings: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Porco, C. C.; Murray, C. D.; Nicholson, P. D.; Spilker, L.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. C.; Rappaport, N.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and observational progress in studies of Saturn's ring system since the mid-1980s is reviewed, focussing on advances in configuration and dynamics, composition and size distribution, dust and meteoroids, interactions of the rings with the planet and the magnetosphere, and relationships between the rings and various satellites. The Cassini instrument suite of greatest relevance to ring studies is also summarized, emphasizing how the individual instruments might work together to solve outstanding problems. The Cassini tour is described from the standpoint of ring studies, and major ring science goals are summarized.

  18. Suppression of the Beam Instability Related to Electron Cloud at PEP-II B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, A.

    2004-12-06

    PEP-II B-factory operates at a record high circulating current--currently {approx}2.5 A in the positron ring. Electron cloud effects became apparent when the positron ring current reached {approx}0.7 A with a bunch current {approx}1.5 mA. Initially, electron cloud induced beam instabilities significantly limited collider luminosity. However, suppression of the electron cloud related beam instabilities have been achieved with {approx}30 Gauss solenoids covering the drift sections of LER vacuum chamber.

  19. Effective strategies for management of hypertension after vascular endothelial growth factor signaling inhibition therapy: results from a phase II randomized, factorial, double-blind study of Cediranib in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Langenberg, Marlies H G; van Herpen, Carla M L; De Bono, Johann; Schellens, Jan H M; Unger, Clemens; Hoekman, Klaas; Blum, Hubert E; Fiedler, Walter; Drevs, Joachim; Le Maulf, Florence; Fielding, Anitra; Robertson, Jane; Voest, Emile E

    2009-12-20

    PURPOSE Hypertension is a commonly reported adverse effect after administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Cediranib is a highly potent and selective VEGF signaling inhibitor of all three VEGFRs. This study prospectively investigated hypertension management to help minimize dose interruptions/reductions to maximize cediranib dose intensity. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients (n = 126) with advanced solid tumors were randomly assigned to one of four groups: cediranib 30 or 45 mg/d with or without antihypertensive prophylaxis. All patients developing hypertension on cediranib treatment were treated with a standardized, predefined hypertension management protocol. Results Cediranib was generally well tolerated, and all groups achieved high-dose intensities in the first 12 weeks (> 74% in all groups). Antihypertensive prophylaxis did not result in fewer dose reductions or interruptions. Increases in blood pressure, including moderate and severe readings of hypertension, were seen early in treatment in all groups and successfully managed. Severe hypertension occurred in one patient receiving prophylaxis versus 18 in the nonprophylaxis groups. Overall, there were nine partial responses, and 38 patients experienced stable disease >/= 8 weeks. CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this is the first prospective investigation of hypertension management during administration of a VEGF signaling inhibitor. All four regimens were well tolerated with high-dose intensities and no strategy was clearly superior. The current cediranib hypertension management protocol appears to be effective in managing hypertension compared with previous cediranib studies where no plan was in place, and early recognition and treatment of hypertension is likely to reduce the number of severe hypertension events. This protocol is included in all ongoing cediranib clinical studies.

  20. Uranus Tenth Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    On Jan. 23, 1986, NASA Voyager 2 discovered a tenth ring orbiting Uranus. The tenth ring is about midway between the bright, outermost epsilon ring and the next ring down, called delta. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00035

  1. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  2. Birth Control Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A What's in this ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  3. A familiar ring?

    SciTech Connect

    Camack, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    These days, the 1984 divestiture of the regional Bell operating companies from AT&T and the succeeding competitive struggles among long-distance companies and equipment providers seem to ring loud and clear for those in the electric power business. The similarities are compelling: Advancements in technology, the clamor of customers for choice, and other natural pressures in the marketplace challenge the traditional structure of a natural monopoly, creating an opening for competition. Voila, deregulation. To gain expertise from the divestiture experience, several electric utility companies have dialed up former telecommunications executives and managers for their insights, hiring them for key positions in senior management. Veterans of telecommunications have instructive views on the similarities, differences, and lessons learned, especially in the areas of marketing and customer focus.

  4. Physics at a Higgsino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Mickelson, Dan; Mustafayev, Azar; Tata, Xerxes

    2014-06-01

    Naturalness arguments applied to supersymmetric theories imply a spectrum containing four light higgsinos and with masses ~ 100 - 300 GeV (the closer to M Z , the more natural). The compressed mass spectrum and associated low energy release from and three-body decay makes higgsinos difficult to detect at LHC14, while the other sparticles might be heavy, and possibly even beyond LHC14 reach. In contrast, the International Linear e + e - Collider (ILC) with > 2 m( higgsino) would be a higgsino factory in addition to a Higgs boson factory and would serve as a discovery machine for natural SUSY! In this case, both chargino and neutralino production occur at comparable rates, and lead to observable signals above SM backgrounds. We examine two benchmark cases, one just beyond the LHC8 reach with mass gap of 15 (21) GeV, and a second more difficult case beyond even the LHC14 reach, where the mass gap is just 10 GeV, close to its minimum in models with no worse than 3% fine-tuning. The signal is characterized by low visible energy events together with [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] T in the one or two jets +1 ℓ channel from chargino production, and in the opposite sign, same-flavour, acoplanar dilepton channel from production. For both cases, we find that the signal is observable above backgrounds from the usual 2 → 2 SM events and from γγ collisions with just a few fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We also show that with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1, it should be possible to extract and masses at 2-3% level from chargino events if the mass gap is ≥ 15 GeV, and neutralino masses at the sub-percent level from neutralino events. The latter should also allow a determination of at the 200 MeV level. These measurements would point to higgsinos as the origin of new physics and strongly suggest a link to a natural origin for W , Z and h masses.

  5. Storage ring working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, S.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last two decades great progress has been made in the development of storage rings with small transverse emittance. It is now a good time to consider the possibility of achieving very short bunches m storage rings. From the perspective of synchrotron radiation source development, there are at least two motivations for obtaining short electron bunches: (1) the generation of sub- picosecond x-ray pulses and (2) the coherent emission of sub- picosecond pulses of far infrared radiation. A useful short-term goal is the experimental study of bunches with 1 ps rms length both at high ({approx_gt} 1 GeV) and low ({approx_lt} 150 MeV) electron energies. Experiments on 1 ps bunches are now feasible and can yield new insight into the high frequency impedance of storage rings and the associated phenomena which can result in bunch lengthening. Achievement of 1 ps bunches can also be expected to allow the first observation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring, in the millimeter wavelength regime. A longer-term objective is the realization of 100 fs bunches. Achievement of this goal not only will advance understanding of storage rings but will open up new opportunities in synchrotron radiation based research at both x-ray and far infrared wavelengths. It is now an appropriate time to carry forward theoretical investigations clarifying the fundamental limitations on bunch length, and to devise schemes to minimize it.

  6. New Dust Belts of Uranus: One Ring, Two Ring, Red Ring, Blue Ring

    SciTech Connect

    de Pater, I; Hammel, H B; Gibbard, S G; Showalter, M R

    2006-02-02

    We compare near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with HST results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced via impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where non-gravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of sub-micron sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring.

  7. The program in muon and neutrino physics: Superbeams, cold muon beams, neutrino factory and the muon collider

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja et al.

    2001-08-08

    The concept of a Muon Collider was first proposed by Budker [10] and by Skrinsky [11] in the 60s and early 70s. However, there was little substance to the concept until the idea of ionization cooling was developed by Skrinsky and Parkhomchuk [12]. The ionization cooling approach was expanded by Neufer [13] and then by Palmer [14], whose work led to the formation of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) [3] in 1995. The concept of a neutrino source based on a pion storage ring was originally considered by Koshkarev [18]. However, the intensity of the muons created within the ring from pion decay was too low to provide a useful neutrino source. The Muon Collider concept provided a way to produce a very intense muon source. The physics potential of neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings was investigated by Geer in 1997 at a Fermilab workshop [19, 20] where it became evident that the neutrino beams produced by muon storage rings needed for the muon collider were exciting on their own merit. The neutrino factory concept quickly captured the imagination of the particle physics community, driven in large part by the exciting atmospheric neutrino deficit results from the SuperKamiokande experiment. As a result, the MC realized that a Neutrino Factory could be an important first step toward a Muon Collider and the physics that could be addressed by a Neutrino Factory was interesting in its own right. With this in mind, the MC has shifted its primary emphasis toward the issues relevant to a Neutrino Factory. There is also considerable international activity on Neutrino Factories, with international conferences held at Lyon in 1999, Monterey in 2000 [21], Tsukuba in 2001 [22], and another planned for London in 2002.

  8. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  9. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  10. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. New control system for the KEK photon factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obina, Takashi; Pak, Cheol-On

    2007-07-01

    A new control system for the Photon Factory (PF) electron storage ring has been developed, incorporating modern technologies in both high-level and low-level control layers. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software toolkit was introduced as a major framework in the middle- and high-level control layers. In the low-level layer, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) was used for a safety control system, for RF klystron control boards and for the vacuum control system, etc. Old VME-board computers with the HP-RT operating system were replaced by Linux-based board computers, which were used as low-level input/output controllers. The new control system has been running without any serious problems since its commissioning in September 2005.

  12. Feasibility Study for an Asymmetric B Factory Based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hoyer, E.; Kennedy, K.; Lambertson, G.; Lo, C.C.; Nishimura, H.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, B.; Taylor, C.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bloom, E.; Burke, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Davies-White, D.; Destaebler, H.; Donald, M.H.; Dorfan, J.; Feldman, G.; Rees, J.; Schsarz, H.; Sullivan, M.; Autin, B.; Tennyson, J.; Barbson, B.; Oide, K.

    1989-10-26

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can ultimately reach a luminosity of 1 X 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rate decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering, and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  13. Investigation of an Asymmetric B Factory in the PEP Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Chattapadhyay, A.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Chin, Y.H.; Dell'Orco, D.; Forest, E.; Furman, M.; Garren, A.A.; Hearty, C.; Jacob, A.; Kennedy, K.; Kim, K.; Lambertson, G.; Oddone, P.; Ronan, M.; Sessler, A.; Taylor, C.; Voelker, F.; Zisman, M.; Barletta, W.; Allen, M.; Bane, K.; Bloom, E.; Brenkus, F.; Brown, K.; Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Coupal, D.; Davies-White, W.; DeStaebler, H.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Hsu, I.; Hutton, A.; Jenkins, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Lisin, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.-L.; Raubenheimer, T.; Rees, J.; Ritson, D.; Ruth, R.; Saab, A.; Savage, W.; Schwarz, H.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.; Weidner, H.; Wilson, P.; Sullivan, M.; Jackson, G.; Hertzbach, S.; Tennyson, J.; Zholents, A.; Fitze, H.

    1990-03-01

    This report addresses the feasibility of designing and constructing an asymmetric B-factory based on the PEP storage ring at SLAC that can begin operation at a luminosity of 3 X 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and could ultimately reach even higher luminosity. Such a facility, operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, could be used to study mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} system, and could also study tau and charm physics. The essential accelerator physics, engineering and technology issues that must be addressed to successfully build this exciting and challenging facility are identified, and possible solutions, or R and D activities that will reasonable lead to such solutions, are described.

  14. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  15. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  16. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. PMID:21526386

  17. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-08-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed.

  18. Reassessing Escherichia coli as a cell factory for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Pfleger, Brian F; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-03-11

    Via metabolic engineering, industrial microorganisms have the potential to convert renewable substrates into a wide range of biofuels that can address energy security and environmental challenges associated with current fossil fuels. The user-friendly bacterium, Escherichia coli, remains one of the most frequently used hosts for demonstrating production of biofuel candidates including alcohol-, fatty acid- and terpenoid-based biofuels. In this review, we summarize the metabolic pathways for synthesis of these biofuels and assess enabling technologies that assist in regulating biofuel synthesis pathways and rapidly assembling novel E. coli strains. These advances maintain E. coli's position as a prominent host for developing cell factories for biofuel production.

  19. Review of coherent effects in B- and {Phi}-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.

    1998-01-01

    The author reviews instabilities which may be relevant to the storage rings under construction and in commissioning such as {Phi}-factor in Frascati, and the B-factories at SLAC and KEK. For this reason, he doesn't consider effects specific mostly for proton machines. Beam-beam effects are also not included because today these effects look like a somewhat distant future for the {Phi}- and B-factories, assumption that may become wrong very quickly. Personal interest and limited knowledge of the author also defined selected topics. It has been known for more than 30 years that interaction of the beam with environment can cause beam instabilities. Until recently, impedances and wake fields were associated with resistivity and variations of the beam pipe geometry. In addition, interaction with other (foreign) particles, existing or produced by the beam such as ions, trapped- or photo-electrons, may become important for multi-bunch beams, causing instabilities with growth rates substantially higher than these caused by geometric wake fields. The main topics are: Impedances; Traditional instabilities -- single- and multi-bunch instabilities; Effect of ions; and New instabilities.

  20. Beam-beam effects of single ring and partial double ring scheme in CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    After the Higgs discovery, it is believed that a circular e+e- collider could serve as a Higgs factory. The high energy physics community in China launched a study of a 50-100 km ring collider. A preliminary conceptual design report (Pre-CDR) has been published in early 2015. This report is based on a 54-km ring design. Some progress on beam-beam effect study after Pre-CDR is shown in the paper. We estimate the beamstrahlung lifetime using a pure strong-strong code as a comparison with the result obtained using a quasi-strong-strong method. The effect of parasitic crossing in the pretzel scheme is also estimated for the very first time. The feasibility of the main parameters for partial double ring scheme are evaluated from the point view of beam-beam interaction.

  1. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. Dedicated storage rings for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of internal targets in circulating beams of electron storage and stretcher rings has been widely discussed recently as a method of achieving high luminosity under conditions of low background, and good energy resolution, with minimal demands for beam from an injecting accelerator. In the two critical areas of the technology, ring design and target development, research is very active, and the prospects for major advances are very bright. Reasonable extrapolations of the current state of the art suggest for many problems in nuclear physics, particularly polarization physics of the nucleon and few body nuclei, internal target measurement may be the optimum experimental technique. This paper, discusses the comparative merit of internal target rings and external beam experiments, reviews briefly current research efforts in the critical areas of the technology, and establishes one goal for the discussions at the workshop. It appears that storage rings dedicated to internal target physics may offer a powerful option for future advances in nuclear physics.

  3. Edges of Saturn's rings are fractal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The images recently sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (on the NASA website http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/photos/halloffame/) show the complex and beautiful rings of Saturn. Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. Here we focus on four images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings", slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine", slide #66 taken two weeks before the planet's Augus't 200'9 equinox, and slide #68 showing edge waves raised by Daphnis on the Keeler Gap) and one image from the Voyager 2' mission in 1981. Using three box-counting methods, we determine the fractal dimension of edges of rings seen here to be consistently about 1.63 ~ 1.78. This clarifies in what sense Saturn's rings are fractal.

  4. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  5. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  6. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  7. Spacecraft factory-to-pad testing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the concept of factory-to-pad testing is based on the shipment of a flight-ready spacecraft to the launch base and can be achieved by thorough and comprehensive factory testing of the spacecraft. The principal objectives and results of this approach are shown to be significant cost reductions, increased test effectiveness, and fewer flight problems. Key elements for this concept's success are discussed, including factory-to-pad commonality of support equipment, test requirements and procedures, test teams, and computer programs. Applications of this approach in the space-shuttle era are considered, and a preliminary factory-to-pad concept for the Large Space Telescope spacecraft is presented.

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  9. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  10. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  11. Jupiter's Main Ring/Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (28.5 miles) per picture element (pixel) along Jupiter's rings. Because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow, peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced when sunlight is scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts - - a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, outside the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the figure's far left side. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa (top image). A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings. This vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. To accentuate faint features in the bottom image of the ring halo, different brightnesses are shown through color. Brightest features are white or yellow and the

  12. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

  13. The Physics of the B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Bevan, A. J.

    2014-11-19

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  14. Where is the ooid factory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; klepac-Ceraj, V.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, S. A.; Bosak, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ooids, concentrically laminated carbonate grains, are found in high-energy shallow water environments (the ooid factory). Consequently, ooid laminae are thought to precipitate around suspended grains. The role of microbes in this process is debated: abiotic models neither explain how ooids acquire a high organic content, nor do they account for the fast abrasion and loss of ooid carbonate in highly agitated areas. Here we probe the role of microbes and physical processes in ooid accretion on an oolitic beach in the leeward coast of Cat Island, the Bahamas. Grain size and petrography, microbial community composition and physical factors are compared along a cross-shore transect. A hydro-morphodynamic model is used to analyze sediment transport and sorting across the beach and shallow shelf. We find that the surf zone has a barren seafloor, and it is dominated by shiny and rounded ooids whose size decreases seaward, as predicted by physical grain sorting. Dull ooids and grapestones, irregular coated grains that are thought to form by microbially-mediated precipitation of carbonate around ooids and other grains, are present outside of the surf zone. The bulk size of these grains increases seaward, and they contain more abundant and diverse microbial communities than agitated ooids. The inverted sorting trend indicates that the time scale for grain accretion in this region is shorter than the decadal time scale for grain sorting. Modeling and field observations suggest that carbonate precipitation of both ooids and grapestones occurs in sediments that are colonized by diatom- and cyanobacteria-rich mats and reworked during storms. Periodic storms transport ooids to the surf zone, where they are rounded by abrasion and gain a shiny exterior in less than a day of reworking. Small ooids are periodically transported back to the microbially colonized areas, and the accretion cycle restarts. Grains too large to be frequently transported exit the accretion-erosion conveyor

  15. Lighting up yeast cell factories by transcription factor-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Vasil; Jensen, Michael K

    2017-09-13

    Our ability to rewire cellular metabolism for the sustainable production of chemicals, fuels and therapeutics based on microbial cell factories has advanced rapidly during the last two decades. Especially the speed and precision by which microbial genomes can be engineered now allow for more advanced designs to be implemented and tested. However, compared to the methods developed for engineering cell factories, the methods developed for testing the performance of newly engineered cell factories in high-throughput are lagging far behind, which consequently impacts the overall biomanufacturing process. For this purpose there is a need to develop new techniques for screening and selection of best-performing cell factory designs in multiplex. Here we review the current status of the sourcing, design, and engineering of biosensors derived from allosterically regulated transcription factors (aTFs) applied to the biotechnology work-horse budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conclude by providing a perspective on the most important challenges and opportunities lying ahead in order to harness the full potential of biosensor development for increasing both the throughput of cell factory development and robustness of overall bioprocesses. © FEMS 2017.

  16. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring.

    PubMed

    de Pater, Imke; Hammel, Heidi B; Gibbard, Seran G; Showalter, Mark R

    2006-04-07

    We compared near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with Hubble Space Telescope results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue. Blue is an unusual color for rings; Saturn's enigmatic E ring is the only other known example. By analogy to the E ring, R/2003 U 1 is probably produced by impacts into the embedded moon Mab, which apparently orbits at a location where nongravitational perturbations favor the survival and spreading of submicron-sized dust. R/2003 U 2 more closely resembles Saturn's G ring, which is red, a typical color for dusty rings.

  17. Rings Through Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-26

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward the limb of Saturn and, on the right of this image, views part of the rings through the planet atmosphere. Saturn atmosphere can distort the view of the rings from some angles.

  18. Wavy, Wiggly Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-23

    The constant change in Saturn wavy, wiggly F ring is on display in this image obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The image shows a view looking directly down onto the ring with the planet removed from the center.

  19. Saturn Rings in Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-11

    This mosaic of Saturn rings was acquired by NASA Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument on Sept. 15, 2006, while the spacecraft was in the shadow of the planet looking back towards the rings

  20. The Inner Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-01

    The Cassini spacecraft looks toward the innermost region of Saturn rings, capturing from right to left the C and B rings. The dark, inner edge of the Cassini Division is just visible in the lower left corner

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  2. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  3. Saturn's F-Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This narrow-angle camera image of Saturn's F Ring was taken through the Clear filter while at a distance of 6.9 million km from Saturn on 8 November 1980. The brightness variations of this tightly-constrained ring shown here indicate that the ring is less uniform in makeup than the larger rings. JPL managed the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science

  4. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has been...

  5. Modules over hereditary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuganbaev, A A

    1998-04-30

    Let A be a hereditary Noetherian prime ring that is not right primitive. A complete description of {pi}-injective A-modules is obtained. Conditions under which the classical ring of quotients of A is a {pi}-projective A-module are determined. A criterion for a right hereditary right Noetherian prime ring to be serial is obtained.

  6. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  7. Rings Around Uranus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maran, Stephen P.

    1977-01-01

    Events leading up to the discovery of the rings of Uranus are described. The methods used and the logic behind the methods are explained. Data collected to prove the existence of the rings are outlined and theories concerning the presence of planetary rings are presented. (AJ)

  8. Eyeing the E Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-24

    NASA Cassini spacecraft takes a look at Saturn diffuse E ring which is formed from icy material spewing out of the south pole of the moon Enceladus. The E ring is seen nearly edge-on from slightly above the northern side of Saturn ring plane.

  9. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  10. The Jumping Ring Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylie, M.; Ford, P. J.; Mathlin, G. P.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The jumping ring experiment has become central to liquid nitrogen shows given as part of the outreach and open day activities carried out within the University of Bath. The basic principles of the experiment are described as well as the effect of changing the geometry of the rings and their metallurgical state. In general, aluminium rings are…

  11. Dusty D Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-24

    Saturn D ring is easy to overlook since it trapped between the brighter C ring and the planet itself. In this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft, all that can be seen of the D ring is the faint and narrow arc as it stretches from top right of the ima

  12. On certain Hecke rings

    PubMed Central

    Evens, Sam; Bressler, Paul

    1987-01-01

    We examine rings that embed into the smash product of the group algebra of the Weyl group with the field of meromorphic functions on the Cartan subalgebra and are generated by elements that satisfy braid relations. We prove that every such ring is isomorphic to either the Hecke algebra, the nil Hecke ring, or the group algebra of the Weyl group. PMID:16593804

  13. Soft normed rings.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Vakkas; Şahin, Mehmet; Olgun, Necati

    2016-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notions of soft normed rings, soft normed ideals, soft complete normed rings are introduced and also several related properties and examples are given.

  14. Updated Design of the Italian SuperB Factory Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Guiducci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Chance, A.; Brossard, J.; Dadoun, O.; Lepercq, P.; Rimbault, C.; Variola, A.; Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfill the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electrons and positrons in both High Energy Ring (HER) and Low Energy Ring (LER) is necessary to keep the average luminosity at a high level. An updated version of the injection system, optimized at higher repetition frequency is presented. This scheme includes a polarized electron gun, a positron production scheme with electron/positron conversion at low energy 0.6 GeV, and a 1 GeV damping ring to reduce the injected emittance of the positron beam.

  15. Computer modelling of bunch-by-bunch feedback for the SLAC B-factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.; Fox, J.D.; Hosseini, W.; Klaisner, L.; Morton, P.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thompson, K.A. ); Lambertson, G. )

    1991-05-01

    The SLAC B-factory design, with over 1600 high current bunches circulating in each ring, will require a feedback system to avoid coupled-bunch instabilities. A computer model of the storage ring, including the RF system, wave fields, synchrotron radiation loss, and the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is presented. The feedback system model represents the performance of a fast phase detector front end (including system noise and imperfections), a digital filter used to generate a correction voltage, and a power amplifier and beam kicker system. The combined ring-feedback system model is used to study the feedback system performance required to suppress instabilities and to quantify the dynamics of the system. Results are presented which show the time development of coupled bunch instabilities and the damping action of the feedback system. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  17. Physics and technology challenges of B B factories

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1991-05-01

    An e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider designed to serve as a B factory requires a luminosity of 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} -- a factor of 20 beyond that of the best present collider and thus presents a considerable challenge to the accelerator builder. To optimize the experiment, it is necessary that the B{bar B} system have a moving center-of-mass, which implies different energies for the two beams. This feature dictates that a two-ring configuration be used. Accelerator physics issues that arise in such a design are related to the need to tightly focus the beams to a vertical beta function on the order of 1 cm, to bring the beams from two different rings into collision and then clearly separate them again, and to mask the detector region sufficiently to permit measurements with very large beam currents passing through the interaction region. Because the luminosity is limited by the beam-beam interaction, any large improvement must come from considerably increasing both the beam current and the number of bunches in the ring. These choices place many demands on accelerator technology as well as accelerator physics. Vacuum systems must be designed to handle the thermal load from a multi-ampere beam of 8--9 GeV and to maintain an adequate running pressure in the face of a large gas load from synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. An RF system capable of supporting the high beam currents must be developed. To reduce the growth of potentially strong multibunch instabilities, the cavity higher-order modes must be highly damped to Q {le} 70. Even with a well optimized RF system, the high beam currents typically mean that wideband multibunch feedback systems are needed to maintain beam stability.

  18. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.

  20. The Factory Approach to Creating TSTT Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T

    2003-10-21

    The factory approach (a.k.a. virtual constructor) hides the details of the class implementing the TSTT from TSTT users. In version 0.5 of TSTT.sidl, the client hard codes the name of the implementing class into their code. The client is forced to choose from the small set of possible concrete classes defined in TSTT.sidl. This approach makes it impossible to support multiple implementations of the TSTT in a single process because each implementation has to implement the same class. The factory approach hides the details of mesh creation from the client. The client does not need to know the name of the implementing class, and the client can dynamically determine which interfaces are supported by the new mesh. A factory can support multiple TSTT implementation because each implementation defines its own concrete classes to implement. The factory approach does require the TSTT compliant mesh packages to implement a MeshFactory interface, and everyone needs to link against an implementation of the Registry. The Registry only has 7 methods that are fairly easy to implement, and everyone can share one implementation of the Registry.

  1. Saturn's largest ring.

    PubMed

    Verbiscer, Anne J; Skrutskie, Michael F; Hamilton, Douglas P

    2009-10-22

    Most planetary rings in the Solar System lie within a few radii of their host body, because at these distances gravitational accelerations inhibit satellite formation. The best known exceptions are Jupiter's gossamer rings and Saturn's E ring, broad sheets of dust that extend outward until they fade from view at five to ten planetary radii. Source satellites continuously supply the dust, which is subsequently lost in collisions or by radial transport. Here we report that Saturn has an enormous ring associated with its outer moon Phoebe, extending from at least 128R(S) to 207R(S) (Saturn's radius R(S) is 60,330 km). The ring's vertical thickness of 40R(S) matches the range of vertical motion of Phoebe along its orbit. Dynamical considerations argue that these ring particles span the Saturnian system from the main rings to the edges of interplanetary space. The ring's normal optical depth of approximately 2 x 10(-8) is comparable to that of Jupiter's faintest gossamer ring, although its particle number density is several hundred times smaller. Repeated impacts on Phoebe, from both interplanetary and circumplanetary particle populations, probably keep the ring populated with material. Ring particles smaller than centimetres in size slowly migrate inward and many of them ultimately strike the dark leading face of Iapetus.

  2. On the solar dust ring(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, T.

    Based on a mechanism to form the solar dust ring, it is proved that the observed peak in infrared F-corona cannot be explained by silicate type grains alone. Preliminary analysis on the recent infrared data of the F-corona by Maihara et al. (1984) has suggested that the ring particles have different physical properties compared with the dust grains, which produce the background F-corona.

  3. Physics at a Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    I give an overview of the physics potential at possible future e+e- colliders, including the ILC, FCC-ee, and CEPC. The goal is to explain some of the measurements that can be done in the context of electroweak precision tests and Higgs couplings, to compare some of the options under consideration, and to put the measurements in context by summarizing their implications for some new physics scenarios. This is a writeup of a plenary talk at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics Conference, 18-21 January 2016. Some previously unpublished electroweak precision results for FCC-ee and CEPC are included.

  4. Physics at a Higgs Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Matthew

    I give an overview of the physics potential at possible future e+e- colliders, including the ILC, FCC-ee, and CEPC. The goal is to explain some of the measurements that can be done in the context of electroweak precision tests and Higgs couplings, to compare some of the options under consideration, and to put the measurements in context by summarizing their implications for some new physics scenarios. This is a writeup of a plenary talk at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics Conference, 18-21 January 2016. Some previously unpublished electroweak precision results for FCC-ee and CEPC are included.

  5. The Physics of the B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, Th.; Prell, S.; Yabsley, B. D.; Aihara, H.; Anulli, F.; Arnaud, N.; Aushev, T.; Beneke, M.; Beringer, J.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, I. I.; Bona, M.; Brambilla, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Chang, P.; Charles, M. J.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, H.-Y.; Chistov, R.; Colangelo, P.; Coleman, J. P.; Drutskoy, A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S.; Eigen, G.; Eisner, A. M.; Faccini, R.; Flood, K. T.; Gambino, P.; Gaz, A.; Gradl, W.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, P. D.; Kass, R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kou, E.; Križan, P.; Kronfeld, A.; Kumano, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Latham, T. E.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lüth, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Meadows, B. T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ocariz, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palano, A.; Pich, A.; Playfer, S.; Poluektov, A.; Porter, F. C.; Robertson, S. H.; Roney, J. M.; Roodman, A.; Sakai, Y.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Sekula, S. J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. 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A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nauenberg, U.; Nayak, M.; Neal, H.; Nedelkovska, E.; Negrini, M.; Neichi, K.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Neri, N.; Nesom, G.; Neubauer, S.; Newman-Coburn, D.; Ng, C.; Nguyen, X.; Nicholson, H.; Niebuhr, C.; Nief, J. Y.; Niiyama, M.; Nikolich, M. B.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishimura, K.; Nishio, Y.; Nitoh, O.; Nogowski, R.; Noguchi, S.; Nomura, T.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Nozaki, S.; Nozaki, T.; Nugent, I. M.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, F. G.; Oberhof, B.; Oddone, P. J.; Ofte, I.; Ogawa, A.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ohno, F.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Ohuchi, N.; Oide, K.; Oishi, N.; Okabe, T.; Okazaki, N.; Okazaki, T.; Okuno, S.; Olaiya, E. O.; Olivas, A.; Olley, P.; Olsen, J.; Ono, S.; Onorato, G.; Onuchin, A. P.; Onuki, Y.; Ooba, T.; Orimoto, T. J.; Oshima, T.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Oswald, C.; Otto, S.; Oyang, J.; Oyanguren, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozcan, V. E.; Paar, H. P.; Padoan, C.; Paick, K.; Palka, H.; Pan, B.; Pan, Y.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Panetta, J.; Panova, A. I.; Panvini, R. S.; Panzenböck, E.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Park, W.; Parry, R. J.; Parslow, N.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patel, P. M.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Pavel, T.; Pavlovich, J.; Payne, D. J.; Peak, L. S.; Peimer, D. R.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrini, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Peng, C. C.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Peng, T.; Penichot, Y.; Pennazzi, S.; Pennington, M. R.; Penny, R. C.; Penzkofer, A.; Perazzo, A.; Perez, A.; Perl, M.; Pernicka, M.; Perroud, J.-P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Pestotnik, R.; Peters, K.; Peters, M.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petigura, E.; Petrak, S.; Petrella, A.; Petrič, M.; Petzold, A.; Pia, M. G.; Piatenko, T.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Piemontese, M.; Pierini, M.; Pierson, S.; Pioppi, M.; Piredda, G.; Pivk, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Polci, F.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Posocco, M.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, R. J. L.; Prasad, V.; Prebys, E.; Prencipe, E.; Prendki, J.; Prepost, R.; Prest, M.; Prim, M.; Pripstein, M.; Prudent, X.; Pruvot, S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Purohit, M. V.; Qi, N. D.; Quinn, H.; Raaf, J.; Rabberman, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragghianti, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahmat, R.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Randle-Conde, A.; Rankin, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ratkovsky, S.; Raven, G.; Re, V.; Reep, M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Reidy, J.; Reif, R.; Reisert, B.; Renard, C.; Renga, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Richman, J. D.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ritter, M.; Rivetta, C.; Rizzo, G.; Roat, C.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Robertson, A. I.; Robutti, E.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rodriguez, R.; Roe, N. A.; Röhrken, M.; Roethel, W.; Rolquin, J.; Romanov, L.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Rong, G.; Ronga, F. J.; Roos, L.; Root, N.; Rosen, M.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rossi, A.; Rostomyan, A.; Rotondo, M.; Roussot, E.; Roy, J.; Rozanska, M.; Rozen, Y.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, A. E.; Ruddick, W. O.; Ruland, A. M.; Rybicki, K.; Ryd, A.; Ryu, S.; Ryuko, J.; Sabik, S.; Sacco, R.; Saeed, M. A.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sagawa, H.; Sahoo, H.; Sahu, S.; Saigo, M.; Saito, T.; Saitoh, S.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakaue, H.; Saleem, M.; Salnikov, A. A.; Salvati, E.; Salvatore, F.; Samuel, A.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanders, P.; Sandilya, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Sands, W.; Sands, W. R.; Sanpei, M.; Santel, D.; Santelj, L.; Santoro, V.; Santroni, A.; Sanuki, T.; Sarangi, T. R.; Saremi, S.; Sarti, A.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satapathy, M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Sato, Noriaki; Sato, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Satpathy, A.; Savinov, V.; Savvas, N.; Saxton, O. H.; Sayeed, K.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schenk, S.; Schieck, J. R.; Schietinger, T.; Schilling, C. J.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmid, S.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schmuecker, H.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schönmeier, P.; Schofield, K. C.; Schott, G.; Schröder, H.; Schram, M.; Schubert, J.; Schümann, J.; Schultz, J.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Schwierz, R.; Schwitters, R. F.; Sciacca, C.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, I. J.; Seeman, J.; Seiden, A.; Seitz, R.; Seki, T.; Sekiya, A. I.; Semenov, S.; Semmler, D.; Sen, S.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Serbo, V. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Serfass, B.; Serra, M.; Serrano, J.; Settai, Y.; Seuster, R.; Sevior, M. E.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shang, L.; Shapkin, M.; Sharma, V.; Shebalin, V.; Shelkov, V. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shen, D. Z.; Shen, Y. T.; Sherwood, D. J.; Shibata, T.; Shibata, T. A.; Shibuya, H.; Shidara, T.; Shimada, K.; Shimoyama, M.; Shinomiya, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Sibidanov, A.; Sicard, E.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Siegle, V.; Sigamani, M.; Simani, M. C.; Simard, M.; Simi, G.; Simon, F.; Simonetto, F.; Sinev, N. B.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sinha, R.; Sitt, S.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Sloane, R. J.; Smerkol, P.; Smith, A. J. S.; Smith, D.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J. G.; Smol, A.; Snoek, H. L.; Snyder, A.; So, R. Y.; Sobie, R. J.; Soderstrom, E.; Soha, A.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sokolov, A.; Solagna, P.; Solovieva, E.; Soni, N.; Sonnek, P.; Sordini, V.; Spaan, B.; Spanier, S. M.; Spencer, E.; Speziali, V.; Spitznagel, M.; Spradlin, P.; Staengle, H.; Stamen, R.; Stanek, M.; Stanič, S.; Stark, J.; Steder, M.; Steininger, H.; Steinke, M.; Stelzer, J.; Stevanato, E.; Stocchi, A.; Stock, R.; Stoeck, H.; Stoker, D. P.; Stroili, R.; Strom, D.; Strother, P.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stypula, J.; Su, D.; Suda, R.; Sugahara, R.; Sugi, A.; Sugimura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Summers, D. J.; Sun, L.; Sun, S.; Sundermann, J. E.; Sung, H. F.; Susaki, Y.; Sutcliffe, P.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, J. E.; Swain, S. K.; T'Jampens, S.; Tabata, M.; Tackmann, K.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takayama, T.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamponi, U.; Tamura, N.; Tan, N.; Tan, P.; Tanabe, K.; Tanabe, T.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Taras, P.; Tasneem, N.; Tatishvili, G.; Tatomi, T.; Tawada, M.; Taylor, F.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, G. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Teodorescu, L.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Teramoto, Y.; Teytelman, D.; Thérin, G.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Thiessen, D.; Thomas, E. W.; Thompson, J. M.; Thorne, F.; Tian, X. C.; Tibbetts, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tinslay, J. S.; Tiozzo, G.; Tisserand, V.; Tocut, V.; Toki, W. H.; Tomassini, E. W.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Torassa, E.; Torrence, E.; Tosi, S.; Touramanis, C.; Toussaint, J. C.; Tovey, S. N.; Trapani, P. P.; Treadwell, E.; Triggiani, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trischuk, W.; Troost, D.; Trunov, A.; Tsai, K. L.; Tsai, Y. T.; Tsujita, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tumanov, A.; Tung, Y. W.; Turnbull, L.; Turner, J.; Turri, M.; Uchida, K.; Uchida, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueki, M.; Ueno, K.; Ujiie, N.; Ulmer, K. A.; Unno, Y.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Usseglio, M.; Usuki, Y.; Uwer, U.; Va'vra, J.; Vahsen, S. E.; Vaitsas, G.; Valassi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vallereau, A.; Vanhoefer, P.; van Hoek, W. C.; Van Hulse, C.; van Winkle, D.; Varner, G.; Varnes, E. W.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasileiadis, G.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Verderi, M.; Versillé, S.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Vidal, P. B.; Villa, S.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Vinograd, E. L.; Vitale, L.; Vitug, G. M.; Voß, C.; Voci, C.; Voena, C.; Volk, A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Vuagnin, G.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wagner, S. R.; Wagoner, D. E.; Walker, D.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallom, D.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, P.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wappler, F. R.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, J. E.; Watson, N. K.; Watt, M.; Weatherall, J. H.; Weaver, M.; Weber, T.; Wedd, R.; Wei, J. T.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; West, C. A.; West, C. G.; West, T. J.; White, E.; White, R. M.; Wicht, J.; Widhalm, L.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wienands, U.; Wilden, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, G.; Williams, J. C.; Williams, K. M.; Williams, M. I.; Willocq, S. Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Winstrom, L. O.; Winter, M. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittlin, J.; Wittmer, W.; Wixted, R.; Woch, A.; Wogsland, B. J.; Won, E.; Wong, Q. K.; Wray, B. C.; Wren, A. C.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, C. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Xella, S. M.; Xie, Q. L.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yéche, Ch.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, Y.; Yanai, H.; Yanaka, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, R.; Yang, S.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yashchenko, S.; Yashima, J.; Yasin, Z.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, S. W.; Yeh, P.; Yi, J. I.; Yi, K.; Yi, M.; Yin, Z. W.; Ying, J.; Yocky, G.; Yokoyama, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Young, C. C.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Z.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yusa, Y.; Yushkov, A. N.; Yuta, H.; Zacek, V.; Zain, S. B.; Zallo, A.; Zambito, S.; Zander, D.; Zang, S. L.; Zanin, D.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. M.; Zhulanov, V.; Ziegler, T.; Ziegler, V.; Zioulas, G.; Zisman, M.; Zito, M.; Zürcher, D.; Zwahlen, N.; Zyukova, O.; Živko, T.; Žontar, D.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  6. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  7. An Nbody Integrator for Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Porco, C.; Spitale, J.

    2010-10-01

    An Nbody integrator has been developed to simulate large-scale phenomena in planetary rings, such as the confinement of the outer edge of Saturn's B ring by Mimas' m=2 Lindblad resonance, and the propagation of spiral density waves in the A ring. The code tracks N particles whose motions trace the perturbed ring's streamlines. Accelerations on those particles due to ring gravity, pressure, and viscosity are then simple functions of the particles' positions and velocities relative to those streamlines. A second-order kick-drift scheme (Wisdom & Holman 1991, Saha & Tremaine 1992) is used to advance the particles' epicyclic orbit elements over time, with the kicks given by the rate equations of Longaretti and Borderies (1991). Simulating a narrow but well-resolved annulus in the ring typically requires execution times of 10 minutes on a desktop PC using only N 1000 particles. A simulation of the B ring's sharp outer edge, as well as the propagation of nonlinear spiral density waves, will be shown in the conference poster. We also plan to extend this 2D model to 3D, so as to simulate spiral bending waves. Another goal of this program is to study resonant perturbations in a dense and incompressible ring, which can experience vertical displacements due to a satellite's horizontal forcing. Such rings are suspected to be unstable (Borderies et al 1985), which can account for the B ring-edge's m<ɮ modes (Spitale & Porco 2009, 2010). We also hope to have preliminary results from a study of this scenario at conference time.

  8. Saturn's Ring: Pre-Cassini Status and Mission Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeff N.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In November 1980, and again in August 1981, identical Voyager spacecraft flew through the Saturn system, changing forever the way we think about planetary rings. Although Saturn's rings had been the only known ring system for three centuries, a ring system around Uranus had been discovered by stellar occultations from Earth in 1977, and the nearly transparent ring of Jupiter was imaged by Voyager in 1979 (the presence of material there had been inferred from charged particle experiments on Pioneer 10 and 11 several years earlier). While Saturn had thus temporarily lost its uniqueness as having the only ring system, with Voyager it handily recaptured the role of having the most fascinating one. The Voyager breakthroughs included spiral density and bending waves such as cause galactic structure; ubiquitous fine-scale radial 'irregular' structure, with the appearance of record-grooves; regional and local variations in particle color; complex, azimuthally variable ring structure; empty gaps in the rings, some containing very regular, sharp-edged, elliptical rings and one containing both a small moonlet and incomplete arcs of dusty material; and shadowy 'spokes' that flicker across the main rings. One of the paradigm shifts of this period was the realization that many aspects of planetary rings, and even the ring systems themselves, could be 'recent' on geological timescales. These early results are reviewed and summarized in the Arizona Space Science series volumes 'Saturn'. (An excellent review of ring dynamics at a formative stage is by Goldreich and Tremaine.) From the mid 1980's to the time of this writing, progress has been steady, while at a less heady pace, and some of the novel ring properties revealed by Voyager 1 and 2 are beginning to be better understood. It is clearly impossible to cite, much less review, every advance over the last decade; however, below we summarize the main advances in understanding of Saturn's rings since the mid 1980's, in the context

  9. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  10. Developing Multicomponent Interventions using Fractional Factorial Designs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Collins, Linda M.; Strecher, Victor J.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Multicomponent interventions composed of behavioral, delivery, or implementation factors in addition to medications are becoming increasingly common in health sciences. A natural experimental approach to developing and refiing such multicomponent interventions is to start with a large number of potential components and screen out the least active ones. Factorial designs can be used efficiently in this endeavor. We address common criticisms and misconceptions regarding the use of factorial designs in these screening studies. We also provide an operationalization of screening studies. As an example we consider the use of a screening study in the development of a multicomponent smoking cessation intervention. Simulation results are provided to support the discussions. PMID:19575485

  11. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  12. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation.

  13. Surge in the Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    An ethereal, glowing spot appears on Saturn's B ring in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. There is nothing particular about that place in the rings that produces the glowing effect -- instead, it is an example of an "opposition surge" making that area on the rings appear extra bright. An opposition surge occurs when the Sun is directly behind the observer looking toward the rings. The particular geometry of this observation makes the point in the rings appear much, much brighter than would otherwise be expected. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 28 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini wide-angle camera on June 26, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 940,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-ring-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 0 degrees. Image scale on the rings at center is 56 miles (90 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20496

  14. Traceable Ring Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Koutarou

    The ring signature allows a signer to leak secrets anonymously, without the risk of identity escrow. At the same time, the ring signature provides great flexibility: No group manager, no special setup, and the dynamics of group choice. The ring signature is, however, vulnerable to malicious or irresponsible signers in some applications, because of its anonymity. In this paper, we propose a traceable ring signature scheme. A traceable ring scheme is a ring signature except that it can restrict “excessive” anonymity. The traceable ring signature has a tag that consists of a list of ring members and an issue that refers to, for instance, a social affair or an election. A ring member can make any signed but anonymous opinion regarding the issue, but only once (per tag). If the member submits another signed opinion, possibly pretending to be another person who supports the first opinion, the identity of the member is immediately revealed. If the member submits the same opinion, for instance, voting “yes” regarding the same issue twice, everyone can see that these two are linked. The traceable ring signature can suit to many applications, such as an anonymous voting on a BBS. We formalize the security definitions for this primitive and show an efficient and simple construction in the random oracle model.

  15. Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; Paoloni, E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2010-08-26

    The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.

  16. Damping Higher Order Modes in the PEP-II B-Factory Vertex Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S.; Langton, J.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; /SLAC

    2005-06-30

    Higher stored currents and shorter bunch lengths are requirements for increasing luminosity in colliding storage rings. As a result, more HOM power is generated in the IP region. This HOM power propagates to sensitive components causing undesirable heating, thus becoming a limiting issue for the PEP-II B-factory. HOM field penetration through RF shielding fingers has been shown to cause heating in bellows structures. To overcome these limitations, a proposal to incorporate ceramic absorbers within the bellows cavity to damp these modes is presented. Results show that the majority of modes of interest are damped, the effectiveness depending on geometrical considerations. An optimal configuration is presented for the PEP-II B-factory IR bellows component utilizing commercial grade ceramics with consideration for heat transfer requirements.

  17. Slowing of Vortex Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell; Bolster, Diogo; Hershberger, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have investigated the slowing of vortex rings in water which are created with very thin cores. We find that these rings propagate with no measurable change in diameter or core size. The drag appears to be the result of viscous forces on the core. A simple model for this drag describes experimental data in terms of a drag coefficient, which depends only on Reynolds number. Barenghi's group at Newcastle found that the translational velocity of a ring in an inviscid fluid perturbed by Kelvin waves decreases with increasing amplitude of Kelvin waves. This suggests that the velocity of vortex rings in a viscous fluid may well depend on the amplitude of Kelvin waves at the time of formation. Rings with substantial amplitude of Kelvin waves will be expected to move more slowly than rings with little or no Kelvin wave amplitude. We present experimental data confirming this suggestion.

  18. Ring Details on Display

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-07

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft showcases some of the amazingly detailed structure of Saturn's rings. The rings are made up of many smaller ringlets that blur together when seen from a distance. But when imaged up close, the rings' structures display quite a bit of variation. Ring scientists are debating the nature of these features -- whether they have always appeared this way or if their appearance has evolved over time. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 4 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Sept. 24, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 283,000 miles (456,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 32 degrees. Image scale is 17 miles (27 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20506

  19. DKIST enclosure modeling and verification during factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrakoetxea, Ibon; McBride, William; Marshall, Heather K.; Murga, Gaizka

    2014-08-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) is unique as, apart from protecting the telescope and its instrumentation from the weather, it holds the entrance aperture stop and is required to position it with millimeter-level accuracy. The compliance of the Enclosure design with the requirements, as of Final Design Review in January 2012, was supported by mathematical models and other analyses which included structural and mechanical analyses (FEA), control models, ventilation analysis (CFD), thermal models, reliability analysis, etc. During the Enclosure Factory Assembly and Testing the compliance with the requirements has been verified using the real hardware and the models created during the design phase have been revisited. The tests performed during shutter mechanism subsystem (crawler test stand) functional and endurance testing (completed summer 2013) and two comprehensive system-level factory acceptance testing campaigns (FAT#1 in December 2013 and FAT#2 in March 2014) included functional and performance tests on all mechanisms, off-normal mode tests, mechanism wobble tests, creation of the Enclosure pointing map, control system tests, and vibration tests. The comparison of the assumptions used during the design phase with the properties measured during the test campaign provides an interesting reference for future projects.

  20. Saturn's rings - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    2005-08-01

    Saturn's rings embody in their diversity the entire spectrum of ring properties seen across the outer solar system, and remain unique in fundamental ways. The Voyager flybys revealed their complexity in 1980-1981, while groundbased and HST observations have provided important new insights since that time. Since July 2004, when it skimmed only tens of thousands of km over the unlit face of the rings - collecting unique remote and in-situ observations as it entered orbit - Cassini has been fulfilling the long-held dream of understanding Saturn's rings in depth. As of this meeting, if all continues as planned, seven orbits designed specifically with ring observations in mind will have been completed - each providing even better geometric opportunities than an entire Voyager flyby (to a spacecraft with far more powerful instruments than Voyager). Even these represent only a fraction of what the complete mission will tell us about the rings. This talk will review the key properties of the rings, highlight the themes and new insights emerging from recent studies, and serve as a context for new results presented at the meeting. The key properties include the relationship of the rings to their close-in and embedded moons; the composition of the rings and its spatial variation; and the complex radial and vertical structure of the rings, as related to local particle sizes and mass density. The main themes are that several evolutionary processes cause all these to vary - we think substantially - with time, and that the rings may be much younger than Saturn. To achieve our goal of understanding the origin of the rings, we must start from an in-depth characterization of their current state, and peer back through their extensive evolution. Cassini observations, and their theoretical analysis, will ultimately make this possible.

  1. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  2. Rare-RI ring for mass measurements at RIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-05-02

    The rare-RI (radioactive isotope) ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is described. The main purpose of the rare-RI ring is to measure the mass of short-lived rare RI. In the rare-RI ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus based on isochronous mass spectrometry. The rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four dipole magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install 10 trim coils to half of the dipole magnets. Individual injection system enables efficient injection of the produced rare RI into the ring one by one. With facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles, time-of-flight measurements can be performed to the each rare RI. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015, when we can start the mass measurements for unknown masses.

  3. Rare-RI ring for mass measurements at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akira

    2014-05-01

    The rare-RI (radioactive isotope) ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is described. The main purpose of the rare-RI ring is to measure the mass of short-lived rare RI. In the rare-RI ring, the mass is determined by measuring the revolution time of each nucleus based on isochronous mass spectrometry. The rare-RI ring consists of six magnetic sectors, and each sector consists of four dipole magnets. To precisely optimize the isochronous conditions of the circulating particles for large acceptance, we install 10 trim coils to half of the dipole magnets. Individual injection system enables efficient injection of the produced rare RI into the ring one by one. With facilitating efficient extraction of the circulating particles, time-of-flight measurements can be performed to the each rare RI. Construction of the rare-RI ring was begun in the middle of the fiscal year 2012, and the ring is expected to be fully functional by 2015, when we can start the mass measurements for unknown masses.

  4. Predictors of Turnover of Female Factory Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James L.; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines predictors of turnover of female factory workers in a multivariate framework. Findings indicate that organizational, job, and personal characteristics are equally important in explaining turnover. Variables significantly related to turnover are tenure, cycle time, peer leadership, communication flow, training time, family income, and…

  5. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  6. Making Connections: After the Factories Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Bergman, Edward M.

    This analysis of employment patterns in the American South extends a 1985 report, "After the Factories: Changing Employment Patterns in the Rural South," which was based on the years between 1977-1982. The 1985 report included Texas, but this analysis includes only the 12 Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) member states. This new…

  7. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  8. Reinventing the Factory with Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopper, Norman S.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Inc.'s Canadian manufacturing facility offers comprehensive adult education and training programs. Courses offered spearhead cultural changes needed to become globally competitive. Changes start on the factory floor with those who directly affect three aspects of customer satisfaction: on-time delivery, product quality, and low cost.…

  9. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  10. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  11. Monochromatic design for the Apiary B -factory

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovin, A.; Zholents, A. ); Garren, A. )

    1990-10-10

    There are several ways to design {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} circular colliders to maximize luminosity. Here we present a design that achieves two principal goals: high luminosity and very small center-of-mass energy spread. The design possesses several attractive features, especially for an asymmetric {ital B}-factory.

  12. A Factorial Analysis of BDI Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ian M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Undertook a factorial analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on a sample of male cardiac outpatients (N=214) to investigate whether the BDI factor structure is dependent on the range of BDI scores selected. Results indicated that, in general, the subgroups' factor structures provided no clear interpretation. (LLL)

  13. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  14. Performance Comparison: Superbeams, Beta Beams, Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2011-10-06

    In this talk, the performance comparison among superbeams (SB), beta beams (BB), and the Neutrino Factory (NF) is discussed. The ingredients to such a comparison are described, and the optimization and status of BB and NF are addressed. Finally, one example for the performance comparison is shown.

  15. Tiny Mimas, Huge Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-28

    Saturn's icy moon Mimas is dwarfed by the planet's enormous rings. Because Mimas (near lower left) appears tiny by comparison, it might seem that the rings would be far more massive, but this is not the case. Scientists think the rings are no more than a few times as massive as Mimas, or perhaps just a fraction of Mimas' mass. Cassini is expected to determine the mass of Saturn's rings to within just a few hundredths of Mimas' mass as the mission winds down by tracking radio signals from the spacecraft as it flies close to the rings. The rings, which are made of small, icy particles spread over a vast area, are extremely thin -- generally no thicker than the height of a house. Thus, despite their giant proportions, the rings contain a surprisingly small amount of material. Mimas is 246 miles (396 kilometers) wide. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 6 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 21, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 564,000 miles (907,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 31 degrees. Image scale is 34 miles (54 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20509

  16. Faint D Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-27

    Not all of Saturn's rings are created equal: here the C and D rings appear side-by-side, but the C ring, which occupies the bottom half of this image, clearly outshines its neighbor. The D ring appears fainter than the C ring because it is comprised of less material. However, even rings as thin as the D ring can pose hazards to spacecraft. Given the high speeds at which Cassini travels, impacts with particles just fractions of a millimeter in size have the potential to damage key spacecraft components and instruments. Nonetheless, near the end of Cassini's mission, navigators plan to thread the spacecraft's orbit through the narrow region between the D ring and the top of Saturn's atmosphere. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 12 degrees below the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 11, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 372,000 miles (599,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 133 degrees. Image scale is 2.2 miles (3.6 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18313

  17. Jupiter's Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow.

    A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest

  18. Jupiter's Ring Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow.

    A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest

  19. Saturn's E ring revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Klinglesmith, D. A.

    1980-07-01

    Images of the E ring of Saturn obtained by the image processing of photographs of the 1966 edge-on presentation of the planet's ring plane are presented. Two methods of image enhancement were used: scanning with an image quantizer operated in the derivative mode to enhance contrast and computerized subtraction of a circularly symmetric image of the overexposed Saturn disk. Further photographic and CCD observation confirming the existence of the ring extending to twice the diameter of the A ring, which was not detected by the Pioneer 11 imaging photopolarimeter, is indicated.

  20. Jupiter Ring Halo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-26

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age. Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended, toroidal "halo" is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces which can push small grains out of the ring plane. Halo material is present across this entire image, implying that it reaches more than 27,000 km above the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic. In order to accentuate faint features in the image, different brightnesses are shown through color, with the brightest being

  1. Viscosity in Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Shu, F. H.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of estimating the viscosity in Saturn's rings from the damping rate of waves observed to be propagating within the rings is discussed. The wavetrains of attempts using spiral density waves as a diagnostic suffer significant complications that compromise the interpretations. A method that considers the damping of spiral bending waves was used to deduce a kinematic viscosity of 260 (+150, -100) sqcm/sec for the middle of the A ring where bending waves are excited by the 5:3 vertical resonance with Mimas. This value implies upper limits on the particle velocity dispersion and local ring thickness of 0.4 cm/sec and 30 m, respectively.

  2. Modified spiral wound retaining ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, A. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A spiral wound retaining ring with angled ends is described. The ring is crimped at the same angle as the ring ends to maintain a constant thickness dimension. The angling of the ends of the ring and crimp allow the ends to be positioned closer together while maintaining enough clearance to enable insertion and removal of the ring. By reducing the separation distance between the ends a stronger ring results since the double layer area of the ring is maximized.

  3. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN CENTER GROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. 5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  5. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. Inner B Ring Terminus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-21

    This mosaic, part of a larger mosaic of images captured by NASA Cassini Orbiter just hours before exact equinox at Saturn, shows that the spiral corrugation in the planet’s inner rings continues right up to the inner B ring.

  7. Neptune's ring system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, C. C.; Nicholson, P. D.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Lissauer, J. J.; Esposito, L. W.

    The authors review the current state of knowledge regarding the structure, particle properties, kinematics, dynamics, origin, and evolution of the Neptune rings derived from Earth-based and Voyager data. Neptune has a diverse system of five continuous rings - 2 broad (Galle and Lassell) and 3 narrow (Adams, Le Verrier, and Arago) - plus a narrow discontinuous ring sharing the orbit of one of its ring-region satellites, Galatea. The outermost Adams ring contains the only arcs observed so far in Voyager images. The five arcs vary in angular extent from ≡1° to ≡10°, and exhibit internal azimuthal structure with typical spatial scales of ≡0.5°. All five lie within ≡40° of longitude. Dust is present throughout the Neptune system and measureable quantities of it were detected over Neptune's north pole. The Adams ring (including the arcs) and the Le Verrier ring contain a significant fraction of dust. The Neptune ring particles are probably red, and may consist of ice "dirtied" with silicates and/or some carbon-bearing material. A kinematic model for the arcs derived from Voyager data, the arcs' physical characteristics, and their orbital geometry and phasing are all roughly in accord with single-satellite arc shepherding by Galatea, though the presence of small kilometer-sized bodies embedded either within the arcs or placed at their Lagrange points may explain some inconsistencies with this model.

  8. EBT ring physics

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers. (MOW)

  9. Uranus Ring System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image captured by NASA's Voyager 2 in 1986 revealed a continuous distribution of small particles throughout the Uranus ring system. This unique geometry, the highest phase angle at which Voyager imaged the rings, allowed us to see lanes of fine dust. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00142

  10. Smoke Ring Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampère's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features.

  11. Smoke Ring Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  12. Steroidal contraceptive vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2003-06-01

    The development of steroid-releasing vaginal rings over the past three decades is reviewed to illustrate the role of this device as an effective hormonal contraceptive for women. Vaginal rings are made of polysiloxane rubber or ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer with an outer diameter of 54-60 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4-9.5 mm and contain progestogen only or a combination of progestogen and oestrogen. The soft flexible combined ring is inserted in the vagina for three weeks and removed for seven days to allow withdrawal bleeding. Progesterone/progestogen-only rings are kept in for varying periods and replaced without a ring-free period. Rings are in various stages of research and development but a few, such as NuvaRing, have reached the market in some countries. Women find this method easy to use, effective, well tolerated and acceptable with no serious side-effects. Though the contraceptive efficacy of these vaginal rings is high, acceptability is yet to be established.

  13. Smoke Ring Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  14. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  15. Lower esophageal ring (Schatzki)

    MedlinePlus

    ... narrowed area to stretch the ring. Sometimes, a balloon is placed in the area and inflated, to help widen the ring. Outlook (Prognosis) Swallowing problems may return. You may need repeat treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you ...

  16. Contactless Magnetic Slip Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki (Inventor); Deardon, Joe D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A contactless magnetic slip ring is disclosed having a primary coil and a secondary coil. The primary and secondary coils are preferably magnetically coupled together, in a highly reliable efficient manner, by a magnetic layered core. One of the secondary and primary coils is rotatable and the contactless magnetic slip ring provides a substantially constant output.

  17. Rings of Neptune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-07-25

    These two 591-second exposures of the rings of Neptune were taken with the clear filter by the NASA Voyager 2 wide-angle camera on Aug. 26, 1989. The two main rings are clearly visible and appear complete over the region imaged.

  18. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  19. Birth Control Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in diameter. It is inserted into the vagina, where it slowly releases hormones — the chemicals the body makes to control organ function — through the vaginal wall into the ...

  20. A-ring Propeller

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-26

    A propeller-shaped structure, created by an unseen moon, can be seen in Saturn A ring and looks like a small, dark line interrupting the bright surrounding ring material in the upper left of this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  1. Telemetry carrier ring and support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A telemetry carrier ring for use in a gas turbine engine includes an annular support ring connected to the engine and an annular carrier ring coupled to the support ring, each ring exhibiting different growth characteristics in response to thermal and mechanical loading. The carrier ring is coupled to the support ring by a plurality of circumferentially spaced web members which are relatively thin in an engine radial direction to provide a predetermined degree of radial flexibility. the web members have a circumferential width and straight axial line of action selected to transfer torque and thrust between the support ring and the carrier ring without substantial deflection. The use of the web members with radial flexibility provides compensation between the support ring and the carrier ring since the carrier ring grows at a different rate than the supporting ring.

  2. DIRC, the internally reflecting ring imaging Cerenkov detector for BABAR: Properties of the quartz radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwiening, Jochen

    1998-02-01

    A description of DIRC, a particle identification detector for the BABAR experiment at the Standard Linear Collider B Factory is given. It is the barrel region of the detector and its name is an acronym for detection of internally reflected Cherenkov radiation. It is a Cherenkov ring imaging device which utilizes totally internally reflected Cherenkov light in the visible and ultraviolet regions.

  3. Jupiter's Gossamer Rings Explained.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Over the past several years, Galileo measurements and groundbased imaging have drastically improved our knowledge of Jupiter's faint ring system. We now recognize that the ring consists of four components: a main ring 7000km wide, whose inner edge blossoms into a vertically-extended halo, and a pair of more tenuous Gossamer rings, one associated with each of the small moons Thebe and Amalthea. When viewed edge on, the Gossamer rings appear as diaphanous disks whose thicknesses agree with the vertical excursions of the inclined satellites from the equatorial plane. In addition, the brightness of each Gossamer ring drops off sharply outside the satellite orbits. These correlations allowed Burns etal (1999, Science, 284, 1146) to argue convincingly that the satellites act as sources of the dusty ring material. In addition, since most material is seen inside the orbits of the source satellites, an inwardly-acting dissipative force such as Poynting-Robertson drag is implicated. The most serious problem with this simple and elegant picture is that it is unable to explain the existence of a faint swath of material that extends half a jovian radius outward from Thebe. A key constraint is that this material has the same thickness as the rest of the Thebe ring. In this work, we identify the mechanism responsible for the outward extension: it is a shadow resonance, first investigated by Horanyi and Burns (1991, JGR, 96, 19283). When a dust grain enters Jupiter's shadow, photoelectric processes shut down and the grain's electric charge becomes more negative. The electromagnetic forces associated with the varying charge cause periodic oscillations in the orbital eccentricity and semimajor axis as the orbital pericenter precesses. This results in a ring which spreads both inward and outward of its source satellite while preserving its vertical thickness - just as is observed for the Thebe ring. Predictions of the model are: i) gaps of micron-sized material interior to Thebe and

  4. Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

  5. Jupiter Ring, With Orion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-25

    As NASA's Juno spacecraft flew through the narrow gap between Jupiter's radiation belts and the planet during its first science flyby, Perijove 1, on August 27, 2016, the Stellar Reference Unit (SRU-1) star camera collected the first image of Jupiter's ring taken from the inside looking out. The bright bands in the center of the image are the main ring of Jupiter's ring system. While taking the ring image, the SRU was viewing the constellation Orion. The bright star above the main ring is Betelgeuse, and Orion's belt can be seen in the lower right. Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation actively retrieves and analyzes the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in the images of the spacecraft's star cameras and science instruments at Jupiter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21644

  6. STEEL TRUSS TENSION RING SUPPORTING DOME ROOF. TENSION RING COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL TRUSS TENSION RING SUPPORTING DOME ROOF. TENSION RING COVERED BY ARCHITECTURAL FINISH. TENSION RING ROLLER SUPPORT AT COLUMN OBSCURED BY COLUMN COVERINGS. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. 3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION WITH BRICK PARAPET BUILT WITH FACTORY EXPANSION CA. 1948. GABLE ROOF SECTION IS PART OF ORIGINAL 1892 FACTORY. TO THE RIGHT IS AN ABANDONED (COMMONWEALTH EDISON) ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  8. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704) ...

  9. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of a...

  10. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be used...

  11. Testing Factorial Invariance in Multilevel Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Kwok, Oi-man; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    Testing factorial invariance has recently gained more attention in different social science disciplines. Nevertheless, when examining factorial invariance, it is generally assumed that the observations are independent of each other, which might not be always true. In this study, we examined the impact of testing factorial invariance in multilevel…

  12. Current status of BL-2B at photon factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nambu, Akira Ueda, Kazuhiro; Horiba, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Amemiya, Kenta

    2016-07-27

    A new soft x-ray beamline BL-2B at Photon Factory of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-PF) covers energy range from vacuum ultraviolet (30 eV) to soft x-ray (4000 eV). This wide energy range could be achieved by employing two undulators and two monochromators. Two different energy range undulators were installed tandem to a 9-meter straight section of PF storage ring. The 1{sup st} undulator is for VUV (30 eV) to SX (280 eV), while the other one is for SX (280 eV) to HX (4000 eV). It is also necessary to be equipped with two different monochrometors for energy above and under 2000 eV; grating monochrometor and double crystal monochrometor. One of the main purposes of this bemaline is spectroscopic study of light elements contained in several functional materials. The beamline is designed for photoemission spectroscopy (PES), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and other types of experiments. The performance of the new beamline is reported and typical examples of its application to material science are demonstrated.

  13. The Enceladus Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Enceladus Ring (labeled)

    This excellent view of the faint E ring -- a ring feature now known to be created by Enceladus -- also shows two of Saturn's small moons that orbit within the ring, among a field of stars in the background.

    The E ring extends from three to eight Saturn radii -- about 180,000 kilometers (118,000 miles) to 482,000 kilometers (300,000 miles). Its full extent is not visible in this view.

    Calypso (22 kilometers, or 14 miles across) and Helene (32 kilometers, or 20 miles across) orbit within the E ring's expanse. Helene skirts the outer parts of the E ring, but here it is projected in front of a region deeper within the ring.

    Calypso and Helene are trojan satellites, or moons that orbit 60 degrees in front or behind a larger moon. Calypso is a Tethys trojan and Helene is a trojan of Dione.

    An interesting feature of note in this image is the double-banded appearance of the E-ring, which is created because the ring is somewhat fainter in the ringplane than it is 500-1,000 kilometers (300-600 miles) above and below the ringplane. This appearance implies that the particles in this part of the ring have nonzero inclinations (a similar affect is seen in Jupiter's gossamer ring). An object with a nonzero inclination does not orbit exactly at Saturn's ringplane. Instead, its orbit takes it above and below the ringplane. Scientists are not entirely sure why the particles should have such inclinations, but they are fairly certain that the reason involves Enceladus.

    One possible explanation is that all the E ring particles come from the plume of icy material that is shooting due south out of the moon's pole. This means all of the particles are created with a certain velocity out of the ringplane, and then they orbit above and below that plane.

    Another possible explanation is that Enceladus produces particles with a range of speeds, but the moon gravitationally

  14. The Enceladus Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Enceladus Ring (labeled)

    This excellent view of the faint E ring -- a ring feature now known to be created by Enceladus -- also shows two of Saturn's small moons that orbit within the ring, among a field of stars in the background.

    The E ring extends from three to eight Saturn radii -- about 180,000 kilometers (118,000 miles) to 482,000 kilometers (300,000 miles). Its full extent is not visible in this view.

    Calypso (22 kilometers, or 14 miles across) and Helene (32 kilometers, or 20 miles across) orbit within the E ring's expanse. Helene skirts the outer parts of the E ring, but here it is projected in front of a region deeper within the ring.

    Calypso and Helene are trojan satellites, or moons that orbit 60 degrees in front or behind a larger moon. Calypso is a Tethys trojan and Helene is a trojan of Dione.

    An interesting feature of note in this image is the double-banded appearance of the E-ring, which is created because the ring is somewhat fainter in the ringplane than it is 500-1,000 kilometers (300-600 miles) above and below the ringplane. This appearance implies that the particles in this part of the ring have nonzero inclinations (a similar affect is seen in Jupiter's gossamer ring). An object with a nonzero inclination does not orbit exactly at Saturn's ringplane. Instead, its orbit takes it above and below the ringplane. Scientists are not entirely sure why the particles should have such inclinations, but they are fairly certain that the reason involves Enceladus.

    One possible explanation is that all the E ring particles come from the plume of icy material that is shooting due south out of the moon's pole. This means all of the particles are created with a certain velocity out of the ringplane, and then they orbit above and below that plane.

    Another possible explanation is that Enceladus produces particles with a range of speeds, but the moon gravitationally

  15. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Florian; Le Couedic, Clement; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  16. Construction of the SCRIT electron scattering facility at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasugi, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Wang, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Amagai, T.; Enokizono, A.; Enomoto, A.; Haraguchi, Y.; Hara, M.; Hori, T.; Ichikawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kitazawa, R.; Koizumi, K.; Kurita, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Ogawara, R.; Shimakura, Y.; Takehara, H.; Tamae, T.; Tamaki, S.; Togasaki, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagi, K.; Suda, T.

    2013-12-01

    The SCRIT electron scattering facility, aiming at electron scattering off short-lived unstable nuclei, has been constructed at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. This facility consists of a racetrack microtron (RTM), an electron storage ring (SR2) equipped with the SCRIT system, and a low-energy RI separator (ERIS). SCRIT (self-confining radioactive isotope ion targeting) is a novel technique to form internal targets in an electron storage ring. Experiments for evaluating performance of the SCRIT system have been carried out using the stable 133Cs1+ beam and the 132Xe1+ beam supplied from ERIS. Target ions were successfully trapped in the SCRIT system with 90% efficiency at a 250 mA electron beam current, and luminosity exceeding 1026/(cm2 s) was maintained for more than 1 s. Electrons elastically scattered from the target ions were successfully measured. Applicability of the SCRIT system to electron scattering for unstable nuclei has been established in experiments.

  17. Analysis of the Wakefield Effects in the PEP-II SLAC B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves , shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  18. New Physics Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-02-10

    We present a review of some recent experimental searches for new physics effects in precision flavour physics measurements performed at B factories. Recent results on selected leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic charm-less B decay channels studied by the BaBar and Belle collaborations will be presented and their implication within the framework of model extensions of the Standard Model will be discussed.

  19. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  20. Hadronic Charm Decays From B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2007-11-09

    The B factories, KEKB and PEPII, provide enormous samples of charmed mesons and baryons as well as B{bar B} events. The BELLE and BaBar collaborations have discovered many new particles containing charm quarks in the last few years and have measured their properties with increasing precision. The current status and most recent studies of these charm particle properties is briefly reviewed.

  1. On near detectors at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jian; Winter, Walter

    2010-03-30

    The geometric effects of the beam in near detectors at a neutrino factory are discussed. The refined systematics treatment, including cross section errors, flux errors and background uncertainties, is compared with the IDS-NF one. Different near detector setups are included. We also probe their effects both at the measurements of standard neutrino oscillation parameters and constraints of the non-standard neutrino interaction.

  2. IDR Neutrino Factory Front End and Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Alekou, A.; Rogers, C.; Snopok, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The International Design Report (IDR) neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of {mu}'s produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a {phi}-{delta}E rotation section leading into the cooling channel. Optimization and variations are discussed. Important concerns are rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields and large losses in the transport.

  3. Earth: A Ringed Planet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, L. O.; Povenmire, H.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most beautiful findings of the Space Age have been the discoveries of planetary rings. Not only Saturn but also Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune have rings; Saturn’s ring system has structures newly discovered; even Saturn's moon Rhea itself has a ring. All these are apparently supplied by material from the planetary moons (Rhea's ring by Rhea itself). The question naturally arises, why should the Earth not have a ring, and on the other hand, if it does, why has it not been observed? No rings have yet been observed in the inner solar system, but after all, rings in the inner solar system might simply tend to be fainter and more transient than those of the outer solar system: the inner solar system is more affected by the solar wind, and the Sun’s perturbing gravitational influence is greater. J.A. O’Keefe first suggested (1980) that Earth might have a ring system of its own. An Earth ring could account for some climate events. O’Keefe remarked that formation or thickening of a ring system in Earth’s equatorial plane could drive glaciation by deepening the chill of the winter hemisphere. (It is very well established that volcanic dust is an effective agent for the extinction of sunlight; this factor can be overwhelmingly apparent in eclipse observations.) O’Keefe died in 2000 and the speculation was not pursued, but the idea of an Earth ring has a prima facie reasonableness that calls for its renewed consideration. The program of this note is to hypothesize that, as O’Keefe proposed: (a) an Earth ring system exists; (b) it affects Earth's weather and climate; (c) the tektite strewn fields comprise filaments of the ring fallen to Earth's surface on various occasions of disturbance by comets or asteroids. On this basis, and drawing on the world's weather records, together with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis by NCEP/CIRES covering the period 1870-2010 and the geology of the tektite strewn fields, we herein propose the hypothesized Earth ring

  4. Hot piston ring tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.

  5. Seal ring installation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haselmaier, L. Haynes (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A seal ring tool that allows an installer to position a primary seal ring between hub ends of pipe flanges that are being assembled together. The tool includes a pivoting handle member and extension arms attached to the pivoting handle member. The ends of the arms have side indentation type longitudinal grooves angled toward one another for holding the primary seal ring in place between the hubs of respective pipes that are to be attached together. The arms of the tool can also have flat sides that can be used to abut against an optional second larger seal that is supported within a groove in one of the hub ends so that the second hub end can then be moved against the other side of the primary seal ring. Once the seal ring is positioned between the pipe hubs, the pipe hubs can be moved about the seal ring due to the flat sides of the arms of the tool. The tool eliminates the chances of damaging and contaminating seal rings being installed within pipe hubs that are being attached to one another.

  6. Gored of the Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-09

    Prometheus is caught in the act of creating gores and streamers in the F ring. Scientists believe that Prometheus and its partner-moon Pandora are responsible for much of the structure in the F ring as shown by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The orbit of Prometheus (53 miles, or 86 kilometers across) regularly brings it into the F ring. When this happens, it creates gores, or channels, in the ring where it entered. Prometheus then draws ring material with it as it exits the ring, leaving streamers in its wake. This process creates the pattern of structures seen in this image. This process is described in detail, along with a movie of Prometheus creating one of the streamer/channel features, in PIA08397. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 8.6 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 11, 2014. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.3 million miles (2.1 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 147 degrees. Image scale is 8 miles (13 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18270

  7. Physics opportunities at mu+ mu- Higgs factories

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blochinger et al.

    2004-01-12

    We update theoretical studies of the physics opportunities presented by {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factories. Interesting measurements of the Standard Model Higgs decays into {bar b}b, {tau}{sup +} {tau}{sup -} and WW* may be possible if the Higgs mass is less than about 160 GeV, as preferred by the precision electroweak data, the mass range being extended by varying appropriately the beam energy resolution. A suitable value of the beam energy resolution would also enable the uncertainty in the b-quark mass to be minimized, facilitating measurements of parameters in the MSSM at such a first {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory. These measurements would be sensitive to radiative corrections to the Higgs-fermion-antifermion decay vertices, which may violate CP. Radiative corrections in the MSSM may also induce CP violation in Higgs-mass mixing, which can be probed via various asymmetries measurable using polarized {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} beams. In addition, Higgs-chargino couplings may be probed at a second {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory.

  8. Choice of momentum compaction factor for the APIARY low-energy ring

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S. )

    1990-08-01

    For the new low-energy ring of the APIARY B factory collider, there are several considerations that go into the choice of momentum compaction factor. In this note we enumerate these considerations and indicate the restrictions on momentum compaction factor that arise therefrom. Probably the most difficult condition to achieve is maintaining the same betatron tune modulation at the IP as occurs for the high-energy ring. Generally, however, we find that the constraints are rather loose, so the ring design is not heavily influenced. 5 refs.

  9. Recent Hubble Observations of Jupiter's Ring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, M. R.; Burns, J. A.; de Pater, I.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.

    2003-05-01

    The period December 2002 through February 2003 provided a rare opportunity to watch Jupiter sweep through its full range of Earth-based phase angles while the rings remained nearly edge-on to Earth. We used this period for a series of Jovian ring observations using the High Resolution Channel (HRC) of Hubble's new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Phase angles span 0.17o--10o. Our images showed the main ring, Adrastea and Metis with very high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Amalthea's gossamer ring was detected (and vertically resolved) in a small set of specially targeted images. Somewhat surprisingly, we have not yet been able to detect the halo in any of our images, perhaps because it is obscured by the scattered light from Jupiter's disk, positioned just 4'' outside the HRC's field of view. Preliminary results from this data set are as follows. (1) The ring is substantially less red than the moons, suggesting that fine dust represents a significant fraction of its backscattering intensity. (2) Neither the rings nor the embedded moons Metis and Adrastea have significant opposition surges. We were hoping to use the surge, which is characteristic of most macroscopic bodies but not dust, as an indicator of where any embedded ring parent bodies might reside. (3) Because our data are so sensitive to Metis (radius ˜ 20 km) and Adrastea ( ˜ 8 km), we believe that bodies as small as 3--4 km in radius should have been detected in the data. In an initial search, no additional bodies have been detected. (4) The Amalthea ring shows an enhancement in brightness in its outermost 15,000 km. This is consistent with what was seen in Galileo images at very high phase angles. Support for this work was provided by NASA through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. Dynamics of the Uranian Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the problems of the shepherding satellite model of Goldreich ant tremaine are discussed. The following topics are studied: (1) optical depths of the all the observed narrow rings; (2) satellite and ring separation timescales; (3) ring edge sharpness; (4) shock formation in narrow rings; (5) the existence of small satellites near the Uranian rings; and (6) the apse and node alignments of the eccentric and inclined rings.

  11. Dynamics of the Uranian Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the problems of the shepherding satellite model of Goldreich ant tremaine are discussed. The following topics are studied: (1) optical depths of the all the observed narrow rings; (2) satellite and ring separation timescales; (3) ring edge sharpness; (4) shock formation in narrow rings; (5) the existence of small satellites near the Uranian rings; and (6) the apse and node alignments of the eccentric and inclined rings.

  12. Dynamics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.

    1991-02-01

    The modeling of the dynamics of particle collisions within planetary rings is discussed. Particles in the rings collide with one another because they have small random motions in addition to their orbital velocity. The orbital speed is roughly 10 km/s, while the random motions have an average speed of about a tenth of a millimeter per second. As a result, the particle collisions are very gentle. Numerical analysis and simulation of the ring dynamics, performed with the aid of a supercomputer, is outlined.

  13. Theodolite Ring Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    Theodolite ring lights have been invented to ease a difficulty encountered in the well-established optical-metrology practice of using highly reflective spherical tooling balls as position references. A theodolite ring light produces a more easily visible reflection and eliminates the need for an autocollimating device. A theodolite ring light is a very bright light source that is well centered on the optical axis of the instrument. It can be fabricated, easily and inexpensively, for use on a theodolite or telescope of any diameter.

  14. Heavy ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  15. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  16. Hopkins with SPHERES RINGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-04

    ISS037-E-025870 (4 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Surrounding the two SPHERES mini-satellites is ring-shaped hardware known as the Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System, or RINGS. SPHERES-RINGS seeks to demonstrate wireless power transfer between satellites at a distance for enhanced operations.

  17. Hopkins with SPHERES RINGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-04

    ISS037-E-025872 (4 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Surrounding the two SPHERES mini-satellites is ring-shaped hardware known as the Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System, or RINGS. SPHERES-RINGS seeks to demonstrate wireless power transfer between satellites at a distance for enhanced operations.

  18. Hopkins with SPHERES RINGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-04

    ISS037-E-025866 (4 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Surrounding the two SPHERES mini-satellites is ring-shaped hardware known as the Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System, or RINGS. SPHERES-RINGS seeks to demonstrate wireless power transfer between satellites at a distance for enhanced operations.

  19. Hopkins with SPHERES RINGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-04

    ISS037-E-025868 (4 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Surrounding the two SPHERES mini-satellites is ring-shaped hardware known as the Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System, or RINGS. SPHERES-RINGS seeks to demonstrate wireless power transfer between satellites at a distance for enhanced operations.

  20. Hopkins with SPHERES RINGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-04

    ISS037-E-025879 (4 Nov. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Kibo laboratory, NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 37 flight engineer, conducts a session with a pair of bowling-ball-sized free-flying satellites known as Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES. Surrounding the two SPHERES mini-satellites is ring-shaped hardware known as the Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System, or RINGS. SPHERES-RINGS seeks to demonstrate wireless power transfer between satellites at a distance for enhanced operations.

  1. MAGNETS FOR A MUON STORAGE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER, B.; ANERELLA, M.; GHOSH, A.; GUPTA, R.; HARRISON, M.; SCHMALZLE, J.; SONDERICKER, J.; WILLEN, E.

    2002-06-18

    We present a new racetrack coil magnet design, with an open midplane gap, that keeps decay particles in a neutrino factory muon storage ring from directly hitting superconducting coils. The structure is very compact because coil ends overlap middle sections top and bottom for skew focusing optics. A large racetrack coil bend radius allows ''react and wind'' magnet technology to be used for brittle Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductors. We describe two versions: Design-A, a magnet presently under construction and Design-B, a further iterated concept that achieves the higher magnetic field quality specified in the neutrino factory feasibility Study-II report. For Design-B reverse polarity and identical end design of consecutive long and short coils offers theoretically perfect magnet end field error cancellation. These designs avoid the dead space penalty from coil ends and interconnect regions (a large fraction in machines with short length but large aperture magnets) and provide continuous bending or focusing without interruption. The coil support structure and cryostat are carefully optimized.

  2. Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin Quan

    2010-01-01

    Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase. However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant. When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated. In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3–related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing. In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories. At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories. The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication. This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome. PMID:21173116

  3. Scintillating C Ring

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-16

    Both luminous and translucent, the C ring sweeps out of the darkness of Saturn's shadow and obscures the planet at lower left. The ring is characterized by broad, isolated bright areas, or "plateaus," surrounded by fainter material. This view looks toward the unlit side of the rings from about 19 degrees above the ringplane. North on Saturn is up. The dark, inner B ring is seen at lower right. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 15, 2006 at a distance of approximately 632,000 kilometers (393,000 miles) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 56 degrees. Image scale is 34 kilometers (21 miles) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA08855

  4. Ring of Stellar Fire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-22

    This image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows where the action is taking place in galaxy NGC 1291. The outer ring, colored red, is filled with new stars that are igniting and heating up dust that glows with infrared light.

  5. Obscured by Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-29

    Saturn rings obscure part of Titan colorful visage in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft. The south polar vortex that first appeared in Titan atmosphere in 2012 is visible at the bottom of this view.

  6. Outer B Ring Edge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-03

    This image NASA Cassini spacecraft shows subtle, wavelike patterns, hundreds of narrow features resembling a record grooves in Saturn outer B-ring, and a noticeable abrupt change in overall brightness beyond the dark gap near the right.

  7. A-Ring Structures

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-23

    Several structures in Saturn A ring are exposed near the Encke Gap in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. A peculiar kink can be seen in one particularly bright ringlet at the bottom right.

  8. Ring Shadows on Janus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-23

    Sunlight passing through the Cassini Division between Saturn A and B rings sweeps across and illuminates the surface of the moon Janus in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Go to the Photojournal to view the animation.

  9. View of Saturn Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-18

    This view shows some detail and differences in the complex system of rings. This was one of the first pictures obtained once NASA Voyager 2 resumed returning images Aug. 29, 1979 after its scan platform was commanded to view Saturn.

  10. Rings and Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-30

    Saturn A ring is decorated with several kinds of waves. NASA Cassini spacecraft has captured a host of density waves, a bending wave, and the edge waves on the edge of the Keeler gap caused by the small moon Daphnis.

  11. Wisps Under the Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-28

    Dione beautiful wispy terrain is brightly lit alongside Saturn elegant rings in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The wisps are relatively young fractures on the trailing hemisphere of Dione icy surface.

  12. Warm core rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Gulf stream phenomena have been the focus of numerous studies by U.S. and Canadian oceanographic laboratories. Two years ago, observations of warm core rings associated with the Gulf Stream were reported in The Oceanography Report, (November 2, 1982, p. 834). It was noted then that the structure of warm core rings can undergo rapid transformation. Recently, a multidisciplinary group of physical and biological oceanographic institutions has examined the evolution of warm core rings in detail [Nature, 308, pp. 837-840, 1984]. The study has involved research vessels Endeavor, Atlantis II, and Albatross IV for surface measurements of temperature, salinity, and for measurement surface pigments to assess the concentration of marine plants. The results are that even though warm core rings are often very stable, undergoing only slow changes, it turns out that major alterations in structure can and do occur in short periods of 2-5 days.

  13. Saturn's dynamic D ring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A.; Showalter, M.R.; Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.; Bosh, A.S.; Tiscareno, M.S.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has provided the first clear images of the D ring since the Voyager missions. These observations show that the structure of the D ring has undergone significant changes over the last 25 years. The brightest of the three ringlets seen in the Voyager images (named D72), has transformed from a narrow, <40-km wide ringlet to a much broader and more diffuse 250-km wide feature. In addition, its center of light has shifted inwards by over 200 km relative to other features in the D ring. Cassini also finds that the locations of other narrow features in the D ring and the structure of the diffuse material in the D ring differ from those measured by Voyager. Furthermore, Cassini has detected additional ringlets and structures in the D ring that were not observed by Voyager. These include a sheet of material just interior to the inner edge of the C ring that is only observable at phase angles below about 60??. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instruments onboard Cassini show the D ring contains a variety of different particle populations with typical particle sizes ranging from 1 to 100 microns. High-resolution images reveal fine-scale structures in the D ring that appear to be variable in time and/or longitude. Particularly interesting is a remarkably regular, periodic structure with a wavelength of ??? 30 ?? km extending between orbital radii of 73,200 and 74,000 km. A similar structure was previously observed in 1995 during the occultation of the star GSC5249-01240, at which time it had a wavelength of ??? 60 ?? km. We interpret this structure as a periodic vertical corrugation in the D ring produced by differential nodal regression of an initially inclined ring. We speculate that this structure may have formed in response to an impact with a comet or meteoroid in early 1984. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic Newton's rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K. ); Dayal, V. )

    1992-03-09

    Interference fringes due to bondline thickness variation were observed in ultrasonic scans of the reflected echo amplitude from the bondline of adhesively joined aluminum skins. To demonstrate that full-field interference patterns are observable in point-by-point ultrasonic scans, an optical setup for Newton's rings was scanned ultrasonically in a water immersion tank. The ultrasonic scan showed distinct Newton's rings whose radii were in excellent agreement with the prediction.

  15. The Physics Program of a High-Luminosity Asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, A.; Mandelkern, M.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Burchat, P.; Kent, J.; Erbacher, R.; Vernon, W.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Porter, F.; Weinstein, A.; Wisniewski, W.; Wagner, S.; Franzini, P.; Tuts, M.; Averill, D.; Snyder, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Oddone, P.; Roe, N.; Ronan, M.; Spahn, M.; MacFarlane, D.; Bartelt, J.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Cords, D.; Dib, C.; Dorfan, J.; Dunietz, I.; Gilman, F.; Godfrey, G.; Hyer, T.; Jensen, G.; Leith, D.; Marsiske, H.; Nir, Y.; Lee-Franzini, J.

    1989-10-01

    A high-luminosity asymmetric energy B Factory, proposed as an upgrade to the PEP storage ring at SLAC, provides the best opportunity to study CP violation as a means of testing the consistency of the Standard Model. If the phenomenon of CP violation is xplained by the Standard Model simply through the non-zero angles and phase of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, then there are precise relations between the K-M parameters and the various measurable CP-violating asymmetries in B meson decay. Should these onsistency relations fail, the origin of CP violation must lie outside the Standard Model framework. Our measurements would then lead to the first experiment-driven extensions of the Standard Model. The B Factory will also carry out a varied, high-quality program of studies f other aspects of the physics of b quarks, as well as high-precision measurements in r and charm physics. We describe a detailed series of measurements to be carried out in the first few years at a peak luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}, the initial luminosity goal of the B Factory, as well as the program accessible to a larger data sample.

  16. Bending the Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Saturn's rings appear strangely warped in this view of the rings seen through the upper Saturn atmosphere.

    The atmosphere acts like a lens in refracting (bending) the light reflected from the rings. As the rings pass behind the overexposed limb (edge) of Saturn as seen from Cassini, the ring structure appears to curve downward due to the bending of the light as it passes through the upper atmosphere.

    This image was obtained using a near-infrared filter. The filter samples a wavelength where methane gas does not absorb light, thus making the far-off rings visible through the upper atmosphere.

    By comparing this image to similar ones taken using filters where methane gas does absorb, scientists can estimate the vertical profile of haze and the abundance of methane in Saturn's high atmosphere.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 14, 2005, through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers and at a distance of approximately 197,000 kilometers (123,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 820 meters (2,680 feet) per pixel.

  17. Nardo Ring, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

    The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Barely Bisected Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-12

    Saturn's shadow stretched beyond the edge of its rings for many years after Cassini first arrived at Saturn, casting an ever-lengthening shadow that reached its maximum extent at the planet's 2009 equinox. This image captured the moment in 2015 when the shrinking shadow just barely reached across the entire main ring system. The shadow will continue to shrink until the planet's northern summer solstice, at which point it will once again start lengthening across the rings, reaching across them in 2019. Like Earth, Saturn is tilted on its axis. And, just as on Earth, as the sun climbs higher in the sky, shadows get shorter. The projection of the planet's shadow onto the rings shrinks and grows over the course of its 29-year-long orbit, as the angle of the sun changes with respect to Saturn's equator. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 11 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Jan. 16, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.6 million miles (2.5 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is about 90 miles (150 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20498

  19. Saturn's F-ring and inner satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Saturn's F-ring and its inner shepherding satellite (1980S27) are pictured in this closeup Voyager 2 image acquired Aug. 25 from a range of 365,000 kilometers (227,000 miles). Features as small as 6 km. (3.7 mi.) across are visible. The satellite is elongated and irregular, with its longest axis pointing toward the center of Saturn (toward the upper right in this view). As seen here, the F-ring is thin and does not show the multiple, braided structure Voyager 1 saw last fall. Nor is there any indication of a band or kink in the ring at its closest point to the shepherd; such a feature would be consistent with some of the theories advanced on the formation of the braids. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  20. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the Kaon Factory central control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwood, Clifford; Ludgate, G. A.; Dohan, D. A.; Osberg, E. A.; Koscielniak, S.

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements.

  1. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Roberto; Guiducci, Susanna; Preger, Miro; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Chance, Antoine; Dadoun, Olivier; Poirier, Freddy; Variola, Alessandro; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  2. SuperB: A High-Luminosity Asymmetric e+e- Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bona, M.; /et al.

    2007-05-18

    We discuss herein the exciting physics program that can be accomplished with a very large sample of heavy quark and heavy lepton decays produced in the very clean environment of an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider; a program complementary to that of an experiment such as LHCb at a hadronic machine. It then presents the conceptual design of a new type of e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that produces a nearly two-order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity over the current generation of asymmetric B Factories. The key idea is the use of low emittance beams produced in an accelerator lattice derived from the ILC Damping Ring Design, together with a new collision region, again with roots in the ILC final focus design, but with important new concepts developed in this design effort. Remarkably, SuperB produces this very large improvement in luminosity with circulating currents and wallplug power similar to those of the current B Factories. There is clear synergy with ILC R&D; design efforts have already influenced one another, and many aspects of the ILC Damping Rings and Final Focus would be operationally tested at SuperB. Finally, the design of an appropriate detector, based on an upgrade of BABAR as an example, is discussed in some detail. A preliminary cost estimate is presented, as is an example construction timeline.

  3. Advanced Lightplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Neico Aviation, Inc.'s tubular fuselage frame of Prescott Pusher is heliarc welded at the factory. Wings, tail, and control surfaces are of traditional aluminum. A rear mounted 180 horsepower engine with a four bladed pusher propeller allows speeds up to 200 miles per hour; an advanced rotary engine and other powerplants being tested are expected to boost cruise speed above 200 miles per hour.

  4. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings [5, 8]. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~ 100m in size) have been identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images [10, 7, 9, 11]. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring [6, 2]. In this paper we present our new results about by now classical A ring propellers and more enigmatic B ring population. Due to the presence of self-gravity wakes the analysis of propeller brightness in ISS images always bears some ambiguity [7, 9] and consequently the exact morphology of propellers is not a settled issue. In 2008 we obtained a fortunate Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation of the largest A ring propeller Bleriot. Utilizing Cassini ISS images we obtain Bleriot orbit and demonstrate that UVIS Persei Rev42 occultation did cut across Bleriot about 100km downstream from the center. The occultation itself shows a prominent partial gap and higher density outer flanking wakes, while their orientation is consistent with a downstream cut. While in the UVIS occultation the partial gap is more prominent than the flanking wakes, the features mostly seen in Bleriot images are actually flanking wakes. One of the most interesting aspects of the A ring propellers are their wanderings, or longitudinal deviations from a pure circular orbit [11]. We numerically investigated the possibility of simple moon

  5. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV {times} 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e{sup +}-e{sup -} collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B{bar B} meson system, as well as beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment ({approximately}25% B{sup +}B{sup -}, B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0}); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and {bar B} decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B {yields} CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B {yields} {Psi}K{sub s}, an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  6. 2ND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF A MUON STORAGE RING NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    OZAKI,S.; PALMER,R.B.; ZISMAN,M.S.

    2001-06-18

    The design and simulated performance of a second feasibility study are presented. The efficiency of producing muons is {approx} 0.17 {micro}/p with 24 GeV protons. This study was sponsored by the BNL Director, with BNL site specific driver and layout. It was a follow on to the First Study[2] sponsored by the Fermilab Director, with Fermilab site specific driver and layout, and was the main US collaboration conceptual effort during the past year. Other studies, and technical work by the collaboration is reported in other papers.

  7. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called ``parasitic crossings (PC).`` The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8{sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} where {sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on.

  8. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called parasitic crossings (PC).'' The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8{sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} where {sigma}{sub Ox}{sup sptm} is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on.

  9. The Personal Software Process: Downscaling the factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the next wave of software process improvement (SPI) activities will be based on a people-centered paradigm. The most promising such paradigm, Watts Humphrey's personal software process (PSP), is summarized and its advantages are listed. The concepts of the PSP are shown also to fit a down-scaled version of Basili's experience factory. The author's data and lessons learned while practicing the PSP are presented along with personal experience, observations, and advice from the perspective of a consultant and teacher for the personal software process.

  10. Microbial Cell Factories for Diol Production.

    PubMed

    Sabra, W; Groeger, C; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diols are compounds with two hydroxyl groups and have a wide range of appealing applications as chemicals and fuels. In particular, five low molecular diol compounds, namely 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO), 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), 1,3-butanediol (1,3-BDO), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO), can be biotechnologically produced by direct microbial bioconversion of renewable materials. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the microbial production of diols, especially regarding the engineering of typical microbial strains as cell factory and the development of corresponding bioconversion processes.

  11. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  12. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A. ); Sullivan, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Resin Dermatitis in a Car Factory

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100

  14. APIARY B-Factory Separation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Sullivan, M.

    1991-05-03

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate.

  15. Ring Wing for an underwater missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

    Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

  16. Ring correlations in random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the correlations between rings in random network glasses in two dimensions as a function of their separation. Initially, we use the topological separation (measured by the number of intervening rings), but this leads to pseudo-long-range correlations due to a lack of topological charge neutrality in the shells surrounding a central ring. This effect is associated with the noncircular nature of the shells. It is, therefore, necessary to use the geometrical distance between ring centers. Hence we find a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law out to larger distances, with the correlations between rings decaying away when two rings are more than about three rings apart.

  17. Cooler Rings and their Applications - Proceedings of the 19th Ins Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, T.; Noda, A.

    1991-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Preface * Opening Address * I. STATUS REPORT * I-1 The IUCF Cooler after Three Years * I-2 The Heidelberg Heavy Ion Cooler Ring TSR * I-3 Storage and Cooling of Heavy Ions in the ESR up to 200 MeV/u * I-4 Present Status of CELSIUS * I-5 Cooler Synchrotron TARN II, Present and Future * I-6 SATURNE II and MIMAS Status Report * I-7 CRYRING - a Low Energy Heavy Ion Facility * I-8 The Ukrainian (INR, Kiev's) Storage Ring * I-9 Status of the COSY-Jülich Project * II. BEAM COOLING * II-1 In Memory of Dr. Helmut Poth * II-2 Performance of the IUCF Electron Cooling System * II-3 Electron Cooling at TARN II * II-4 Status of the ESR-Electron Cooler and First Results * II-5 Physics with Stored Lithium Ions: Intrabeam Relaxation, Laser Cooling, and Observation of a Cold and Long Lived Ion Beam * II-6 Laser Cooling and Beam Crystallization * II-7 Cyclotron Maser Cooling of Electron and Ion Beams * III. ION TRAP * III-1 Penning Trap Experiments at the University of Washington and at NIST in Boulder * III-2 The HITRAP Project at GSI * III-3 Electron Cooling of Trapped Antiprotons * III-4 Some Results of an RF Ion Trap at NRLM * III-5 Preliminary Results of Laser Cooling of Stored Be Ions in a Penning Trap * III-6 Construction of an RF Ion-Trap for Nuclear Laser Spectroscopy * IV. NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS * IV-1 High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Deeply-Bound Pionic Atoms in Heavy Nuclei by Pion-Transfer Reactions of Inverse Kinematics Using the GSI Cooler Ring ESR * IV-2 Study of Exotic Nuclei Using a Storage Ring * IV-3 Nuclear Physics with the Indiana Cooler * IV-4 The Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Muon * IV-5 Particle Physics at CELSIUS * IV-6 ϕ0-Factory using TARN II Accelerator * IV-7 Measurement of Energy Dependent Phenomena with Intenal (Polarized) Targets in TARN II * V. ACCELERATOR * V-1 Advanced Stacking Methods Using Electron Cooling at the TSR Heidelberg * V-2 Ultra High Vacuum

  18. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2016-02-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant differences from the AC case. In particular, the ring does not fly off the core but rises a short distance and then falls back. If the ring jumps high enough, the rising and the falling motion of the ring does not follow simple vertical motion of a projectile. This indicates that there are additional forces on the ring in each part of its motion. Four possible stages of the motion of the ring with DC are identified, which result from the ring current changing directions during the jump in response to a changing magnetic flux through the moving ring.

  19. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  20. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-02-02

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  1. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-03

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  2. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~<500m in size) have been indirectly identified in Saturn's A ring through their propeller signature in the images. Furthermore, recent Cassini observations indicate the possible existence of objects embedded even in Saturn's B and C ring. In this paper we present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B

  3. Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings.

    PubMed

    Denes, Peter; Schmitt, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Dramatic advances in synchrotron radiation sources produce ever-brighter beams of X-rays, but those advances can only be used if there is a corresponding improvement in X-ray detectors. With the advent of storage ring sources capable of being diffraction-limited (down to a certain wavelength), advances in detector speed, dynamic range and functionality is required. While many of these improvements in detector capabilities are being pursued now, the orders-of-magnitude increases in brightness of diffraction-limited storage ring sources will require challenging non-incremental advances in detectors. This article summarizes the current state of the art, developments underway worldwide, and challenges that diffraction-limited storage ring sources present for detectors.

  4. Stacked Corrugated Horn Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief describes a method of machining and assembly when the depth of corrugations far exceeds the width and conventional machining is not practical. The horn is divided into easily machined, individual rings with shoulders to control the depth. In this specific instance, each of the corrugations is identical in profile, and only differs in diameter and outer profile. The horn is segmented into rings that are cut with an interference fit (zero clearance with all machining errors biased toward contact). The interference faces can be cut with a reverse taper to increase the holding strength of the joint. The taper is a compromise between the interference fit and the clearance of the two faces during assembly. Each internal ring is dipped in liquid nitrogen, then nested in the previous, larger ring. The ring is rotated in the nest until the temperature of the two parts equalizes and the pieces lock together. The resulting assay is stable, strong, and has an internal finish that cannot be achieved through other methods.

  5. Piston Ring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, M.

    1943-01-01

    The discovery and introduction of the internal combustion engine has resulted in a very rapid development in machines utilizing the action of a piston. Design has been limited by the internal components of the engine, which has been subjected to ever increasing thermal and mechanical stresses, Of these internal engine components, the piston and piston rings are of particular importance and the momentary position of engine development is not seldom dependent upon the development of both of the components, The piston ring is a well-known component and has been used in its present shape in the steam engine of the last century, Corresponding to its importance, the piston ring has been a rich field for creative activity and it is noteworthy that in spite of this the ring has maintained its shape through the many years. From the many and complicated designs which have been suggested as a packing between piston and cylinder wall hardly one suggestion has remained which does not resemble the original design of cast iron rectangular ring.

  6. Two F Ring Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These views, taken two hours apart, demonstrate the dramatic variability in the structure of Saturn's intriguing F ring.

    In the image at the left, ringlets in the F ring and Encke Gap display distinctive kinks, and there is a bright patch of material on the F ring's inner edge. Saturn's moon Janus (181 kilometers, or 113 miles across) is shown here, partly illuminated by reflected light from the planet.

    At the right, Prometheus (102 kilometers, or 63 miles across) orbits ahead of the radial striations in the F ring, called 'drapes' by scientists. The drapes appear to be caused by successive passes of Prometheus as it reaches the greatest distance (apoapse) in its orbit of Saturn. Also in this image, the outermost ringlet visible in the Encke Gap displays distinctive bright patches.

    These views were obtained from about three degrees below the ring plane.

    The images were taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on June 29, 2005, when Cassini was about 1.5 million kilometers (900,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is about 9 kilometers (6 miles) per pixel.

  7. Ring solitons on vortices.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, P G; Nistazakis, H E; Frantzeskakis, D J; Malomed, B A; Bishop, A R

    2001-12-01

    Interaction of a ring dark or antidark soliton (RDS and RADS, respectively) with a vortex is considered in the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic (for RDS) or saturable (for RADS) nonlinearities. By means of direct simulations, it is found that the interaction gives rise to either an almost isotropic or a spiral-like pattern. A transition between them occurs at a critical value of the RDS or RADS amplitude, the spiral pattern appearing if the amplitude exceeds the critical value. An initial ring soliton created on top of the vortex splits into a pair of rings moving inward and outward. In the subcritical case, the inbound ring reverses its polarity, bouncing from the vortex core, without conspicuous effect on the core. In the transcritical case, the bounced ring soliton suffers a spiral deformation, while the vortex changes its position and structure and also loses its axial symmetry. Through a variational-type approach to the system's Hamiltonian, we additionally find that the vortex-RDS and vortex-RADS interactions are, respectively, attractive and repulsive. Simulations with the vortex placed eccentrically with respect to the RDS or RADS reveal the generation of strongly localized multispot dark and/or antidark coherent structures. The occurrence of spiral-like patterns in many numerical experiments prompted an attempt to generate a spiral dark soliton, but the latter is found to suffer a core instability that converts it into a rotating dipole emitting waves in the outward direction.

  8. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  9. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  10. Rings in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.; Cuzzi, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    Saturn, Jupiter, and Uranus have rings with different structure and composition. The rings consist of tiny masses in independent orbits. Photographs and data obtained by the Voyager project have aided in the understanding of Saturn's rings. Spokes have been found in B ring and boards, knots, and twist in F ring. Particles on the order of a micrometer in size are believed to occur in F, B, and A rings. The dominant component is water ice. The rings of Uranus are narrow and separated by broad empty regions. The technique used to study them has been stellar occulation. Nothing is known of particle size. The dominant component is believed to be silicates rich in compounds that absorb sunlight. Jupiter's rings consist of 3 main parts: a bright ring, a diffuse disk, and a halo. Use of Pioneer 10 data and other techniques have indicated particle sizes on the order of several micrometers and some at least a centimeter in diameter. The architecture of the ring system results from the interplay of a number of forces. These include gravitational forces due to moons outside the rings and moonlets embedded in them, electromagnetic forces due to the planet's rotating magnetic field, and even the gentle forces exerted by the dilute gaseous medium in which the rings rotate. Each of these forces is discussed. Several alternative explanations of how the rings arose are considered. The primary difference in these hypotheses is the account of the relationship between the ring particles of today and the primordial ring material. (SC)

  11. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-12-13

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive "cell factories": the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO₂, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  12. Quarkonium States at B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Robutti, Enrico; /INFN, Genoa

    2011-11-21

    An overview is given on recent progress in the study of quarkonium spectroscopy at the B-factories. In particular, an updated status report is presented of the long list of 'charmonium-like' resonances newly discovered, whose assignment as true charmonium states is in most cases at least controversial. Also, new measurements on the decay properties of bottomonium states above open-B production thresholds are shown. Much of the progress attained in recent years in the study of the quarkonium spectra is owed to the measurements performed at B-factories. The impressive amount of data recorded by the BABAR and Belle experiments has made it possible to study rare decay chains and to look for as yet undiscovered resonances in the charmonium and bottomonium mass regions. Results presented here are based on different subsamples of the full datasets recorded up to now by the two experiments, corresponding to integrated luminosities of about 430 fb{sup -1}(BABAR - final) and about 850 fb{sup -1}(Belle). Significant contributions also come from the analysis of the various data samples recorded by the CLEO detector.

  13. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  14. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural

  15. Stuck on the Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-13

    Like a drop of dew hanging on a leaf, Tethys appears to be stuck to the A and F rings from this perspective. Tethys (660 miles, or 1,062 kilometers across), like the ring particles, is composed primarily of ice. The gap in the A ring through which Tethys is visible is the Keeler gap, which is kept clear by the small moon Daphnis (not visible here). This view looks toward the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Tethys. North on Tethys is up and rotated 43 degrees to the right. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 14, 2014. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.8 million kilometers) from Tethys and at a Sun-Tethys-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 22 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (11 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18284

  16. Ring-Bow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    Although the rings lack the many colors of the rainbow, they arc across the sky of Saturn. From equatorial locations on the planet, they'd appear very thin since they would be seen edge-on. Closer to the poles, the rings would appear much wider; in some locations (for parts of the Saturn's year), they would even block the sun for part of each day. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 19 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on April 10, 2017. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 680,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 128 degrees. Image scale is 43 miles (69 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21339

  17. Deployable Fresnel Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Lin, Gregory Y.

    2014-01-01

    Deployable Fresnel rings (DFRs) significantly enhance the realizable gain of an antenna. This innovation is intended to be used in combination with another antenna element, as the DFR itself acts as a focusing or microwave lens element for a primary antenna. This method is completely passive, and is also completely wireless in that it requires neither a cable, nor a connector from the antenna port of the primary antenna to the DFR. The technology improves upon the previous NASA technology called a Tri-Sector Deployable Array Antenna in at least three critical aspects. In contrast to the previous technology, this innovation requires no connector, cable, or other physical interface to the primary communication radio or sensor device. The achievable improvement in terms of antenna gain is significantly higher than has been achieved with the previous technology. Also, where previous embodiments of the Tri-Sector antenna have been constructed with combinations of conventional (e.g., printed circuit board) and conductive fabric materials, this innovation is realized using only conductive and non-conductive fabric (i.e., "e-textile") materials, with the possible exception of a spring-like deployment ring. Conceptually, a DFR operates by canceling the out-of-phase radiation at a plane by insertion of a conducting ring or rings of a specific size and distance from the source antenna, defined by Fresnel zones. Design of DFRs follow similar procedures to those outlined for conventional Fresnel zone rings. Gain enhancement using a single ring is verified experimentally and through computational simulation. The experimental test setup involves a microstrip patch antenna that is directly behind a single-ring DFR and is radiating towards a second microstrip patch antenna. The first patch antenna and DFR are shown. At 2.42 GHz, the DFR improves the transmit antenna gain by 8.6 dB, as shown in Figure 2, relative to the wireless link without the DFR. A figure illustrates the

  18. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  19. Carbonate factories: A conundrum in sedimentary geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, L.; Hallock, P.

    2008-03-01

    by the end-Permian extinctions, excess photosynthesis by phytoplankton and microbial assemblages in surface waters, induced by moderately high CO 2 and temperature during the Early Mesozoic, supported proliferation of non-tissular metazoans (e.g., sponges) and heterotrophic bacteria at the sea floor. Metabolic activity by those microbes, especially sulfate reduction, resulted in abundant biologically-induced geochemical carbonate precipitation on and within the sea floor. For example, with the opening of Tethyan seaways during the Triassic, massive sponge/microbe boundstones (the benthic automicrite factory) formed steep, massive and thick progradational slopes and, locally, mud-mounds. As tectonic processes created shallow epicontinental seas, photosynthesis drove lime-mud precipitation in the illuminated zone of the water column. The resulting neritic lime-mud component of the shallow-water carbonate factory became predominant during the Jurassic, paralleling the increase in atmospheric pCO 2, while the decreasing importance of the benthic automicrite factory parallels the diversification of calcifying metazoans, phytoplankton and zooplankton. With atmospheric pCO 2 declining through the Cretaceous, the potential habitats for neritic lime-mud precipitation declined. At the same time, peak oceanic Ca 2+ concentrations promoted biotically-controlled calcification by the skeletal factory. With changes produced by extinctions and turnovers at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, adaptations to decreasing Ca 2+ and pCO 2, coupled with increasing global temperature gradients (i.e., high-latitude and deep-water cooling), and strategies that efficiently linked photosynthesis and calcification, promoted successive changes of the dominant skeletal factory through the Cenozoic: larger benthic foraminifers (protist-protist symbiosis) during the Paleogene, red algae during the Miocene and modern coral reefs (metazoan-protist symbiosis) since Late Miocene.

  20. Operating Systems for Ring-Based Multiprocessors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Projects Agency (DoD) LJ ARPA Order No. 4095 Momtored by Naval Research Laboratory P -Under Contract No. N00014-81C- 2 15. T3~rT3 01 12 080 Appoved...FOR RING-BASED MULTPRDOECSO Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DoD) ARPA Order No. 4095 Monitored by Naval Research Laboratory...policies, ei- ther expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or-e the U. S. Government. IDISTR IBUTION STATi0,14T 11 * I

  1. Asymptotic Normality Through Factorial Cumulants and Partition Identities

    PubMed Central

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Hitczenko, Paweł; López-Blázquez, Fernando; Rempała, Grzegorz; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments as do (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for ‘moments’ of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re-)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution. PMID:24591773

  2. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  3. Impact of HIV/AIDS on labor productivity in Akaki fiber products factory, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Omer, Endashaw M; Mariam, Damen Haile

    2008-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has become a full-blown development crisis affecting all sectors of the economy in most developing countries. Its social and economic consequences are felt widely not only in health but in education, industry, agriculture as well as transport. The study attempted to estimate the changes in worker's output and attendance associated with advancing HIV infection, and direct costs incurred by a fiber products factory due to illness and death related to HIV/AIDS. The study is a retrospective cohort with accounting method of cost estimation. The study subjects were factory workers enrolled in a cohort study of HIV incidence and progression in Akaki, Ethiopia since February 1997. The mean incentive earnings were not significantly different between HIV positives and negatives at baseline (in 1997). However, in the following years (1998, 1999 and 2000) the incentive earnings of HIV positives were significantly lower than the incentive earnings of HIV negatives. Trend analysis showed that advancing HIV infection, as measured by drop in CD4 count and increasing viral load, is associated with reduction in productivity and increased sick leave days. The study has shown that there is a direct negative impact of HIV infection on the productivity of factory workers and recommends institution of ART centers and programs in work places to mitigate the socio economic impact of the pandemic.

  4. On the Role of Phase Alignments on Planetary Ring Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. W.; Stewart, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    We present our work on the role of epicyclic phase alignments on the edges of self-gravitating planetary rings. We will show the results of our work with the narrow ring instability, first reported on at last year's meeting. In particular, we will demonstrate that the instability on the edges of the narrow rings are not a global fluid instability and are probably a local phenomenon. The driver for the instability appears to be the particles' need to advance in their epicyclic paths combined with the tight packing, which prevents them from being able to move along their orbits. We will demonstrate that the early stages of the instability do not involve communication across the narrow ring. Thus, the instability should be applicable to broad rings and not just to our unphysically narrow rings. We will also show the results of our models of the edges of broad rings. In this case, we see that the entire ring edge quickly comes into approximate phase alignment. Unlike previous studies, we only rely on the self-gravity of the ring and particle-particle collisions to get this state. Possible implications of these results will be discussed. This work is supported by a NASA GSRP and the Cassini mission.

  5. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  6. Unidirectional ring lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1994-09-20

    Unidirectional ring lasers formed by integrating nonreciprocal optical elements into the resonant ring cavity is disclosed. These optical elements either attenuate light traveling in a nonpreferred direction or amplify light traveling in a preferred direction. In one preferred embodiment the resonant cavity takes the form of a circle with an S-shaped crossover waveguide connected to two points on the interior of the cavity such that light traveling in a nonpreferred direction is diverted from the cavity into the crossover waveguide and reinjected out of the other end of the crossover waveguide into the cavity as light traveling in the preferred direction. 21 figs.

  7. Unidirectional ring lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, John P.; Craft, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional ring lasers formed by integrating nonreciprocal optical elements into the resonant ring cavity. These optical elements either attenuate light traveling in a nonpreferred direction or amplify light traveling in a preferred direction. In one preferred embodiment the resonant cavity takes the form of a circle with an S-shaped crossover waveguide connected to two points on the interior of the cavity such that light traveling in a nonpreferred direction is diverted from the cavity into the crossover waveguide and reinjected out of the other end of the crossover waveguide into the cavity as light traveling in the preferred direction.

  8. GUARD RING SEMICONDUCTOR JUNCTION

    DOEpatents

    Goulding, F.S.; Hansen, W.L.

    1963-12-01

    A semiconductor diode having a very low noise characteristic when used under reverse bias is described. Surface leakage currents, which in conventional diodes greatly contribute to noise, are prevented from mixing with the desired signal currents. A p-n junction is formed with a thin layer of heavily doped semiconductor material disposed on a lightly doped, physically thick base material. An annular groove cuts through the thin layer and into the base for a short distance, dividing the thin layer into a peripheral guard ring that encircles the central region. Noise signal currents are shunted through the guard ring, leaving the central region free from such currents. (AEC)

  9. Satellite Rings Movie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-30

    This brief movie clip (of which the release image is a still frame), taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft as it approached Jupiter, shows the motions, over a 16 hour-period, of two satellites embedded in Jupiter's ring. The moon Adrastea is the fainter of the two, and Metis the brighter. Images such as these will be used to refine the orbits of the two bodies. The movie was made from images taken during a 40-hour sequence of the Jovian ring on December 11, 2000. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02872

  10. Ring laser gyroscope anode

    SciTech Connect

    Ljung, B.H.

    1981-03-17

    An anode for a ring laser gyroscope which provides improved current stability in the glow discharge path is disclosed. The anode of this invention permits operation at lower currents thereby allowing a reduction of heat dissipation in the ring laser gyroscope. The anode of one embodiment of this invention is characterized by a thumbtack appearance with a spherical end where the normal sharp end of the thumbtack would be located. The stem of the anode extends from the outside of the gyroscope structure to the interior of the structure such that the spherical end is substantially adjacent to the laser beam.

  11. DIRC, the internally reflecting ring imaging Cherenkov detector for BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, I.; Aston, D.; Aleksan, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIRC is a new type of Cherenkov imaging device that will be used for the first time in the BABAR detector at the asymmetric B-factory, PEP-II. It is based on total internal reflection and uses long, rectangular bars made from synthetic fused silica as Cherenkov radiator and light guide. The principles of the DIRC ring imaging Cherenkov technique are explained and results from the prototype program are presented. Its choice for the BABAR detector particle identification system is motivated, followed by a discussion of the quartz radiator properties and the detector design.

  12. Single ring vs multiple ring determination of Super Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Patrick; Messier, Mark

    2004-10-01

    Super Kamiokande houses the world's largest Cherenkov detector and whose primary goal is to detect and study neutrino interactions. My purpose in the project was to write a program to enhance the accuracy the ring counting. Currently, ring counting is the largest single source of systematic uncertainty in the single ring event rate, contributing an uncertainty of 5-8This article presents an algorithm the single ring selection efficiency based on a statistical test of azimuthal symmetry of the event topology. With the aid of my advisor, Dr. Mark Messier, I was able to write a program that enhanced the decision between single-ring and multiple ring events by 35

  13. Saturn's Rings, the Yarkovsky Effects, and the Ring of Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2004-01-01

    The dimensions of Saturn's A and B rings may be determined by the seasonal Yarkovsky effect and the Yarkovsky-Schach effect; the two effects confine the rings between approximately 1.68 and approximately 2.23 Saturn radii, in reasonable agreement with the observed values of 1.525 and 2.267. The C ring may be sparsely populated because its particles are transients on their way to Saturn; the infall may create a luminous Ring of Fire around Saturn's equator. The ring system may be young: in the past heat flow from Saturn's interior much above its present value would not permit rings to exist.

  14. The elusive rings of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, C. C.

    1992-04-01

    An overview of investigations of Neptune's rings is presented in which the recent data and findings from the Voyager 2 mission are emphasized. The evolving interpretation of the ring arcs is outlined, and the concept of resonance in the rings is described. Illustrations of the rings, the moons of Neptune, and the interactions between the two are given, and attention is given to the development of the rings by means of the catastrophic breakup of a planetary satellite. The very large crater on the Mimas satellite is given as evidence of potentially catastrophic impacts, and the implications of further breakup are discussed. A total of four rings are identified which include 3 pronounced rings and one ring that is more diaphanous. Clumps in the arcs are discussed in terms of the possible existence of large objects within the rings, and interparticle collisions are theorized to account for the large arc dust content.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast.

  16. The formation of peak rings in large impact craters.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Joanna V; Gulick, Sean P S; Bralower, Timothy; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles; Collins, Gareth S; Coolen, Marco J L; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Jones, Heather; Kring, David A; Le Ber, Erwan; Lofi, Johanna; Long, Xiao; Lowery, Christopher; Mellett, Claire; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Osinski, Gordon R; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael; Rae, Auriol; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Douglas R; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Whalen, Michael; Wittmann, Axel; Yamaguchi, Kosei E; Zylberman, William

    2016-11-18

    Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Making Molecular Borromean Rings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Cari D.; Tangchaivang, Nichol; Cantrill, Stuart J.; Chichak, Kelly S.; Peters, Andrea J.; Stoddart, Fraser J.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure that requires seven 4-hour blocks of time to allow undergraduate students to prepare the molecular Borromean rings (BRs) on a gram-scale in 90% yield is described. The experiment would serve as a nice capstone project to culminate any comprehensive organic laboratory course and expose students to fundamental concepts, symmetry point…

  18. Exotic damping ring lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper looks at, and compares three types of damping ring lattices: conventional, wiggler lattice with finite ..cap alpha.., wiggler lattice with ..cap alpha.. = 0, and observes the attainable equilibrium emittances for the three cases assuming a constraint on the attainable longitudinal impedance of 0.2 ohms. The emittance obtained are roughly in the ratio 4:2:1 for these cases.

  19. Reading, Writing, and Rings!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

    2008-01-01

    "Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

  20. Reading, Writing, and Rings!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pamela; Li, Erika; Hammon, Art

    2008-01-01

    "Reading, Writing, and Rings!" was created by a team of elementary teachers, literacy experts, and scientists in order to integrate science and literacy. These free units bring students inside NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn. The authors--a science teacher and education outreach specialist and two evaluators of educational programs--have…

  1. Making Molecular Borromean Rings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Cari D.; Tangchaivang, Nichol; Cantrill, Stuart J.; Chichak, Kelly S.; Peters, Andrea J.; Stoddart, Fraser J.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure that requires seven 4-hour blocks of time to allow undergraduate students to prepare the molecular Borromean rings (BRs) on a gram-scale in 90% yield is described. The experiment would serve as a nice capstone project to culminate any comprehensive organic laboratory course and expose students to fundamental concepts, symmetry point…

  2. Ring of Stellar Death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a dying star (center) surrounded by a cloud of glowing gas and dust. Thanks to Spitzer's dust-piercing infrared eyes, the new image also highlights a never-before-seen feature -- a giant ring of material (red) slightly offset from the cloud's core. This clumpy ring consists of material that was expelled from the aging star.

    The star and its cloud halo constitute a 'planetary nebula' called NGC 246. When a star like our own Sun begins to run out of fuel, its core shrinks and heats up, boiling off the star's outer layers. Leftover material shoots outward, expanding in shells around the star. This ejected material is then bombarded with ultraviolet light from the central star's fiery surface, producing huge, glowing clouds -- planetary nebulas -- that look like giant jellyfish in space.

    In this image, the expelled gases appear green, and the ring of expelled material appears red. Astronomers believe the ring is likely made of hydrogen molecules that were ejected from the star in the form of atoms, then cooled to make hydrogen pairs. The new data will help explain how planetary nebulas take shape, and how they nourish future generations of stars.

    This image composite was taken on Dec. 6, 2003, by Spitzer's infrared array camera, and is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

  3. Ring of Stellar Death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows a dying star (center) surrounded by a cloud of glowing gas and dust. Thanks to Spitzer's dust-piercing infrared eyes, the new image also highlights a never-before-seen feature -- a giant ring of material (red) slightly offset from the cloud's core. This clumpy ring consists of material that was expelled from the aging star.

    The star and its cloud halo constitute a 'planetary nebula' called NGC 246. When a star like our own Sun begins to run out of fuel, its core shrinks and heats up, boiling off the star's outer layers. Leftover material shoots outward, expanding in shells around the star. This ejected material is then bombarded with ultraviolet light from the central star's fiery surface, producing huge, glowing clouds -- planetary nebulas -- that look like giant jellyfish in space.

    In this image, the expelled gases appear green, and the ring of expelled material appears red. Astronomers believe the ring is likely made of hydrogen molecules that were ejected from the star in the form of atoms, then cooled to make hydrogen pairs. The new data will help explain how planetary nebulas take shape, and how they nourish future generations of stars.

    This image composite was taken on Dec. 6, 2003, by Spitzer's infrared array camera, and is composed of images obtained at four wavelengths: 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red).

  4. Crescent Moon with Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-14

    This poetic scene shows the giant, smog-enshrouded moon Titan behind Saturn nearly edge-on rings. Much smaller Epimetheus 116 kilometers, or 72 miles across is just visible to the left of Titan 5,150 kilometers, or 3,200 miles across

  5. Epimetheus Above the Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-09

    Although Epimetheus appears to be lurking above the rings here, it's actually just an illusion resulting from the viewing angle. In reality, Epimetheus and the rings both orbit in Saturn's equatorial plane. Inner moons and rings orbit very near the equatorial plane of each of the four giant planets in our solar system, but more distant moons can have orbits wildly out of the equatorial plane. It has been theorized that the highly inclined orbits of the outer, distant moons are remnants of the random directions from which they approached the planets they orbit. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about -0.3 degrees below the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 26, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 500,000 miles (800,000 kilometers) from Epimetheus and at a Sun-Epimetheus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 62 degrees. Image scale is 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18342

  6. Rings In Between

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-05

    Saturn rings lie between a pair of moons in this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft that features Mimas and Prometheus. Mimas is the more noticeable of the two moons at top left, Prometheus is near the center of image and closest to Cassini.

  7. Ring laser scatterometer

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2005-06-28

    A scatterometer utilizes the dead zone resulting from lockup caused by scatter from a sample located in the optical path of a ring laser at a location where counter-rotating pulses cross. The frequency of one pulse relative to the other is varied across the lockup dead zone.

  8. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  9. Rings from Close Encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  10. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  11. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility.

  12. The climacteric of Chinese factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tang, G W

    1994-10-01

    Chinese factory workers (427) mainly of Fujian origin were found to have few climacteric symptoms. Of these, 65% and 50% reported having no circulatory and nervosity symptoms, respectively. Only 18% of women experienced hot flushes. The climacteric symptoms were more pronounced at the perimenopausal period (P < 0.001) when these women experienced more irregular menstruation. Low socio-economic status and educational level did not have adverse effects on the symptom reporting. High parity and employment may be positive factors in this period of change of life. A majority of women (74%) felt that the climacteric and menopause is a natural process which caused them no concern. Of those who were still menstruating 80% did not anticipate that they would have problems with the climacteric and menopause. These women's different climacteric pattern could be related to their introspective abilities to cope adequately or in an impersonal manner.

  13. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  14. Upgrade of the Photon Factory Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obina, T.; Pak, C. O.; Sato, Y.; Mishina, A.; Harada, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Myajima, T.; Nagahashi, S.; Nogami, T.; Sakanaka, S.; Shioya, T.; Tadano, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Umemori, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Photon Factory control system was originally developed more than 20 years ago and has been upgraded several times. As a part of the straight-sections upgrade, which started in March, 2005, we renewed the control system incorporating modern technologies in both low-level and high-level control layers. In the low-level layer, a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is now intensively used for title safety control system, for RF klystron control boards and for the vacuum control system. In the middle-level and high-level layers, the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) software toolkit was adopted. We also replaced VME-board computers with HP-RT operating system by Linux-based computers, which are now used as input/output controllers (IOCs) for the EPICS. The new system has been running without any serious problems since its commissioning in September, 2005.

  15. [Toxic polyneuropathies in shoe factories: preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Carapella, C

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning 19 shoe factories of Marches province, where 32 cases of polyneuropathy, upon 1264 workmen, have been verified. After examination of qualitative and quantitative risk factors the following conclusions can be deduced. Under the etiological aspect the syndrome can be attributed to poisoning caused by environmental pollutions and thus relating to aliphatic hydrocarbons (exane-cicloexane). Under the quantitative aspect the tecnopatic risk has a multifactorial origin which can be summarised as follows: 1) lack of poor efficiency of environmental purification systems; 2) lack of hygienic-environmental elements; 3) lack of sanitary precautions; 4) poor work organization. A strong preventive therapy is necessary to avoid or at least to reduce the polyneuretic tecnopathy incidence.

  16. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  17. Cells as factories for humanized encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengwei; Cartier, Regis; Hohl, Anja; Farinacci, Maura; Dorhoi, Anca; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Ralston, John; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Möhwald, Helmuth; Wang, Dayang

    2011-05-11

    Biocompatibility is of paramount importance for drug delivery, tumor labeling, and in vivo application of nanoscale bioprobes. Until now, biocompatible surface processing has typically relied on PEGylation and other surface coatings, which, however, cannot minimize clearance by macrophages or the renal system but may also increase the risk of chemical side effects. Cell membranes provide a generic and far more natural approach to the challenges of encapsulation and delivery in vivo. Here we harness for the first time living cells as "factories" to manufacture cell membrane capsules for encapsulation and delivery of drugs, nanoparticles, and other biolabels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the built-in protein channels of the new capsules can be utilized for controlled release of encapsulated reagents.

  18. The gravitational interaction between inclined, elliptical rings. [Uranus rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    An expression for the potential for two elliptical, inclined rings is derived from a model in which the gravitational torque between two wide rings or within a ring of finite width can prevent differential precession caused by planetary oblateness. The model was proposed to explain the observed eccentricity and width variations of the Uranian epsilon ring. The stationary solutions and stability of this system are examined.

  19. Clinical Laboratories – Production Factories or Specialized Diagnostic Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Since a large proportion of medical decisions are based on laboratory results, clinical laboratories should meet the increasing demand of clinicians and their patients. Huge central laboratories may process over 10 million tests annually; they act as production factories, measuring emergency and routine tests with sufficient speed and accuracy. At the same time, they also serve as specialized diagnostic centers where well-trained experts analyze and interpret special test results. It is essential to improve and constantly monitor this complex laboratory service, by several methods. Sample transport by pneumatic tube system, use of an advanced laboratory information system and point-of-care testing may result in decreased total turnaround time. The optimization of test ordering may result in a faster and more cost-effective laboratory service. Autovalidation can save time for laboratory specialists, when the analysis of more complex results requires their attention. Small teams of experts responsible for special diagnostic work, and their interpretative reporting according to predetermined principles, may help to minimize subjectivity of these special reports. Although laboratory investigations have become so diversely developed in the past decades, it is essential that the laboratory can provide accurate results relatively quickly, and that laboratory specialists can support the diagnosis and monitoring of patients by adequate interpretation of esoteric laboratory methods. PMID:27683528

  20. Creating plant molecular factories for industrial and nutritional isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia Ma; Almeida, Juliana; Fraser, Paul D

    2017-08-21

    Chemical refining is a highly efficient process that has driven industrialisation and globalisation. However, dwindling fuel reserves and climatic fluctuation are now imposing key societal and economic challenges to health and welfare provision, agriculture, manufacturing outputs and energy. Plants are potentially exploitable 'green' chemical factories, with vast chemical diversity that can be used for the discovery and production of food, feed, medicines and biomaterials. Despite notable advances, plant based production under real-life scenarios remains, in most cases, economically uncompetitive when compared to inherently non-sustainable petrochemical based processes. In the present review the strategies available and those emerging will be described. Furthermore, how can the new evolving molecular tools such as genome editing be utilised to create a new paradigm of plant-based production? To illustrate the present status quo, we have chosen the isoprenoids as the class of natural products. These compounds display vast chemical diversity and have been used across multiple industrial sectors as medicines, supplements in food and feedstuffs, colourants and fragrances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.