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Sample records for failed fuel detection

  1. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  2. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  3. Detection and analysis of particles with failed SiC in AGR-1 fuel compacts

    DOE PAGES

    Hunn, John D.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Montgomery, Fred C.; Morris, Robert N.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Harp, Jason M.; Ploger, Scott A.

    2016-04-06

    As the primary barrier to release of radioactive isotopes emitted from the fuel kernel, retention performance of the SiC layer in tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles is critical to the overall safety of reactors that utilize this fuel design. Most isotopes are well-retained by intact SiC coatings, so pathways through this layer due to cracking, structural defects, or chemical attack can significantly contribute to radioisotope release. In the US TRISO fuel development effort, release of 134Cs and 137Cs are used to detect SiC failure during fuel compact irradiation and safety testing because the amount of cesium released by a compactmore » containing one particle with failed SiC is typically ten or more times higher than that released by compacts without failed SiC. Compacts with particles that released cesium during irradiation testing or post-irradiation safety testing at 1600–1800 °C were identified, and individual particles with abnormally low cesium retention were sorted out with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA). X-ray tomography was used for three-dimensional imaging of the internal coating structure to locate low-density pathways through the SiC layer and guide subsequent materialography by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, all three cesium-releasing particles recovered from as-irradiated compacts showed a region where the inner pyrocarbon (IPyC) had cracked due to radiation-induced dimensional changes in the shrinking buffer and the exposed SiC had experienced concentrated attack by palladium; SiC failures observed in particles subjected to safety testing were related to either fabrication defects or showed extensive Pd corrosion through the SiC where it had been exposed by similar IPyC cracking.« less

  4. Identification of failed fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Richard M.; Matlock, Robert G.

    1976-06-22

    A passive fission product gas trap is provided in the upper portion of each fuel subassembly in a nuclear reactor. The gas trap consists of an inverted funnel of less diameter than the subassembly having a valve at the apex thereof. An actuating rod extends upwardly from the valve through the subassembly to a point where it can be contacted by the fuel handling mechanism for the reactor. Interrogation of the subassembly for the presence of fission products is accomplished by lowering the fuel handling machine onto the subassembly to press down on the actuating rod and open the valve.

  5. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  6. Simulation of γ-ray spectrometry of failed TRISO fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, J. M.; Hawari, A. I.; Bourham, M. A.

    2007-08-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. To understand better its behavior under in-core conditions, the fuel is irradiated in a controlled environment that resembles anticipated operating conditions. In this work, simulated γ-ray spectra are developed for the fission product gases that are released upon fuel failure. The simulations are based on Monte Carlo calculations of spectra assuming the use of high-purity germaniun (HPGe) and high-pressure xenon (HPXe) detectors. The γ-ray source terms for the simulations are derived from ORIGEN 2.2 fuel depletion calculations. In addition, measured detector resolution information are included in the Monte Carlo simulations to produce realistically broadened spectra. The effect of fission product release processes are incorporated in the simulation by reconstructing the Monte Carlo photon source terms using a specific gas-release model. Consequently, birth and release γ-ray spectra are constructed for the Kr and Xe gaseous fission products.

  7. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Inside a Failed Copper Nuclear Waste Container

    SciTech Connect

    Broczkowski, Michael E.; Goldik, Jonathan S.; Santos, Billy G.; Noel, James J.; Shoesmith, David

    2007-07-01

    Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization has recommended to the Canadian federal government an adaptive phased management approach to the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. This approach includes isolation in a deep geologic repository. In such a repository, the fuel would be sealed inside a carbon steel-lined copper container. To assist the development of performance assessment models studies of fuel behaviour inside a failed waste container are underway. Using an iterative modeling and experimental approach, the important features and processes that determine fuel behaviour have been identified and studied. These features and processes are discussed and the results of studies to elucidate specific mechanisms and determine important parameter values summarized. (authors)

  9. Experience with failed LMR oxide fuel element performance in European fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitz, H.; Crittenden, G. C.; Languille, A.

    1993-09-01

    The performance of failed fuel has great significance for the safe and economic operation of LMR's, and considerable experience has accrued from experimental defect pin irradiations and naturally occurring failures in European test and prototype reactors. To data 60 natural fuel element failures have been recorded in PFR, Phénix and KNK II, 41 with exposed fuel and 19 as gas leakers. The various failures occurred during all stages of pin lifetimes, i.e. at the very beginning (0.3 at% burn-up) as well as at medium and at very high burn-up. The present experience extends up to 190 GWd/t and up to 135 dpaNRT. Based on the experience we can state: (i) Even large defects at end-of-life pins resulted in limited fuel loss (ii) No pin-to-pin failure propagation has been observed (iii) The reaction produces formed by the chemical reaction sodium/mixed oxide and the kinetics act beneficially and may protect open cracks. For the European Fast Reactor (EFR) project additional work is being performed, with regard to the EFR requirements of pin design (covering normal operation and incidental events) and the behaviour of failed pins under storage conditions.

  10. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  11. Upgrade of the Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Precise Identification of Failed Fuel in a Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Ito, Chikara; Harano, Hideki; Aoyama, Takafumi

    2011-12-13

    Isotopic analysis of krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is an effective tool for identification of failed fuel in fast reactors to achieve their safety operation and high plant availability. Reliability of the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system depends on the precise determination of {sup 78}Kr/{sup 80}Kr, {sup 82}Kr/{sup 80}Kr and {sup 126}Xe/{sup 129}Xe isotopic ratios, which is mainly hampered by statistical errors for detection of the corresponding isotopes except {sup 82}Kr generated in large amounts during operation of fast reactors. In this paper, we report on improvements of the laser optical system of our spectrometer to increase the resonance ionization efficiency of Kr and Xe atoms, focusing on (i) utilization of the uniform YAG laser beam to improve the wavelength conversion efficiency of sum frequency generation and (ii) reflection of the ultraviolet light by a concave mirror to increase the photon density. The results indicate that our upgraded resonance ionization mass spectrometer has enough performance for isotopic analysis of Kr and Xe required in the Monju FFDL system.

  12. [Scoring system for early detection of critical illness can fail].

    PubMed

    Kamstrup Christiansen, Lærke; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

    2013-02-18

    A 57-year old male underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The immediate post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with the lowest possible score on a newly implemented scale for early detection of critical illness. The following day he was readmitted with dyspnoea. The critical illness score was still low despite ultrasonic demonstration of a large pericardial effusion requiring drainage. We are concerned that the widely adopted critical illness scale is not sufficiently sensitive for cardiac surgery patients and advocate the use of point-of-care ultrasound.

  13. Investigation of Failed TRISO Fuel Assay Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, Jason Michael

    TRISO microsphere fuel is the fundamental fuel unit for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). A single TRISO particle consists of an inner kernel of Uranium Oxycarbide surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. The silicon carbide serves as the primary barrier to the release of fission products into the core. If the silicon carbide layer fails, fission gas, especially Kr and Xe, will begin to escape the failed particle. In order to understand the behavior of TRISO fuel under in-core conditions, a series of experiments is being conducted by Idaho National Lab at the Advanced Test Reactor. AGR-1 is the first of these experiments. It will measure fission product release due to failed TRISO particles. Simulations of this experiment have been conducted at North Carolina State University to develop a method for the analysis of the results of the experiment. The ATR core was simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP to calculate the expected neutron energy spectrum for the AGR-1 experimental test train. This spectrum was used to create one-group cross sections for implementation in ORIGEN calculations of the amount of activity produced in the experiment. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the phenomenon of gas release. While each model is based on similar physics, different models contain unique features that distinguish them from one another. These Release to Birth (R/B) models are developed and applied to the activity found in the ORIGEN calculations to create expected release activities. The release activity is used to create gamma-ray spectra that are representative of the different R/B models. Expected R/B due to a model can be calculated for comparison to the experiment with knowledge of the number of failed particles in the spectra. The comparison of measured to predicted R/B ratios gives insight into the physics of release and also helps validate specific models. Direct comparison is possible, but many of the

  14. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J. ); Lee, J.C. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  15. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Lee, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  16. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading.

  17. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. PMID:26905801

  18. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

  20. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySensTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  1. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sonjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySenseTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  2. Data Compilation for AGR-3/4 Designed-to-Fail (DTF) Fuel Particle Batch LEU04-02DTF

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Miller, James Henry

    2008-10-01

    This document is a compilation of coating and characterization data for the AGR-3/4 designed-to-fail (DTF) particles. The DTF coating is a high density, high anisotropy pyrocarbon coating of nominal 20 {micro}m thickness that is deposited directly on the kernel. The purpose of this coating is to fail early in the irradiation, resulting in a controlled release of fission products which can be analyzed to provide data on fission product transport. A small number of DTF particles will be included with standard TRISO driver fuel particles in the AGR-3 and AGR-4 compacts. The ORNL Coated Particle Fuel Development Laboratory 50-mm diameter fluidized bed coater was used to coat the DTF particles. The coatings were produced using procedures and process parameters that were developed in an earlier phase of the project as documented in 'Summary Report on the Development of Procedures for the Fabrication of AGR-3/4 Design-to-Fail Particles', ORNL/TM-2008/161. Two coating runs were conducted using the approved coating parameters. NUCO425-06DTF was a final process qualification batch using natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (UCO) kernels. After the qualification run, LEU04-02DTF was produced using low enriched UCO kernels. Both runs were inspected and determined to meet the specifications for DTF particles in section 5 of the AGR-3 & 4 Fuel Product Specification (EDF-6638, Rev.1). Table 1 provides a summary of key properties of the DTF layer. For comparison purposes, an archive sample of DTF particles produced by General Atomics was characterized using identical methods. This data is also summarized in Table 1.

  3. Fuel conservation by the application of spill prevention and fail-safe engineering (a guideline manual)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1981-06-01

    Spill prevention procedures are provided for maintaining a spill free plant during the transportation, transfer, storage and processing of petroleum products. The manual can be used to prevent spills of materials other than fuel oil. Special emphasis is given to failsafe engineering as an approach to preventing spills from the predominant cause-human failure.

  4. Failed fuel monitoring and surveillance techniques for liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Mikaili, R.; Gross, K.C.; Strain, R.V.; Aoyama, T.; Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Nakae, N.

    1995-05-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been used as a facility for irradiation of LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many tests of experimental fuel were continued to cladding breach in order to study modes of element failure; the methods used to identify such failures are described in a parallel paper. This paper summarizes experience of monitoring the delayed-neutron (DN) and fission-gas (FG) release behavior of a smaller number of elements that continued operation in the run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) mode. The scope of RBCB testing, the methods developed to characterize failures on-line, and examples of DN/FG behavior are described.

  5. Adaptation of gas tagging for failed fuel identification in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Depiante, E.V.; Callis, E.L.; Egebrecht, P.M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses experience with noble gas tagging and its adaptation to commercial reactors. It reviews the recent incidence of fuel failures in light water reactors, and methods used to identify failures, and concludes that the on-line technique of gas tagging could significantly augment present flux tilting, sipping and ultrasonic testing of assemblies. The paper describes calculations on tag gas stability in-reactor, and tag injection tests that were carried out collaboratively with Commonwealth Edison Company in the Byron-2 pressurized water reactor (P%a) and with Duke Power Company and Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Company in the Oconee-2 PWM. The tests gave information on: (a) noble gas concentration dynamics as the tag gases were dissolved in and eventually removed from subsystems of the RCS; and (b) the suitability of candidate Ar, Ne, Kr and Xe isotopes for tagging PWR fuel. It was found that the activity of Xe{sup 125} (the activation product of the tag isotope Xe{sup 124}) acted as a ``tag of a tag`` and tracked gas through the reactor; measured activities are being used to model gas movement in the RCS. Several interference molecules (trace contaminants normally present at sub-ppM concentrations in RCS samples) and entrained air in the RCS were found to affect mass spectrometer sensitivity for tag isotopes. In all instances the contaminants could be differentiated from the tag isotopes by operating the mass spectrometer at high resolution (2500). Similarly, it was possible to distinguish all the candidate tag gases against a high background of air. The test results suggested, however, that for routine analysis a high resolution static mass spectrometer will be preferable to the dynamic instrument used for the present analyses.

  6. Fuel cell flooding detection and correction

    DOEpatents

    DiPierno Bosco, Andrew; Fronk, Matthew Howard

    2000-08-15

    Method and apparatus for monitoring an H.sub.2 -O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells to detect and correct flooding. The pressure drop across a given H.sub.2 or O.sub.2 flow field is monitored and compared to predetermined thresholds of unacceptability. If the pressure drop exists a threshold of unacceptability corrective measures are automatically initiated.

  7. Detection probabilities in fuel cycle oriented safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, J.J.; Stein, G.; Avenhaus, R. )

    1987-01-01

    An intensified discussion of evaluation criteria for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards effectiveness is currently under way. Considerations basic to the establishment of such criteria are derived from the model agreement INFCIRC/153 and include threshold amounts, strategic significance, conversion times, required assurances, cost-effectiveness, and nonintrusiveness. In addition to these aspects, the extent to which fuel cycle characteristics are taken into account in safeguards implementations (Article 81c of INFCIRC/153) will be reflected in the criteria. The effectiveness of safeguards implemented under given manpower constraints is evaluated. As the significant quantity and timeliness criteria have established themselves within the safeguards community, these are taken as fixed. Detection probabilities, on the other hand, still provide a certain degree of freedom in interpretation. The problem of randomization of inspection activities across a fuel cycle, or portions thereof, is formalized as a two-person zero-sum game, the payoff function of which is the detection probability achieved by the inspectorate. It is argued, from the point of view of risk of detection, that fuel cycle-independent, minimally accepted threshold criteria for such detection probabilities cannot and should not be applied.

  8. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  9. Fuel-level detecting system for automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, J.; Sasaki, M.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a fuel-level detecting system for monitoring fuel consumption in an automotive engine and for detecting residual fuel in a fuel tank which defines a first fuel chamber being in communication with the automotive engine for supplying the fuel thereto and for receiving the fuel recirculating therefrom, and second chamber being in communication with means for supplying the fuel to the first chamber at a supply rate irrespective of consumption rate of the fuel in the first chamber, the system comprising: a first resistor means, disposed within the first fuel chamber, for detecting a first level of the fuel in the first fuel chamber, the first resistor means having a resistance value variable depending upon the first level; a second resistor means, disposed within the second fuel chamber, for detecting a second level of the fuel in the second fuel chamber, the second resistor means having a resistance value variable depending upon the second level; and means, associated with the first and second resistor means, for deriving a residual fuel amount indicative value based on the resistances of the first and second resistor means.

  10. Qualification of helium measurement system for detection of fuel failures in a BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Loner, H.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J.-O.; Ledergerber, G.

    2014-05-01

    There are several methods for surveillance of fuel integrity during the operation of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The detection of fuel failures is usually performed by analysis of grab samples of off-gas and coolant activities, where a measured increased level of ionizing radiation serves as an indication of new failure or degradation of an already existing one. At some nuclear power plants the detection of fuel failures is performed by on-line nuclide specific measurements of the released fission gases in the off-gas system. However, it can be difficult to distinguish primary fuel failures from degradation of already existing failures. In this paper, a helium measuring system installed in connection to a nuclide specific measuring system to support detection of fuel failures and separate primary fuel failures from secondary ones is presented. Helium measurements provide valuable additional information to measurements of the gamma emitting fission gases for detection of primary fuel failures, since helium is used as a fill gas in the fuel rods during fabrication. The ability to detect fuel failures using helium measurements was studied by injection of helium into the feed water systems at the Forsmark nuclear power plant (NPP) in Sweden and at the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) in Switzerland. In addition, the influence of an off-gas delay line on the helium measurements was examined at KKL by injecting helium into the off-gas system. By using different injection rates, several types of fuel failures with different helium release rates were simulated. From these measurements, it was confirmed that the helium released by a failed fuel can be detected. It was also shown that the helium measurements for the detection of fuel failures should be performed at a sampling point located before any delay system. Hence, these studies showed that helium measurements can be useful to support detection of fuel failures. However, not all fuel failures which occurred at

  11. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to reliably detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Mensah, A. A.; Corbin, J. C.; Keller, A.; Kim, J.; Petzold, A.; Sierau, B.

    2012-12-01

    The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses laser-induced incandescence (LII) for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit. It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of a femtogram BC in order to be detected by the SP2. Here we show the result that most BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM), is clearly above the typical lower detection limit of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST), fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R) reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's lower detection limit. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, most PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to their vaporisation temperature because of their small size (Dpp ≈ 5-10 nm). Previous knowledge from pulsed laser-induced incandescence indicated that particle morphology might have an effect on the SP2's lower detection limit, however, an increase of the lower detection limit by a factor of ∼5-10, as reported here for PALAS soot, was not expected. In conclusion, the SP2's lower detection limit at a certain laser power depends primarily on the total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective density. By contrast, the BC mass per primary particle

  12. A vector-based failure detection and isolation algorithm for a dual fail-operational redundant strapdown inertial measurement unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R.; Bailey, Melvin L.

    1987-01-01

    A vector-based failure detection and isolation technique for a skewed array of two degree-of-freedom inertial sensors is developed. Failure detection is based on comparison of parity equations with a threshold, and isolation is based on comparison of logic variables which are keyed to pass/fail results of the parity test. A multi-level approach to failure detection is used to ensure adequate coverage for the flight control, display, and navigation avionics functions. Sensor error models are introduced to expose the susceptibility of the parity equations to sensor errors and physical separation effects. The algorithm is evaluated in a simulation of a commercial transport operating in a range of light to severe turbulence environments. A bias-jump failure level of 0.2 deg/hr was detected and isolated properly in the light and moderate turbulence environments, but not detected in the extreme turbulence environment. An accelerometer bias-jump failure level of 1.5 milli-g was detected over all turbulence environments. For both types of inertial sensor, hard-over, and null type failures were detected in all environments without incident. The algorithm functioned without false alarm or isolation over all turbulence environments for the runs tested.

  13. Fuel Line Based Acoustic Flame-Out Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, Richard L. (Inventor); Franke, John M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic flame-out detection system that renders a large high pressure combustor safe in the event of a flame-out and possible explosive reignition. A dynamic pressure transducer is placed in the fuel and detects the stabilizing fuel pressure oscillations, caused by the combustion process. An electric circuit converts the signal from the combustion vortices, and transmitted to the fuel flow to a series of pulses. A missing pulse detector counts the pulses and continuously resets itself. If three consecutive pulses are missing, the circuit closes the fuel valve. With fuel denied the combustor is shut down or restarted under controlled conditions.

  14. Central congenital hypothyroidism due to gestational hyperthyroidism: detection where prevention failed.

    PubMed

    Kempers, Marlies J E; van Tijn, David A; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; de Vijlder, Jan J M; Wiedijk, Brenda M; Vulsma, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Much worldwide attention is given to the adverse effects of maternal Graves' disease on the fetal and neonatal thyroid and its function. However, reports concerning the adverse effects of maternal Graves' disease on the pituitary function, illustrated by the development of central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) in the offspring of these mothers, are scarce. We studied thyroid hormone determinants of 18 children with CCH born to mothers with Graves' disease. Nine mothers were diagnosed after pregnancy, the majority after their children were detected with CCH by neonatal screening. Four mothers were diagnosed during pregnancy and treated with antithyroid drugs since diagnosis. Another four mothers were diagnosed before pregnancy, but they used antithyroid drugs irregularly; free T(4) concentrations less than 1.7 ng/dl (<22 pmol/liter) were not encountered during pregnancy. All neonates had decreased plasma free T(4) concentrations (range 0.3-0.9 ng/dl, 3.9-11.5 pmol/liter); plasma TSH ranged between 0.1 and 6.6 mU/liter. TRH tests showed pituitary dysfunction. Seventeen children needed T(4) supplementation. Because all mothers were insufficiently treated during pregnancy, it is hypothesized that a hyperthyroid fetal environment impaired maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system. The frequent occurrence of this type of CCH (estimated incidence 1:35000) warrants early detection and treatment to minimize the risk of cerebral damage. A T(4)-based screening program appears useful in detecting this type of CCH. However, the preferential and presumably best strategy to prevent CCH caused by maternal Graves' disease is preserving euthyroidism throughout pregnancy.

  15. Technical Note: The single particle soot photometer fails to detect PALAS soot nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysel, M.; Laborde, M.; Corbin, J. C.; Mensah, A. A.; Keller, A.; Kim, J.; Petzold, A.; Sierau, B.

    2012-07-01

    The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses laser-induced incandescence (LII) for the measurement of atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles. The BC mass concentration is obtained by combining quantitative detection of BC mass in single particles with a counting efficiency of 100% above its lower detection limit (LDL). It is commonly accepted that a particle must contain at least several tenths of femtograms BC in order to be detected by the SP2. Here we show the unexpected result that BC particles from a PALAS spark discharge soot generator remain undetected by the SP2, even if their BC mass, as independently determined with an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM), is clearly above the typical LDL of the SP2. Comparison of counting efficiency and effective density data of PALAS soot with flame generated soot (combustion aerosol standard burner, CAST), fullerene soot and carbon black particles (Cabot Regal 400R) reveals that particle morphology can affect the SP2's LDL. PALAS soot particles are fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles with a low fractal dimension, resulting in a very low effective density. Such loosely-packed particles behave like "the sum of individual primary particles" in the SP2's laser. Accordingly, the PALAS soot particles remain undetected as the SP2's laser intensity is insufficient to heat the primary particles to vaporisation because of their small size (primary particle diameter ~5-10 nm). It is not surprising that particle morphology can have an effect on the SP2's LDL, however, such a dramatic effect as reported here for PALAS soot was not expected. In conclusion, the SP2's LDL at a certain laser power depends on total BC mass per particle for compact particles with sufficiently high effective density. However, for fractal-like agglomerates of very small primary particles and low fractal dimension, the BC mass per primary particle determines the limit of detection, independent of the total particle mass

  16. Detection of electrically failed photovoltaic modules at selected MIT Lincoln Laboratory test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has set a 20-year lifetime goal for terrestrial photovoltaic modules. In its capacity as a Photovoltaic Field Tests and Applications Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory has established various experimental test sites throughout the United States, ranging in size from 1.5 to 100 kW of peak power. These sites contain modules from several manufacturers and serve as test beds for photovoltaic system components. From May 1977 to date, over 11,000 modules have been placed in service at these sites, of which a total of 250 have suffered electrical failures. In previous reports emphasis has been placed on failure modes and the types of physical and electrical degradation found in modules. The methods used to detect failures in operational photovoltaic power-generating systems are reported for several Lincoln Laboratory test sites.

  17. Conjunctival impression cytology fails to detect subclinical vitamin A deficiency in young children.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Wahed, M A; Islam, M; Habte, D; Khaled, M A; Alvarez, J O

    1995-07-01

    Thirty-four asymptomatic children, ages 5-35 mo, were studied to compare the conjunctival impression cytology technique with the relative dose response test in detection of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Conjunctival smears were collected from the infero-temporal-bulbar conjunctiva of each eye with a strip of cellulose acetate filter paper and transferred onto a glass slide. Venous blood was drawn at 0 and 5 h after administration of an oral dose of 1000 micrograms of retinol palmitate (relative dose response test). An increase in serum retinol concentration (> or = 20%) in the 5-h value was considered indicative of an inadequate liver store of vitamin A and hence subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Of the 34 children, 26 (76.5%) had moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition. Only three children (9%) had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology, whereas 23 (68%) had abnormal relative dose response. Even more striking was the finding that only two of the 23 children with abnormal relative dose response had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology. The results suggest that the conjunctival impression cytology test has poor agreement with the relative dose response test results in assessing vitamin A status in young children. If relative dose response is considered an acceptable reference method for assessing vitamin A status, then the conjunctival impression cytology test cannot be considered a valid measure of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in this population. PMID:7616303

  18. T cells detect intracellular DNA but fail to induce type I IFN responses: implications for restriction of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Berg, Randi K; Rahbek, Stine H; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Holm, Christian K; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Jensen, David G; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jørgensen, Louise B; Ostergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Larsen, Carsten S; Paludan, Søren R; Jakobsen, Martin R; Mogensen, Trine H

    2014-01-01

    HIV infects key cell types of the immune system, most notably macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Whereas macrophages represent an important viral reservoir, activated CD4+ T cells are the most permissive cell types supporting high levels of viral replication. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the innate immune system plays an important role in controlling HIV replication, e.g. via interferon (IFN)-inducible restriction factors. Moreover, innate immune responses are involved in driving chronic immune activation and the pathogenesis of progressive immunodeficiency. Several pattern recognition receptors detecting HIV have been reported, including Toll-like receptor 7 and Retinoic-inducible gene-I, which detects viral RNA. Here we report that human primary T cells fail to induce strong IFN responses, despite the fact that this cell type does express key molecules involved in DNA signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the DNA sensor IFI16 migrates to sites of foreign DNA localization in the cytoplasm and recruits the signaling molecules stimulator of IFN genes and Tank-binding kinase, but this does not result in expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Importantly, we show that cytosolic DNA fails to affect HIV replication. However, exogenous treatment of activated T cells with type I IFN has the capacity to induce expression of IFN-stimulated genes and suppress HIV replication. Our data suggest the existence of an impaired DNA signaling machinery in T cells, which may prevent this cell type from activating cell-autonomous anti-HIV responses. This phenomenon could contribute to the high permissiveness of CD4+ T cells for HIV-1.

  19. Chemochromic Indicators for the Detection of Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Captian, J.; Devor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and hazard level associated with the use of hypergolic fuels necessitates the development of technology capable of detecting the presence of such fuels in a variety of different environments and conditions. The most commonly used sensors for the detection of hypergolic fuels are electrochemical in nature, which have serious limitations when used as area monitoring devices. Recent collaborative work between Kennedy Space Center and ASRC Aerospace has led to the development of indicators which exhibit a color change upon exposure to hydrazine under different conditions. The indicators under investigation on this developmental effort are para-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), various formulations of universal pH indicators, and potassium tetrachloroaurate (KAuCl4). These chemochromic indicators have been tested for the detection of hydrazine under various conditions: pure liquid fuel, aqueous fuel solution, saline aqueous fuel solutions, vapor fuel, and 3-month shelf life study, which included UV protection, thermal extremes, and normal storage conditions. The hypergolic fuel indicator test was conducted with the indicator impregnated into a wipe material to test the applicability of the indicator to be used to capture (absorb) and indicate the presence of hypergolic fuels. Each of the indicators performed well, with the universal pH indicator being the best candidate because of the visible response color change and the indicator stability after the shelf life study.

  20. Flashback detection sensor for lean premix fuel nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Jimmy Dean; Richards, George Alan; Straub, Douglas L.; Liese, Eric Arnold; Trader, Jr., John Lee; Fasching, George Edward

    2002-08-06

    A sensor for detecting the flame occurring during a flashback condition in the fuel nozzle of a lean premix combustion system is presented. The sensor comprises an electrically isolated flashback detection electrode and a guard electrode, both of which generate electrical fields extending to the walls of the combustion chamber and to the walls of the fuel nozzle. The sensor is positioned on the fuel nozzle center body at a location proximate the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine combustion system. The sensor provides 360.degree. detection of a flashback inside the fuel nozzle, by detecting the current conducted by the flame within a time frame that will prevent damage to the gas turbine combustion system caused by the flashback condition.

  1. Supernova relic neutrinos and the supernova rate problem: Analysis of uncertainties and detectability of ONeMg and failed supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Grant J.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Jyutaro

    2014-08-01

    Direct measurements of the core collapse supernova rate (R{sub SN}) in the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 appear to be about a factor of two smaller than the rate inferred from the measured cosmic massive star formation rate (SFR). This discrepancy would imply that about one-half of the massive stars that have been born in the local observed comoving volume did not explode as luminous supernovae. In this work, we explore the possibility that one could clarify the source of this 'supernova rate problem' by detecting the energy spectrum of supernova relic neutrinos with a next generation 10{sup 6} ton water Čerenkov detector like Hyper-Kamiokande. First, we re-examine the supernova rate problem. We make a conservative alternative compilation of the measured SFR data over the redshift range 0 ≤z ≤ 7. We show that by only including published SFR data for which the dust obscuration has been directly determined, the ratio of the observed massive SFR to the observed supernova rate R{sub SN} has large uncertainties ∼1.8{sub −0.6}{sup +1.6} and is statistically consistent with no supernova rate problem. If we further consider that a significant fraction of massive stars will end their lives as faint ONeMg SNe or as failed SNe leading to a black hole remnant, then the ratio reduces to ∼1.1{sub −0.4}{sup +1.0} and the rate problem is essentially solved. We next examine the prospects for detecting this solution to the supernova rate problem. We first study the sources of uncertainty involved in the theoretical estimates of the neutrino detection rate and analyze whether the spectrum of relic neutrinos can be used to independently identify the existence of a supernova rate problem and its source. We consider an ensemble of published and unpublished core collapse supernova simulation models to estimate the uncertainties in the anticipated neutrino luminosities and temperatures. We illustrate how the spectrum of detector events might be used to establish the average

  2. Water detection in fuel tanks using the microwave reflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Kaida; Valeriu Grozescu, Ionel; Keng Tiong, Lim; Teck Sim, Lee; Mohd, Roslim

    2003-11-01

    Water is often present in fuel tanks due to night and day temperature changes, resulting in a build-up of condensed water within the inner surface of the tank. The expectancy of water infiltration in fuel tanks is even higher in flooding prone areas. Water settlement at the bottom of the tank causes internal corrosion. In this work, a simple, low cost and accurate microwave reflection type system for detection of water in fuel tanks has been developed. A module consisting of a microwave generator and a detecting diode is used to measure the microwave reflection coefficient at various positions through the fuel tank. In the course of the study, a motion control and data acquisition system has been developed. Software written using the LabVIEW programming language is used to control the movement of the sensor and for the data acquisition. Theoretical and experimental results show the ability of the system to detect the presence of a water level down to approximately 1 mm. A simple theoretical model for power prediction of the reflected signal at various positions of the sensor in the tank is also presented.

  3. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of hydrazine based rocket fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loper, G. L.; Calloway, A. R.; Stamps, M. A.; Gelbwachs, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes recent work performed at The Aerospace Corporation to determine the capability of the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique to detect the rocket fuels hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in the ambient air in real time. These compounds are highly toxic and recent studies indicate that they may also be carcinogens. Estimates made from CO2 laser absorption cross section data determined for the hydrazines in a previous Aerospace study indicate that the hydrazines should be detectable by the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique at the desired low ppb levels even in the presence of the ambient levels of pollutants and water vapor found in urban atmospheres. To assess the validity of these hydrazine-fuel detection estimates by the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique, various laboratory photoacoustic detection systems were assembled and their minimum detectable absorptivity values were determined during the present study. The photoacoustic detection system that provided the best performance in this study possessed optically tandem sample and reference cells connected to a differential capacitance manometer. This system was designed to minimize the effects of spurious absorption at the photoacoustic cell windows.

  4. On-line detection of key radionuclides for fuel-rod failure in a pressurized water reactor.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guoxiu; Chen, Xilin; Guo, Xiaoqing; Ni, Ning

    2016-08-01

    For early on-line detection of fuel rod failure, the key radionuclides useful in monitoring must leak easily from failing rods. Yield, half-life, and mass share of fission products that enter the primary coolant also need to be considered in on-line analyses. From all the nuclides that enter the primary coolant during fuel-rod failure, (135)Xe and (88)Kr were ultimately chosen as crucial for on-line monitoring of fuel-rod failure. A monitoring system for fuel-rod failure detection for pressurized water reactor (PWR) based on the LaBr3(Ce) detector was assembled and tested. The samples of coolant from the PWR were measured using the system as well as a HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. A comparison showed the method was feasible. Finally, the γ-ray spectra of primary coolant were measured under normal operations and during fuel-rod failure. The two peaks of (135)Xe (249.8keV) and (88)Kr (2392.1keV) were visible, confirming that the method is capable of monitoring fuel-rod failure on-line.

  5. Fail safe logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, I.

    1983-03-01

    Ideally, a circuit is said to be fail safe, if for every possible failure configuration, the circuit results in a safe side output. In order to guarantee safe side failures, it is imperative that the circuit detects any faults within it. A suitable procedure for doing this can be based on an error detecting code, such as the K out of N code. A number of circuit types are considered, taking into account a fault tolerant circuit, a fault secure circuit, a self testing circuit, a self checking circuit, a self checking checker, and a fail safe circuit. Attention is given to the realization of combinational circuits, aspects of safety and reliability, sequential circuits, the realization of sequential circuits, the occurrence of clock failure, and the design procedure.

  6. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Russell, Richard; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Ruffino, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses development of various NDE techniques to detect cracks in A40 steel poppets used in a valve of the fuel system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The valve assembly experiences a severe high cycle fatigue environment during its operation. Cracks were discovered at the radius of the poppet flange. Experience shows that very small cracks or material anomalies do not cause failure in a single operation event. While the design is being modified to eliminate the issue, NDE has been used to screen the poppets for cracks before every use. Several surface flaw detection techniques were considered and a few NDE techniques were developed to provide NDE screening for the flaw detection. The primary method used was the eddy current testing. In the eddy current technique, the X-Y channel test data from the eddy current instrument was recorded as computer files. A Matlab data review and plotting application was developed to analyze the data files. The Matlab application provides much higher resolution than the eddy current instrument that was used to acquire the data. Other techniques that were used included ultrasonic surface wave and magnetic particle testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was undertaken to determine the 90/95 size for the eddy current technique. This study used specimens with same geometry and material as the poppet. Fatigue cracks were grown in these specimens. Information on results of the NDE techniques and results of the POD study are provided.

  7. Chest radiographs fail to detect right ventricular enlargement and right atrial enlargement in patients with a pure restrictive ventilatory impairment.

    PubMed

    Shivkumar, K; Ravi, K; Henry, J W; Eichenhorn, M S; Stein, P D

    1994-08-01

    The validity of measurements of the cardiac silhouette on chest radiographs for the evaluation of right ventricular enlargement and right atrial enlargement in patients with a pure restrictive ventilatory impairment was investigated in 19 patients. The forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted in these patients was 59 +/- 12 percent (mean +/- SD) (range, 29 to 79 percent). Right ventricular enlargement, by two-dimensional echocardiography, was defined as a right ventricular area > 20.4 cm2 and right atrial enlargement was defined as a right atrial area > 15.3 cm2. Chest radiographic measurements in the posteroanterior (PA) projection included distance from the midline to the farthest point of the right border of the cardiac silhouette, transverse cardiac diameter, and cardiothoracic ratio. Measurements in the lateral projection included the lateral horizontal transverse diameter, ventral portion of the lateral broad diameter, and obliteration of the retrosternal space. Neither the right ventricular area nor the right atrial area correlated with any of these radiographic measurements. There were no differences in these chest radiographic measurements among patients with normal right ventricular and right atrial dimensions, patients with right ventricular enlargement, and patients with right atrial enlargement. We conclude, therefore, that PA and lateral chest radiographs do not reliably detect right ventricular enlargement or right atrial enlargement in patients with a pure restrictive ventilatory impairment.

  8. Fuel leak detection apparatus for gas cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Burnette, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for detecting nuclear fuel leaks within nuclear power system reactors, such as high temperature gas cooled reactors. The apparatus includes a probe assembly that is inserted into the high temperature reactor coolant gaseous stream. The probe has an aperture adapted to communicate gaseous fluid between its inside and outside surfaces and also contains an inner tube for sampling gaseous fluid present near the aperture. A high pressure supply of noncontaminated gas is provided to selectively balance the pressure of the stream being sampled to prevent gas from entering the probe through the aperture. The apparatus includes valves that are operable to cause various directional flows and pressures, which valves are located outside of the reactor walls to permit maintenance work and the like to be performed without shutting down the reactor.

  9. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  10. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  11. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  12. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...

  13. Hypergolic fuel detection using individual single walled carbon nanotube networks

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S. C.; Willitsford, A. H.; Sumanasekera, G. U.; Yu, M.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.; Tian, W. Q.

    2010-06-15

    Accurate and reliable detection of hypergolic fuels such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its derivatives is vital to missile defense, aviation, homeland security, and the chemical industry. More importantly these sensors need to be capable of operation at low temperatures (below room temperature) as most of the widely used chemical sensors operate at high temperatures (above 300 deg. C). In this research a simple and highly sensitive single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network sensor was developed for real time monitoring of hydrazine leaks to concentrations at parts per million levels. Upon exposure to hydrazine vapor, the resistance of the air exposed nanotubes (p-type) is observed to increase rapidly while that of the vacuum-degassed nanotubes (n-type) is observed to decrease. It was found that the resistance of the sample can be recovered through vacuum pumping and exposure to ultraviolet light. The experimental results support the electrochemical charge transfer mechanism between the oxygen redox couple of the ambient and the Fermi level of the SWNT. Theoretical results of the hydrazine-SWNT interaction are compared with the experimental observations. It was found that a monolayer of water molecules on the SWNT is necessary to induce strong interactions between hydrazine and the SWNT by way of introducing new occupied states near the bottom of the conduction band of the SWNT.

  14. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  15. Study of fail-safe abort system for an actively cooled hypersonic aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Herring, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a fail-safe abort system for hydrogen fueled actively cooled high speed aircraft are examined. The fail-safe concept depends on basically three factors: (1) a reliable method of detecting a failure or malfunction in the active cooling system, (2) the optimization of abort trajectories which minimize the descent heat load to the aircraft, and (3) fail-safe thermostructural concepts to minimize both the weight and the maximum temperature the structure will reach during descent. These factors are examined and promising approaches are evaluated based on weight, reliability, ease of manufacture and cost.

  16. How Does a Failing School Stop Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Gross, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The author's school had just been labeled a failing school by No Child Left Behind when its new principal arrived in the fall of 2007. In this demoralizing climate, teachers can get frustrated and choose to give up, or they can rise to the challenge, create a plan for improvement, and plunge into uncharted waters. This article discusses how the…

  17. Application of geoelectric and electromagnetic methods for the detection of failing zones and brine rising zones in the vicinity of a potential CO2-storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Rainer; Krause, Yvonne; Schafrik, Wlad

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the project "brine - CO2 storage in eastern Brandenburg" geophysical investigations are conducted by the German Research Center for Geoscience (GFZ), Potsdam and the Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU), Cottbus on different scales in order to investigate underground situations and evaluate methods suitable for a salinization early warning system. The research of BTU is focused on the distribution of underground structures up to a maximum depth of 200m. Of prevalent interest are the detection capabilities for near surface failing zones which might serve as favored pathways for brine migration and the status-quo of the freshwater-saltwater boundary. Geophysical investigations with the frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and direct current (DC) geoelectric methods are qualified for the identification and monitoring of brine displacement as the measuring parameter is the resistivity/conductivity of the subsurface. In eastern Brandenburg the Oligocene Rupelian clay represents the barrier horizon separating the freshwater and saline aquifers. Due to postglacial processes this layer is locally reduced or totally eroded and might enhance upward brine migration during pressure increase. The areas of investigation were selected by known high fluid conductivity values (hydro chemical indication) and the potential presence of quaternary erosion channels in the Rupelian clay (geological indication). The geophysical results yield a vertical and horizontal resistivity/conductivity distribution. The interpretation is done by lithology profiles of nearby boreholes and correlation with fluid conductivities in groundwater wells. The results of FDEM and DC on coincident profiles are generally in accordance and show that both methods are suitable with DC geoelectrics supplementing a higher resolution close to the surface (max. 80m depth) and the electromagnetics adding coarser/less detailed conductivity information of the deeper underground (down to

  18. Failed induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Navathe, Reshama

    2015-10-01

    Induction of labor will affect almost a quarter of all pregnancies, but historically there has been no generally accepted definition of failed induction of labor. Only recently have studies analyzed the lengths of latent labor that are associated with successful labor induction ending in a vaginal delivery, and recommendations for uniformity in the diagnosis of failed induction have largely resulted from this data. This review assesses the most recent and inclusive definition for failed induction, risk factors associated with failure, complications, and special populations that may be at risk for a failed induction.

  19. Fiber optic distributed chemical sensor for the real time detection of hydrocarbon fuel leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2015-09-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable hydrocarbon fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySense™) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySense™ system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, storage tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  20. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  1. Compton suppressed LaBr3 detection system for use in nondestructive spent fuel assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Heidrich, B.; Ünlü, K.

    2015-06-01

    Current methods for safeguarding and accounting for spent nuclear fuel in reprocessing facilities are extremely resource and time intensive. The incorporation of autonomous passive gamma-ray detectors into the procedure could make the process significantly less burdensome. In measured gamma-ray spectra from spent nuclear fuel, the Compton continuum from dominant fission product photopeaks obscure the lower energy lines from other isotopes. The application of Compton suppression to gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel may reduce this effect and allow other less intense, lower energy peaks to be detected, potentially improving the accuracy of multivariate analysis algorithms. Compton suppressed spectroscopic measurements of spent nuclear fuel using HPGe, LaBr3, and NaI(Tl) primary detectors were performed. Irradiated fuel was measured in two configurations: as intact fuel elements viewed through a collimator and as feed solutions in a laboratory to simulate the measurement of a dissolved process stream. These two configurations allowed the direct assessment and quantification of the differences in measured gamma-ray spectra from the application of Compton suppression. In the first configuration, several irradiated fuel elements of varying cooling times from the Penn State Breazeale Reactor spent fuel inventory were measured using the three collimated Compton suppression systems. In the second geometry, Compton suppressed measurements of two samples of Approved Test Material commercial fuel elements were recorded inside the guard detector annulus to simulate the siphoning of small quantities from the main process stream for long dwell measurement periods. Compton suppression was found to improve measured gamma-ray spectra of spent fuel for multivariate analysis by notably lowering the Compton continuum from dominant photopeaks such as 137Cs and 140La, due to scattered interactions in the detector, which allowed more spectral features to be resolved. There was a

  2. ELLA Fails Four Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Graham

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that ELLA (English Language and Literacy Assessment ) implemented in New South Wales, Australia, fails four tests for sound diagnostic assessment set out in a standard reference (K.W. Howell et al. "Curriculum Based Evaluation")--tests for logicality, reliability, validity, and accuracy and practicality. (RS)

  3. Method for detecting engine misfire and for fuel control

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Chang, M.F.; Sultan, M.C.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes the method of detecting misfire in an internal combustion engine during start up. It comprises: sensing first engine speeds at positions midway between top dead center positions and second engine speeds at positions between each midway position and the previous top dead center position, during initial cranking, storing first speeds as cranking speed, and comparing the first speed with the second speed during the combustion period of each cylinder and with the cranking speed.A failure to increase speed over the cranking speed and over the second speed denotes misfire for that cylinder.

  4. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel using Cf-252 interrogation with prompt neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Tobin, Stephen J; Menlove, Howard O; Croft, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron (CIPN) detection is proposed as one of 14 NDA techniques to determine Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies (FAs). CIPN is a low-cost and portable instrument, and it looks like a modified fork detector combined with an active interrogation source. Fission chamber (FC) is chosen as neutron detector because of its insensitivity to {gamma} radiation. The CIPN assay is comprised of two measurements, a background count and an active count, without and with the {sup 252}Cf source next to the fuel respectively. The net signal above background is primarily due to the multiplication of Cf source neutrons caused by the fissile content. The capability of CIPN to detect diversion and to determine fissile content was quantified using MCNPX simulations. New schemes were proposed (such as burnup and cooling time correction, etc.) and the results show that the fissile content of a target spent fuel assembly can be determined using CIPN signal.

  5. A novel qPCR protocol for the specific detection and quantification of the fuel-deteriorating fungus Hormoconis resinae.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Pedro M; Gorbushina, Anna A; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Toepel, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of fungi and bacteria are known to contaminate fuels and fuel systems. These microbial contaminants have been linked to fuel system fouling and corrosion. The fungus Hormoconis resinae, a common jet fuel contaminant, is used in this study as a model for developing innovative risk assessment methods. A novel qPCR protocol to detect and quantify H. resinae in, and together with, total fungal contamination of fuel systems is reported. Two primer sets, targeting the markers RPB2 and ITS, were selected for their remarkable specificity and sensitivity. These primers were successfully applied on fungal cultures and diesel samples demonstrating the validity and reliability of the established qPCR protocol. This novel tool allows clarification of the current role of H. resinae in fuel contamination cases, as well as providing a technique to detect fungal outbreaks in fuel systems. This tool can be expanded to other well-known fuel-deteriorating microorganisms. PMID:27169330

  6. A novel qPCR protocol for the specific detection and quantification of the fuel-deteriorating fungus Hormoconis resinae.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Pedro M; Gorbushina, Anna A; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Toepel, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of fungi and bacteria are known to contaminate fuels and fuel systems. These microbial contaminants have been linked to fuel system fouling and corrosion. The fungus Hormoconis resinae, a common jet fuel contaminant, is used in this study as a model for developing innovative risk assessment methods. A novel qPCR protocol to detect and quantify H. resinae in, and together with, total fungal contamination of fuel systems is reported. Two primer sets, targeting the markers RPB2 and ITS, were selected for their remarkable specificity and sensitivity. These primers were successfully applied on fungal cultures and diesel samples demonstrating the validity and reliability of the established qPCR protocol. This novel tool allows clarification of the current role of H. resinae in fuel contamination cases, as well as providing a technique to detect fungal outbreaks in fuel systems. This tool can be expanded to other well-known fuel-deteriorating microorganisms.

  7. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment... alarm at the machinery control station and in the wheelhouse if the methane concentration reaches...

  8. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  9. Who fails lantern tests?

    PubMed

    Cole, B L; Vingrys, A J

    1983-05-01

    A battery of clinical colour vision tests was given to a group of 100 observers with abnormal colour vision who were also tested on the Farnsworth lantern and the Holmes-Wright lanterns types A and B. It was found that clinical colour vision tests are imperfect predictors of lantern test performance. However, observers classified as having a 'severe' colour vision defect were found to fail the lantern tests but only one half to two-thirds of those who fail the lantern tests can be identified in this way. It is not possible to identify with certainty any of the people likely to pass the lantern tests: about one-third to two-thirds of observers classified as being mildly affected fail the lantern tests. The Farnsworth D-15 and City University tests were found to be the best predictors of lantern test performance but other tests such as the Nagel anomaloscope, the H-16, L'Anthony's desaturated test can also be used. The lack of a strong correlation between clinical tests and the recognition of the small coloured stimuli presented by the lantern tests suggests that clinical tests do not test the same aspect of colour vision that is important to the recognition of signal lights. For this reason lantern tests should be retained for occupational testing of colour vision.

  10. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction fails to detect peripheral-blood hepatitis C RNA in formalin-fixed liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R B; Batts, K P; Germer, J J; Perez, R G; Wiesner, R H; Persing, D H

    1998-11-01

    Currently, one of the major indications for liver transplantation is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many studies have suggested that recurrent infection with HCV is universal after transplantation. Fastidious techniques, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have proved to be highly sensitive for detecting HCV RNA in serum and in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue. In this study, we wanted to determine whether the identification of HCV RNA in liver tissue by RT-PCR might reflect the detection of circulating HCV RNA in blood within the tissue, rather than implying true tissue infection. We performed RT-PCR for HCV RNA in FFPE liver biopsy specimens taken from 14 donor allografts shortly before and immediately after implantation into recipients. The recipients were known to have HCV RNA in serum and explanted liver tissue, as determined by RT-PCR. We were unable to detect HCV RNA in any of the study samples, either before or after transplantation. In a related study, qualitative and quantitative HCV RNA analyses were performed by RT-PCR and branched DNA (bDNA) amplification, respectively, on serum samples collected pretransplantation and immediately posttransplantation from 10 other patients who underwent transplantation for hepatitis C. HCV RNA was detected in all serum samples before and after transplantation by RT-PCR; however, the bDNA assay detected HCV RNA in only 6 of 10 samples pre-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and in none of the immediately post-OLT samples. In our system, despite the RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in serum before and after the transplantation, HCV RNA is not detectable in the peripheral blood that accompanies formalin-fixed liver tissue. This implies that RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in tissue reflects true liver infection, rather than contamination by HCV RNA in accompanying peripheral blood.

  11. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction fails to detect peripheral-blood hepatitis C RNA in formalin-fixed liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R B; Batts, K P; Germer, J J; Perez, R G; Wiesner, R H; Persing, D H

    1998-11-01

    Currently, one of the major indications for liver transplantation is infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many studies have suggested that recurrent infection with HCV is universal after transplantation. Fastidious techniques, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have proved to be highly sensitive for detecting HCV RNA in serum and in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue. In this study, we wanted to determine whether the identification of HCV RNA in liver tissue by RT-PCR might reflect the detection of circulating HCV RNA in blood within the tissue, rather than implying true tissue infection. We performed RT-PCR for HCV RNA in FFPE liver biopsy specimens taken from 14 donor allografts shortly before and immediately after implantation into recipients. The recipients were known to have HCV RNA in serum and explanted liver tissue, as determined by RT-PCR. We were unable to detect HCV RNA in any of the study samples, either before or after transplantation. In a related study, qualitative and quantitative HCV RNA analyses were performed by RT-PCR and branched DNA (bDNA) amplification, respectively, on serum samples collected pretransplantation and immediately posttransplantation from 10 other patients who underwent transplantation for hepatitis C. HCV RNA was detected in all serum samples before and after transplantation by RT-PCR; however, the bDNA assay detected HCV RNA in only 6 of 10 samples pre-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and in none of the immediately post-OLT samples. In our system, despite the RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in serum before and after the transplantation, HCV RNA is not detectable in the peripheral blood that accompanies formalin-fixed liver tissue. This implies that RT-PCR detection of HCV RNA in tissue reflects true liver infection, rather than contamination by HCV RNA in accompanying peripheral blood. PMID:9791155

  12. Failing Liberty 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damon, William

    2012-01-01

    The author presents evidence of "glaring gaps in U.S. students' civic knowledge, motivation, and interest." From the inception of the United States through the mid-20th century, he writes, civic education was at the center of U.S. schooling. Since then, however, there has been a decline in civics instruction, fueled by increasing pressure on…

  13. NMR sensor for onboard ship detection of catalytic fines in marine fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Vinding, Mads S; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nesgaard, Tomas; Jensen, Ole; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2014-08-01

    A mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor for onboard, inline detection of catalytic fines in fuel oil in the shipping industry is presented as an alternative to onshore laboratory measurements. Catalytic fines (called cat fines) are aluminosilicate zeolite catalysts utilized in the oil cracking process at refineries. When present in fuel oil, cat fines cause abrasive wear of engine parts and may ultimately lead to engine breakdown with large economical consequences, thereby motivating methods for inline measurements. Here, we report on a robust, mobile, and low-cost (27)Al NMR sensor for continuous online measurement of the level of catalytic fines in fuel oil onboard ships. The sensor enables accurate measurements of aluminum (catalytic fines) in ppm concentrations in good agreement with commercial laboratory reference measurements.

  14. NMR sensor for onboard ship detection of catalytic fines in marine fuel oils.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Vinding, Mads S; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nesgaard, Tomas; Jensen, Ole; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2014-08-01

    A mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor for onboard, inline detection of catalytic fines in fuel oil in the shipping industry is presented as an alternative to onshore laboratory measurements. Catalytic fines (called cat fines) are aluminosilicate zeolite catalysts utilized in the oil cracking process at refineries. When present in fuel oil, cat fines cause abrasive wear of engine parts and may ultimately lead to engine breakdown with large economical consequences, thereby motivating methods for inline measurements. Here, we report on a robust, mobile, and low-cost (27)Al NMR sensor for continuous online measurement of the level of catalytic fines in fuel oil onboard ships. The sensor enables accurate measurements of aluminum (catalytic fines) in ppm concentrations in good agreement with commercial laboratory reference measurements. PMID:24988044

  15. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  16. Failing by design.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2011-04-01

    It's hardly news that business leaders work in increasingly uncertain environments, where failures are bound to be more common than successes. Yet if you ask executives how well, on a scale of one to 10, their organizations learn from failure, you'll often get a sheepish "Two-or maybe three" in response. Such organizations are missing a big opportunity: Failure may be inevitable but, if managed well, can be very useful. A certain amount of failure can help you keep your options open, find out what doesn't work, create the conditions to attract resources and attention, make room for new leaders, and develop intuition and skill. The key to reaping these benefits is to foster "intelligent failure" throughout your organization. McGrath describes several principles that can help you put intelligent failure to work. You should decide what success and failure would look like before you start a project. Document your initial assumptions, test and revise them as you go, and convert them into knowledge. Fail fast-the longer something takes, the less you'll learn-and fail cheaply, to contain your downside risk. Limit the number of uncertainties in new projects, and build a culture that tolerates, and sometimes even celebrates, failure. Finally, codify and share what you learn. These principles won't give you a means of avoiding all failures down the road-that's simply not realistic. They will help you use small losses to attain bigger wins over time.

  17. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  18. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C f; (ii) the temperature factor (E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  19. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  20. A new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established polymerase chain reaction-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome B gene.

    PubMed

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Križanauskienė, Asta; Bensch, Staffan; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Asghar, Muhammad; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Scebba, Sergio; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2012-06-01

    Plasmodium polymorphum n. sp. (Haemosporida, Plasmodiidae) was found in the skylark, Alauda arvensis (Passeriformes: Alaudidae), during autumnal migration in southern Italy. This organism is illustrated and described based on the morphology of its blood stages. The most distinctive feature of this malaria parasite is the clear preference of its blood stages (trophozoites, meronts, and gametocytes) for immature red blood cells, including erythroblasts. Based on preference of erythrocytic meronts for immature red blood cells, P. polymorphum is most similar to species of the subgenus Huffia . This parasite can be readily distinguished from all other bird malaria parasites, including Plasmodium ( Huffia ) spp., due to preferential development and maturation of its gametocytes in immature red blood cells, a unique character for avian Plasmodium spp. In addition, the margins of nuclei in blood stages of P. polymorphum are markedly smooth and distinct; this is also a distinct diagnostic feature of this parasite. Plasmodium polymorphum has been recorded only in the skylark; it is probably a rare parasite, whose host range and geographical distribution remain unclear. Microscopic examination detected a light infection of Plasmodium relictum (lineage GRW11, parasitemia of <0.01%) in the same sample with P. polymorphum ; the latter parasite clearly predominated (3.5% parasitemia). However, experienced researchers were unable to detect sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b ) of P. polymorphum from the microscopically positive sample by using published and newly designed primers for DNA amplification of avian Plasmodium spp. The light parasitemia of P. relictum was easily detectable using several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays, but P. polymorphum was undetectable in all applied assays. Quantitative PCR also showed the presence of light parasitemia (0.06%) of the lineage GRW11 in this sample. This supports the conclusion that the morphologically

  1. Analysis of MreB interactors in Chlamydia reveals a RodZ homolog but fails to detect an interaction with MraY

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Scot P.; Rueden, Kelsey J.; Gauliard, Emilie; Persons, Logan; de Boer, Piet A.; Ladant, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that has significantly reduced its genome in adapting to the intracellular environment. One class of genes for which the bacterium has few annotated examples is cell division, and Chlamydia lacks FtsZ, a central coordinator of the division apparatus. We have previously implicated MreB as a potential substitute for FtsZ in Chlamydia (Ouellette et al., 2012). Thus, to identify new chlamydial cell division components, we searched for proteins that interacted with MreB. We performed a small-scale screen using a Gateway® compatible version of the Bacterial Adenylate Cyclase Two Hybrid (BACTH) system, BACTHGW, to detect proteins interacting with chlamydial MreB and identified a RodZ (YfgA) homolog. The chlamydial RodZ aligns well with the cytoplasmic domain of E. coli RodZ but lacks the periplasmic domain that is dispensable for rod cell shape maintenance in E. coli. The expression pattern of yfgA/rodZ was similar to that of mreB and ftsI, suggesting that these genes may operate in a common functional pathway. The chlamydial RodZ correctly localized to the membrane of E. coli but was unable to complement an E. coli rodZ mutant strain, likely because of the inability of chlamydial RodZ to interact with the native E. coli MreB. Finally, we also tested whether chlamydial MreB could interact with MraY, as suggested by Gaballah et al. (2011). However, we did not detect an interaction between these proteins even when using an implementation of the BACTH system to allow native orientation of the N- and C-termini of MraY in the periplasm. Thus, further work will be needed to establish this proposed interaction. In sum, we have added to the repertoire of potential cell division proteins of Chlamydia. PMID:24936201

  2. Monte Carlo characterization of PWR spent fuel assemblies to determine the detectability of pin diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdo, James S.

    This research is based on the concept that the diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies is feasible by a careful comparison of spontaneous fission neutron and gamma levels in the guide tube locations of the fuel assemblies. The goal is to be able to determine whether some of the assembly fuel pins are either missing or have been replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. It is known that for typical commercial power spent fuel assemblies, the dominant spontaneous neutron emissions come from Cm-242 and Cm-244. Because of the shorter half-life of Cm-242 (0.45 yr) relative to that of Cm-244 (18.1 yr), Cm-244 is practically the only neutron source contributing to the neutron source term after the spent fuel assemblies are more than two years old. Initially, this research focused upon developing MCNP5 models of PWR fuel assemblies, modeling their depletion using the MONTEBURNS code, and by carrying out a preliminary depletion of a ¼ model 17x17 assembly from the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR. Later, the depletion and more accurate isotopic distribution in the pins at discharge was modeled using the TRITON depletion module of the SCALE computer code. Benchmarking comparisons were performed with the MONTEBURNS and TRITON results. Subsequently, the neutron flux in each of the guide tubes of the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR assembly at two years after discharge as calculated by the MCNP5 computer code was determined for various scenarios. Cases were considered for all spent fuel pins present and for replacement of a single pin at a position near the center of the assembly (10,9) and at the corner (17,1). Some scenarios were duplicated with a gamma flux calculation for high energies associated with Cm-244. For each case, the difference between the flux (neutron or gamma) for all spent fuel pins and with a pin removed or replaced is calculated for each guide tube. Different detection criteria were established. The first was whether the relative error of the

  3. Microbial Fuel Cells Applied to the Metabolically Based Detection of Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1970s, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments to detect microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that a methodology detect life independently from its composition or form and that the chosen biological signature point to a feature common to all living systems, such as the presence of metabolism. In this paper, we evaluate the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material, releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density values measured in MFCs that use microorganism cultures or soil samples in the anode are much larger than those obtained with a medium free of microorganisms or sterilized soil samples, respectively. In particular, we found that this is true for extremophiles, which have been proposed as potential inhabitants of extraterrestrial environments. Therefore, our results show that MFCs have the potential to be used for in situ detection of microbial life.

  4. Microbial fuel cells applied to the metabolically based detection of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1970s, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments to detect microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that a methodology detect life independently from its composition or form and that the chosen biological signature point to a feature common to all living systems, such as the presence of metabolism. In this paper, we evaluate the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material, releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density values measured in MFCs that use microorganism cultures or soil samples in the anode are much larger than those obtained with a medium free of microorganisms or sterilized soil samples, respectively. In particular, we found that this is true for extremophiles, which have been proposed as potential inhabitants of extraterrestrial environments. Therefore, our results show that MFCs have the potential to be used for in situ detection of microbial life.

  5. Microbial fuel cells applied to the metabolically based detection of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1970s, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments to detect microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that a methodology detect life independently from its composition or form and that the chosen biological signature point to a feature common to all living systems, such as the presence of metabolism. In this paper, we evaluate the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material, releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density values measured in MFCs that use microorganism cultures or soil samples in the anode are much larger than those obtained with a medium free of microorganisms or sterilized soil samples, respectively. In particular, we found that this is true for extremophiles, which have been proposed as potential inhabitants of extraterrestrial environments. Therefore, our results show that MFCs have the potential to be used for in situ detection of microbial life. PMID:21162676

  6. [A RhD negative patient failed to produce detectable anti-D after transfusion of 35 units of RhD positive red blood cells].

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Mok; Kim, Ji Hae; Ha, Jung Sook; Ryoo, Nam Hee; Jeon, Dong Seok; Kim, Jae Ryong; Cho, Duck

    2007-10-01

    In the present day, pretransfusion tests include ABO and RhD grouping, antibody screening, antibody identification, and cross matching. Although error rates for these tests have decreased compared to those in the past, clerical errors still occur. When exposed to RhD positive RBCs, a RhD negative person can produce anti-D that causes a severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn in addition to hemolytic transfusion reactions. Therefore, administration of RhD positive RBCs to a RhD negative person should be avoided. We experienced a RhD negative patient who had been misidentified as positive and transfused 35 units of RhD positive RBCs eight years ago, but did not have detectable anti-D in present. The red cells of the patient showed no agglutination with the anti-D reagent and a negative result in the standard weak D test. The multiplex PCR with sequence-specific priming revealed that the patient was RhD negative. PMID:18094603

  7. PEM fuel cell fault detection and identification using differential method: simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappé, E.; de Bernardinis, A.; Bethoux, O.; Candusso, D.; Harel, F.; Marchand, C.; Coquery, G.

    2011-05-01

    PEM fuel cell performance and lifetime strongly depend on the polymer membrane and MEA hydration. As the internal moisture is very sensitive to the operating conditions (temperature, stoichiometry, load current, water management…), keeping the optimal working point is complex and requires real-time monitoring. This article focuses on PEM fuel cell stack health diagnosis and more precisely on stack fault detection monitoring. This paper intends to define new, simple and effective methods to get relevant information on usual faults or malfunctions occurring in the fuel cell stack. For this purpose, the authors present a fault detection method using simple and non-intrusive on-line technique based on the space signature of the cell voltages. The authors have the objective to minimize the number of embedded sensors and instrumentation in order to get a precise, reliable and economic solution in a mass market application. A very low number of sensors are indeed needed for this monitoring and the associated algorithm can be implemented on-line. This technique is validated on a 20-cell PEMFC stack. It demonstrates that the developed method is particularly efficient in flooding case. As a matter of fact, it uses directly the stack as a sensor which enables to get a quick feedback on its state of health.

  8. A performance estimate for the detection of undeclared nuclear-fuel reprocessing by atmospheric 85Kr.

    PubMed

    Kemp, R Scott; Schlosser, C

    2008-08-01

    To test the sensitivity of using atmospheric (85)Kr to detect undeclared separation of plutonium from irradiated nuclear-reactor fuel, measurements of atmospheric (85)Kr taken in Tsukuba, Japan are analyzed to determine: (1) a lower limit of detection for discovering anthropogenic (85)Kr emissions, (2) the probability of detecting plutonium separation at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, and (3) the extent to which these results can be generalized to other sites. A LLD of at least 3.4 sigma=0.14 Bq/m(3) with a theoretical false-positive rate of 0.05% is recommended for safeguards' purposes. At this threshold, the continuous separation of 100, 300, and 900 g equivalent weapon-grade plutonium per day was found to correspond to 10%, 50%, and 80% probability of detection, respectively. The smallest detected concentration was for the continuous separation of 45 g/day, with a probability of detection of about 0.6%. It was found that the detection rate is determined predominantly by the weather.

  9. Electrocardiogram of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Vinzenz

    2002-09-01

    In the failing heart general specific (e.g., Q-waves after acute myocardial infarction, persistent ST-elevations in post-myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm) and unspecific ECG changes (e.g., left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, ST-T-alterations due to digitalis glycosides or antiarrhythmic drugs) may be seen in the conventional 12-lead ECG. In addition, atrial and ventricular tachy-arrhythmias may be detected and quantified by 24-hour-Holter ECG recordings, that may be relevant for a worse prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure. Heart rate variability as the most relevant derived ECG parameter of sympathetic tone fluctuations may be of important prognostic significance in congestive heart failure patients. An abnormal signal averaged P-wave duration may predict the incidence of atrial fibrillation, as may apply to QRS-prolongation and/or ventricular late potentials in the signal averaged ECG for the incidence of serious life-threatening ventricular tachy-arrhythmias or death from pump failure. Last but not least, cardiac repolarization abnormalities may be detected by QT dispersion-, QT-/QTc-fluctuation- or T-wave alternans studies, but the true prognostic significance of these parameters for predicting sudden cardiac death or death from pump failure in patients with congestive heart failure remains unclear. PMID:12114840

  10. Color-Changing Sensors for Detecting the Presence of Hypergolic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Starr, Stanley; DeVor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hypergolic fuel sensors were designed to incorporate novel chemochromic pigments into substrates for use in various methods of leak detection. There are several embodiments to this invention that would provide specific visual indication of hypergols used during and after transfer. The ability to incorporate these pigments into various polymer matrices provides a unique opportunity to manufacture nearly any type of sensor shape that is required. The vibrant color change from yellow to black instantaneously shows the worker the presence of hypergols in the area.

  11. Swelling behavior detection of irradiated U-10Zr alloy fuel using indirect neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Huo, He-yong; Wu, Yang; Li, Jiangbo; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Hai-bing; Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Yin, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Bin; Feng, Qi-jie; Tang, Bin

    2016-11-01

    It is hopeful that fusion-fission hybrid energy system will become an effective approach to achieve long-term sustainable development of fission energy. U-10Zr alloy (which means the mass ratio of Zr is 10%) fuel is the key material of subcritical blanket for fusion-fission hybrid energy system which the irradiation performance need to be considered. Indirect neutron radiography is used to detect the irradiated U-10Zr alloy because of the high residual dose in this paper. Different burnup samples (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%) have been tested with a special indirect neutron radiography device at CMRR (China Mianyang Research Reactor). The resolution of the device is better than 50 μm and the quantitative analysis of swelling behaviors was carried out. The results show that the swelling behaviors relate well to burnup character which can be detected accurately by indirect neutron radiography.

  12. An Evaluation of Image Based Techniques for Early Wildfire Detection and Fuel Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbert, Dustin W.

    2015-05-01

    Few events can cause the catastrophic impact to ecology, infrastructure, and human safety of a wildland fire along the wildland urban interface. The suppression of natural wildland fires over the past decade has caused a buildup of dry, dead surface fuels: a condition that, coupled with the right weather conditions, can cause large destructive wildfires that are capable of threatening both ancient tree stands and manmade infrastructure. Firefighters use fire danger models to determine staffing needs on high fire risk days; however models are only as effective as the spatial and temporal density of their observations. OKFIRE, an Oklahoma initiative created by a partnership between Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma, has proven that fire danger assessments close to the fire – both geographically and temporally – can give firefighters a significant increase in their situational awareness while fighting a wildland fire. This paper investigates several possible solutions for a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which could gather information useful for detecting ground fires and constructing fire danger maps. Multiple fire detection and fuel mapping programs utilize satellites, manned aircraft, and large UAS equipped with hyperspectral sensors to gather useful information. Their success provides convincing proof of the utility that could be gained from low-altitude UAS gathering information at the exact time and place firefighters and land managers are interested in. Close proximity, both geographically and operationally, to the end can reduce latency times below what could ever be possible with satellite observation. This paper expands on recent advances in computer vision, photogrammetry, and infrared and color imagery to develop a framework for a next-generation UAS which can assess fire danger and aid firefighters in real time as they observe, contain, or extinguish wildland fires. It also investigates the impact information gained by this

  13. Detecting proton exchange membrane fuel cell hydrogen leak using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Ghassan; Golnaraghi, Farid; DeVaal, Jake; Young, Alan

    2014-01-01

    When a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell runs short of hydrogen, it suffers from a reverse potential fault that, when driven by neighboring cells, can lead to anode catalyst degradation and holes in the membrane due to local heat generation. As a result, hydrogen leaks through the electrically-shorted membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) without being reacted, and a reduction in fuel cell voltage is noticed. Such voltage reduction can be detected by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). To fully understand the reverse potential fault, the effect of hydrogen crossover leakage in a commercial MEA is measured by EIS at different differential pressures between the anode and cathode. Then the signatures of these leaky cells were compared with the signatures of a no-leaky cells at different oxygen concentrations with the same current densities. The eventual intent of this early stage work is to develop an on-board diagnostics system that can be used to detect and possibly prevent cell reversal failures, and to permit understanding the status of crossover or transfer leaks versus time in operation.

  14. Failed detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 subgenotype a (BVDV-2a) by direct fluorescent antibody test on tissue samples due to reduced reactivity of field isolates to raw anti-BVDV antibody.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifang; Pace, Lanny W; Baughman, Brittany; Wilson, Floyd D; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Michael Z

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is associated with mild or subclinical infections, whereas BVDV-2 is frequently implicated in outbreaks of severe thrombocytopenia and acute fatal disease. In the present study, the carcass of a beef breed cow and tissue samples of a beef calf were received for laboratory diagnosis. Both animals exhibited severe clinical signs compatible with thrombocytopenia or hemorrhagic syndrome. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) failed to detect BVDV antigen in the tissue specimens of both cases. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the presence of BVDV antigen in oral and esophageal mucosa and Peyer patches of the beef breed cow. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detected BVDV-2 in selected tissues of both animals. Subsequently, BVDV was isolated from both cases and subjected to genetic and serologic characterizations. Mutations in the 5'-untranslated genomic region (5'-UTR) primer and probe binding sites and the E2 gene were associated with reduced efficiency of an established real-time RT-PCR assay and amino acid alterations in the E2 glycoprotein, respectively. Both viral isolates were classified by real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis as BVDV-2 subgenotype a. Unlike BVDV reference strains Singer and 125c, the isolates cross-reacted with anti-BVDV-1 and anti-BVDV-2 reference sera, indicating antigenic variations in field isolates. The isolates also showed reduced reactivity to porcine anti-BVDV antiserum (the raw serum used to produce BVDV DFA conjugate). In summary, data from the present investigation indicated that genetic and antigenic variations affected the performance of detection assays, especially DFAT, highlighting the need for regular evaluation and modification of BVDV tests.

  15. Hydrogen uptake in Zircaloy-2 reactor fuel claddings studied with elastic recoil detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekhara, S.; Doyle, B. L.; Enos, D. G.; Clark, B. G.

    2013-04-01

    The recent trend towards a high burn-up discharge spent nuclear fuel necessitates a thorough understanding of hydrogen uptake in Zr-based cladding materials that encapsulate spent nuclear fuel. Although it is challenging to experimentally replicate exact conditions in a nuclear reactor that lead to hydrogen uptake in claddings, in this study we have attempted to understand the kinetics of hydrogen uptake by first electrolytically charging Zircaloy-2 (Zr-2) cladding material for various durations (100 to 2,600 s), and subsequently examining hydrogen ingress with elastic recoil detection (ERD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To understand the influence of irradiation damage defects on hydrogen uptake, an analogous study was performed on ion - irradiated (0.1, 1 and 25 dpa) Zr-2. Analysis of ERD data from the un-irradiated Zr-2 suggests that the growth of the hydride layer is diffusion controlled, and preliminary TEM results support this assertion. In un-irradiated Zr-2, the diffusivity of hydrogen in the hydride phase was found to be approximately 1.1 × 10-11 cm2/s, while the diffusivity in the hydride phase for lightly irradiated (0.1 and 1 dpa) Zr-2 is an order of magnitude lower. Irradiation to 25 dpa results in a hydrogen diffusivity that is comparable to the un-irradiated Zr-2. These results are compared with existing literature on hydrogen transport in Zr - based materials.

  16. Validation of a novel method for detecting and stabilizing malfunctioning areas in fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Martin; Hirschfeld, Julian; Lambertz, Rita; Schulze Lohoff, Andreas; Lustfeld, Hans; Pfeifer, Heinz; Reißel, Martin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper a setup for detecting malfunctioning areas of MEAs in fuel cell stacks is described. Malfunctioning areas generate electric cross currents inside bipolar plates. To exploit this we suggest bipolar plates consisting not of two but of three layers. The third one is a highly conducting layer and segmented such that the cross currents move along the segments to the surface of the stack where they can be measured by an inductive sensor. With this information a realistic model can be used to detect the malfunctioning area. Furthermore the third layer will prevent any current inhomogeneity of a malfunctioning cell to spread to neighbouring cells in the stack. In this work the results of measurements in a realistic cell setup will be compared with the results obtained in simulation studies with the same configuration. The basis for the comparison is the reliable characterisation of the electrical properties of the cell components and the implication of these results into the simulation model. The experimental studies will also show the limits in the maximum number of segments, which can be used for a reliable detection of cross currents.

  17. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  18. Quantitative carbon detector for enhanced detection of molecules in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, flavors, and fuels.

    PubMed

    Beach, Connor A; Krumm, Christoph; Spanjers, Charles S; Maduskar, Saurabh; Jones, Andrew J; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of trace compounds, such as pesticides and other contaminants, within consumer products, fuels, and the environment requires quantification of increasingly complex mixtures of difficult-to-quantify compounds. Many compounds of interest are non-volatile and exhibit poor response in current gas chromatography and flame ionization systems. Here we show the reaction of trimethylsilylated chemical analytes to methane using a quantitative carbon detector (QCD; the Polyarc™ reactor) within a gas chromatograph (GC), thereby enabling enhanced detection (up to 10×) of highly functionalized compounds including carbohydrates, acids, drugs, flavorants, and pesticides. Analysis of a complex mixture of compounds shows that the GC-QCD method exhibits faster and more accurate analysis of complex mixtures commonly encountered in everyday products and the environment. PMID:26842653

  19. Who Really Failed New Orleans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    I read with unusual interest the Forum ``Earth Scientists and Public Policy: Have We Failed New Orleans?'' in the 4 March issue of Eos (89(10), 2008). As an Earth scientist who lived in New Orleans during most of the early 1960s, I believe strongly that Earth scientists did not fail to recognize infrastructure problems. Further, they tried to communicate these problems and potential dangers to civic leaders in New Orleans and to government officials in Baton Rouge and Washington.

  20. Development of a Simple Field Test for Vehicle Exhaust to Detect Illicit Use of Dyed Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

    2011-10-30

    The use of tax-free dyed fuel on public highways in the United States provides a convenient way of evading taxes. Current enforcement involves visual inspection for the red azo dye added to the fuel to designate its tax-free status. This approach has shortcomings such as the invasive nature of the tests and/or various deceptive tactics applied by tax evaders. A test designed to detect dyed fuel use by analyzing the exhaust would circumvent these shortcomings. This paper describes the development of a simple color spot test designed to detect the use of tax-free (dyed) diesel fuel by analyzing the engine exhaust. Development first investigated the combustion products of C.I. Solvent Red 164 (the azo dye formulation used in the United States to tag tax-free fuel). A variety of aryl amines were identified as characteristic molecular remnants that appear to survive combustion. A number of microanalytical color tests specific for aryl amines were then investigated. One test based on the use of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde seemed particularly applicable and was used in a proof-of-principle experiment. The 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde color spot test was able to clearly distinguish between engines burning regular and dyed diesel fuel. Further development will refine this color spot test to provide an easy-to-use field test for Internal Revenue Service Field Compliance specialists.

  1. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    PubMed

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  2. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-01

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics. PMID:27125997

  3. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing images of the anomalies in these panels. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in several SOFI panels. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The resulting raw images revealed a significant amount of information about the interior of these panels. However, using simple image processing techniques the results were improved in particular as it relate s to detecting the smaller anomalies. This paper presents the results of this investigation and a discussion of these results.

  4. The Child Who is Failing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1974-01-01

    Provides case studies of Australian children who fail for social reasons. The role of social factors operating within the schools is stressed along with the lost curriculum. That factors operating in school failure are in fact social problems is suggested. [Available from Publications Branch, Education Department of Victoria, 234 Queensberry…

  5. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range.

  6. An investigation towards real time dose rate monitoring, and fuel rod detection in a First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah F; Monk, Stephen D; Riaz, Zahid

    2014-12-01

    The First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP) is located on the Sellafield Nuclear Site, housing legacy spent Magnox nuclear fuel. Some of which has since corroded, forming a layer of Corroded Magnox Sludge (CMS) creating one of the largest decommissioning challenges the UK has faced. In this work the composition, physical properties and potentially high hazard nature of CMS are discussed, as are the gamma emission spectra of spent Magnox fuel rods typical of the ilk stored. We assess the potential use of a RadLine gamma detector to dose rate map this area and provide fuel rod detection. RadLine consists of a small scintillator, fibre optic cable and photon counter. The probe has the unusual advantage of not being electrically active and therefore fully submersible underwater, with the option to deploy hundreds of metres in length. Our experimental method encompasses general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP, where we describe the modelling of CMS and pond liquor in comprehensive detail, including their radiological spectrum, chemical composition data, and physical properties. This investigation concludes that the maximum energy deposited within the scintillator crystal due to ambient CMS corresponds to a dose rate of 5.65Gy h(-1), thus above this value positive detection of a fuel rod would be anticipated. It is additionally established that the detectable region is within a 20cm range. PMID:25244071

  7. Software detection of characteristics data of optical signals received in multiparametric capillary sensors of diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prus, P.; Borecki, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Duk, M.

    2015-09-01

    Multiparametric capillary sensors are used for examination of liquids. The measurements results from such sensors are data from time series measurements taken during the movement of the fluid inside the capillary. The truthful characterization requires simultaneous measurements at different capillary points or performed with different techniques or specification. Points and tracks of time series can be analyzed simultaneously. Such analysis performed by trained human operators is time consuming and sometimes not precise because of slow signals levels variations resulting from device imperfection, and fast variations resulting from the presence of noise. The paper presents result of software characteristic data detection from a two-channel capillary sensor. One channel is for the reflected signal measurement; the other channel is for sensing of the scattered signal. The fluid movement inside the capillary is forced by local heating. The software analysis allows the classification of diesel and biodiesel fuel by their content on the base of the slopes of signals manifestation. Obtained results show that the automated analysis of the differences between two simultaneous channels of signals provides more precise data than those obtained from independent time series analysis.

  8. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  9. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  10. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  11. Fault detection and isolation of PEM fuel cell system based on nonlinear analytical redundancy. An application via parity space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitouche, A.; Yang, Q.; Ould Bouamama, B.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a procedure dealing with the issue of fault detection and isolation (FDI) using nonlinear analytical redundancy (NLAR) technique applied in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on its mathematic model. The model is proposed and simplified into a five orders state space representation. The transient phenomena captured in the model include the compressor dynamics, the flow characteristics, mass and energy conservation and manifold fluidic mechanics. Nonlinear analytical residuals are generated based on the elimination of the unknown variables of the system by an extended parity space approach to detect and isolate actuator and sensor faults. Finally, numerical simulation results are given corresponding to a faults signature matrix.

  12. In-line deoxygenation for organic carbon detections in seawater using a marine microbial fuel cell-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is a key predictor for membrane biofouling in seawater desalination reverse osmosis (SWRO). Microbial fuel cells have been considered as biosensors for the detection of biodegradable organics. However, the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) is known to completely suppress the signal production (i.e., current) of a typical MFC. This study describes AOC detection in normal oxygenated seawater by coupling an electrochemical cell for DO removal with a MFC-biosensor for AOC detection. The electrochemical deoxygenation for oxygen removal caused no interference in the AOC detection. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.991) between the AOC concentration and current production from the MFC biosensor was achieved. The coupling of an electrochemical cell with a MFC-biosensor can be effectively used as an online, rapid and inexpensive measure of AOC concentrations and hence as an indicator for biofouling potential of seawater.

  13. In-line deoxygenation for organic carbon detections in seawater using a marine microbial fuel cell-biosensor.

    PubMed

    Quek, Soon Bee; Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is a key predictor for membrane biofouling in seawater desalination reverse osmosis (SWRO). Microbial fuel cells have been considered as biosensors for the detection of biodegradable organics. However, the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) is known to completely suppress the signal production (i.e., current) of a typical MFC. This study describes AOC detection in normal oxygenated seawater by coupling an electrochemical cell for DO removal with a MFC-biosensor for AOC detection. The electrochemical deoxygenation for oxygen removal caused no interference in the AOC detection. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.991) between the AOC concentration and current production from the MFC biosensor was achieved. The coupling of an electrochemical cell with a MFC-biosensor can be effectively used as an online, rapid and inexpensive measure of AOC concentrations and hence as an indicator for biofouling potential of seawater. PMID:25679497

  14. Interaction of cosmic ray muons with spent nuclear fuel dry casks and determination of lower detection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzidakis, S.; Choi, C. K.; Tsoukalas, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    The potential non-proliferation monitoring of spent nuclear fuel sealed in dry casks interacting continuously with the naturally generated cosmic ray muons is investigated. Treatments on the muon RMS scattering angle by Moliere, Rossi-Greisen, Highland and, Lynch-Dahl were analyzed and compared with simplified Monte Carlo simulations. The Lynch-Dahl expression has the lowest error and appears to be appropriate when performing conceptual calculations for high-Z, thick targets such as dry casks. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate dry casks with various fuel loadings and scattering variance estimates for each case were obtained. The scattering variance estimation was shown to be unbiased and using Chebyshev's inequality, it was found that 106 muons will provide estimates of the scattering variances that are within 1% of the true value at a 99% confidence level. These estimates were used as reference values to calculate scattering distributions and evaluate the asymptotic behavior for small variations on fuel loading. It is shown that the scattering distributions between a fully loaded dry cask and one with a fuel assembly missing initially overlap significantly but their distance eventually increases with increasing number of muons. One missing fuel assembly can be distinguished from a fully loaded cask with a small overlapping between the distributions which is the case of 100,000 muons. This indicates that the removal of a standard fuel assembly can be identified using muons providing that enough muons are collected. A Bayesian algorithm was developed to classify dry casks and provide a decision rule that minimizes the risk of making an incorrect decision. The algorithm performance was evaluated and the lower detection limit was determined.

  15. Why good projects fail anyway.

    PubMed

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  16. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  17. Water vapour emission in vegetable fuel: absorption cell measurements and detection limits of our CO II Dial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2006-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason a considerable effort has been directed toward the forest protection and fire fighting. In the early forest fire detection, Lidar technique present considerable advantages compared to the passive detection methods based on infrared cameras currently in common use, due its higher sensitivity and ability to accurately locate the fire. The combustion phase of the vegetable matter causes a great amount of water vapour emission, thus the water molecule behaviour will be studied to obtain a fire detection system ready and efficient also before the flame propagation. A first evaluation of increment of the water vapour concentration compared to standard one will be estimated by a numerical simulation. These results will be compared with the experimental measurements carried out into a cell with a CO II Dial system, burning different kinds of vegetable fuel. Our results and their comparison will be reported in this paper.

  18. A Combined Gas and Liquid Chemical Sensor Array for Fuel Adulteration Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiziack, Nadja K. L.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique C.

    2011-09-01

    A multisensor system combining electronic tongue (ET) and nose (EN) was here developed to improve fuel quality control. Several impedance microelectrode sensors, with different geometries and sensoactive materials, were used separately and simultaneously in both liquid and vapor samples. The combined system significantly improved the substance discrimination compared to isolated ET and EN.

  19. Helium Leak Detection of Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N. G.

    2012-11-01

    Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (BHAVINI) is engaged in construction of 500MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpak am, Chennai. In this very important and prestigious national programme Special Product Division (SPD) of M/s Kay Bouvet Engg.pvt. ltd. (M/s KBEPL) Satara is contributing in a major way by supplying many important sub-assemblies like- Under Water trolley (UWT), Airlocks (PAL, EAL) Container and Storage Rack (CSR) Vessels in Fuel Transfer Cell (FTC) etc for PFBR. SPD of KBEPL caters to the requirements of Government departments like - Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), BARC, Defense, and Government undertakings like NPCIL, BHAVINI, BHEL etc. and other precision Heavy Engg. Industries. SPD is equipped with large size Horizontal Boring Machines, Vertical Boring Machines, Planno milling, Vertical Turret Lathe (VTL) & Radial drilling Machine, different types of welding machines etc. PFBR is 500 MWE sodium cooled pool type reactor in which energy is produced by fissions of mixed oxides of Uranium and Plutonium pellets by fast neutrons and it also breeds uranium by conversion of thorium, put along with fuel rod in the reactor. In the long run, the breeder reactor produces more fuel then it consumes. India has taken the lead to go ahead with Fast Breeder Reactor Programme to produce electricity primarily because India has large reserve of Thorium. To use Thorium as further fuel in future, thorium has to be converted in Uranium by PFBR Technology.

  20. DETECTION OF ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL FUEL AND BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study evaluated both diesel fuel exhaust and biomass (wood) burn extracts for androgen receptor¿mediated activity using MDA-kb2 cells, which contain an androgen-responsive promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct. This assay and analytical fractionization of the sa...

  1. Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

    2008-12-24

    A novel methodology to detect diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has been developed in order to address a long unsolved safeguards verification problem for international safeguards community such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The concept involves inserting tiny neutron and gamma detectors into the guide tubes of a spent fuel assembly and measuring the signals. The guide tubes form a quadrant symmetric pattern in the various PWR fuel product lines and the neutron and gamma signals from these various locations are processed to obtain a unique signature for an undisturbed fuel assembly. Signatures based on the neutron and gamma signals individually or in a combination can be developed. Removal of fuel pins from the assembly will cause the signatures to be visibly perturbed thus enabling the detection of diversion. All of the required signal processing to obtain signatures can be performed on standard laptop computers. Monte Carlo simulation studies and a set of controlled experiments with actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies were performed and validated this novel methodology. Based on the simulation studies and benchmarking measurements, the methodology developed promises to be a powerful and practical way to detect partial defects that constitute 10% or more of the total active fuel pins. This far exceeds the detection threshold of 50% missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, a threshold defined by the IAEA Safeguards Criteria. The methodology does not rely on any operator provided data like burnup or cooling time and does not require movement of the fuel assembly from the storage rack in the spent fuel pool. A concept was developed to build a practical field device, Partial Defect Detector (PDET), which will be completely portable and will use standard radiation measuring devices already in use at the IAEA. The use of the device will not require any information provided

  2. Evaluation of a Method for Remote Detection of Fuel Relocation Outside the Original Core Volumes of Fukushima Reactor Units 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas W. Akers; Edwin A. Harvego

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the feasibility of remotely detecting and quantifying fuel relocation from the core to the lower head, and to regions outside the reactor vessel primary containment of the Fukushima 1-3 reactors. The goals of this study were to determine measurement conditions and requirements, and to perform initial radiation transport sensitivity analyses for several potential measurement locations inside the reactor building. The radiation transport sensitivity analyses were performed based on reactor design information for boiling water reactors (BWRs) similar to the Fukushima reactors, ORIGEN2 analyses of 3-cycle BWR fuel inventories, and data on previously molten fuel characteristics from TMI- 2. A 100 kg mass of previously molten fuel material located on the lower head of the reactor vessel was chosen as a fuel interrogation sensitivity target. Two measurement locations were chosen for the transport analyses, one inside the drywell and one outside the concrete biological shield surrounding the drywell. Results of these initial radiation transport analyses indicate that the 100 kg of previously molten fuel material may be detectable at the measurement location inside the drywell, but that it is highly unlikely that any amount of fuel material inside the RPV will be detectable from a location outside the concrete biological shield surrounding the drywell. Three additional fuel relocation scenarios were also analyzed to assess detection sensitivity for varying amount of relocated material in the lower head of the reactor vessel, in the control rods perpendicular to the detector system, and on the lower head of the drywell. Results of these analyses along with an assessment of background radiation effects and a discussion of measurement issues, such as the detector/collimator design, are included in the paper.

  3. Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Jason W.; Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Barger, Nichole N.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of very high resolution (VHR; ground sampling distances < ∼5 cm) aerial imagery to estimate site vegetation cover and to detect changes from management has been well documented. However, as the purpose of monitoring is to document change over time, the ability to detect changes from imagery at the same or better level of accuracy and precision as those measured in situ must be assessed for image-based techniques to become reliable tools for ecosystem monitoring. Our objective with this study was to quantify the relationship between field-measured and image-interpreted changes in vegetation and ground cover measured one year apart in a Piñon and Juniper (P–J) woodland in southern Utah, USA. The study area was subject to a variety of fuel removal treatments between 2009 and 2010. We measured changes in plant community composition and ground cover along transects in a control area and three different treatments prior to and following P–J removal. We compared these measurements to vegetation composition and change based on photo-interpretation of ∼4 cm ground sampling distance imagery along similar transects. Estimates of cover were similar between field-based and image-interpreted methods in 2009 and 2010 for woody vegetation, no vegetation, herbaceous vegetation, and litter (including woody litter). Image-interpretation slightly overestimated cover for woody vegetation and no-vegetation classes (average difference between methods of 1.34% and 5.85%) and tended to underestimate cover for herbaceous vegetation and litter (average difference of −5.18% and 0.27%), but the differences were significant only for litter cover in 2009. Level of agreement between the field-measurements and image-interpretation was good for woody vegetation and no-vegetation classes (r between 0.47 and 0.89), but generally poorer for herbaceous vegetation and litter (r between 0.18 and 0.81) likely due to differences in image quality by year and the difficulty in

  4. Why Waveform Correlation Sometimes Fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, J.

    2015-12-01

    Waveform correlation detectors used in explosion monitoring scan noisy geophysical data to test two competing hypotheses: either (1) an amplitude-scaled version of a template waveform is present, or, (2) no signal is present at all. In reality, geophysical wavefields that are monitored for explosion signatures include waveforms produced by non-target sources that are partially correlated with the waveform template. Such signals can falsely trigger correlation detectors, particularly at low thresholds required to monitor for smaller target explosions. This challenge is particularly formidable when monitoring known test sites for seismic disturbances, since uncatalogued natural seismicity is (generally) more prevalent at lower magnitudes, and could be mistaken for small explosions. To address these challenges, we identify real examples in which correlation detectors targeting explosions falsely trigger on both site-proximal earthquakes (Figure 1, below) and microseismic "noise". Motivated by these examples, we quantify performance loss when applying these detectors, and re-evaluate the correlation-detector's hypothesis test. We thereby derive new detectors from more general hypotheses that admit unknown background seismicity, and apply these to real data. From our treatment, we derive "rules of thumb'' for proper template and threshold selection in heavily cluttered signal environments. Last, we answer the question "what is the probability of falsely detecting an earthquake collocated at a test site?", using correlation detectors that include explosion-triggered templates. Figure Top: An eight-channel data stream (black) recorded from an earthquake near a mine. Red markers indicate a detection. Middle: The correlation statistic computed by scanning the template against the data stream at top. The red line indicates the threshold for event declaration, determined by a false-alarm on noise probability constraint, as computed from the signal-absent distribution using

  5. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  6. Detection and identification of wild yeast contaminants of the industrial fuel ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Basílio, A C M; de Araújo, P R L; de Morais, J O F; da Silva Filho, E A; de Morais, M A; Simões, D A

    2008-04-01

    Monitoring for wild yeast contaminants is an essential component of the management of the industrial fuel ethanol manufacturing process. Here we describe the isolation and molecular identification of 24 yeast species present in bioethanol distilleries in northeast Brazil that use sugar cane juice or cane molasses as feeding substrate. Most of the yeast species could be identified readily from their unique amplification-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprint. Yeast of the species Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida tropicalis, Pichia galeiformis, as well as a species of Candida that belongs to the C. intermedia clade, were found to be involved in acute contamination episodes; the remaining 20 species were classified as adventitious. Additional physiologic data confirmed that the presence of these major contaminants cause decreased bioethanol yield. We conclude that PCR fingerprinting can be used in an industrial setting to monitor yeast population dynamics to early identify the presence of the most important contaminant yeasts.

  7. A comparison of different methods for fuel delivery unevenness detection in Diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Guardiola, C.; Perles, A.

    2006-11-01

    Conventional misfire diagnosis techniques are based on the analysis of the instantaneous engine speed. Although they have proved their efficiency in some operating conditions and for the detection of total misfires, their performance could be insufficient in a near future. This paper presents a comparative study of different alternative detection principles for the detection of slight unevenness between cylinders in the injection process for a turbocharged Diesel engine. The selected techniques are the instantaneous exhaust manifold pressure, the instantaneous turbocharger speed and the mean temperature at the exhaust cylinder ports. All alternative techniques show improved performance and linearity compared to the conventional one, particularly at high engine speed and low load. All these techniques are compared with the conventional approach and main advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. Failed supernovae explain the compact remnant mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-10

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 25 M {sub ☉}) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M {sub ☉}). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ∼20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  9. How to fail at species delimitation.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bryan C; Pelletier, Tara A; Reid, Noah M; Satler, Jordan D

    2013-09-01

    Species delimitation is the act of identifying species-level biological diversity. In recent years, the field has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of methods available for delimiting species. However, most recent investigations only utilize a handful (i.e. 2-3) of the available methods, often for unstated reasons. Because the parameter space that is potentially relevant to species delimitation far exceeds the parameterization of any existing method, a given method necessarily makes a number of simplifying assumptions, any one of which could be violated in a particular system. We suggest that researchers should apply a wide range of species delimitation analyses to their data and place their trust in delimitations that are congruent across methods. Incongruence across the results from different methods is evidence of either a difference in the power to detect cryptic lineages across one or more of the approaches used to delimit species and could indicate that assumptions of one or more of the methods have been violated. In either case, the inferences drawn from species delimitation studies should be conservative, for in most contexts it is better to fail to delimit species than it is to falsely delimit entities that do not represent actual evolutionary lineages.

  10. Report: Suitability of Leak Detection Technology for Use In Ethanol-Blended Fuel Service

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the use of biofuels has increased in the last decade, there has been a level of concern over the effect that ethanol blends have on the material compatibility and operability of existing infrastructure. The focus of this research is to determine whether leak detection (LD) te...

  11. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  12. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  13. Method for detection of trace metal and metalloid contaminants in coal-generated fuel gas using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Erik C; Granite, Evan J; Stanko, Dennis C

    2010-07-15

    There exists an increasing need to develop a reliable method to detect trace contaminants in fuel gas derived from coal gasification. While Hg is subject to current and future regulations, As, Se, and P emissions may eventually be regulated. Sorbents are the most promising technology for the removal of contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas, and it will be important to develop a rapid analytical detection method to ensure complete removal and determine the ideal time for sorbent replacement/regeneration in order to reduce costs. This technical note explores the use of a commercial gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry system for the detection of four gaseous trace contaminants in a simulated fuel gas. Quantitative, repeatable detection with limits at ppbv to ppmv levels were obtained for arsine (AsH(3)), phosphine (PH(3)), and hydrogen selenide (H(2)Se), while qualitative detection was observed for mercury. Decreased accuracy and response caused by the primary components of fuel gas were observed.

  14. Detection of DNA damage in workers exposed to JP-8 jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Edward F; Mathias, Patricia I; Toennis, Christine A; Clark, John C; Marlow, Kate L; B'hymer, Clayton; Singh, Narendra P; Gibson, Roger L; Butler, Mary Ann

    2012-09-18

    The genotoxicity of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) was assessed in the leukocytes of archived blood specimens from U.S. Air Force personnel using the comet assay. No differences in mean comet assay measurements were found between low, moderate, and high exposure groups before or after a 4h work shift. Before the work shift, mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment increased as the concentration of benzene measured in end-exhaled breath increased, indicating that prior environmental or work-related exposures to benzene produced DNA damage. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA decreased as the pre-shift benzene concentration in breath increased. It is not clear why the decrease is occurring. Mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment decreased as the concentrations of benzene and naphthalene measured in breath immediately after the work shift increased. These inverse relationships may reflect a slower rate of absorption or a faster rate of expiration of benzene in the lung. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA increased as the concentration of urinary (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) increased. This relationship was not seen in urinary MEAA adjusted for creatinine. MEAA is a metabolite of the deicing agent 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol contained in JP-8. MEAA or a component of JP-8 correlated with MEAA may have a toxic effect on DNA.

  15. Automatic molecular collection and detection by using fuel-powered microengines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Di; Fang, Yangfu; Du, Deyang; Huang, Gaoshan; Qiu, Teng; Mei, Yongfeng

    2016-04-01

    We design and fabricate a simple self-powered system to collect analyte molecules in fluids for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The system is based on catalytic Au/SiO/Ti/Ag-layered microengines by employing rolled-up nanotechnology. Pronounced SERS signals are observed on microengines with more carrier molecules compared with the same structure without automatic motions.We design and fabricate a simple self-powered system to collect analyte molecules in fluids for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The system is based on catalytic Au/SiO/Ti/Ag-layered microengines by employing rolled-up nanotechnology. Pronounced SERS signals are observed on microengines with more carrier molecules compared with the same structure without automatic motions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, characterization, SERS enhancement factor calculation and videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00117c

  16. In Situ Search for Extraterrestrial Life: A Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Sensor for the Detection of Photosynthetic Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Federico; Cortón, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C

    2015-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bioelectrochemical systems (BES) capable of harvesting electrons from redox reactions involved in metabolism. In a previous work, we used chemoorganoheterotrophic microorganisms from the three domains of life-Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya-to demonstrate that these BES could be applied to the in situ detection of extraterrestrial life. Since metabolism can be considered a common signature of life "as we know it," we extended in this study the ability to use MFCs as sensors for photolithoautotrophic metabolisms. To achieve this goal, two different photosynthetic microorganisms were used: the microalgae Parachlorella kessleri and the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MFCs were loaded with nonsterilized samples, sterilized samples, or sterilized culture medium of both microorganisms. Electric potential measurements were recorded for each group in single experiments or in continuum during light-dark cycles, and power and current densities were calculated. Our results indicate that the highest power and current density values were achieved when metabolically active microorganisms were present in the anode of the MFC. Moreover, when continuous measurements were performed during light-dark cycles, it was possible to see a positive response to light. Therefore, these BES could be used not only to detect chemoorganoheterotrophic metabolisms but also photolithoautotrophic metabolisms, in particular those involving oxygenic photosynthesis. Additionally, the positive response to light when using these BES could be employed to distinguish photosynthetic from nonphotosynthetic microorganisms in a sample.

  17. In Situ Search for Extraterrestrial Life: A Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Sensor for the Detection of Photosynthetic Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Federico; Cortón, Eduardo; Abrevaya, Ximena C

    2015-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bioelectrochemical systems (BES) capable of harvesting electrons from redox reactions involved in metabolism. In a previous work, we used chemoorganoheterotrophic microorganisms from the three domains of life-Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya-to demonstrate that these BES could be applied to the in situ detection of extraterrestrial life. Since metabolism can be considered a common signature of life "as we know it," we extended in this study the ability to use MFCs as sensors for photolithoautotrophic metabolisms. To achieve this goal, two different photosynthetic microorganisms were used: the microalgae Parachlorella kessleri and the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. MFCs were loaded with nonsterilized samples, sterilized samples, or sterilized culture medium of both microorganisms. Electric potential measurements were recorded for each group in single experiments or in continuum during light-dark cycles, and power and current densities were calculated. Our results indicate that the highest power and current density values were achieved when metabolically active microorganisms were present in the anode of the MFC. Moreover, when continuous measurements were performed during light-dark cycles, it was possible to see a positive response to light. Therefore, these BES could be used not only to detect chemoorganoheterotrophic metabolisms but also photolithoautotrophic metabolisms, in particular those involving oxygenic photosynthesis. Additionally, the positive response to light when using these BES could be employed to distinguish photosynthetic from nonphotosynthetic microorganisms in a sample. PMID:26325625

  18. Hidden disbond detection in spent nuclear fuel storage systems using air-coupled ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Homin; Popovics, John S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies an air-coupled ultrasonic scanning approach for damage assessment in steel-clad concrete structures. An air-coupled ultrasonic sender generates guided plate waves in the steel cladding and a small contact-type receiver measures the corresponding wave responses. A frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain signal filtering technique is used to isolate the behavior of the fundamental symmetric (S0) mode of the guided plate waves. The behavior of the S0 mode is sensitive to interface bonding conditions. The proposed inspection approach is verified by a series of experiments performed on laboratory-scale specimens. The experimental results demonstrate that hidden disbond between steel cladding and underlying concrete substrate can be successfully detected with the ultrasonic test setup and the f-k domain signal filtering technique.

  19. Applying Infrared Thermography as a Quality-Control Tool for the Rapid Detection of Proton-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell Catalyst-Layer-Thickness Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Aieta, N. V.; Das, P. K.; Perdue, A.; Bender, G.; Herring, A. M.; Weber, A. Z.; Ulsh, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods are needed to enable increased volumes with high quality. One necessary component of this industrial growth will be the accurate measurement of the variability of a wide range of material properties during the manufacturing process. In this study, a method to detect defects in fuel cell catalyst layers is investigated through experiment and mathematical simulation. The method uses infrared thermography and direct-current electronic-excitation methods to detect variations in platinum-containing catalyst-layer thickness with high spatial and temporal resolution. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored, showing the measurement of defects on the millimeter length scale. Overall, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate great potential of this technique as a nondestructive method to measure defects that is amenable to use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

  20. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  1. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  2. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  3. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each...

  4. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam and Acreage Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and its protective acreage heat tiles. Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing millimeter wave images of the anomalies in SOFI panel and heat tiles. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in two SOFI panels and a set of heat tiles. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The results clearly illustrate the utility of these methods for this purpose.

  5. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  6. Studies of electrochemical oxidation of Zircaloy nuclear reactor fuel cladding using time-of-flight-energy elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Winzell, T.; Simic, N.; Ahlberg, E.; Limbäck, M.; Wikmark, G.

    2000-03-01

    The trend towards increased fuel burn-up and higher operating temperatures in order to achieve more economic operation of nuclear power plants places demands on a better understanding of oxidative corrosion of Zircaloy (Zry) fuel rod cladding. As part of a programme to study these processes we have applied time-of-flight-energy elastic recoil detection (ToF-E ERD), electrochemical impedance measurements and scanning electron microscopy to quantitatively characterise thin-oxide films corresponding to the pre-transition oxidation regime. Oxide films of different nominal thickness in the 9-300 nm range were grown on a series of rolled Zr and Zry-2 plates by anodisation in dilute H 2SO 4 with applied voltages. The dielectric thickness of the oxide layer was determined from the electrochemical impedance measurements and the surface topography characterised by scanning electron microscopy. ToF-E ERD with a 60 MeV 127I 11+ ion beam was used to determine the oxygen content and chemical composition of the oxide layer. In the Zr samples, the oxygen content (O atom cm -2) that was determined by ERD was closely similar to the O content derived from impedance measurements from the dielectric film. The absolute agreement was well within the uncertainty associated with the stopping powers. Moreover, the measured composition of the thick oxide layers corresponded to ZrO 2 for the films thicker than 65 nm where the oxide layer was resolved in the ERD depth profile. Zry-2 samples exhibited a similar behaviour for small thickness ( ⩽130 nm) but had an enhanced O content at larger thicknesses that could be associated either with enhanced rough surface topography or porous oxide formation that was correlated with the presence of Second Phase Particles (SPP) in Zry-2. The concentration of SPP elements (Fe, Cr, Ni) in relation to Zr was the same in the outer 9×10 17 atom cm -2 of oxide as in the same thickness of metal. The results also revealed the presence of about 1 at.% 32S in the

  7. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  8. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  9. Failed Citizenship, Civic Engagement, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. The author conceptualizes this process as "failed citizenship,"…

  10. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  11. Understanding Failing Schools: Perspectives from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidou, Maria; Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of so-called "failing schools" in order to develop understandings that can inform improvement efforts. It reports on a study of the experiences of a small number of English primary schools placed in "special measures" as a result of being inspected. The study is unusual in that, in the past, researchers have…

  12. The Art of Saving a Failing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Les

    2012-01-01

    While the debate continues over whether to close failing schools or attempt fixing them, the author asserts that the solution most often lies in assigning strong leaders to them who will take definite and immediate action. Reviewing his own success turning around schools, he says creating a sense of urgency, unloading poor performing staff, and…

  13. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part II: Toxicity, microbial activity and quantification, single analyte detection and other uses.

    PubMed

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells were rediscovered twenty years ago and now are a very active research area. The reasons behind this new activity are the relatively recent discovery of electrogenic or electroactive bacteria and the vision of two important practical applications, as wastewater treatment coupled with clean energy production and power supply systems for isolated low-power sensor devices. Although some analytical applications of MFCs were proposed earlier (as biochemical oxygen demand sensing) only lately a myriad of new uses of this technology are being presented by research groups around the world, which combine both biological-microbiological and electroanalytical expertises. This is the second part of a review of MFC applications in the area of analytical sciences. In Part I a general introduction to biological-based analytical methods including bioassays, biosensors, MFCs design, operating principles, as well as, perhaps the main and earlier presented application, the use as a BOD sensor was reviewed. In Part II, other proposed uses are presented and discussed. As other microbially based analytical systems, MFCs are satisfactory systems to measure and integrate complex parameters that are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise, such as water toxicity (where the toxic effect to aquatic organisms needed to be integrated). We explore here the methods proposed to measure toxicity, microbial metabolism, and, being of special interest to space exploration, life sensors. Also, some methods with higher specificity, proposed to detect a single analyte, are presented. Different possibilities to increase selectivity and sensitivity, by using molecular biology or other modern techniques are also discussed here.

  14. Determination of aflatoxins in air samples of refuse-derived fuel by thin-layer chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Svec, H.J.

    1983-02-01

    An analytical method is described which allows determination of aflatoxins in a complex matrix. An apparatus has been developed that quantitates fluorescent compounds on thin-layer chromatography plates. A nitrogen laser excitation source produces a detection limit of 10 pg for four aflatoxins. Aflatoxin B1 has been found at levels up to 17 ppb in solid samples collected from the air at a plant which produces refuse-derived fuel. 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae. I. Explosion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Tomasz

    2007-03-01

    We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions that are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate that the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msolar of silicon group elements and 0.9-1.2 Msolar of iron group elements and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~(1.3-1.5)×1051 ergs.

  16. Highly sensitive detection of neodymium ion in small amount of spent nuclear fuel samples using novel fluorescent macrocyclic hexadentate polyaminocarboxylate probe in capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shingo; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakano, Yuta; Asai, Shiho; Kameo, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Shibukawa, Masami

    2012-04-01

    A rapid and high-sensitive detection method for the total concentration of Nd ion (total Nd) in a small amount of a spent nuclear fuel sample is urgently required since the precise quantification of total Nd ion makes it possible for burnup (degree of fuel consumption) to be determined. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescent detection method (CE-LIF) is proposed for the analysis of total Nd in a spent fuel sample solution, with the use of a newly synthesized metal fluorescent probe which has a fluorescein and a macrocylic hexadentate chelating group, FTC-ABNOTA, for lanthanide (Ln) ions. Ln ions were derivatized to form a strongly fluorescent complex with the probe to suppress the quenching of the ligand-centered emission. The detection of Ln complexes in the CE-LIF indicated that the interaction between Ln ions and the FTC-ABNOTA was strong enough not to dissociate during migration. The mutual separation among the Ln-FTC-ABNOTA complexes in CE-LIF was achieved by pH control providing a dynamic ternary complexation (DTC) with hydroxide ions. Using the DTC separation mode, a high resolution of Nd from other Ln ions with high resolution of 1.3-1.9 and a theoretical plate number of 68,000, and a very low detection limit of 22 pM (3.2 ppt, 0.11 attomole amount basis) were successfully obtained. A simulated spent fuel sample containing various metal ions was examined in this method with a good quantification result of 102.1% recovery obtained even with a large excess of U.

  17. Use of a solid absorbent and an accelerant detection canine for the detection of ignitable liquids burned in a structure fire.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, Mark; Stuart, Allan W; Basara, Gene J; Sandercock, P Mark L

    2007-05-01

    Ignitable Liquid Absorbent (ILA), a commercial solid absorbent intended to assist fire scene investigators in sample location and collection, has been field tested in three separate room fires. The ability of the ILA to detect and absorb different amounts of gasoline, odorless paint thinner, and camp fuel on two different substrates after a full-scale burn was assessed against results from an accelerant detection canine and laboratory analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The canine correctly alerted on most of the panels that contained an ignitable liquid after the fire, while the ILA indicator dye failed to indicate in the presence of gasoline and camp fuel. GC-MS results for ignitable liquid residue from each panel and from the ILA showed that ILA absorbed odorless paint thinner and camp fuel from most of the test panels, but failed to absorb gasoline from the panels on which gasoline was confirmed to be present. PMID:17397503

  18. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  19. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  20. Fail-soft turbocharger control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujawa, C.S.; Masteller, S.B.

    1986-08-05

    A fail-soft turbocharger control system is described for an engine with a first bank and a second bank of cylinders and a first turbocharger and second turbocharger associated therewith. Each turbocharger has a variable output compressor boosting the pressure of an input manifold to the associated bank of cylinders and a variable input turbine driving the compressor powered by the exhaust gases of the bank of cylinders for the control system.

  1. Neurolysis for failed tarsal tunnel surgery.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Merter; Ozer, Utku Erdem; Yalcin, M Burak; Bagatur, A Erdem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the causes of failure after tarsal tunnel release and the operative findings in the secondary interventions and the outcomes. The data from 8 patients who had undergone revision surgery for failed tarsal tunnel release at least 12 months earlier were evaluated retrospectively. Only the patients with idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome were included, and all had unilateral symptoms. Neurophysiologic tests confirmed the clinical diagnosis of failed tarsal tunnel release in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed varicose veins within the tarsal tunnel in 1 patient (12.5%) and tenosynovitis in another (12.5%). Open tarsal tunnel release was performed in all patients, and the tibialis posterior nerve, medial and lateral plantar nerves (including the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve), and medial calcaneal nerve were released in their respective tunnels, and the septum between the tunnels was resected. The outcomes were assessed according to subjective patient satisfaction as excellent, good, fair, or poor. During revision surgery, insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel, especially distally, was observed in all the patients, and fibrosis of the tibialis posterior nerve was present in 1 (12.5%). The outcomes according to subjective patient satisfaction were excellent in 5 (62.5%), good in 2 (25%), and fair in 1 (12.5%). The fair outcome was obtained in the patient with fibrosis of the nerve. Insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel was the main cause of failed tarsal tunnel release. Releasing the 4 distinct tunnels and permitting immediate mobilization provided satisfactory results in patients with failed tarsal tunnel release. PMID:25128912

  2. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant.

  3. Characterization of Actinomyces species isolated from failed dental implant fixtures.

    PubMed

    Sarkonen, Nanna; Könönen, Eija; Eerola, Erkki; Könönen, Mauno; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Laine, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    In the oral cavity, Actinomyces form a fundamental component of the indigenous microflora, being among initial colonizers in polymicrobial biofilms. However, some differences may exist between different species in terms of their attachment not only to teeth but also to biomaterials. In this study we investigated the distribution of Actinomyces in 33 dental implant fixtures explanted from 17 patients. The identification was based on comprehensive biochemical testing and gas-liquid chromatography and when needed, 16S rRNA sequencing. Actinomyces was the most prevalent bacterial genus in these failed implants, colonizing 31/33 (94%) of the fixtures. Proportions of Actinomyces growth of the total bacterial growth in the Actinomyces-positive fixtures varied from 0.01% up to 75%. A. odontolyticus was the most common Actinomyces finding, present in 26/31 (84%) Actinomyces-positive fixtures. Actinomyces naeslundii and A. viscosus were both detected in 10/31 (32%) and A. israelii in 7/31 (23%) fixtures. Other Actinomyces species, including A. georgiae, A. gerencseriae and A. graevenitzii, were detected less frequently. Our results suggest that Actinomyces species are frequent colonizers on failed implant surfaces, where A. odontolyticus was the far most prominent Actinomyces species.

  4. SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Dahl, Jon A.; Fontes, Christopher J. E-mail: dahl@lanl.go

    2009-12-10

    Astronomers have proposed a number of mechanisms to produce supernova explosions. Although many of these mechanisms are now not considered primary engines behind supernovae (SNe), they do produce transients that will be observed by upcoming ground-based surveys and NASA satellites. Here, we present the first radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the spectra and light curves from three of these 'failed' SNe: SNe with considerable fallback, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs, and energetic helium flashes (also known as type Ia SNe).

  5. The evaluation of the failed shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Brett P; Moravek, James E; Wiater, J Michael

    2014-05-01

    As the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty continues to rise, the orthopedic shoulder surgeon will be increasingly faced with the difficult problem of evaluating a failed shoulder arthroplasty. The patient is usually dissatisfied with the outcome of the previous arthroplasty as a result of pain, but may complain of poor function due to limited range of motion or instability. A thorough and systematic approach is necessary so that the most appropriate treatment pathway can be initiated. A comprehensive history and physical examination are the first steps in the evaluation. Diagnostic studies are numerous and include laboratory values, plain radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound imaging, joint aspiration, nuclear scans, and electromyography. Common causes of early pain after shoulder arthroplasty include technical issues related to the surgery, such as malposition or improper sizing of the prosthesis, periprosthetic infection, neurologic injury, and complex regional pain syndrome. Pain presenting after a symptom-free interval may be related to chronic periprosthetic infection, component wear and loosening, glenoid erosion, rotator cuff degeneration, and fracture. Poor range of motion may result from inadequate postoperative rehabilitation, implant-related factors, and heterotopic ossification. Instability is generally caused by rotator cuff deficiency and implant-related factors. Unfortunately, determining the cause of a failed shoulder arthroplasty can be difficult, and in many situations, the source of pain and disability is multifactorial.

  6. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  7. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  8. On-line molecular iodine isotopologue detection in gaseous media during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing using a laser-induced fluorescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on on-line measurement of the {}129{{\\text{I}}2}, 127I129I, and {}127{{\\text{I}}2} concentrations during spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing using a laser-induced fluorescence method. A He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) was used as a fluorescence excitation source. The detection limits obtained for molecular iodine isotopologue concentrations demonstrate the possibility of using this method for iodine control both in gaseous technological media generated during SNF reprocessing and after passing through the gas purification system (in atmosphere emission).

  9. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  10. In situ measurement technique for simultaneous detection of K, KCl, and KOH vapors released during combustion of solid biomass fuel in a single particle reactor.

    PubMed

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; DeMartini, Nikolai; Rossi, Jussi; Toivonen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative and simultaneous measurement of K, KCl, and KOH vapors from a burning fuel sample combusted in a single particle reactor was performed using collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) with a time resolution of 0.2 s. The previously presented CPFAAS technique was extended in this work to cover two consecutive fragmentation pulses for the photofragmentation of KCl and KOH. The spectral overlapping of the fragmentation spectra of KCl and KOH is discussed, and a linear equation system for the correction of the spectral interference is introduced. The detection limits for KCl, KOH, and K with the presented measurement arrangement and with 1 cm sample length were 0.5, 0.1, and 0.001 parts per million, respectively. The experimental setup was applied to analyze K, KCl, and KOH release from 10 mg spruce bark samples combusted at the temperatures of 850, 950, and 1050 °C with 10% of O2. The combustion experiments provided data on the form of K vapors and their release during different combustion phases and at different temperatures. The measured release histories agreed with earlier studies of K release. The simultaneous direct measurement of atomic K, KCl, and KOH will help in the impact of both the form of K in the biomass and fuel variables, such as particle size, on the release of K from biomass fuels.

  11. Forest fuel treatment detection using multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and high resolution aerial imagery ---- A case study at Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Guo, Q.; Collins, B.; Fry, D.; Kelly, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fuel treatments (FFT) are often employed in Sierra Nevada forest (located in California, US) to enhance forest health, regulate stand density, and reduce wildfire risk. However, there have been concerns that FFTs may have negative impacts on certain protected wildlife species. Due to the constraints and protection of resources (e.g., perennial streams, cultural resources, wildlife habitat, etc.), the actual FFT extents are usually different from planned extents. Identifying the actual extent of treated areas is of primary importance to understand the environmental influence of FFTs. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) is a powerful remote sensing technique that can provide accurate forest structure measurements, which provides great potential to monitor forest changes. This study used canopy height model (CHM) and canopy cover (CC) products derived from multi-temporal airborne Lidar data to detect FFTs by an approach combining a pixel-wise thresholding method and a object-of-interest segmentation method. We also investigated forest change following the implementation of landscape-scale FFT projects through the use of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and standardized principle component analysis (PCA) from multi-temporal high resolution aerial imagery. The same FFT detection routine was applied on the Lidar data and aerial imagery for the purpose of comparing the capability of Lidar data and aerial imagery on FFT detection. Our results demonstrated that the FFT detection using Lidar derived CC products produced both the highest total accuracy and kappa coefficient, and was more robust at identifying areas with light FFTs. The accuracy using Lidar derived CHM products was significantly lower than that of the result using Lidar derived CC, but was still slightly higher than using aerial imagery. FFT detection results using NDVI and standardized PCA using multi-temporal aerial imagery produced almost identical total accuracy and kappa coefficient

  12. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  13. The best argument against kidney sales fails.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Luke

    2015-06-01

    Simon Rippon has recently argued against kidney markets on the grounds that introducing the option to vend will result in many people, especially the poor, being subject to harmful pressure to vend. Though compelling, Rippon's argument fails. What he takes to be a single phenomenon-social and legal pressure to vend-is actually two. Only one of these forms of pressure is, by Rippon's own account, harmful. Further, an empirically informed view of the regulated market suggests that this harmful pressure is easily avoided. Thus, the harm that is the lynchpin of Rippon's opposition is neither a necessary feature of the market nor is it likely to play a significant role in its operation.

  14. New approaches to supporting the failing liver.

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Esquivel, C O; Keeffe, E B

    1998-01-01

    With the continued, growing disparity between the numbers of organ donations and patients waiting for liver transplantation, various efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, as well as to devise means to support the failing liver. Over the years, the development of bioartificial liver-assist devices has aimed at replacing the three main functions of hepatocytes, which are synthetic, metabolic, and excretory. The application of porcine hepatocytes in humans to carry out biotransformation, as well as other metabolic functions and refinement of the membrane separator, have yielded some promising results in supporting patients with acute liver failure. Further advances will need to be made before these bioartificial devices can be considered for routine application in clinical settings.

  15. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  16. Salvage arthrodesis for failed total ankle arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zürcher, Arthur W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has gained popularity in recent years. If it fails, however, salvage arthrodesis must be reliable as a rescue procedure. We therefore investigated the clinical, radiographic, and subjective outcome after salvage arthrodesis in a consecutive group of patients, and concentrated on the influence of the method of fixation on union rate and on salvage in inflammatory joint disease. Patients and methods Between 1994 and 2005, salvage arthrodesis was performed on 18 ankles (18 patients). Diagnosis was inflammatory joint disease (IJD) in 15 cases and osteoarthritis (OA) in 3. Tibio-talar fusion was performed in 7 ankles, and tibio-talocalcaneal fusion in 11. Serial radiographs were studied for time to union. Clinical outcome at latest follow-up was measured by the AOFAS score, the foot function index (FFI) and by VAS scores for pain, function, and satisfaction. Results Blade plates were used in 7 ankles (4 IJD, 3 OA); all united. Nonunion developed in 7 of the 11 rheumatic ankles stabilized by other methods. 11 patients (8 fused ankles, 3 nonunions) were available for clinical evaluation. Their mean AOFAS score was 62 and mean overall FFI was 70. VAS score for pain was 20, for function 64, and for satisfaction 74. The scores were similar in united and non-united ankles. Interpretation Blade plate fixation is successful in salvage arthrodesis for failed TAA. A high nonunion rate was found after salvage ankle arthrodesis in IJD with other methods of fixation. Clinical results were fair to good. PMID:20175648

  17. Optimization of combined delayed neutron and differential die-away prompt neutron signal detection for characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, Pauline; Tobin, Stephen J; Croft, Stephen; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, M; Lee, T

    2010-12-02

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded multiple laboratories and universities to develop a means to accurately quantify the Plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and ways to also detect potential diversion of fuel pins. Delayed Neutron (DN) counting provides a signature somewhat more sensitive to {sup 235}U than Pu while Differential Die-Away (DDA) is complementary in that it has greater sensitivity to Pu. The two methods can, with care, be combined into a single instrument which also provides passive neutron information. Individually the techniques cannot robustly quantify the Pu content but coupled together the information content in the signatures enables Pu quantification separate to the total fissile content. The challenge of merging DN and DDA, prompt neutron (PN) signal, capabilities in the same design is the focus of this paper. Other possibilities also suggest themselves, such as a direct measurement of the reactivity (multiplication) by either the boost in signal obtained during the active interrogation itself or by the extension of the die-away profile. In an early study, conceptual designs have been modeled using a neutron detector comprising fission chambers or 3He proportional counters and a {approx}14 MeV neutron Deuterium-Tritium (DT) generator as the interrogation source. Modeling was performed using the radiation transport code Monte Carlo N-Particles eXtended (MCNPX). Building on this foundation, the present paper quantifies the capability of a new design using an array of {sup 3}He detectors together with fission chambers to optimize both DN and PN detections and active characterization, respectively. This new design was created in order to minimize fission in {sup 238}U (a nuisance DN emitter), to use a realistic neutron generator, to reduce the cost and to achieve near spatial interrogation and detection of the DN and PN, important for detection of diversion, all within

  18. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution. PMID:27504221

  19. Pass-Fail Testing: Statistical Requirements and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, David; Leigh, Stefan; Rukhin, Andrew; Strawderman, William

    2009-01-01

    Performance standards for detector systems often include requirements for probability of detection and probability of false alarm at a specified level of statistical confidence. This paper reviews the accepted definitions of confidence level and of critical value. It describes the testing requirements for establishing either of these probabilities at a desired confidence level. These requirements are computable in terms of functions that are readily available in statistical software packages and general spreadsheet applications. The statistical interpretations of the critical values are discussed. A table is included for illustration, and a plot is presented showing the minimum required numbers of pass-fail tests. The results given here are applicable to one-sided testing of any system with performance characteristics conforming to a binomial distribution.

  20. Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of very high resolution (VHR; ground sampling distances < ~5cm) aerial imagery to estimate site vegetation cover and to detect changes from management has been well documented. However, as the purpose of monitoring is to document change over time, the ability to detect changes from imagery a...

  1. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  2. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  3. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  4. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  5. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  6. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  7. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... Internal Revenue Code. These regulations set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails... the treatment of fails charges for purposes of sections 871, 881, 1441 and 1442 by establishing...

  8. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  9. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  10. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  11. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  12. Laboratory and Field Testing of Commercially Available Detectors for the Identification of Chemicals of Interest in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle for the Detection of Undeclared Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carla Miller; Mary Adamic; Stacey Barker; Barry Siskind; Joe Brady; Warren Stern; Heidi Smartt; Mike McDaniel; Mike Stern; Rollin Lakis

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, IAEA inspectors have focused on the detection of nuclear indicators as part of infield inspection activities. The ability to rapidly detect and identify chemical as well as nuclear signatures can increase the ability of IAEA inspectors to detect undeclared activities at a site. Identification of chemical indicators have been limited to use in the analysis of environmental samples. Although IAEA analytical laboratories are highly effective, environmental sample processing does not allow for immediate or real-time results to an IAEA inspector at a facility. During a complementary access inspection, under the Additional Protocol, the use of fieldable technologies that can quickly provide accurate information on chemicals that may be indicative of undeclared activities can increase the ability of IAEA to effectively and efficiently complete their mission. The Complementary Access Working Group (CAWG) is a multi-laboratory team with members from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. The team identified chemicals at each stage of the nuclear fuel cycle that may provide IAEA inspectors with indications that proliferation activities may be occurring. The group eliminated all indicators related to equipment, technology and training, developing a list of by-products/effluents, non-nuclear materials, nuclear materials, and other observables. These proliferation indicators were prioritized based on detectability from a conduct of operations (CONOPS) perspective of a CA inspection (for example, whether an inspector actually can access the S&O or whether it is in process with no physical access), and the IAEA’s interest in the detection technology in conjunction with radiation detectors. The list was consolidated to general categories (nuclear materials from a chemical detection technique, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, halogens, and miscellaneous materials). The team

  13. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome. PMID:16627323

  14. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Philipp N.; Simone, Juan P.; Cofield, Robert H.; Sperling, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision surgery after humeral head resurfacing (HHR). Our joint registry was queried for all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for failed HHR at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Eleven consecutive patients (average age 54 years; range 38-69 years) that underwent revision of 11 resurfacing arthroplasties were identified. The primary indication for resurfacing had been osteoarthritis in six, glenoid dysplasia in two, a chondral lesion in two, and postinstability arthropathy in one patient. The indication for revision was pain in 10 and infection in one patient. Seven patients had undergone an average of 1.9 surgeries prior to resurfacing (range 1-3). Materials and Methods: All patients were revised to stemmed arthroplasties, including one hemiarthroplasty, two reverse, and eight anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties at a mean 33 months after primary resurfacing (range 10-131 months). A deltopectoral approach was used in seven patients; four patients required an anteromedial approach due to severe scarring. Subscapularis attenuation was found in four cases, two of which required reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone grafting was required in one glenoid and three humeri. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (range 1.6-6.9 years), modified Neer score was rated as satisfactory in five patients and unsatisfactory in six. Abduction and external rotation improved from 73° to 88° (P = 0.32) and from 23° to 32° (P = 0.28) respectively. Reoperation was required in two patients, including one hematoma and one revision for instability. Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made. PMID:26980986

  15. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  16. Excitation/Detection Strategies for OH Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements in the Presence of Interfering Fuel Signal and Absorption Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2011-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) excitation/detection methods have been applied to obtain spatial distributions of the hydroxyl [OH] reacting intermediary and hydrocarbon [HC] primary species in laminar and turbulent combustion reactions. In this report, broadband and narrowband excitation/filtering techniques are explored to identify an optimal experimental configuration yielding significant fluorescent signal with low absorption losses. The combustion environments analyzed include 1) a laminar non-premixed methane/air flame and 2) a turbulent, non-premixed Jet-A/air fueled flame within a lean flame tube combustor. Hydrocarbon-based fuel and OH were excited via the R1 (1), R1(10) and R2(7) transitions of the A(sup 2)Epsilon(+) X(sup 2)pi(1,0) band using a broadband Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and narrowband Nd:YAG/dye laser with ultraviolet frequency extension (UVX) package. Variables tested for influence on fluorescent signal and absorption characteristics were excitation line, laser energy, exciting linewidth, combustion reactants, and test flow conditions. Results are intended to guide the transition from a dye/UVX laser to an OPO system for performing advanced diagnostics of low-emission combustion concepts.

  17. Sediments fail to record geomagnetic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Meynadier, Laure; Bassinot, Franck; Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We have studied four records of the last Matuyama-Brunhes reversal from sediment cores from the equatorial Indian Ocean, west equatorial Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with deposition rates of 4cm/ka and 2cm/ka for one equatorial core. All measurements were performed using 8cc cubic samples. In three records the demagnetization diagrams of the transitional samples are of bad quality. In the best samples the characteristic component of magnetization is defined with a large error that is reflected by an increase of the MAD value by at least a factor 10 with respect to non-transitional samples. Although not being frequently reported in papers which tend to exhibit the best demagnetization diagrams, this behavior is actually typical of most transitions studied in sedimentary sequences and somehow questions the reliability of the records. It is frequently considered that failure to isolate the initial magnetization component is due to weakly magnetized transitional samples with magnetization about ten times lower than outside the reversal. However, the magnetization intensity of transitional samples is much stronger in two of the present cores than the non-transitional samples of the other cores. The VGP paths that were tentatively derived from these transitions are quite complex and very different from each other. After rescaling all results to the same resolution the length of the transitional intervals remains different between each core suggesting that different magnetization processes were at work and yielded different records of the rapid field changes during the transition. Because similar magnetic grains recorded different directions, demagnetization fails to isolate a characteristic component. The sediment from west equatorial Pacific is an interesting exception with nice univectorial transitional diagrams decreasing towards the origin. The inclination remains close to zero, while the declination rotates smoothly between the two polarities. As a

  18. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  19. Electroreduction and photometric detection of low-level uranium in aqueous Purex solutions. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D T; Strain, J E

    1983-04-01

    During proper operation of the Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent reactor fuel, there are only trace levels of uranium in the aqueous waste. In the event of an upset in the extraction columns the aqueous waste stream would give the first indication of breakthrough. From the standpoint of process control it would be desirable to have an in-line, real-time sensor for uranium in the aqueous waste stream. It was toward this end that this investigation was undertaken. The measurement technique that seems to provide the most sensitive method without addition of reagents appears to be the electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to U(IV) followed by spectral measurement. The electrochemical reduction to U(IV) increases the sensitivity by a factor of three to five and shifts the measurement wavelength to a spectral area (647 nm and 1075 nm) unaffected by fission products. Using the proposed analysis sequence it is possible to determine uranium at a level of 0.2 g/L in the presence of relatively high spectral background. This report details the electrochemical reduction of U(VI) in nitric acid solutions (0.5 M to 2.0 M) with platinum-vitreous carbon electrodes and examines the spectral behavior of U(IV) as a function of nitric acid concentration.

  20. Comparison of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria Detected Using Two Different Methods: U-tube Microbial Fuel Cell and Plating Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jaecheul; Cho, Sunja; Kim, Sunah; Cho, Haein; Lee, Taeho

    2012-01-01

    In a microbial fuel cell (MFC), exoelectrogens, which transfer electrons to the electrode, have been regarded as a key factor for electricity generation. In this study, U-tube MFC and plating methods were used to isolate exoelectrogens from the anode of an MFC. Disparate microorganisms were identified depending on isolation methods, despite the use of an identical source. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that certain microorganisms became dominant in the U-tube MFC. The predominant bacterium was similar to Ochrobactrum sp., belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, which was shown to be able to function as an exoelectrogen in a previous study. Three isolates, one affiliated with Bacillus sp. and two with Paenibacillus sp., were identified using the plating method, which belonged to the Gram-positive bacteria, the Firmicutes. The U-tube MFCs were inoculated with the three isolates using the plating method, operated in the batch mode and the current was monitored. All of the U-tube MFCs inoculated with each isolate after isolation from plates produced lower current (peak current density: 3.6–16.3 mA/m2) than those in U-tube MFCs with mixed culture (48.3–62.6 mA/m2). Although the isolates produced low currents, various bacterial groups were found to be involved in current production. PMID:22129603

  1. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  2. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  3. Hexacyanoferrate-adapted biofilm enables the development of a microbial fuel cell biosensor to detect trace levels of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in oxygenated seawater.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Quek, Soon Bee; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the anode while being re-oxidised to HCF(III), the marine MFC biosensor developed could be demonstrated to work in the presence of oxygen unlike traditional MFC. The possibility of operating the marine MFC in batch or continuous (in-line) mode has been explored by using coulombic or potentiometric interpretation of the signal.

  4. Hexacyanoferrate-adapted biofilm enables the development of a microbial fuel cell biosensor to detect trace levels of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in oxygenated seawater.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Quek, Soon Bee; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the anode while being re-oxidised to HCF(III), the marine MFC biosensor developed could be demonstrated to work in the presence of oxygen unlike traditional MFC. The possibility of operating the marine MFC in batch or continuous (in-line) mode has been explored by using coulombic or potentiometric interpretation of the signal. PMID:24942462

  5. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  6. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  7. Irradiation of three T-111 clad uranium nitride fuel pins for 8070 hours at 990 C (1815 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.; Siegel, B. L.; Gedeon, L.; Galbo, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The design and successful operation of three tantalum alloy (Ta-8W-2Hf) clad uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins irradiated for 8070 hr at 990 C (1815 F) is described. Two pin diameters having measured burnups of 0.47 and 0.90 uranium atom percent were tested. No clad failures or swelling was detected; however, postirradiation clad samples tested failed with 1 percent strain. The fuel density decrease was 2 percent, and the fission gas release was less than 0.05 percent. Isotropic fuel swelling, which averaged about 0.5 percent, was less than fuel pin assembly clearances. Thus the clad was not strained. Thermocouples with a modified hot zone operated at average temperatures to 1100 C (2012 F) without failure. Factors that influence the ability to maintain uniform clad temperature as well as the results of the heat transfer calculations are discussed.

  8. Hemodynamic Conditions in a Failing Peripheral Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    McGah, Patrick M.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Beach, Kirk W.; Zierler, R. Eugene; Riley, James J.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms of restenosis in autogenous vein bypass grafts placed for peripheral artery disease are not completely understood. We seek to investigate the role of hemodynamic stress in a case study of a revised bypass graft that failed due to restenosis. Methods The morphology of the lumen is reconstructed from a custom 3D ultrasound system. Scans were taken at one, six, and sixteen months after a patch angioplasty procedure. Computational hemodynamic simulations of the patient-specific model provide the blood flow features and the hemodynamic stresses on the vessel wall at the three time points studied. Results The vessel was initially free of any detectable lesions, but a 60% diameter reducing stenosis developed over the 16 month interval of study. As determined from the simulations, chaotic and recirculating flow occurred downstream of the stenosis due to the sudden widening of the lumen at the patch location. Curvature and a sudden increase in the lumen cross-sectional area induce these flow features that are hypothesized to be conducive to intimal hyperplasia. Favorable agreement was found between simulation results and in vivo Doppler ultrasound velocity measurements. Conclusions Transitional and chaotic flow occurs at the site of the revision, inducing a complex pattern of wall shear are computed with the hemodynamic simulations. This supports the hypothesis that the hemodynamic stresses in the revised segment, produced by the coupling of vessel geometry and chaotic flow, led to the intimal hyperplasia and restenosis of the graft. PMID:22551907

  9. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  10. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... temporary regulations which set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. The.... source income of foreign persons that is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade...

  11. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  12. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  13. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  14. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J.

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  15. Phase substitution of spare converter for a failed one of parallel phase staggered converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Wester, G. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Failure detection and substitution of a spare module is provided in a system having a plurality of phase staggered modules connected in parallel to deliver regulated voltage from an unregulated source. Phase control signals applied to the active converter modules are applied to the spare module through NOR gates associated with and disabled by the power output of respective modules such that failure of any one enables its phase control signal to be applied to the spare module, thus controlling the spare module to operate in the phase position of the failed module. A NAND gate detects when any one active module fails and enables a gate in the spare module, thus activating the spare module.

  16. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    PubMed

    White, A; O'Brien, B; Houlihan, T; Darker, C; O'Shea, B

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child's weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres' for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  17. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  18. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  19. New results from the NSRR experiments with high burnup fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Mori, Yukihide

    1996-03-01

    Results obtained in the NSRR power burst experiments with irradiated PWR fuel rods with fuel burnup up to 50 MWd/kgU are described and discussed in this paper. Data concerning test method, test fuel rod, pulse irradiation, transient records during the pulse and post irradiation examination are described, and interpretations and discussions on fission gas release and fuel pellet fragmentation are presented. During the pulse-irradiation experiment with 50 MWd/kgU PWR fuel rod, the fuel rod failed at considerably low energy deposition level, and large amount of fission gas release and fragmentation of fuel pellets were observed.

  20. Failure to fail: assessing nursing students' competence during practice placements.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    The aim of this article is to provide a critical overview of the issues relating to the reluctance of registered nurses or mentors to fail students in their competencies and to identify possible causes for this at the practice level.

  1. Council tax precept failed to cover cost of NLW.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Charging residents extra council tax to help pay for social care is insufficient to cover current funding gaps and has failed to cover the cost of the national living wage (NLW), a report warns. PMID:27573947

  2. Failed tracheal intubation during obstetric general anaesthesia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, S M; Winton, A L; Mushambi, M C; Ramaswamy, K; Swales, H; Quinn, A C; Popat, M

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed the literature on obstetric failed tracheal intubation from 1970 onwards. The incidence remained unchanged over the period at 2.6 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.2) per 1000 anaesthetics (1 in 390) for obstetric general anaesthesia and 2.3 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.9) per 1000 general anaesthetics (1 in 443) for caesarean section. Maternal mortality from failed intubation was 2.3 (95% CI 0.3 to 8.2) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one death per 90 failed intubations). Maternal deaths occurred from aspiration or hypoxaemia secondary to airway obstruction or oesophageal intubation. There were 3.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 9.9) front-of-neck airway access procedures (surgical airway) per 100000 general anaesthetics for caesarean section (one procedure per 60 failed intubations), usually carried out as a late rescue attempt with poor maternal outcomes. Before the late 1990s, most cases were awakened after failed intubation; since the late 1990s, general anaesthesia has been continued in the majority of cases. When general anaesthesia was continued, a laryngeal mask was usually used but with a trend towards use of a second-generation supraglottic airway device. A prospective study of obstetric general anaesthesia found that transient maternal hypoxaemia occurred in over two-thirds of cases of failed intubation, usually without sequelae. Pulmonary aspiration occurred in 8% but the rate of maternal intensive care unit admission after failed intubation was the same as that after uneventful general anaesthesia. Poor neonatal outcomes were often associated with preoperative fetal compromise, although failed intubation and lowest maternal oxygen saturation were independent predictors of neonatal intensive care unit admission.

  3. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both.

  4. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  5. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  6. Fuel-in-air FY07 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Brady D.; Daniel, Richard C.; Casella, Andy M.; Wittman, Richard S.; Wu, Wesley; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2008-01-22

    Results of the testing program to determine fractional release rates and particle size distributions from failed commercial spent fuel related to the operations in the surface facility at Yucca Mountain are presented.

  7. Partial least squares analysis of rocket propulsion fuel data using diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Freye, Chris E; Fitz, Brian D; Billingsley, Matthew C; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition and several physical properties of RP-1 fuels were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled with flame ionization detection (FID). A "reversed column" GC×GC configuration was implemented with a RTX-wax column on the first dimension ((1)D), and a RTX-1 as the second dimension ((2)D). Modulation was achieved using a high temperature diaphragm valve mounted directly in the oven. Using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), the summed GC×GC-FID signal of three compound-class selective 2D regions (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) was regressed against previously measured ASTM derived values for these compound classes, yielding root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.855, 0.734, and 0.530mass%, respectively. For comparison, using partial least squares (PLS) analysis with LOOCV, the GC×GC-FID signal of the entire 2D separations was regressed against the same ASTM values, yielding a linear trend for the three compound classes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics), yielding RMSECV values of 1.52, 2.76, and 0.945 mass%, respectively. Additionally, a more detailed PLS analysis was undertaken of the compounds classes (n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, mono-, di-, and tri-cycloalkanes, and aromatics), and of physical properties previously determined by ASTM methods (such as net heat of combustion, hydrogen content, density, kinematic viscosity, sustained boiling temperature and vapor rise temperature). Results from these PLS studies using the relatively simple to use and inexpensive GC×GC-FID instrumental platform are compared to previously reported results using the GC×GC-TOFMS instrumental platform.

  8. Partial least squares analysis of rocket propulsion fuel data using diaphragm valve-based comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Freye, Chris E; Fitz, Brian D; Billingsley, Matthew C; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    The chemical composition and several physical properties of RP-1 fuels were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled with flame ionization detection (FID). A "reversed column" GC×GC configuration was implemented with a RTX-wax column on the first dimension ((1)D), and a RTX-1 as the second dimension ((2)D). Modulation was achieved using a high temperature diaphragm valve mounted directly in the oven. Using leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), the summed GC×GC-FID signal of three compound-class selective 2D regions (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics) was regressed against previously measured ASTM derived values for these compound classes, yielding root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.855, 0.734, and 0.530mass%, respectively. For comparison, using partial least squares (PLS) analysis with LOOCV, the GC×GC-FID signal of the entire 2D separations was regressed against the same ASTM values, yielding a linear trend for the three compound classes (alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics), yielding RMSECV values of 1.52, 2.76, and 0.945 mass%, respectively. Additionally, a more detailed PLS analysis was undertaken of the compounds classes (n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, mono-, di-, and tri-cycloalkanes, and aromatics), and of physical properties previously determined by ASTM methods (such as net heat of combustion, hydrogen content, density, kinematic viscosity, sustained boiling temperature and vapor rise temperature). Results from these PLS studies using the relatively simple to use and inexpensive GC×GC-FID instrumental platform are compared to previously reported results using the GC×GC-TOFMS instrumental platform. PMID:27130110

  9. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  10. Intracoronary thrombolytic therapy: a treatment option for failed mechanical thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Sean; Jain, Ajay K; Archbold, R Andrew

    2012-11-01

    The benefit of the routine application of aspiration thrombectomy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is now well established. The optimal management of patients who have "failed" thrombectomy characterized by a large residual thrombus burden after repeated mechanical thrombectomy, however, is not known. We report a case of failed aspiration thrombectomy in a 66-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with chest pain associated with inferior ST segment elevation. Coronary angiography showed a thrombotic occlusion of the right coronary artery. Aspiration thrombectomy did little to reduce thrombus load and so the patient was treated with intracoronary tenecteplase. Repeat coronary angiography 18 hr later revealed marked thrombus resolution with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade 3 anterograde flow and patency of the infarct-related artery was maintained at 2-month follow up. This case demonstrates the potential for intracoronary thrombolytic therapy as a treatment option for the management of patients following failed thrombectomy in PPCI.

  11. Computer simulation of the mechanically-assisted failing canine circulation.

    PubMed

    Barnea, O; Moore, T W; Jaron, D

    1990-01-01

    A model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model includes representations of the left and right ventricles, a nonlinear multielement model of the aorta and its main branches, and lumped models of the systemic veins and the pulmonary circulation. A simulation of the intra-aortic balloon pump and representations of physiological compensatory mechanisms are also incorporated in the model. Parameters of the left ventricular model were set to simulate either the normal or failing canine circulation. Pressure and flow waveforms throughout the circulation as well as ventricular pressure and volume were calculated for the normal, failing, and assisted failing circulation. Cardiac oxygen supply and consumption were calculated from the model. They were used as direct indices of cardiac energy supply and utilization to assess the effects of cardiac assistance.

  12. Soldier imprisoned for failing to disclose HIV to sex partners.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Pfc. [Name removed], a soldier at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, was sentenced to 3 years in a military prison for failing to disclose her HIV-positive status to her sexual partners. [Name removed]' commander had ordered her to use condoms and inform her sexual partners of her HIV status. She failed to inform eight of the nine men with whom she had sex and, she did not use a condom with four of them. So far, all nine men have tested negative for HIV. [Name removed] will be reduced to the rank of private, receive a bad conduct discharge, and forfeit all pay and benefits.

  13. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  14. Evaluation of ANF fuel failures in oyster creek

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.M.; Van Swam, L.F.; Piascik, T.G.; Spence, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the refueling outrage following cycle-10 operations of Oyster Creek nuclear generating station, fuel sipping identified 47 failed Advance Nuclear Fuels (ANF) fuel assemblies. The failed fuel was an unpressurized 8 x 8 design manufactured by ANF prior to 1980. Subsequent inspection of 46 of these 47 assemblies with the ANF ULTRATEST ultrasonic testing system indicated 104 either failed of suspect fuel rods in 44 assemblies. Two of the assemblies were identified as being sound. Selected fuel rods were removed from three of the assemblies and inspected both visually and with an eddycurrent coil. An evaluation has been performed to determine the cause of the failures. The failures were primarily the result of pellet/cladding interaction (PCI). Detailed analyses of several of the failed fuel rods were performed with ANF's fuel rod modeling code RAMPX2. RAMPX2 includes several state-of-the-art models, including a model describing the formation of fission product deposits called coins on the inside surface of the cladding, a model that accounts for axial PCI, and a trapped fuel stack model. The analyses provided an explanation for the failures.

  15. 40 CFR 261.38 - Exclusion of comparable fuel and syngas fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specification, minimum required detection limits are: (see Table 1 of this section). (2) Synthesis gas fuel specifications.—Synthesis gas fuel (i.e., syngas fuel) that is generated from hazardous waste must: (i) Have a... requirements of 40 CFR 261.38 have been met for all comparable fuels identified in this notification. Copies...

  16. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  17. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  18. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  19. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  20. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios. Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements....

  1. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 442.5 - Handling of failed product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of failed product. 442.5 Section 442.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... upon testing in accordance with the methods prescribed in § 442.2 of this subchapter shall be...

  3. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  4. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  5. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  6. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  7. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  8. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this... product shall be reported to the committee. The reworked lot shall be sampled and tested for aflatoxin as... the lot has been reworked and tested, it fails the aflatoxin test for a second time, the lot may...

  9. "Badminton Player-Coach" Interactions between Failing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascret, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physical education teachers often use the player-coach dyad in individual opposition sports so that students can obtain information on their actions and then better regulate them. This type of work also develops methodological and social skills. However, the task of observing a partner often poses problems for failing students, who…

  10. Florida hospital cuts failed pediatric sedation rate 98%.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    * In a survey of Broward General Medical Center, The Joint Commission found fault with the administration of sedation for pediatric outpatient diagnostic procedures. * There is a great deal of variation among health care facilities on sedatives use and techniques and safety standards used. * Broward's initiative eliminated rescheduled exams and failed procedures by 98%.

  11. Feeding behaviour in young children who fail to thrive.

    PubMed

    Drewett, Robert F; Kasese-Hara, Mambwe; Wright, Charlotte

    2003-02-01

    One-year-old children who failed to thrive in infancy were identified through a specialist clinical service using a conditional weight gain criterion which identified the slowest gaining 5%. Control children of the same age and sex were recruited from the same local geographical area and had the same primary care physician. The food intake and feeding behaviour of the groups was compared using a detailed observational micro-analysis of a lunchtime meal, using a behavioural coding scheme developed for use over the weaning period. Both food and fluid intake at the test meal were significantly lower in the children who failed to thrive than the controls. There was no significant difference in the energy density of the foods they consumed. As recorded in the behaviour counts at the meal, the mothers of the children who failed to thrive fed them as much as or more than the control mothers fed their children. The children who failed to thrive tended to refuse or reject the offered food more, and also fed themselves significantly less often than the controls. These behavioural differences during the meal accounted for about one third of the difference in energy intake between the groups. PMID:12631505

  12. 77 FR 9846 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ..., and 75 FR 81457, respectively. The temporary and proposed regulations provide that the source of... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations that prescribe the source of income received on...

  13. A "Fresh Start" for a "Failing School"? A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines "Fresh Start," a New Labour flagship initiative to raise education "standards" in a radical and innovative way. Drawing on a qualitative study of a comprehensive school in England, I argue that the initiative added to the problems faced by the "failing school" and promoted rather traditional ways of raising "standards" due to…

  14. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  15. Understanding and Working with "Failed Communication" in Telecollaborative Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Robert; Ritter, Markus

    2006-01-01

    It is by now well established that telecollaborative exchanges frequently end in "failed communication" and do not automatically bring about successful negotiation of meaning between the learners. Instead, the intended pedagogic and linguistic aims of online interaction are repeatedly missed, and projects may end in low levels of participation,…

  16. Depressed phosphatidic acid-induced contractile activity of failing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2003-01-10

    The effects of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known inotropic agent, on Ca(2+) transients and contractile activity of cardiomyocytes in congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction were examined. In control cells, PA induced a significant increase (25%) in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbonate, blocked the positive inotropic action induced by PA, indicating that PA induces an increase in contractile activity and Ca(2+) transients through stimulation of PLC. Conversely, in failing cardiomyocytes there was a loss of PA-induced increase in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. PA did not alter resting cell length. Both diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)] were significantly elevated in the failing cardiomyocytes. In vitro assessment of the cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) PLC activity revealed that the impaired failing cardiomyocyte response to PA was associated with a diminished stimulation of SL PLC activity by PA. Our results identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in failing cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for the depressed contractile function during CHF.

  17. What is the optimal rate of failed extubation?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Failed extubation (FE), defined as reintubation 48 or 72 hours after planned extubation, occurs in a significant percentage of patients and is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality. This commentary reviews the literature describing FE rates and the clinical consequences of FE and proposes an 'optimal' rate of FE as well as avenues for future research. PMID:22356725

  18. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  19. Improving Charter School Accountability: The Challenge of Closing Failing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David

    2012-01-01

    Today some 5,600 charter schools are in operation, with more than two million students. Some critics persist in a fruitless argument that these schools have failed, despite a mountain of evidence to the contrary. But regardless of your opinion about them, charter schools are here to stay. Those concerned about public education should quit debating…

  20. Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Robert G.

    The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain…

  1. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  2. Hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of proximal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Carmelo; Perugia, Dario; Carcangiu, Alessandro; Monaco, Edoardo; Speranza, Attilio; Ferretti, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture typically leads to profound functional disability and pain. Salvage treatment with hip arthroplasty may be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of hip arthroplasty performed as a salvage procedure after the failed treatment of an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Twenty-one patients were treated in our hospital with hip arthroplasty for failed treatment of intertrochanteric hip fracture. There were sixteen women and five men with a mean age of 75.8 years (range 61-85 years). Fourteen patients had failure of a previous nail fixation procedure, five had failure of a plate fixation, one of hip screws fixation and one of Ender nail fixation. In 19 out of 21 patients we performed a total hip arthroplasty-14 cases used modular implants with long-stems and five cases used a standard straight stem. In 2 of 21 cases we used a bipolar hemiarthroplasty. A statistically significant improvement was found comparing pre and postoperative conditions (p < 0.05). Our experience confirms that total hip arthroplasty is a satisfactory salvage procedure after failed treatment of an intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients with few serious orthopaedic complications and acceptable clinical outcomes. PMID:19572131

  3. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  4. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  5. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  6. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  7. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... atmospheric pressure. Continuous gas detection must be installed to detect leaks in the ventilated space. The... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel... must be a double-walled piping system with the annular space containing an inert gas at a...

  8. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  9. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  10. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  11. Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout.

  12. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Fail-safe transcription termination: Because one is never enough.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Jean-François; Bachand, François

    2015-01-01

    Termination of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription is a fundamental step of gene expression that involves the release of the nascent transcript and dissociation of RNAPII from the DNA template. As transcription termination is intimately linked to RNA 3' end processing, termination pathways have a key decisive influence on the fate of the transcribed RNA. Quite remarkably, when reaching the 3' end of genes, a substantial fraction of RNAPII fail to terminate transcription, requiring the contribution of alternative or "fail-safe" mechanisms of termination to release the polymerase. This point of view covers redundant mechanisms of transcription termination and how they relate to conventional termination models. In particular, we expand on recent findings that propose a reverse torpedo model of termination, in which the 3'5' exonucleolytic activity of the RNA exosome targets transcription events associated with paused and backtracked RNAPII. PMID:26273910

  14. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  15. Preliminary input to the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification software requirements (uncontrolled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergmann, E.

    1976-01-01

    The current baseline method and software implementation of the space shuttle reaction control subsystem failure detection and identification (RCS FDI) system is presented. This algorithm is recommended for conclusion in the redundancy management (RM) module of the space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control system. Supporting software is presented, and recommended for inclusion in the system management (SM) and display and control (D&C) systems. RCS FDI uses data from sensors in the jets, in the manifold isolation valves, and in the RCS fuel and oxidizer storage tanks. A list of jet failures and fuel imbalance warnings is generated for use by the jet selection algorithm of the on-orbit and entry flight control systems, and to inform the crew and ground controllers of RCS failure status. Manifold isolation valve close commands are generated in the event of failed on or leaking jets to prevent loss of large quantities of RCS fuel.

  16. Paying for innovation. Failed strategies add to hospitals' reimbursement losses.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    Hospitals across the country are struggling to balance revenue shortfalls and cost increases as the lid on government and private-payer payments closes tighter. They're also grappling with losses on failed physician and HMO investments, the expense of new medical technologies and larger-than-planned costs related to "millennium bug" cures. This is the second part of a two-part series on financial turmoil in healthcare.

  17. Results of Trabectome Surgery Following Failed Glaucoma Tube Shunt Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mosaed, Sameh; Chak, Garrick; Haider, Asghar; Lin, Ken Y.; Minckler, Don S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Trabectome after failed tube shunt surgery. Twenty patients with prior failed tube shunt surgery who underwent Trabectome alone were included. All patients had at least 3 months of follow-up. Outcomes measured included intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medications, and secondary glaucoma surgeries. The success for Kaplan–Meier survival analysis is defined as IOP ≤21 mm Hg, IOP reduced by at least 20% from preoperative IOP, and no secondary glaucoma surgery. Mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 6.4 mm Hg and mean number of glaucoma medications was 3.2 ± 1.5. At 12 months, IOP was reduced to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg (P = 0.05) and number of medications was reduced to 2.4 ± 1.5 (P = 0.44). Survival rate at 12 months was 84% and 3 patients required additional glaucoma surgery with 15 patients reaching 12 months follow-up. Other than failure of IOP control and transient hypotony (IOP < 3 mm Hg) day 1 in 2 cases, there were no adverse events. Trabecular bypass procedures have traditionally been considered an approach appropriate for early-to-moderate glaucoma; however, our study indicates benefit in refractory glaucoma as well. Eyes that are prone to conjunctival scarring and hypertrophic wound healing, such as those who have failed tube shunt surgery, may benefit from procedures that avoid conjunctival incision such as Trabectome. This study indicates potential benefits in this patient population. Trabectome was safe and effective in reducing IOP at 1-year follow-up in patients with prior failed tube shunt surgery, but not effective in reducing medication reliance in these patients. PMID:26222842

  18. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  19. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  20. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    PubMed Central

    Sahafi, A.; Asmussen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations to identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient, the tooth, the restorative materials, and the techniques. Two-hundred and sixty questionnaires were collected from 171 practitioners over a 3-year period. Functioning time until failure varied between 3 months and 38 years. Mean survival time until failure was 11 years. Of the failed restorations, 61% had functioned for 10 years or less. Fracture of the tooth was the most common type of failure reported, followed by loosening of the post and fracture of the post. Tapered posts implied an increased risk of tooth fracture compared to loosening or fracture of the post, and the relative risk of tooth fracture increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts. PMID:17636353

  1. Academic success, clinical failure: struggling practices of a failing student.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alix

    2007-11-01

    In the deficit model approach to clinical evaluation, failures to achieve established academic or clinical standards are attributed to a flawed educational process or, more commonly, to nursing students' personal characteristics. Little is known about the meaning and significance of failing to students. Their perspective is lost among the plethora of clinical-like external criteria that predict the pathway to failure. Not all nursing students can be successful, yet when failure is the outcome, students' dignity, self-worth, and future possibilities must be preserved. Through a Heideggerian interpretative reanalysis of a individual example of an academically successful nursing student who failed clinically, this article discusses the consequences of disconnection in student-faculty relationships. The theme Preserving Personhood: Closing Down on a Future of New Possibilities is presented, as well as two subthemes--Struggling as Adopting a Chameleon Cloak and Struggling as Disconnecting Relations. A deeper understanding of students' clinical failure can help explain why failure, a socially constructed phenomenon, matters to nursing. Relational pedagogical practices to guide clinical educators in helping students at risk of failing are also discussed.

  2. Evidence of structural remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart.

    PubMed

    Helm, Patrick A; Younes, Laurent; Beg, Mirza F; Ennis, Daniel B; Leclercq, Christophe; Faris, Owen P; McVeigh, Elliot; Kass, David; Miller, Michael I; Winslow, Raimond L

    2006-01-01

    Ventricular remodeling of both geometry and fiber structure is a prominent feature of several cardiac pathologies. Advances in MRI and analytical methods now make it possible to measure changes of cardiac geometry, fiber, and sheet orientation at high spatial resolution. In this report, we use diffusion tensor imaging to measure the geometry, fiber, and sheet architecture of eight normal and five dyssynchronous failing canine hearts, which were explanted and fixed in an unloaded state. We apply novel computational methods to identify statistically significant changes of cardiac anatomic structure in the failing and control heart populations. The results demonstrate significant regional differences in geometric remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart versus control. Ventricular chamber dilatation and reduction in wall thickness in septal and some posterior and anterior regions are observed. Primary fiber orientation showed no significant change. However, this result coupled with the local wall thinning in the septum implies an altered transmural fiber gradient. Further, we observe that orientation of laminar sheets become more vertical in the early-activated septum, with no significant change of sheet orientation in the late-activated lateral wall. Measured changes in both fiber gradient and sheet structure will affect both the heterogeneity of passive myocardial properties as well as electrical activation of the ventricles.

  3. Teamwork Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery in Failed External Dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Ghasemi, Hassan; Jafari, Farhad; Izadi, Pupak; Nadoushan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Chin, Narges Saghari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a teamwork revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in eyes with previously failed external DCR. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects who underwent a teamwork revision endoscopic DCR by an ophthalmologist and an otolaryngologist. Paranasal sinus CT scanning was performed for each patient before the revision surgery. During surgery, any abnormal tissue noticed before silicone intubation was sent for pathological evaluation. Results: Endoscopic revision DCR was performed on 50 failed external DCR subjects with one-year follow-up. Of these, 31 were female (62%). The age range of the subjects was 18-88 years (mean: 59.98 years). Sinus CT showed at least one abnormality in 94% of cases. Revision endoscopy showed septal deviation (66%), scar formation (32%), ostium problems (28%), and sump syndrome (6%). Pathologic and clinical findings showed that chronic inflammation had a significant association with scar tissue and septal synechia (P = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). At the final follow-up, anatomical and functional success was achieved in 45 out of 50 (90%) of subjects. Conclusion: Endoscopic revision DCR when performed as cooperation of otolaryngologists and ophthalmologists may help resolve the endonasal problems and increase the success rate. PMID:27621786

  4. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    PubMed Central

    Rashad, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure. Methods A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block. Results There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001). The overall success rate was 92%. Conclusion Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery. PMID:23293510

  5. Antimisting fuel breakup and flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Fleeter, R.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    The breakup behavior and flammability of antimisting turbine fuels subjected to aerodynamic shear are investigated. Fuels tested were Jet A containing 0.3% FM-9 polymer at various levels of degradation ranging from virgin AMK to neat Jet A. The misting behavior of the fuels was quantified by droplet size distribution measurements. A technique based on high resolution laser photography and digital image processing of photographic records for rapid determination of droplet size distribution was developed. The flammability of flowing droplet-air mixtures was quantified by direct measurements of temperature rise in a flame established in the wake of a continuous ignition source. The temperature rise measurements were correlated with droplet size measurements. The flame anchoring phenomenon associated with the breakup of a liquid fuel in the wake of bluff body was shown to be important in the context of a survivable crash scenario. A pass/fail criterion for flammability testing of antimisting fuels, based on this flame-anchoring phenomenon, was proposed. The role of various ignition sources and their intensity in ignition and post-ignition behavior of antimisting fuels was also investigated.

  6. Re-treatment of patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (nonresponders) to previous treatment.

    PubMed

    Sharvadze, L G; Gogichaishvili, Sh Sh; Sakandelidze, Ts G; Zhamutashvili, M T; Chkhartishvili, N I

    2009-01-01

    The aim of four-year follow up study was evaluation of re-treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (non responders) to previous therapy. Study enrolled 29 patients, aged 21-59 with HCV infection (15 had HCV genotype 1, and 14 had HCV non-genotype1), who previously were treated with unmodified interferon alfa (conventional interferon) 2a or 2b 5 MIU TIW plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) and who failed under this therapy. Study subjects were randomized into two groups: in group I were included 17 patients--relapsers (patient in whom HCV RNA becomes undetectable on treatment and is undetectable at the end of therapy, but is detected again after discontinuation of treatment). Group II was composed of 12 patients: 4 were non responders (patient in whom HCV RNA levels remain stable on treatment), 4--partial responders (HCV RNA levels decline by >2 logs, but never become undetectable during treatment) and 4--breakthrough non responders (HCV RNA become undetectable during treatment, but before-treatment termination again become detectable). The diagnosis of HCV infection was made based on detection of HCV antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by RIBA. Detection of HCV RNA (qualitative) and HCV RNA Viral load--by Real time PCR technique (COBAS TaqMan Test). HCV genotypes were detected by INNO-Lipa method. In group I--rapid virological response (RVR) was observed in 10 (58%) patients, early viral response (EVR) in 12 patients (70%). Among them 9 (52%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months sustained viral response (SVR) was received in 7 (41%) patients from group I. In group II--RVR was observed in 5 (41%), EVR in 6 (50%) patients. Among them 5 (41%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months Sustained Viral Response was received in 3 (25%) patients. Re-treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C who failed to responds

  7. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  8. Disks around Failed Stars - a Question of Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    First Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Observations of Brown Dwarfs [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] have observed eight Brown Dwarfs, i.e., small and faint objects also known as "failed stars", with the TIMMI2 infrared sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. From two of these, mid-infrared radiation is detected - for the first time ever from such objects with a ground-based telescope . While the younger Brown Dwarf, aged a few million years, is found to be surrounded by a dusty disk, no warm dust is present around the older ones. The new observations support the following formation hypothesis for Brown Dwarfs: they are born in the same way as "real" stars, by contraction in interstellar clouds of gas and dust . During the later stages of this process, the infalling material is transferred onto the star via a gas and dust disk . This disk - in which planets may possibly form - then disperses with time. PR Photo 17a/02 : Image of Brown Dwarf LP 944-20 PR Photo 17b/02 : Models of the disk around Brown Dwarf Cha HA 2 Brown Dwarfs are faint and cool objects Astronomical objects known as "Brown Dwarfs" are "failed stars" . Their comparatively small mass, less than about 7% of that of our Sun (or about 75 times the mass of planet Jupiter), is too small to achieve sufficiently high pressure and temperature at their centre to ignite energy-producing nuclear processes. Some astronomers also refer to Brown Dwarfs as a "missing link" between planets and stars, being neither one nor the other, yet with similarities to both. They do not burn hydrogen to helium as "real" stars do, but continue to emit faint light as they slowly contract and cool during millions of years. They end their inglorious life with a whimper and finally fade into eternal insignificance. Although Brown Dwarfs were theoretically predicted already in 1963, astronomers had to wait until 1995 for the first one to be discovered. This was mainly due to their extreme faintness as

  9. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  10. Beneficial effects of SR33805 in failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ait Mou, Younss; Toth, Attila; Cassan, Cécile; Czuriga, Daniel; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Papp, Zoltan; Lacampagne, Alain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Aims SR33805, a potent Ca2+ channel blocker, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in healthy rat cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SR33805 on contractile properties in ischaemic failing hearts after myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and in vitro at the cellular level. Methods and results The effect of SR33805 (10 µM) was tested on the excitation–contraction coupling of cardiomyocytes isolated from rat with end-stage heart failure. Cell shortening and Ca2+ transients were measured in intact cardiomyocytes, while contractile properties were determined in Triton X-100 permeabilized myocytes. Acute treatment with SR33805 restored the MI-altered cell shortening without affecting the Ca2+ transient amplitude, suggesting an increase of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in MI myocytes. Indeed, a SR33805-induced sensitization of myofilament activation was found to be associated with a slight increase in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation and a more significant decrease on troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation. Decreased TnI phosphorylation was related to inhibition of protein kinase A activity by SR33805. Finally, administration of a single intra-peritoneal bolus of SR33805 (20 mg/kg) improved end-systolic strain and fractional shortening of MI hearts. Conclusion The present study indicates that treatment with SR33805 improved contractility of ischaemic failing hearts after MI in the rat by selectively modulating the phosphorylation status of sarcomeric regulatory proteins, which then sensitized the myofilaments to Ca2+. Our results gave a proof of concept that manipulation of the Ca2+ sensitivity of sarcomeric regulatory proteins can be used to improve contractility of a failing heart. PMID:21467075

  11. Teach Your Students to Fail Better with Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Design thinking is about using design to improve the human experience. It combines collaboration, systems thinking, and a balance of creative and analytical habits. It also fuels what the students want for themselves: making an impact on the real world in real time and having adults take their passions seriously. The process essentially comes down…

  12. A Novel Endoscopic Technique for Failed Nasogastric Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Boston, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Direct visualization of the nasopharynx gives the otolaryngologist a unique advantage for addressing difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy. One common situation is being consulted to assist when the blind placement of a nasogastric tube has failed. A novel technique for managing a patient with a nasogastric tube embedded in the adenoid remnant is described with illustrations. The atraumatic method is easily employed by a resident armed with a portable nasolaryngoscope and plain suture. By using a repeated pull-through technique, the nasogastric tube can be guided past difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy and into a position from where it can be advanced into the patient's esophagus.

  13. Sjögren Syndrome: Why Do Clinical Trials Fail?

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert I; Fox, Carla M

    2016-08-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) comprises glandular and extraglandular manifestations. Double-blind prospective trials of traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics have failed because they have not improved benign symptoms, the major cause of lowered quality of life. Rituximab has proven effective in SS patients with associated mixed cryoglobulinemia, parotid gland swelling, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, thrombocytopenia, and other manifestations. There were few of these SS patients in the trials required for FDA approval. Most patients had benign symptoms and did not show benefit, leading to failure of the study. This article examines the reasons for these failures and proposes future directions.

  14. Failing four-unit maxillary fixed partial denture: part 2.

    PubMed

    Vailati, Francesca

    2006-08-01

    In this two-part treatment planning series, the case of a 54-year-old woman with a failing four-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) is presented. Part 1 presented pretreatment strategies, occlusal and periodontal status, and the advantages and disadvantages of three treatment options: removable partial denture, tooth-supported FPD, and implant-supported FPD. In this follow-up article, the treatment selected for the case is revealed, and the rationale--including indications and contraindications for the different treatment options--is discussed. The treatment sequence is then outlined, and the final outcome is presented.

  15. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  16. Improved Quick Disconnect (QD) Interface Through Fail Safe Parts Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanch-Payne, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    An extensive review of existing Quick Disconnects (QDs) mating and demating operations was performed to determine which shuttle part interface identifications and procedures contribute to human factor errors. The research methods used consisted of interviews with engineers and technicians, examination of incident reports, critiques of video and audio tapes of QD operations, and attendance of a Hyper QD operational course. The data strongly suggests that there are inherit human factor errors involved in QD operations. To promote fail-safe operations, QD interface problem areas and recommendations were outlined and reviewed. It is suggested that dialogue, investigations and recommendations continue.

  17. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  18. Adult cancer clinical trials that fail to complete: an epidemic?

    PubMed

    Stensland, Kristian D; McBride, Russell B; Latif, Asma; Wisnivesky, Juan; Hendricks, Ryan; Roper, Nitin; Boffetta, Paolo; Hall, Simon J; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    The number and diversity of cancer therapeutics in the pipeline has increased over the past decade due to an enhanced understanding of cancer biology and the identification of novel therapeutic targets. At the same time, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and the regulatory burdens associated with clinical drug development have progressively increased. The finite number of eligible patients and limited financial resources available to evaluate promising new therapeutics represent rate-limiting factors in the effort to translate preclinical discoveries into the next generation of standard therapeutic approaches. Optimal use of resources requires understanding and ultimately addressing inefficiencies in the cancer clinical trials system. Prior analyses have demonstrated that a large proportion of trials initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Group system are never completed. While NCI Cooperative Group trials are important, they represent only a small proportion of all cancer clinical trials performed. Herein, we explore the problem of cancer clinical trials that fail to complete within the broader cancer clinical trials enterprise. Among 7776 phase II-III adult cancer clinical trials initiated between 2005-2011, we found a seven-year cumulative incidence of failure to complete of approximately 20% (95% confidence interval = 18% to 22%). Nearly 48000 patients were enrolled in trials that failed to complete. These trials likely contribute little to the scientific knowledge base, divert resources and patients from answering other critical questions, and represent a barrier to progress.

  19. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, Ronald R.; Jandrasits, Walter G.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  20. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOEpatents

    Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

    1985-08-05

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  1. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  2. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    PubMed

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  3. When the science fails and the ethics works: 'Fail-safe' ethics in the FEM-PrEP study.

    PubMed

    Kingori, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    This paper will explore the concept of 'fail safe' ethics in the FEM PrEP trial, and the practice of research and ethics on the ground. FEM-PrEP examined the efficacy of PrEP in African women after promising outcomes in research conducted with MSM. This was a hugely optimistic time and FEM-PrEP was mobilised using rights-based ethical arguments that women should have access to PrEP. This paper will present data collected during an ethnographic study of frontline research workers involved in FEM-PrEP. During our discussions, 'fail-safe' ethics emerged as concept that encapsulated their confidence that their ethics could not fail. However, in 2011, FEM-PrEP was halted and deemed a failure. The women involved in the study were held responsible because contrary to researcher's expectations they were not taking the oral PrEP being researched. This examination of FEM-PrEP will show that ethical arguments are increasingly deployed to mobilise, maintain and in some cases stop trials in ways which, at times, are superseded or co-opted by other interests. While promoting the interests of women, rights-based approaches are argued to indirectly justify the continuation of individualised, biomedical interventions which have been problematic in other women-centred trials. In this examination of FEM-PrEP, the rights-based approach obscured: ethical concerns beyond access to PrEP; the complexities of power relationships between donor and host countries; the operations of the HIV industry in research-saturated areas and the cumulative effect of unfilled expectations in HIV research and how this has shaped ideas of research and ethics.

  4. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  5. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  6. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  7. When β-cells fail: lessons from dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Accili, D; Talchai, S C; Kim-Muller, J Y; Cinti, F; Ishida, E; Ordelheide, A M; Kuo, T; Fan, J; Son, J

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is caused by a combination of impaired responsiveness to insulin and reduced production of insulin by the pancreas. Until recently, the decline of insulin production had been ascribed to β-cell death. But recent research has shown that β-cells do not die in diabetes, but undergo a silencing process, termed "dedifferentiation." The main implication of this discovery is that β-cells can be revived by appropriate treatments. We have shown that mitochondrial abnormalities are a key step in the progression of β-cell dysfunction towards dedifferentiation. In normal β-cells, mitochondria generate energy required to sustain insulin production and its finely timed release in response to the body's nutritional status. A normal β-cell can adapt its mitochondrial fuel source based on substrate availability, a concept known as "metabolic flexibility." This capability is the first casualty in the progress of β-cell failure. β-Cells lose the ability to select the right fuel for mitochondrial energy production. Mitochondria become overloaded, and accumulate by-products derived from incomplete fuel utilization. Energy production stalls, and insulin production drops, setting the stage for dedifferentiation. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to explore novel treatment paradigms that will benefit people with diabetes. PMID:27615140

  8. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  9. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ``pyroprocessing,`` featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs.

  10. Designed to fail: how computer simulation can detect fundamental flaws in clinic flow.

    PubMed

    Parks, Jennifer Kaye; Engblom, Patricia; Hamrock, Eric; Satjapot, Siriporn; Levin, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Discrete-event simulation can be used as an effective tool for healthcare administrators to "test" various operational decisions. The recent growth in hospital outpatient volumes and a constrained financial environment make discrete-event simulation a cost-effective way to diagnose inefficiency and create and test strategies for improvement. This study shows how discrete-event simulation was used in an adult medicine clinic within a large, tertiary care, academic medical center. Simulation creation steps are discussed, including information gathering, process mapping, data collection, model creation, and results. Results of the simulation indicated that system bottle-necks were present in the medication administration and check-out steps of the clinic process. The simulation predicted that matching resources to excessive demand at appropriate times for these bottleneck steps would reduce patients' mean time in the system (i.e., visit time) from 124.3 (s.d. +/- 65.7) minutes to 87.0 (s.d. +/- 36.4) minutes. Although other factors may affect real-world operations of a clinic, discrete-event simulation allows healthcare administrators and clinic operational decision makers to observe the effects of changing staffing and resource allocations on patient wait and throughput time. Discrete-event simulation is not a cure-all for clinic throughput problems, but can be a strong tool to provide evidentiary guidance for clinic operational redesign. PMID:21495531

  11. Androgen Withdrawal Fails to Induce Detectable Tissue Hypoxia in the Rat Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Regter, Sietze; Hedayati, Mohammad; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhou, Haoming; Dalrymple, Susan; Koch, Cameron J.; Isaacs, John T.; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been reported that significant hypoxia may occur in the rat prostate following androgen deprivation (AD). It is well known that hypoxia substantially reduces radiation sensitivity of cells both in vitro and in vivo. Given that contemporary management of men with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer includes the use of neoadjuvant androgen suppression and radiation, AD-induced hypoxia in the prostate could result in suboptimal therapeutic results. Given this concern, we fully investigate possible AD-induced hypoxia in the ventral prostate (VP) of adult rats by two independent methods. METHODS Tissue pO2 levels in the VP of adult Spraque-Dawley rats were evaluated prior to and at various time points following castration by two independent techniques. First, an Oxylab tissue oxygen monitor with a 240 μm probe was used for quantitative monitoring of global VP oxygenation. Second, fluorescence immunohistochemistry using the hypoxia marker EF5, known to be metabolically activated by hypoxic cells, was used to evaluate cell-to-cell variation in hypoxia at various days post-castration. RESULTS Neither the oxygen probe nor EF5 method demonstrate any substantive change in pO2 levels in the rat VP at any time point post-castration. CONCLUSIONS We find no evidence that the rat VP becomes hypoxic at any point following castration using an animal model that closely mimics the human prostate. These data are in contrast to previous reports suggesting prostatic hypoxia occurs following AD and provide assurance that our present therapeutic strategy of neoadjuvant AD followed by radiation is not compromised by AD-induced tissue hypoxia. PMID:24677180

  12. Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  13. Designed to fail: how computer simulation can detect fundamental flaws in clinic flow.

    PubMed

    Parks, Jennifer Kaye; Engblom, Patricia; Hamrock, Eric; Satjapot, Siriporn; Levin, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Discrete-event simulation can be used as an effective tool for healthcare administrators to "test" various operational decisions. The recent growth in hospital outpatient volumes and a constrained financial environment make discrete-event simulation a cost-effective way to diagnose inefficiency and create and test strategies for improvement. This study shows how discrete-event simulation was used in an adult medicine clinic within a large, tertiary care, academic medical center. Simulation creation steps are discussed, including information gathering, process mapping, data collection, model creation, and results. Results of the simulation indicated that system bottle-necks were present in the medication administration and check-out steps of the clinic process. The simulation predicted that matching resources to excessive demand at appropriate times for these bottleneck steps would reduce patients' mean time in the system (i.e., visit time) from 124.3 (s.d. +/- 65.7) minutes to 87.0 (s.d. +/- 36.4) minutes. Although other factors may affect real-world operations of a clinic, discrete-event simulation allows healthcare administrators and clinic operational decision makers to observe the effects of changing staffing and resource allocations on patient wait and throughput time. Discrete-event simulation is not a cure-all for clinic throughput problems, but can be a strong tool to provide evidentiary guidance for clinic operational redesign.

  14. When Technical Rationality Fails: Thinking about Terminally Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Still, A; Todd, C

    1998-01-01

    The theory that thinking is modelled on the social activity of argument is investigated through the views of general practitioners about terminally ill patients. The social activity of general practice centres on the consultation, which the doctor manages by 'technical rationality'. But this is difficult when the patient is terminally ill. In that case technical rationality is seen to fail and rhetorical skills are invoked. GPs' thinking about such consultations can be described using an agonistic model based on a hierarchy of objectives, strategies and tactics. The objective of keeping patients comfortable and dignified is aimed at through three strategies, and a variety of rhetorical tactics is drawn on in thinking about these strategies.

  15. [Multimodal therapy concepts for failed back surgery syndrome].

    PubMed

    Casser, Hans-Raimund

    2016-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a frequent complication (15-40 %) of lumbar disc surgery and is rarely successfully treated by surgery with the exception of a re-prolapse associated with radicular pain. Multimodal pain treatment, however, is indicated by a lack of pathoanatomical correlates, unclear cause and psychosocial risk factors.This review describes a standardized non-operative treatment starting with broad interdisciplinary clarification by medical, psychological and physiotherapeutic means (assessment).If the conditions for multimodal pain therapy are met, the OPS 8‑918-procedure can be applied to avoid chronic developing pain. In doing so, the already issued quality standards and guidelines for documentation should be respected. PMID:27514828

  16. Do organic and other exotic superconductors fail universal scaling relations?

    PubMed Central

    Dordevic, S. V.; Basov, D. N.; Homes, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Universal scaling relations are of tremendous importance in science, as they reveal fundamental laws of nature. Several such scaling relations have recently been proposed for superconductors; however, they are not really universal in the sense that some important families of superconductors appear to fail the scaling relations, or obey the scaling with different scaling pre-factors. In particular, a large group of materials called organic (or molecular) superconductors are a notable example. Here, we show that such apparent violations are largely due to the fact that the required experimental parameters were collected on different samples, with different experimental techniques. When experimental data is taken on the same sample, using a single experimental technique, organic superconductors, as well as all other studied superconductors, do in fact follow universal scaling relations.

  17. Unaware person recognition from the body when face identification fails.

    PubMed

    Rice, Allyson; Phillips, P Jonathon; Natu, Vaidehi; An, Xiaobo; O'Toole, Alice J

    2013-11-01

    How does one recognize a person when face identification fails? Here, we show that people rely on the body but are unaware of doing so. State-of-the-art face-recognition algorithms were used to select images of people with almost no useful identity information in the face. Recognition of the face alone in these cases was near chance level, but recognition of the person was accurate. Accuracy in identifying the person without the face was identical to that in identifying the whole person. Paradoxically, people reported relying heavily on facial features over noninternal face and body features in making their identity decisions. Eye movements indicated otherwise, with gaze duration and fixations shifting adaptively toward the body and away from the face when the body was a better indicator of identity than the face. This shift occurred with no cost to accuracy or response time. Human identity processing may be partially inaccessible to conscious awareness.

  18. Sensitivity to metals in 40 patients with failed hip endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, V; Orlić, D; Marusić, A

    1998-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to metals and tissue reaction around a failed implant were investigated in 40 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty. Metal sensitivity was tested using a standard cutaneous patch test. Nine patients were positive for chromium, nickel, cobalt, metal rust or endoprosthesis scrapings, or combinations of these allergens. Patients with positive or negative patch test did not differ in terms of their age, sex, primary diagnosis, number of endoprosthesis revisions, length of implant function, presence of other metal parts around the implant, circulating immunocomplexes, and histological appearance of the tissue around the implant. We conclude that stainless steel endoprostheses may be safely used for repeated revision hip arthroplasty, and that hypersensitivity to metals probably does not play a significant role in the loosening of the endoprosthesis.

  19. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  20. Surgical Approach After Failed Enteryx Injection for GERD

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, A.; Anvari, M.; Dallemagne, B.; Mutter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We report on 3 patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux procedures for persistent symptoms of GERD after biopolymer injection. Methods: Experienced laparoscopic surgeons completed all 3 procedures laparoscopically. In 2 patients, there was an extramural extravasation of the polymer outside and adherent to the esophageal wall. In these patients, a partial posterior fundoplication was used. The third patient, who had the polymer material deposits removed preoperatively by endoscopic mucosal resection, underwent a Nissen fundoplication. Results: Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all cases. At follow-up of 6 to 12 months, all patients were symptom free, off medical therapy, and experiencing no dysphagia. Conclusion: Surgical therapy for patients after failed biopolymer injection is safe and effective. The choice of surgery may depend on whether the polymer mass can be removed preoperatively. PMID:17651566

  1. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  2. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described.

  3. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    PubMed

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?'

  4. Helical motion during a failed eruption of a filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Solar magnetized "tornadoes" in different scales with varying lifetime have been widely reported and discussed recently. They are found to be possibly related to the formation of prominences and coronal heating. However, the physical details of the tornadoes still remain unclear, though lots of work including observational analysis in varies wavelengths and numerical simulations have been done. Here, we report a failed eruption of a filament on 2012 July 8, during which rotating motion of the filament materials can be clearly recognized. Based on the multi-wavelength and multi-viewpoints observations from SDO and STEREO spacecraft, we tentatively think that the highly twist magnetic field lines in the filament probably lead to the helical motion of the ejected plasma. A detailed analysis will give us more information.

  5. Failure detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali; Verghese, George C.; Willsky, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Using the geometric concept of an unobservability subspace, a solution is given to the problem of detecting and identifying control system component failures in linear, time-invariant systems. Conditions are developed for the existence of a causal, linear, time-invariant processor that can detect and uniquely identify a component failure, first for the case where components can fail simultaneously, and then for the case where they fail only one at a time. Explicit design algorithms are provided when these conditions are satisfied. In addition to time-domain solvability conditions, frequency-domain interpretations of the results are given, and connections are drawn with results already available in the literature.

  6. Thrill of victory or agony of defeat? Perceivers fail to utilize information in facial movements.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Hillel; Messinger, Daniel S; Zangvil, Shiri; Mattson, Whitney I; Gangi, Devon N; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Although the distinction between positive and negative facial expressions is assumed to be clear and robust, recent research with intense real-life faces has shown that viewers are unable to reliably differentiate the valence of such expressions (Aviezer, Trope, & Todorov, 2012). Yet, the fact that viewers fail to distinguish these expressions does not in itself testify that the faces are physically identical. In Experiment 1, the muscular activity of victorious and defeated faces was analyzed. Higher numbers of individually coded facial actions--particularly smiling and mouth opening--were more common among winners than losers, indicating an objective difference in facial activity. In Experiment 2, we asked whether supplying participants with valid or invalid information about objective facial activity and valence would alter their ratings. Notwithstanding these manipulations, valence ratings were virtually identical in all groups, and participants failed to differentiate between positive and negative faces. While objective differences between intense positive and negative faces are detectable, human viewers do not utilize these differences in determining valence. These results suggest a surprising dissociation between information present in expressions and information used by perceivers.

  7. Thrill of victory or agony of defeat? Perceivers fail to utilize information in facial movements.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Hillel; Messinger, Daniel S; Zangvil, Shiri; Mattson, Whitney I; Gangi, Devon N; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Although the distinction between positive and negative facial expressions is assumed to be clear and robust, recent research with intense real-life faces has shown that viewers are unable to reliably differentiate the valence of such expressions (Aviezer, Trope, & Todorov, 2012). Yet, the fact that viewers fail to distinguish these expressions does not in itself testify that the faces are physically identical. In Experiment 1, the muscular activity of victorious and defeated faces was analyzed. Higher numbers of individually coded facial actions--particularly smiling and mouth opening--were more common among winners than losers, indicating an objective difference in facial activity. In Experiment 2, we asked whether supplying participants with valid or invalid information about objective facial activity and valence would alter their ratings. Notwithstanding these manipulations, valence ratings were virtually identical in all groups, and participants failed to differentiate between positive and negative faces. While objective differences between intense positive and negative faces are detectable, human viewers do not utilize these differences in determining valence. These results suggest a surprising dissociation between information present in expressions and information used by perceivers. PMID:26010575

  8. Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem Thruster Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion: A Failure Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2003-01-01

    Pilot operated valves (POVs) are used to control the flow of hypergolic propellants monomethylhydrazine (fuel) and nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) to the Shuttle orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thrusters. The POV incorporates a two-stage design: a solenoid-actuated pilot stage, which in turn controls a pressure-actuated main stage. Isolation of propellant supply from the thruster chamber is accomplished in part by a captive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal retained inside a Custom 455.1 stainless steel cavity. Extrusion of the pilot seal restricts the flow of fuel around the pilot poppet, thus impeding or preventing the main valve stage from opening. It can also prevent the main stage from staying open with adequate force margin, particularly if there is gas in the main stage actuation cavity. During thruster operation on-orbit, fuel valve pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by low or erratic chamber pressure or failure of the thruster to fire upon command (Fail-Off). During ground turnaround, pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by slow gaseous nitrogen (GN2) main valve opening times (greater than 38 ms) or slow water main valve opening response times (greater than 33 ms). Poppet lift tests and visual inspection can also detect pilot seal extrusion during ground servicing; however, direct metrology on the pilot seat assembly provides the most quantitative and accurate means of identifying extrusion. Minimizing PRCS fuel valve pilot seal extrusion has become an important issue in the effort to improve PRCS reliability and reduce associated life cycle costs.

  9. Fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, S.L.

    1983-09-20

    A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

  10. Test and analysis of a stitched RFI graphite-epoxy panel with a fuel access door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A stitched RFI graphite-epoxy panel with a fuel access door was analyzed using a finite element analysis and loaded to failure in compression. The panel was initially 56-inches long and 36.75-inches wide and the oval access door was 18-inches long and 15-inches wide. The panel was impact damaged with impact energy of 100 ft-lb prior to compressive loading; however, no impact damage was detectable visually or by A-scan. The panel carried a failure load of 695,000 Ib and global failure strain of .00494 in/in. Analysis indicated the panel would fail due to collapse at a load of 688,100 Ib. The test data indicate that the maximum strain in a region near the access door was .0096 in/in and analysis indicates a local surface strain of .010 in/in at the panel's failure load. The panel did not fail through the impact damage, but instead failed through bolt holes for attachment of the access door in a region of high strain.

  11. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or failing under... emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines whether...

  12. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  13. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  14. Feds fail to obey own laws for electric vehicles says report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Federal and state agencies have failed miserably in adding electric vehicles (EVs) to their fleets. That`s according to a report on the state of battery-powered autos in the October issue of Design News. Of about 585,000 vehicles in the federal fleet, only about 200 are electric. The 1992 Energy Policy Act (EPACT) called for federal fleets to boost their percentage of alternate fuel vehicles (though not necessarily EVs). The Big Three automakers say they invested heavily in EV technology in the belief that such regulations would spur federal agencies to buy their early vehicles. The US government says it can`t afford electric cars. According to Denise Lenar of Government Services Administration Fleet Management, the cost differential between an electric and a convention is $22,000. Despite more than four decades of development effort the EVs most critical component -- the battery -- is nowhere near ready. The basic battery problem is simply one of weight versus power. Today, automakers pay exorbitant sums for EV batteries. Experts think that near-term, the hybrid electric vehicle could serve as a bridge technology, enabling battery developers to continue research, while greatly improving the environment. Hybrids use an internal combustion engine to charge the batteries for an electronic drivetrain, and provide more of the conveniences to which consumers have grown accustomed. Yet, hybrids, which burn gasoline, don`t qualify as zero emission vehicles under government rules.

  15. Clinical prediction rules for failed nonoperative reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Singhavejsakul, Jesda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nonoperative reduction of intussusception in children can be performed safely if there are no contraindications. Many risk factors associated with failed reduction were defined. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system for predicting the failure of nonoperative reduction using various determinants. Patients and methods The data were collected from Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with intussusception aged 0–15 years with no contraindications for nonoperative reduction. The clinical prediction rules were developed using significant risk factors from the multivariable analysis. Results A total of 170 patients with intussusception were included in the study. In the final analysis model, 154 patients were used for identifying the significant risk factors of failure of reduction. Ten factors clustering by the age of 3 years were identified and used for developing the clinical prediction rules, and the factors were as follows: body weight <12 kg (relative risk [RR] =1.48, P=0.004), duration of symptoms >48 hours (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side RR =1.48, P<0.001), ultrasound showed poor prognostic signs (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and the method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic, RR =1.34, P=0.023). Prediction scores ranged from 0 to 16. A high-risk group (scores 12–16) predicted a greater chance of reduction failure (likelihood ratio of positive [LR+] =18.22, P<0.001). A low-risk group (score 0–11) predicted a lower chance of reduction failure (LR+ =0.79, P<0.001). The performance of the scoring model was 80.68% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve). Conclusion This scoring guideline was used to predict the results of

  16. Clinical prediction rules for failed nonoperative reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Patumanond, Jayanton; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Visrutaratna, Pannee; Singhavejsakul, Jesda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nonoperative reduction of intussusception in children can be performed safely if there are no contraindications. Many risk factors associated with failed reduction were defined. The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system for predicting the failure of nonoperative reduction using various determinants. Patients and methods The data were collected from Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with intussusception aged 0–15 years with no contraindications for nonoperative reduction. The clinical prediction rules were developed using significant risk factors from the multivariable analysis. Results A total of 170 patients with intussusception were included in the study. In the final analysis model, 154 patients were used for identifying the significant risk factors of failure of reduction. Ten factors clustering by the age of 3 years were identified and used for developing the clinical prediction rules, and the factors were as follows: body weight <12 kg (relative risk [RR] =1.48, P=0.004), duration of symptoms >48 hours (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side RR =1.48, P<0.001), ultrasound showed poor prognostic signs (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and the method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic, RR =1.34, P=0.023). Prediction scores ranged from 0 to 16. A high-risk group (scores 12–16) predicted a greater chance of reduction failure (likelihood ratio of positive [LR+] =18.22, P<0.001). A low-risk group (score 0–11) predicted a lower chance of reduction failure (LR+ =0.79, P<0.001). The performance of the scoring model was 80.68% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve). Conclusion This scoring guideline was used to predict the results of

  17. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., <40 years). Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  18. Polar fuel constituents: compound identification and equilibrium partitioning between nonaqueous phase liquids and water.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Torsten C; Kleinert, Peter; Stengel, Caroline; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2002-10-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel constituents from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on top of the groundwater table is a widespread problem. While leaching of classical fuel constituents such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from NAPLs into groundwater has been studied extensively, little is known about the identity and partitioning of polar fuel components. Our work shows that gasoline commonly contains appreciable amounts of aniline, phenol, and their alkyl-substituted homologues as well as a suite of other polar compounds. To assess the potential for leaching of such compounds from NAPLs into groundwater we measured the equilibrium fuel/water partitioning coefficients, Kfw, of some representative constituents in batch systems. Kfw values for the investigated phenols, anilines, benzotriazoles, and S-heterocycles ranged from 0.2 to 1700. These values are up to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the Kfw of benzene. The NAPL--water partitioning of anilines and phenols strongly depends on the compounds' structure as well as on pH and the gasoline composition (e.g., MTBE content). Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) using Kow or Cwsat failed to predict measured Kfw values of polar solutes. In contrast, a polyparameter approach taking into account molecular interactions (van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds) between solutes and major gasoline components allows precise a-priori predictions of Kfw values of both polar and BTEX fuel constituents without any fit parameters. Since most of the polar fuel constituents studied here are extracted from NAPLs by groundwater much more efficiently than BTEX, such compounds could form contaminant plumes threatening receiving wells before detectable concentrations of BTEX are present.

  19. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Hanson, Brady D.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe.

  1. Storage assembly for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, M.E.

    1982-04-27

    A technique for storing spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a housing including a closed inner chamber for containing the fuel rods and a thermally conductive member located partially within the housing chamber and partially outside the housing for transferring heat generated by the fuel rods from the chamber to the ambient surroundings. Particulate material is located within the chamber and surrounds the fuel rods contained therein. This material is selected to serve as a heat transfer media between the contained cells and the heat transferring member and, at the same time, stand ready to fuse into a solid mass around the contained cells if the heat transferring member malfunctions or otherwise fails to transfer the generated heat out of the housing chamber in a predetermined way.

  2. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment: Thick Fuel Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, Robert A.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; West, Jeff; Tang, Lin; Sacksteder, Kurt; Delichatsios, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of experiments for spread over polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA, samples in the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle are described. The results are coupled with modelling in an effort to describe the physics of the spread process for thick fuels in a quiescent, microgravity environment and uncover differences between thin and thick fuels. A quenching phenomenon not present for thin fuels is delineated, namely the fact that for thick fuels the possibility exists that, absent an opposing flow of sufficient strength to press the flame close enough to the fuel surface to allow the heated layer in the solid to develop, the heated layer fails to become 'fully developed.' The result is that the flame slows, which in turn causes an increase in the relative radiative loss from the flame, leading eventually to extinction. This potential inability of a thick fuel to develop a steady spread rate is not present for a thin fuel because the heated layer is the fuel thickness, which reaches a uniform temperature across the thickness relatively rapidly.

  3. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  4. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. H.; Meyer, J.; Smith, W. P.; Rockhill, J. K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head & neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head & neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  5. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  6. Comparative surface microanalysis of failed Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Olivé, J

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition and topography of an implant surface determine the human immunologic system response. This study compared the surfaces of 13 Brånemark oral implants, 11 that came from retrieved specimens which failed initially or did not osseointegrate and 2 that were never implanted (controls). The period of implantation in human jaws varied between 3 and 20 months. After cleaning and sterilization, the topography, surface chemical composition, and thickness of the oxide layer were studied. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant topographic differences among the specimens. X-ray spectrographic microanalysis showed very similar composition (titanium and amounts less than 0.5% of other elements) in the outermost layer of the analyzed specimens. The Auger spectroscope revealed considerable percentage differences in the amount of carbon and silicon in the last monolayers, which could be attributed to handling or to an inadequate cleaning process. This places the retrieved specimens out of the acceptable statistical limits of contamination by introducing a factor of doubt for long-term prognosis in the hypothetical situation of their re-use. PMID:1398830

  7. Viewpoint: why the clinical ethics we teach fails patients.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2007-07-01

    The clinical ethics framework that is typically taught to medical students and residents is deeply flawed, and the result of using this framework exclusively to resolve ethical conflicts at the bedside is compromised patient care. The author calls this framework the principlist paradigm and maintains that it blinds clinicians from seeing the full set of moral obligations they have to the patient and limits the range of options they see as available to navigate through ethical conflicts. Although it is important for the moral obligations it does recognize (e.g., those based on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), the principlist paradigm should not be used as the only moral template for case analysis. The author illustrates the paradigm's limitations with a clinical case study, in which the treating clinicians failed to recognize three important moral obligations to the patient: the obligation to express regret, the obligation to apologize, and the obligation to make amends. The failure to recognize these widely accepted moral obligations can have tragic consequences. The principlist paradigm undertrains clinicians for the complex ethical dilemmas they face in practice, and medical ethics educators need to rethink the tools they offer student clinicians to guide their ethical analysis. The author advocates a reexamination of this standard approach to teaching clinical ethics.

  8. Salvage of failed protein targets by reductive alkylation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  9. BLACK HOLE FORMATION IN FAILING CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D. E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present results of a systematic study of failing core-collapse supernovae and the formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). Using our open-source general-relativistic 1.5D code GR1D equipped with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and over 100 presupernova models, we study the effects of the choice of nuclear equation of state (EOS), zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, rotation, and mass-loss prescription on BH formation. We find that the outcome, for a given EOS, can be estimated, to first order, by a single parameter, the compactness of the stellar core at bounce. By comparing protoneutron star (PNS) structure at the onset of gravitational instability with solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof equations, we find that thermal pressure support in the outer PNS core is responsible for raising the maximum PNS mass by up to 25% above the cold NS value. By artificially increasing neutrino heating, we find the critical neutrino heating efficiency required for exploding a given progenitor structure and connect these findings with ZAMS conditions, establishing, albeit approximately, for the first time based on actual collapse simulations, the mapping between ZAMS parameters and the outcome of core collapse. We also study the effect of progenitor rotation and find that the dimensionless spin of nascent BHs may be robustly limited below a* = Jc/GM{sup 2} = 1 by the appearance of nonaxisymmetric rotational instabilities.

  10. Failed Eradication for Helicobacter pylori. What Should Be Done?

    PubMed

    Mégraud, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Failed eradication of Helicobacter pylori occurs when the antibiotic concentration at the site where H. pylori is located is lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic for this bacterium. The main reason for this is the acquisition of resistance; and in the context of the most common treatment, the main reason is the acquisition of resistance to clarithromycin. Several options can then be followed. The most rational option is to use a tailored therapy, that is, to look for clarithromycin resistance either by culture plus antibiogram or by a molecular method. The standard triple therapy is used only in the case of clarithromycin susceptibility. In case of resistance or if an empiric treatment must be given, a good option is to use a bismuth-based quadruple therapy. If unavailable, clarithromycin-based quadruple therapies can be used either as sequential or 'concomitant' or hybrid. The limit, especially for concomitant therapy, is the use of clarithromycin, which will be inactive in about 2/3 of the cases, adding to cost and adverse events. Recently, the dual therapy proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin has been revisited especially in the Far East, and increasing the dose and the frequency of administration gives excellent results. PMID:27332826

  11. [Pregnancy proceeding to term following failed induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Doppenberg, H J; Mulder-Meiss, H B

    1986-06-21

    The 4th Pregnacy of a 30 year old woman proceeded to term following the failure of induced abortion via aspiration conducted during the 8th week. The woman feared possible damage to her unborn child once the failure of the abortion was determined. Only after careful counselling and emotional suport from both her personal physician, the clinic staff, and the midwife who supervised her home delivery was the woman able to decide to carry the pregnancy to term. Anxiety surfaced during the subsequent 6 months, even though the child was found to be healthy in all respects. Only through intsive psychosocial counseling was she able to regain self assurance and self control. A review by computer of the international literature revealed few documented cases of serious congenital malformations following failed abortions. Postdelivery psychosocial support structures for such women are particularly vital and require the sensitive intervention of trained personnel, including family physicians, as well as staff physicians of hospitals and family planning centers.

  12. Fail-fixed servovalve with positive fluid feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, Howard B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The servovalve includes a primary jet of fluid. A variable control signal is adapted to vary the angular position of the primary jet from its maximum recovery position. A first fluid path is adapted to supply fluid to a servopiston at a variable pressure determined at least in part by the control signal. A second fluid path is adapted to receive a predetermined portion of the primary jet fluid when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The second fluid path terminates in the vicinity of the primary jet and is adapted to direct a secondary jet of fluid at the primary jet to deflect the primary jet toward the input orifice of the second fluid path. The resultant positive fluid feedback in the second fluid path causes the primary jet to latch in a first angular position relative to the maximum recovery position when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The servovalve may further include a means to discharge the fluid and a means to block the first fluid path to the servopiston when the control signal falls below a second predetermined value. A method of operating a fail-fixed servovalve is also described.

  13. Cluster Development Test 2: An Assessment of a Failed Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2009-01-01

    On 31 July 2008 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System team conducted the final planned cluster test of the first generation parachute recovery system design. The two primary test objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the complete parachute system deployed from a full scale capsule simulator and to demonstrate the test technique of separating the capsule simulator from the Low Velocity Air Drop pallet used to extract the test article from a United States Air Force C-17 aircraft. The capsule simulator was the Parachute Test Vehicle with an accurate heat shield outer mold line and forward bay compartment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle Command Module. The Parachute Test Vehicle separated cleanly from the pallet following extraction, but failed to reach test conditions resulting in the failure of the test and the loss of the test assets. No personnel were injured. This paper will discuss the design of the test and the findings of the team that investigated the test, including a discussion of what were determined to be the root causes of the failure.

  14. NEUROMODULATION OF THE FAILING HEART: LOST IN TRANSLATION?

    PubMed Central

    Byku, Mirnela; Mann, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to progressive worsening of HF (HF) and is associated with untoward clinical outcomes. Based on compelling pre-clinical studies which supported the role of autonomic modulation in HF models, a series of clinical studies were initiated using spinal cord stimulation (SCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) in patients with HF with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). While the phase II studies with BAT remain encouraging, the larger clinical studies with SCS and VNS have yielded disappointing results. Here we will focus on the pre-clinical studies that supported the role of neuromodulation in the failing heart, as well provide a critical review of the recent clinical trials that have sought to modulate autonomic tone in HF patients. This review will conclude with an analysis of some of the difficulties in translating device-based modulation of the autonomic nervous from pre-clinical models into successful clinical trials, as well as provide suggestions for how to move the field of neuromodulation forward PMID:27525317

  15. Looking back at the future: why Hillarycare failed.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The current Democratic Party candidates for U.S. president, including Hillary Rodham Clinton, have committed themselves to establishing universal health care that will guarantee access to care in time of need, a basic human right still denied in the United States. This commitment is partly a response to the U.S. population's high levels of dissatisfaction (now at unprecedented levels) with the way health care is funded and organized. The article analyzes why a similar commitment by President Bill Clinton in 1992 failed, and challenges some of the main explanations for that failure put forward by protagonists of the White House health care reform task force (chaired by Hillary Clinton). The author emphasizes that the primary reason for the failure was the lack of political will to confront major players in medical care funding, especially the insurance companies and large employers. He postulates that unless such political will exists and unless the system of funding electoral campaigns undergoes major reform-reducing or eliminating the power of financial and economic lobbies in the political process-the United States will not have universal health care. It is a worrisome sign that these lobbies are financing the campaigns of many of today's presidential candidates.

  16. Management of failed rotator cuff repair: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Importance Recurrent tear after rotator cuff repair (RCR) is common. Conservative, and open and arthroscopic revisions, have been advocated to treat these failures. Aim or objective The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the different options for managing recurrent rotator cuff tears. Evidence review A search was conducted of level I through 4 studies from January 2000 to October 2015, to identify studies reporting on failed RCR. 10 articles were identified. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Findings Mid-term to long-term follow-up of patients treated conservatively revealed acceptable results; a persistent defect is a well-tolerated condition that only occasionally requires subsequent surgery. Conservative treatment might be indicated in most patients, particularly in case of posterosuperior involvement and poor preoperative range of motion. Revision surgery might be indicated in a young patient with a repairable lesion, a 3 tendon tear, and in those with involvement of the subscapularis. Conclusions and relevance The current review indicates that arthroscopic revision RCR can lead to improvement in functional outcome despite a high retear rate. Further studies are needed to develop specific rehabilitation in the case of primary rotator cuff failure, to better understand the place of each treatment option, and, in case of repair, to optimise tendon healing. PMID:27134759

  17. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes. PMID:26553630

  18. Failed back surgery syndrome: review and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a term used to define an unsatisfactory outcome of a patient who underwent spinal surgery, irrespective of type or intervention area, with persistent pain in the lumbosacral region with or without it radiating to the leg. The possible reasons and risk factors that would lead to FBSS can be found in distinct phases: in problems already present in the patient before a surgical approach, such as spinal instability, during surgery (for example, from a mistake by the surgeon), or in the postintervention phase in relation to infections or biomechanical alterations. This article reviews the current literature on FBSS and tries to give a new hypothesis to understand the reasons for this clinical problem. The dysfunction of the diaphragm muscle is a component that is not taken into account when trying to understand the reasons for this syndrome, as there is no existing literature on the subject. The diaphragm is involved in chronic lower back and sacroiliac pain and plays an important role in the management of pain perception. PMID:26834497

  19. How to slow down light and where relativity theory fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2013-03-01

    Research found logical errors in mathematics and in physics. After discovered wave-particle duality made an assumption I reinterpreted quantum mechanic and I was able to find new information from existing publications and concluded that photon is not a fundamental particle which has a structure. These work has been presented at several APS meetings and EuNPC2012. During my research I also arrived at the exact same conclusion using Newton's theory of space-time, then found the assumptions that relativity theory made failed logical test and violated basic mathematical logic. And Minkowski space violated Newton's law of motion, Lorenz 4-dimensional transformation was mathematically incomplete. After modifying existing physics theories I designed an experiment to demonstrate where light can be slow down or stop for structural study. Such method were also turn into a continuous room temperature fusion method. However the discoveries involves large amount of complex logical analysis. Physicists are generally not philosophers, therefore to make the discovery fully understood by most physicists is very challenging. This work is supported by Dr. Kursh at Northeastern University.

  20. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  1. Comparative surface microanalysis of failed Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Olivé, J

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition and topography of an implant surface determine the human immunologic system response. This study compared the surfaces of 13 Brånemark oral implants, 11 that came from retrieved specimens which failed initially or did not osseointegrate and 2 that were never implanted (controls). The period of implantation in human jaws varied between 3 and 20 months. After cleaning and sterilization, the topography, surface chemical composition, and thickness of the oxide layer were studied. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant topographic differences among the specimens. X-ray spectrographic microanalysis showed very similar composition (titanium and amounts less than 0.5% of other elements) in the outermost layer of the analyzed specimens. The Auger spectroscope revealed considerable percentage differences in the amount of carbon and silicon in the last monolayers, which could be attributed to handling or to an inadequate cleaning process. This places the retrieved specimens out of the acceptable statistical limits of contamination by introducing a factor of doubt for long-term prognosis in the hypothetical situation of their re-use.

  2. Looking back at the future: why Hillarycare failed.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The current Democratic Party candidates for U.S. president, including Hillary Rodham Clinton, have committed themselves to establishing universal health care that will guarantee access to care in time of need, a basic human right still denied in the United States. This commitment is partly a response to the U.S. population's high levels of dissatisfaction (now at unprecedented levels) with the way health care is funded and organized. The article analyzes why a similar commitment by President Bill Clinton in 1992 failed, and challenges some of the main explanations for that failure put forward by protagonists of the White House health care reform task force (chaired by Hillary Clinton). The author emphasizes that the primary reason for the failure was the lack of political will to confront major players in medical care funding, especially the insurance companies and large employers. He postulates that unless such political will exists and unless the system of funding electoral campaigns undergoes major reform-reducing or eliminating the power of financial and economic lobbies in the political process-the United States will not have universal health care. It is a worrisome sign that these lobbies are financing the campaigns of many of today's presidential candidates. PMID:18459278

  3. 45 CFR 264.76 - What action will we take if a State fails to remit funds after failing to meet its required...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What action will we take if a State fails to remit funds after failing to meet its required Contingency Fund MOE level? 264.76 Section 264.76 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  4. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  5. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator, and (ii) an additive selected from the group consisting of alkenyl substituted succinimide, alkenyl substituted succinamide and mixtures thereof. The alkenyl substituent contains about 12-36 carbon atoms, the additive being made by the process comprising (a) isomerizing the double bond of an ..cap alpha..-olefin containing about 12-36 carbon atoms to obtain a mixture of internal olefins, (b) reacting the mixture of internal olefins with maleic acid, anhydride or ester to obtain an intermediate alkenyl substituted succinic acid, anhydride or ester, and (c) reacting the intermediate with ammonia to form a succinimide, succinamide or mixture thereof. The combination is present in an amount sufficient to minimize the coking characteristics of such fuel, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel.

  6. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  7. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  8. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  9. Successful placement of the Essure device after a failed procedure using the Adiana system for hysteroscopic sterilisation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Teska; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a successful hysteroscopic sterilisation using the Essure Permanent Birth Control device (Conceptus Inc., Mountain View, California, United States) after a failed procedure of the Adiana Permanent Contraception system (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, Maryland, United States). The delivery catheter of the Adiana system was able to be inserted into the left fallopian tube without difficulty and per manufacturer specifications. However, the position detection array was unable to sense four-quadrant tissue contact. The same issue occurred at the contralateral tube. Using the Essure system, the coils were able to be placed in both ostia easily and adequately. In patients in whom the Adiana system fails to occlude the fallopian tubes due to procedural, anatomic or device-related factors, the Essure procedure may be an efficient alternative. PMID:22689274

  10. Possibility of using a lithotrophic iron-oxidizing microbial fuel cell as a biosensor for detecting iron and manganese in water samples.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong Hoang Nguyen; Luong, Tha Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Thuy Thu Thi; Nguyen, Huy Quang; Duong, Hop Van; Kim, Byung Hong; Pham, Hai The

    2015-10-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacterial consortia can be enriched in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated with ferrous iron as the sole electron donor. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using such lithotrophic iron-oxidizing MFC (LIO-MFC) systems as biosensors to monitor iron and manganese in water samples. When operated with anolytes containing only ferrous iron as the sole electron donor, the experimented LIO-MFCs generated electrical currents in response to the presence of Fe(2+) in the anolytes. For the concentrations of Fe(2+) in the range of 3-20 mM, a linear correlation between the current and the concentration of Fe(2+) could be achieved (r(2) = 0.98). The LIO-MFCs also responded to the presence of Mn(2+) in the anolytes but only when the Mn(2+) concentration was less than 3 mM. The presence of other metal ions such as Ni(2+) or Pb(2+) in the anolytes reduced the Fe(2+)-associated electricity generation of the LIO-MFCs at various levels. Organic compounds, when present at a non-excessive level together with Fe(2+) in the anolytes, did not affect the generation of electricity, although the compounds might serve as alternative electron donors for the anode bacteria. The performance of the LIO-MFCs was also affected to different degrees by operational parameters, including surrounding temperature, pH of the sample, buffer strength and external resistance. The results proved the potential of LIO-MFCs as biosensors sensing Fe(2+) in water samples with a significant specificity. However, the operation of the system should be in compliance with an optimal procedure to ensure reliable performance.

  11. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  12. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves. PMID:27526260

  13. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C; Adler, Philip D F; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on 'dark' reactions--failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses--collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted conditions

  14. Forces in Erupting Flux Ropes: CMEs and Failed Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James

    2016-05-01

    A range of dynamical behaviors that can be exhibited by a quasi-statically evolving flux rope is studied. Starting with a CME-like flux rope in equilibrium balanced by the ambient coronal pressure (non-force-free) and an overlying coronal magnetic field (Bc), the poloidal flux is slowly increased, on a timescale much longer than the eruptive timescale of several to tens of minutes. In this configuration, the overlying field Bc provides an external downward restraining force, constituting an effective potential barrier. Slowly increasing poloidal flux causes the flux rope to gradually rise, following a sequence of quasi-static equilibria. As the apex of the flux rope rises past a critical height Z*, slightly higher than the peak of the potential barrier Bc(Z), it expands on a faster, dynamical (Alfvenic) timescale determined by the magnetic field and geometry of the flux rope. The expanding flux rope may reach a new equilibrium at height Z1. Observationally, this behavior would be recognized as a ``failed eruption.'' The new equilibrium flux rope is established if the magnetic tension force due to the toroidal magnetic field component Bt can balance the outward hoop force due to the poloidal component Bp. The flux rope may also expand without reaching a new equilibrium, provided a sufficiennt amount of poloidal flux is injected on a dynamical timescale so that the tension force cannot balance the hoop force. This scenario would result in a CME eruption. The influence of the poloidal flux injection, the Bc(Z) profile, and boundary conditions on the quantitative balance of the forces in an expanding flux rope is elucidated. Potentially observable consequences of the difference scenarios/models are discussed.Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Research Program

  15. Management of Failing Prosthetic Bypass Grafts with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Siskin, Gary P.; Stainken, Brian F.; Mandell, Valerie S.; Darling, R. Clement; Dowling, Kyran; Herr, Allen

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of metallic stents in treating stenoses involving prosthetic arterial bypass grafts. Methods: Patients undergoing stent placement within a failing prosthetic bypass graft, during a 41-month period, were reviewed for treatment outcome and complications. The indications for stent placement in 15 patients included severe claudication (n= 3), rest pain (n= 9), and minor or major tissue loss (n= 3). Lesions were at the proximal anastomosis (n= 6), the distal anastomosis (n= 3), or within the graft (n= 6). Results: Treatment with metallic stents was successful in all patients. There was one acute stent thrombosis, successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. Follow-up data are available for a mean duration of 12.3 months. The mean duration of primary patency was 9.4 months with 6- and 12-month primary patency rates of 51.9% and 37.0%, respectively. The mean duration of secondary patency was 12.1 months with 6- and 12-month secondary patency rates of 80.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Two patients with discontinuous runoff and preexisting gangrene required a below-knee amputation. Six patients were revised surgically after stent placement (at a mean of 10.8 months). Three late deaths occurred during follow-up. Conclusion: Given the mortality risks of surgical revision and the reduced life expectancy of this patient population, metallic stent placement represents a viable, short-term treatment option for stenoses within or at the anastomoses of prosthetic grafts. Further evaluation is warranted to compare intragraft stent placement with surgical graft revision.

  16. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic–organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure–property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully

  17. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves.

  18. Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raccuglia, Paul; Elbert, Katherine C.; Adler, Philip D. F.; Falk, Casey; Wenny, Malia B.; Mollo, Aurelio; Zeller, Matthias; Friedler, Sorelle A.; Schrier, Joshua; Norquist, Alexander J.

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid materials such as organically templated metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and organohalide perovskites have been studied for decades, and hydrothermal and (non-aqueous) solvothermal syntheses have produced thousands of new materials that collectively contain nearly all the metals in the periodic table. Nevertheless, the formation of these compounds is not fully understood, and development of new compounds relies primarily on exploratory syntheses. Simulation- and data-driven approaches (promoted by efforts such as the Materials Genome Initiative) provide an alternative to experimental trial-and-error. Three major strategies are: simulation-based predictions of physical properties (for example, charge mobility, photovoltaic properties, gas adsorption capacity or lithium-ion intercalation) to identify promising target candidates for synthetic efforts; determination of the structure-property relationship from large bodies of experimental data, enabled by integration with high-throughput synthesis and measurement tools; and clustering on the basis of similar crystallographic structure (for example, zeolite structure classification or gas adsorption properties). Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that uses machine-learning algorithms trained on reaction data to predict reaction outcomes for the crystallization of templated vanadium selenites. We used information on ‘dark’ reactions—failed or unsuccessful hydrothermal syntheses—collected from archived laboratory notebooks from our laboratory, and added physicochemical property descriptions to the raw notebook information using cheminformatics techniques. We used the resulting data to train a machine-learning model to predict reaction success. When carrying out hydrothermal synthesis experiments using previously untested, commercially available organic building blocks, our machine-learning model outperformed traditional human strategies, and successfully predicted

  19. Failed eruptions of two intertwining small-scale filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Li; Xiang, Yongyuan; Yang, Liheng; Guo, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Using multi-wavelength observations of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we study the topology and evolutions of two filaments observed in NOAA active region (AR) 12031 on 2014 April 7. Before their eruptions, the two filaments (F1 and F2) were sinistral filaments, and the left part of F1 (LP) was located above F2, the right part of F1 (RP) under F2. They show an overall intertwining structure. LP erupted first and rotated clockwise. The total rotation angle was about 470° (≈2.61π). With its rotation, most of the plasma fell back, and thus it was a failed eruption. Meanwhile, when LP erupted to a higher altitude, the overlying magnetic loops were partially pushed from the northeast to the southwest with projected speeds from 36 to 105 km s-1. Next, F2 began to erupt and, when reaching a certain height, the plasma of F2 started to fall down to their footpoints. Using the potential-field source-surface (PFSS) model, the decay indexes at five positions along the polarity inversion line of AR 12031 were calculated to be from 1.03 to 1.25 with an average value of 1.20 that was lower than the critical value for torus instability. These results imply that the kink instability was the main triggering mechanism for the eruption of F1, and the eruption of F2 was due to the decreasing of overlying magnetic loops caused by the eruption of F1. The eruptions of two filaments were confined by the large-scale overlying magnetic loops.

  20. Prognostic indicators for failed nonsurgical reduction of intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Siriwongmongkol, Jakraphan; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the risk factors for failure of nonsurgical reduction of intussusception. Methods Data from intussusception patients who were treated with nonsurgical reduction in Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. Patients aged 0–15 years and without contraindications (peritonitis, abdominal X-ray signs of perforation, and/or hemodynamic instability) were included for nonsurgical reduction. The success and failure groups were divided according to the results of the reduction. Prognostic indicators for failed reduction were identified by using generalized linear model for exponential risk regression. The risk ratio (RR) was used to report each factor. Results One hundred and ninety cases of intussusception were enrolled. Twenty cases were excluded due to contraindications. A total of 170 cases of intussusception were included for the final analysis. The significant risk factors for reduction failure clustered by an age of 3 years were weight <12 kg (RR =1.48, P=0.004), symptom duration >3 days (RR =1.26, P<0.001), vomiting (RR =1.63, P<0.001), rectal bleeding (RR =1.50, P<0.001), abdominal distension (RR =1.60, P=0.003), temperature >37.8°C (RR =1.51, P<0.001), palpable abdominal mass (RR =1.26, P<0.001), location of mass (left over right side) (RR =1.48, P<0.001), poor prognostic signs on ultrasound scans (RR =1.35, P<0.001), and method of reduction (hydrostatic over pneumatic) (RR =1.34, P=0.023). The prediction ability of this model was 82.21% as assessed from the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Conclusion The identified prognostic factors for the nonsurgical reduction failure may help to predict the reduction outcome and provide information to the parents. PMID:27563245

  1. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  2. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  3. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  6. Change detection: training and transfer.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, John G; Neider, Mark B; Simons, Daniel J; McCarley, Jason S; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    Observers often fail to notice even dramatic changes to their environment, a phenomenon known as change blindness. If training could enhance change detection performance in general, then it might help to remedy some real-world consequences of change blindness (e.g. failing to detect hazards while driving). We examined whether adaptive training on a simple change detection task could improve the ability to detect changes in untrained tasks for young and older adults. Consistent with an effective training procedure, both young and older adults were better able to detect changes to trained objects following training. However, neither group showed differential improvement on untrained change detection tasks when compared to active control groups. Change detection training led to improvements on the trained task but did not generalize to other change detection tasks.

  7. Change Detection: Training and Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Simons, Daniel J.; McCarley, Jason S.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Observers often fail to notice even dramatic changes to their environment, a phenomenon known as change blindness. If training could enhance change detection performance in general, then it might help to remedy some real-world consequences of change blindness (e.g. failing to detect hazards while driving). We examined whether adaptive training on a simple change detection task could improve the ability to detect changes in untrained tasks for young and older adults. Consistent with an effective training procedure, both young and older adults were better able to detect changes to trained objects following training. However, neither group showed differential improvement on untrained change detection tasks when compared to active control groups. Change detection training led to improvements on the trained task but did not generalize to other change detection tasks. PMID:23840775

  8. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Subjects with Successful and Failing Dental Implants. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Christos; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the prevalence of the bacterial genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and metronidazole respectively, in subjects with successful and failing dental implants and to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA gene encoding for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the same samples. Materials and Methodology: The subject sample included 20 participants with clinically healthy osseointegrated implants and 20 participants with implants exhibiting peri-implantitis. Clinical parameters were assessed with an automated probe, samples were collected from the peri-implant sulcus or pocket and analyzed with Polymerase Chain Reaction for blaTEM, tetM, tetQ and nim genes, S. aureus and MRSA using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. Results: Findings have shown high frequencies of detection for both groups for the tetracycline resistance genes tetM (>30%), tetQ (>65%) with no statistical differences between them (z-test with Bonferroni corrections, p<0.05). The blaTEM gene, which encodes resistance to beta-lactams, was detected in <15% of the samples. The nim gene, which encodes resistance to metronidazole, S.aureus and the mecA gene encoding for MRSA were not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Conclusions: Healthy peri-implant sulci and peri-implantitis cases often harbor bacterial genes encoding for resistance to the tetracyclines and less often for beta-lactams. Thus, the antimicrobial activity of the tetracyclines and to a lower extent to beta-lactams, might be compromised for treatment of peri-implantitis. Since no metronidazole resistance genes were detected in the present study, its clinical use is supported by the current findings. S.aureus may not participate in peri-implant pathology. PMID:25646133

  9. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  10. Fail-safe design for large capacity lithium-ion battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  11. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  12. Fuel injection pump having voltage variation compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, E.; Miyaki, M.; Norimatsu, H.; Hobo, N.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Konishi, Y.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel injection pump is described for internal combustion engine, comprising: an enclosure; pump means including a plunger rotatingly and reciprocally movable in the enclosure to define a compression chamber of variable volume, the pump means coupling the compression chamber to a fuel inlet during an intake stroke of the plunger and connecting the compression chamber to a fuel outlet during a compression stroke of the plunger to thereby initiate injection of fuel to the outlet, the pump means being responsive to the speed of rotation of the engine to pressurize the fuel in the inlet; means for detecting the speed of the engine; a source of voltage having a tendency to vary; solenoid valve means operable when a voltage is applied thereto from the source for providing a pressure relief action of the fuel in the compression chamber to terminate the injection of fuel; a memory storing trimming data in locations addressable as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed; and control means for detecting the voltage of the source and responsive to the initiation of the fuel injection for determining the basic timing at which the fuel injection is to be terminated, reading trimming data out of the memory as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed, correcting the basic timing in accordance with the trimming data and applying the voltage of the source to the solenoid valve means at the corrected timing to thereby terminate the fuel injection.

  13. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Barthold, W.P.

    1992-07-01

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ``weak fuel`` has been proposed on an interim basis. ``Weak fuel`` is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure.

  14. Detection of fuel release in a nuclear accident: a method for preconcentration and isolation of reactor-borne (239)Np using ion-specific extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Brett L; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Although actinides are the most informative elements with respect to the nature of a nuclear accident, plutonium analysis is complicated by the background created by fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Therefore, we propose (239)Np, a short-lived actinide that emits several γ rays, as a preferred proxy. The aim of this study was to screen ion specific extraction chromatography resins (RE-, TEVA-, UTEVA-, TRU-, and Actinide-Resin) for the highest possible recovery and separation of trace amounts of (239)Np from samples with large activities of fission products such as radiocesium, radioiodine, and, most importantly, radiotellurium, the latter of which causes spectral interference in gamma spectrometry through overlapping peaks with (239)Np. The investigated environmental media for these separations were aqueous solutions simulating rainwater and soil. Spiked samples containing (239)Np and the aforementioned volatile radionuclides were separated through extraction chromatographic columns to ascertain the most effective means of separating (239)Np from other fission products for detection by gamma spectroscopy. We propose a method for nuclear accident preparedness based on the use of Eichrom's RE-Resin. The proposed method was found most effective for isolating (239)Np from interfering radionuclides in both aqueous solution and soil using 8 M HNO3 as the loading solution and H2O as the eluent. The RE-Resin outperforms the more commonly used TEVA-Resin because the TEVA-Resin showed a higher affinity for interfering radiotellurium and radioiodine.

  15. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  16. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  17. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  18. Ca2+-ATPases in non-failing and failing heart: evidence for a novel cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 isoform (SERCA2c)

    PubMed Central

    Dally, Saoussen; Bredoux, Raymonde; Corvazier, Elisabeth; Andersen, Jens P.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Dode, Leonard; Fanchaouy, Mohammed; Gelebart, Pascal; Monceau, Virginie; Del Monte, Frederica; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Hajjar, Roger; Chaabane, Chiraz; Bobe, Régis; Raies, Aly; Enouf, Jocelyne

    2006-01-01

    We recently documented the expression of a novel human mRNA variant encoding a yet uncharacterized SERCA [SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum)/ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Ca2+-ATPase] protein, SERCA2c [Gélébart, Martin, Enouf and Papp (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303, 676–684]. In the present study, we have analysed the expression and functional characteristics of SERCA2c relative to SERCA2a and SERCA2b isoforms upon their stable heterologous expression in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells). All SERCA2 proteins induced an increased Ca2+ content in the ER of intact transfected cells. In microsomes prepared from transfected cells, SERCA2c showed a lower apparent affinity for cytosolic Ca2+ than SERCA2a and a catalytic turnover rate similar to SERCA2b. We further demonstrated the expression of the endogenous SERCA2c protein in protein lysates isolated from heart left ventricles using a newly generated SERCA2c-specific antibody. Relative to the known uniform distribution of SERCA2a and SERCA2b in cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle tissue, SERCA2c was only detected in a confined area of cardiomyocytes, in close proximity to the sarcolemma. This finding led us to explore the expression of the presently known cardiac Ca2+-ATPase isoforms in heart failure. Comparative expression of SERCAs and PMCAs (plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases) was performed in four nonfailing hearts and five failing hearts displaying mixed cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies. Relative to normal subjects, cardiomyopathic patients express more PMCAs than SERCA2 proteins. Interestingly, SERCA2c expression was significantly increased (166±26%) in one patient. Taken together, these results demonstrate the expression of the novel SERCA2c isoform in the heart and may point to a still unrecognized role of PMCAs in cardiomyopathies. PMID:16402920

  19. Fuel densifier converts biomass into fuel cubes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A new cost-effective means to produce clean-burning and low cost commercial and industrial fuel is being introduced by Columbia Fuel Densification Corp., Phoenix. The Columbia Commercial Hydraulic Fuel Densifier converts raw biomass materials such as wood chips, paper, peat moss and rice hulls into densified fuel cubes. The densifier is mobile and its operation is briefly outlined.

  20. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  1. Fuel performance models for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.; Simon, W.A.; Baxter, A.M.

    1983-09-01

    Mechanistic fuel performance models are used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core design and licensing to predict failure and fission product release. Fuel particles manufactured with defective or missing SiC, IPyC, or fuel dispersion in the buffer fail at a level of less than 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction. These failed particles primarily release metallic fission products because the OPyC remains intact on 90% of the particles and retains gaseous isotopes. The predicted failure of particles using performance models appears to be conservative relative to operating reactor experience.

  2. Fail-safe visual-inertial navigation for UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ryan; Brockers, Roland; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a visual-inertial state estimation framework which is able to detect and mitigate failure modes to ensure best possible state estimation for platform control at all times. The main focus here is on the proposed sensor switching method which allows seamless switching between integration of pure inertial cues, the use of inertial-optical ow based velocity estimates, and the use of visual-inertial based position estimates for the control of an inherently unstable aerial vehicle. The switching mechanism automatically detects if a state estimator part is faulty and reduces the sensory input to the remaining, healthy, information streams. In addition, a re-initialization sequence is run for the faulty segment until the full system is recovered. With the additional capability of each segment for self-calibration, the system is both self-calibrating and self-healing. The full framework has been integrated on an embedded platform on-board a real 500g small aerial vehicle and run at 30Hz camera stream and 1kHz inertial readings for live demonstration.

  3. Implications of Fail-Forward in an Online Environment under Alternative Grading Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Smith, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of fail-forward can be used as a teaching technique to motivate students to learn from their mistakes. For example, when students are allowed to re-work incorrect responses on a test for a partial grade they are failing-forward. In this paper we look at the effects of failing-forward on student effort in online learning environments.…

  4. 7 CFR 1484.73 - Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance... contribution requirement is specified in the Cooperator program allocation letter. If a Cooperator fails...

  5. 7 CFR 1484.73 - Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS TO HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance... contribution requirement is specified in the Cooperator program allocation letter. If a Cooperator fails...

  6. Characterization plan for Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom graphite fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maarschman, S.C.; Berting, F.M.; Clemmer, R.G.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.; Morgan, W.C.; Sliva, P.

    1993-09-01

    Part of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) and most of the Peach Bottom (PB) reactor spent fuels are currently stored at INEL and may remain in storage for many years before disposal. Three disposal pathways have been proposed: intact disposal, fuels partially disassembled and the high-level waste fraction conditioned prior to disposal, and fuels completed disassembled and conditioned prior to disposal. Many options exist within each of these pathways. PNL evaluated the literature and other reference to develop a fuels characterization plan for these fuels. This plan provides guidance for the characteristics of the fuel which will be needed to pursue any of the storage or disposal pathways. It also provides a suggested fuels monitoring program for the current storage facilities. This report recommends a minimum of 7 fuel elements be characterized: PB Core 1 fuel: one Type II nonfailed element, one Type II failed element, and one Type III nonfailed element; PB Core 2 fuel: two Type II nonfailed fuel elements; and FSV fuel: at least two fuel blocks from regions of high temperature and fluence and long in-reactor performance (preferably at reactor end-of- life). Selection of PB fuel elements should focus on these between radial core position 8 and 14 and on compacts between compact numbers 10 and 20. Selection of FSV fuel elements should focus on these from Fuel Zones II and III, located in Core Layers 6, 7, and possibly 8.

  7. Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity are two important process variables widely used in operation of SOFC cells, stacks, and generators. To illustrate the technical values, the definitions of these two variables as well as practical examples are particularly given in this paper. It is explicitly shown that the oxygen-leakage has a substantial effect on the actual fuel utilization, fuel sensitivity and V-I characteristics. An underestimation of the leakage flux could potentially results in overly consuming fuel and oxidizing Ni-based anode. A fuel sensitivity model is also proposed to help extract the leakage flux information from a fuel sensitivity curve. Finally, the "bending-over" phenomenon observed in the low-current range of a V-I curve measured at constant fuel-utilization is quantitatively coupled with leakage flux.

  8. Dispensing fuel with aspiration of condensed vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Butkovich, M.S.; Strock, D.J.

    1993-08-10

    A vapor recovery process is described, comprising the steps of: fueling a motor vehicle with gasoline by discharging gasoline into a fill opening or filler pipe of a tank of said vehicle through a fuel outlet conduit of a nozzle; emitting gasoline vapors from said tank during said fueling; substantially collecting said vapors during said fueling with a vapor return conduit of said nozzle and passing said vapors through said vapor return conduit in counter current flow relationship to said discharging gasoline in said fuel conduit; conveying said vapors from said vapor return conduit to a vapor return hose; at least some of said vapors condensing to form condensate in said vapor return hose; substantially removing said condensate from said vapor return hose during said fueling with a condensate pickup tube from said nozzle by passing said condensate through said condensate pickup tube in counter current flow relationship to said conveying vapors in said vapor return hose; sensing the presence of gasoline with a liquid sensing tube in said vapor return conduit of said nozzle between inner and outer spouts of said nozzle to detect when said tank of said vehicle is filled with said fuel conduit being within the inner spout of said nozzle; and automatically shutting off said fueling and condensate removing when said liquid sensing tube detects when said tank of said vehicle is filled and fuel enters said vapor return conduit.

  9. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis fails to secrete bovine chymosine

    PubMed Central

    Luerce, Tessália Diniz; Azevedo, Marcela Santiago Pacheco; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Pontes, Daniela Santos

    2014-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an important milk-clotting agent used in the manufacturing of cheeses. Currently, the production of recombinant proteins by genetically modified organisms is widespread, leading to greatly reduced costs. Lactococcus (L.) lactis, the model lactic acid bacterium, was considered a good candidate for heterologous chymosin production for the following reasons: (1) it is considered to be a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) microorganism, (2) only one protease is present on its surface, (3) it can secrete proteins of different sizes, and (4) it allows for the direct production of protein in fermented food products. Thus, three genetically modified L. lactis strains were constructed to produce and target the three different forms of bovine chymosin, prochymosin B, chymosin A and chymosin B to the extracellular medium. Although all three proteins were stably produced in L. lactis, none of the forms were detected in the extracellular medium or showed clotting activity in milk. Our hypothesis is that this secretion deficiency and lack of clotting activity can be explained by the recombinant protein being attached to the cell envelope. Thus, the development of other strategies is necessary to achieve both production and targeting of chymosin in L. lactis, which could facilitate the downstream processing and recovery of this industrially important protein. PMID:25482140

  10. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  11. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  12. 146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751). LIQUID NITROGEN/HELIUM HEAT EXCHANGER ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Six Serum miRNAs Fail to Validate as Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Costa, Juan M.; Llamusi, Beatriz; Bargiela, Ariadna; Zulaica, Miren; Alvarez-Abril, M. Carmen; Perez-Alonso, Manuel; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by expansion of a CTG microsatellite in the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Despite characteristic muscular, cardiac, and neuropsychological symptoms, CTG trinucleotide repeats are unstable both in the somatic and germinal lines, making the age of onset, clinical presentation, and disease severity very variable. A molecular biomarker to stratify patients and to follow disease progression is, thus, an unmet medical need. Looking for a novel biomarker, and given that specific miRNAs have been found to be misregulated in DM1 heart and muscle tissues, we profiled the expression of 175 known serum miRNAs in DM1 samples. The differences detected between patients and controls were less than 2.6 fold for all of them and a selection of six candidate miRNAs, miR-103, miR-107, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-30c, and miR-652 all failed to show consistent differences in serum expression in subsequent validation experiments. PMID:26919350

  14. Six Serum miRNAs Fail to Validate as Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Costa, Juan M; Llamusi, Beatriz; Bargiela, Ariadna; Zulaica, Miren; Alvarez-Abril, M Carmen; Perez-Alonso, Manuel; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Lopez-Castel, Arturo; Artero, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by expansion of a CTG microsatellite in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Despite characteristic muscular, cardiac, and neuropsychological symptoms, CTG trinucleotide repeats are unstable both in the somatic and germinal lines, making the age of onset, clinical presentation, and disease severity very variable. A molecular biomarker to stratify patients and to follow disease progression is, thus, an unmet medical need. Looking for a novel biomarker, and given that specific miRNAs have been found to be misregulated in DM1 heart and muscle tissues, we profiled the expression of 175 known serum miRNAs in DM1 samples. The differences detected between patients and controls were less than 2.6 fold for all of them and a selection of six candidate miRNAs, miR-103, miR-107, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-30c, and miR-652 all failed to show consistent differences in serum expression in subsequent validation experiments. PMID:26919350

  15. Apoptosis of Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae), which failed to migrate within its natural host.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-June; Huang, Ching-Gi; Fan-Chiang, Mei-Huei; Liu, Yu-Han; Lee, Yi-Feng

    2013-01-15

    Sexual reproduction of Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae), a parasite specific to the mosquito Aedes albopictus, in Malpighian tubules is initiated by the entry of the trophotozoites developed in the midgut shortly after pupation (usually <5 h). However, only a low proportion of trophozoites are able to migrate; others end up dying. In this study, we demonstrated that those trophozoites that failed to migrate eventually died of apoptosis. Morphological changes such as shrinkage, chromatin aggregations and formation of blunt ridges on the surface were seen in moribund trophozoites. In addition, DNA fragmentation of trophozoites isolated from the midgut of pupae was demonstrated by the presence of DNA ladders, Annexin V staining and TUNEL assays. Detection of caspase-like activity suggests that apoptosis of those trophozoites may have occurred through a mechanism of an intrinsic or mitochondrial-mediated pathway. Although apoptosis has been observed in various protozoan species, it is not clear how apoptosis in single-celled organisms might result from evolution by natural selection. However, we speculate that apoptosis may regulate the parasite load of A. taiwanensis within its natural mosquito host, leading to an optimized state of the survival rate for both parasite and host.

  16. Failing Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula and Percutaneous Treatment: Imaging with CT, MRI and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagna, Enrico; D'Andrea, Paolo; Schiavon, Francesco; Tarroni, Giovanni

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas with helical CT angiography (CTA), MR angiography (MRA), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and to compare the efficacy of the three techniques in detecting the number, location, grade, and extent of stenoses and in assessing the technical results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting.Methods: Thirteen patients with Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula malfunction underwent MRA and CTA of the fistula and, within 1 week, DSA. A total of 11 PTAs were performed; in three cases an MR-compatible stent was placed. DSA served as the gold standard for comparison in all patients. The presence, site, and number of stenoses or occlusions and the technical results of percutaneous procedures were assessed with DSA, CTA, and MRA.Results: MRA underestimated a single stenosis in one patient; CTA and MRA did not overestimate any stenosis. Significant artifacts related to stent geometry and/or underlying metal were seen in MRA sequences in two cases.Conclusions: CT and MRI can provide information regarding the degree of vascular impairment, helping to stratify patients into those who can have PTA (single or multiple stenoses) versus those who require an operative procedure (occlusion). Conventional angiography can be reserved for candidates for percutaneous intervention.

  17. B-cell development fails in the absence of the Pbx1 proto-oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Mrinmoy; Tung, James W.; Karsunky, Holger; Zeng, Hong; Selleri, Licia; Weissman, Irving L.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.

    2007-01-01

    Pbx1, a homeodomain transcription factor that was originally identified as the product of a proto-oncogene in acute pre-B–cell leukemia, is a global regulator of embryonic development. However, embryonic lethality in its absence has prevented an assessment of its role in B-cell development. Here, using Rag1-deficient blastocyst complementation assays, we demonstrate that Pbx1 null embryonic stem (ES) cells fail to generate common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) resulting in a complete lack of B and NK cells, and a partial impairment of T-cell development in chimeric mice. A critical role for Pbx1 was confirmed by rescue of B-cell development from CLPs following restoration of its expression in Pbx1-deficient ES cells. In adoptive transfer experiments, B-cell development from Pbx1-deficient fetal liver cells was also severely compromised, but not erased, since transient B lymphopoiesis was detected in Rag-deficient recipients. Conditional inactivation of Pbx1 in pro-B (CD19+) cells and thereafter revealed that Pbx1 is not necessary for B-cell development to proceed from the pro-B–cell stage. Thus, Pbx1 critically functions at a stage between hematopoietic stem cell development and B-cell commitment and, therefore, is one of the earliest-acting transcription factors that regulate de novo B-lineage lymphopoiesis. PMID:17244677

  18. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  19. 24 CFR 17.93 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.93 Section 17.93 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Salary Offset § 17.93 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee waives the right to...

  20. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  1. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  2. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  3. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  4. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  5. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  6. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  7. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  8. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset,...

  9. 24 CFR 17.93 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.93 Section 17.93 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... Salary Offset § 17.93 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee waives the right to...

  10. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and...

  11. 24 CFR 17.130 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 17.130 Section 17.130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.130 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee...

  12. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines....

  13. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  14. 75 FR 81457 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges... Register on Wednesday, December 8, 2010 (75 FR 76262)providing guidance about the treatment of fails... by revising the paragraph (f) to read as follows: Sec. 1.863-10T Source of income from a...

  15. When Success Makes Me Fail: (De)constructing Failure and Success in a Conventional American Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the case of Laura, a 9-year-old Mexican immigrant who officially "failed to learn English" in an American school. It may be more accurate to say that schooling failed Laura, and in ways that went beyond language learning. This diagnosis of failure is criticized, along with the individualistic and essentialist assumptions…

  16. Recall Performance of Children Failing Memory Portions of a Speech--Language--Memory Screening Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Emily A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recall performance of 22 first-grade and third-grade children who failed memory portions of a speech-language-memory screen was examined using digit and consonant-vowel (CV) stimulus sets. Data indicate children failing the screening battery differed quantitatively, rather than qualitatively, from children passing the screening batter. (Author)

  17. Ineffective Staff, Ineffective Supervision, or Ineffective Administration? Why Some Nursing Homes Fail to Provide Adequate Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, John E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study involved 530 nursing staff working in 25 for-profit and nonprofit nursing homes, 2 of which failed to meet residential care standards. Nursing home climate in failed homes was perceived as being significantly lower in human relations and higher in laissez-faire and status orientation dimensions that the climate in the successful homes.…

  18. Fail-Safe Entrepreneurship: Six Reasons You Shouldn't Start a Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, James R.

    Given the statistic that 97 percent of all new businesses fail, it is unwise to enter into a new small business venture. Many aspiring entrepreneurs lack the characteristics and background they need to survive and instead display several common characteristics which predispose them to failure, such as being non-aggressive and casual, failing to…

  19. More than 100 Colleges Fail Education Department's Test of Financial Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    A newly compiled analysis by the U.S. Department of Education and obtained by "The Chronicle" shows that 114 private nonprofit degree-granting colleges were in such fragile financial condition at the end of their last fiscal year that they failed the department's financial-responsibility test. Colleges that fail the test are subject to extra…

  20. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  1. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle which is in... motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise emission standard in §...

  2. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  3. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  4. 40 CFR 205.171-8 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-8 Passing or failing under SEA. (a) A failing exhaust system is one which, when installed on any motorcycle..., together with such motorcycle produces a measured noise level in excess of the applicable noise...

  5. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-Service Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danyluk, Patricia J.; Luhanga, Florence; Gwekwerere, Yovita N.; MacEwan, Leigh; Larocque, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher…

  6. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  7. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the continuous... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  8. The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

  9. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  10. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  11. 26 CFR 1.863-10 - Source of income from a qualified fails charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Source of income from a qualified fails charge. 1.863-10 Section 1.863-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... December 30, 1996 § 1.863-10 Source of income from a qualified fails charge. (a) In general. Except...

  12. Carburetor fuel discharge assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, R.M.

    1993-06-29

    An improved carburetor for use on an internal combustion engine is described, the carburetor having an airflow passage and fuel discharge means for admitting fuel into the airflow passage for mixing the fuel with air flowing in the airflow passage to form a fuel/air mixture to be supplied to the combustion chamber(s) of the engine, the fuel discharge means including a fuel discharge assembly which comprises a hollow discharge tube and fuel supplying means connected to the discharge tube for admitting fuel into the interior of the discharge tube, wherein the discharge tube has a longitudinal internal bore in fluid communication with the fuel supplying means, wherein the internal bore extends between an inlet that is closest to the fuel supplying means and an outlet that is furthest from the fuel supplying means with the outlet of the bore being located within the airflow passage of the carburetor to supply fuel into this passage after the fuel passes from the fuel supplying means through the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the improvement relates to the fuel discharge assembly and comprises: a hollow fuel flow guide tube telescopically received inside the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the fuel flow guide tube extends from approximately the location of the inlet of the bore up at least a portion of the length of the bore towards the outlet of the bore to conduct fuel from the fuel supplying means into the bore of the discharge tube.

  13. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  14. Aerial Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Quam

    1999-09-30

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance.

  15. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  16. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  17. Effect of hydrocarbon fuel type on fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. L.; Bittker, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A modified jet fuel thermal oxidation tester (JFTOT) procedure was used to evaluate deposit and sediment formation for four pure hydrocarbon fuels over the temperature range 150 to 450 C in 316-stainless-steel heater tubes. Fuel types were a normal alkane, an alkene, a naphthene, and an aromatic. Each fuel exhibited certain distinctive deposit and sediment formation characteristics. The effect of aluminum and 316-stainless-steel heater tube surfaces on deposit formation for the fuel n-decane over the same temperature range was investigated. Results showed that an aluminum surface had lower deposit formation rates at all temperatures investigated. By using a modified JFTOT procedure the thermal stability of four pure hydrocarbon fuels and two practical fuels (Jet A and home heating oil no. 2) was rated on the basis of their breakpoint temperatures. Results indicate that this method could be used to rate thermal stability for a series of fuels.

  18. Fuel economy of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Kumar, R.

    On the basis of on-road energy consumption, fuel economy (FE) of hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles is projected to be 2.5-2.7 times the fuel economy of the conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) on the same platforms. Even with a less efficient but higher power density 0.6 V per cell than the base case 0.7 V per cell at the rated power point, the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are projected to offer essentially the same fuel economy multiplier. The key to obtaining high fuel economy as measured on standardized urban and highway drive schedules lies in maintaining high efficiency of the fuel cell (FC) system at low loads. To achieve this, besides a high performance fuel cell stack, low parasitic losses in the air management system (i.e., turndown and part load efficiencies of the compressor-expander module) are critical.

  19. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  20. Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levi T. Thompson

    2008-08-08

    Fuel cells are being developed to power cleaner, more fuel efficient automobiles. The fuel cell technology favored by many automobile manufacturers is PEM fuel cells operating with H2 from liquid fuels like gasoline and diesel. A key challenge to the commercialization of PEM fuel cell based powertrains is the lack of sufficiently small and inexpensive fuel processors. Improving the performance and cost of the fuel processor will require the development of better performing catalysts, new reactor designs and better integration of the various fuel processing components. These components and systems could also find use in natural gas fuel processing for stationary, distributed generation applications. Prototype fuel processors were produced, and evaluated against the Department of Energy technical targets. Significant advances were made by integrating low-cost microreactor systems, high activity catalysts, π-complexation adsorbents, and high efficiency microcombustor/microvaporizers developed at the University of Michigan. The microreactor system allowed (1) more efficient thermal coupling of the fuel processor operations thereby minimizing heat exchanger requirements, (2) improved catalyst performance due to optimal reactor temperature profiles and increased heat and mass transport rates, and (3) better cold-start and transient responses.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  2. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  3. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOEpatents

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  4. Characterization of Diffuse Fibrosis in the Failing Human Heart via Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Quantitative Histological Validation

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Osama M.; Drakos, Stavros G.; Diakos, Nikolaos A.; Wever-Pinzon, Omar; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Stehlik, Josef; Selzman, Craig H.; Reid, Bruce B.; Brunisholz, Kim; Verma, Divya Ratan; Myrick, Craig; Sachse, Frank B.; Li, Dean Y.; Hsu, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques are highly desirable as an alternative to conventional biopsy for characterizing remodeling of tissues associated with disease progression, including end-stage heart failure. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an established method for characterizing myocardial microstructure. However, the relationships between diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is a key biomarker for staging and treatment planning of the failing heart, and measured DTI parameters have yet to be systematically investigated. In this study, DTI was performed on left ventricular specimens collected from patients with chronic end-stage heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n=14) and from normal donors (n=5). Scalar DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), primary (D1), secondary (D2), and tertiary (D3) diffusivities, were correlated to collagen content measured by digital microscopy. Compared to hearts from normal subjects, the FA in failing hearts decreased by 22%, whereas the MD, D2 and D3 increased by 12%, 14%, and 24% respectively (P < 0.01). No significant change was detected for D1 between the two groups. Furthermore, significant correlation was observed between the DTI scalar indices and quantitative histological measurements of collagen (i.e., fibrosis). Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between collagen content and either FA, MD, D2, and D3 was -0.51, 0.59, 0.56 and 0.62 (P < 0.05), respectively. The correlation between D1 and collagen content was not significant (r = 0.46, P = 0.05). Computational modeling analysis indicated that the behaviors of the DTI parameters as a function of the degree of fibrosis were well explained by compartmental exchange between myocardial and collagenous tissues. Combined, these findings suggest that scalar DTI parameters can be used as metrics for noninvasive assessment of diffuse fibrosis in failing hearts. PMID:25200106

  5. Stress and Diffusion in Stored Pu ZPPR Fuel from Alpha Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad L. Pope; Jason P. Andrus

    2014-07-01

    ZPPR (Zero Power Physics Reactor) is a research reactor that has been used to investigate breeder reactor fuel designs. The reactor has been dismantled but its fuel is still stored there. Of concern are its plutonium containing metal fuel elements which are enclosed in stainless steel cladding with gas space filled with helium–argon gas and welded air tight. The fuel elements which are 5.08 cm by 0.508 cm up to 20.32 cm long (2 in × 0.2 in × 8 in) were manufactured in 1968. A few of these fuel elements have failed releasing contamination raising concern about the general state of the large number of other fuel elements. Inspection of the large number of fuel elements could lead to contamination release so analytical studies have been conducted to estimate the probability of failed fuel elements. This paper investigates the possible fuel failures due to generation of helium in the metal fuel from the decay of Pu and its possible damage to the fuel cladding from metal fuel expansion or from diffusion of helium into the fuel gas space. This paper (1) calculates the initial gas loading in a fuel element and its internal free volume after it has been brought into the atmosphere at ZPPR, (2) shows that the amount of helium generated by decay of Pu over 46 years since manufacture is significantly greater than this initial loading, (3) determines the amount of fuel swelling if the helium stays fixed in the fuel plate and estimates the amount of helium which diffuses out of the fuel plate into the fuel plenum assuming the helium does not remain fixed in the fuel plate but can diffuse to the plenum and possibly through the cladding. Since the literature is not clear as to which possibility occurs, as with Schroedinger’s cat, both possibilities are analyzed. The paper concludes that (1) if the gas generated is fixed in the fuel, then the fuel swelling it can cause would not cause any fuel failure and (2) if the helium does diffuse out of the fuel (in accordance

  6. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  7. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  8. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-6 Passing or... noise emission standard in § 205.152. (b) The number of failing vehicles in a sample determines...

  9. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  10. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  11. 7 CFR 1486.507 - What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS EMERGING MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.507 What is the effect of failing to make required contributions?...

  12. 40 CFR 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../equipment you test. An acceptable quality level of 40 percent is the basis for the pass or fail decision. (d... your testing and our testing. We will reinstate your data as valid if you show us that we made an...

  13. 40 CFR 1068.420 - How do I know when my engine family fails an SEA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../equipment you test. An acceptable quality level of 40 percent is the basis for the pass or fail decision. (d... your testing and our testing. We will reinstate your data as valid if you show us that we made an...

  14. Bulk Fuel Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by bulk fuel workers. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: bulk fuel equipment, bulk fuel systems, procedures for handling fuels, and…

  15. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  16. Solid fuel oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutter, P.R.; Veal, C.J.

    1984-11-27

    Fuel composition comprises 15 to 60% be weight, preferably 40 to 55%, of a friable solid fuel, e.g. coal, a stabilizing additive composition and a fuel oil. The additive comprises the combination of a polymer containing functional groups, e.g., maleinized polybutadiene, and a surfactant. The composition is suitable for use as a liquid fuel for industrial burners.

  17. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  18. Activation of calcineurin in human failing heart ventricle by endothelin-1, angiotensin II and urotensin II.

    PubMed

    Li, Joan; Wang, Jianchun; Russell, Fraser D; Molenaar, Peter

    2005-06-01

    1 The calcineurin (CaN) enzyme-transcriptional pathway is critically involved in hypertrophy of heart muscle in some animal models. Currently there is no information concerning the regulation of CaN activation by endogenous agonists in human heart. 2 Human right ventricular trabeculae from explanted human (14 male/2 female) failing hearts were set up in a tissue bath and electrically paced at 1 Hz and incubated with or without 100 nM endothelin-1 (ET-1), 10 M, angiotensin-II (Ang II) or 20 nM human urotensin-II (hUII) for 30 min. Tissues from four patients were incubated with 200 nM tacrolimus (FK506) for 30 min and then incubated in the presence or absence of ET-1 for a further 30 min. 3 ET-1 increased contractile force in all 13 patients (P<0.001). Ang II and hUII increased contractile force in three out of eight and four out of 10 patients but overall nonsignificantly (P>0.1). FK506 had no effect on contractile force (P=0.12). 4 ET-1, Ang II and hUII increased calcineurin activity by 32, 71 and 15%, respectively, while FK506 reduced activity by 34%. ET-1 in the presence of FK506 did not restore calcineurin activity (P=0.1). 5 There was no relationship between basal CaN activity and expression levels in the right ventricle. Increased levels of free phosphate were detected in ventricular homogenates that were incubated with PKC(epsilon) compared to samples incubated without PKC(epsilon). 6 Endogenous cardiostimulants which activate G(alpha)q-coupled receptors increase the activity of calcineurin in human heart following acute (30 min) exposure. PKC may contribute to this effect by increasing levels of phosphorylated calcineurin substrate.

  19. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock.

  20. Preschool children fail primate prosocial game because of attentional task demands.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith Maria; Rueth, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Various nonhuman primate species have been tested with prosocial games (i.e. derivates from dictator games) in order to better understand the evolutionary origin of proactive prosociality in humans. Results of these efforts are mixed, and it is difficult to disentangle true species differences from methodological artifacts. We tested 2- to 5-year-old children with a costly and a cost-free version of a prosocial game that differ with regard to the payoff distribution and are widely used with nonhuman primates. Simultaneously, we assessed the subjects' level of Theory of Mind understanding. Prosocial behavior was demonstrated with the prosocial game, and did not increase with more advanced Theory of Mind understanding. However, prosocial behavior could only be detected with the costly version of the game, whereas the children failed the cost-free version that is most commonly used with nonhuman primates. A detailed comparison of the children's behavior in the two versions of the game indicates that the failure was due to higher attentional demands of the cost-free version, rather than to a lack of prosociality per se. Our results thus show (i) that subtle differences in prosociality tasks can substantially bias the outcome and thus prevent meaningful species comparisons, and (ii) that like in nonhuman primates, prosocial behavior in human children does not require advanced Theory of Mind understanding in the present context. However, both developmental and comparative psychology accumulate increasing evidence for the multidimensionality of prosocial behaviors, suggesting that different forms of prosociality are also regulated differentially. For future efforts to understand the evolutionary origin of prosociality it is thus crucial to take this heterogeneity into account. PMID:23844201

  1. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  2. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Melissa L.; van Vonderen, Jeroen J.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first 48 hours after birth. Methods Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7) weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4) weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT) of expiratory holds (EHs), peak inspiratory flows, CPAP-level and FiO2-levels were analysed. Results EH incidence increased <6 minutes after birth and remained stable thereafter. EH peak inspiratory flows and VT were similar between CPAP-fail and CPAP-success infants. At 9-12 minutes, CPAP-fail infants more frequently used smaller VTs, 0-9 ml/kg and required higher peak inspiratory flows. However, CPAP-success infants often used large VTs (>9 ml/kg) with higher peak inspiratory flows than CPAP-fail infants (71.8 ± 15.8 vs. 15.5 ± 5.2 ml/kg.s, p <0.05). CPAP-fail infants required higher FiO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01), higher CPAP pressures (6.62 ± 0.3 vs. 5.67 ± 0.26 cmH2O) and more positive pressure-delivered breaths (45 ± 12 vs. 19 ± 9%) (p <0.05) Conclusion At 9-12 minutes after birth, CPAP-fail infants more commonly used lower VTs and required higher peak inspiratory flow rates while receiving greater respiratory support. VT was less variable and larger VT was infrequently used reflecting early signs of fatigue. PMID:26052947

  3. Electrophysiology of Heart Failure Using a Rabbit Model: From the Failing Myocyte to Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Aditya V S; Perotti, Luigi E; Liu, Michael; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N; Ennis, Daniel B; Klug, William S; Garfinkel, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling. At the tissue level, we modeled the increased gap junction lateralization and lower conduction velocity due to downregulation of Connexin 43. At the biventricular level, we reduced the apex-to-base and transmural gradients of action potential duration (APD). The failing cell model was first validated by reproducing the longer action potential, slower and lower calcium transient, and earlier alternans characteristic of heart failure EP. Subsequently, we compared the electrical wave propagation in one dimensional cables of healthy and failing cells. The validated cell model was then used to simulate the EP of heart failure in an anatomically accurate biventricular rabbit model. As pacing cycle length decreases, both the normal and failing heart develop T-wave alternans, but only the failing heart shows QRS alternans (although moderate) at rapid pacing. Moreover, T-wave alternans is significantly more pronounced in the failing heart. At rapid pacing, APD maps show areas of conduction block in the failing heart. Finally, accelerated pacing initiated wave reentry and breakup in the failing heart. Further, the onset of VF was not observed with an upregulation of SERCA, a potential drug therapy, using the same protocol. The changes introduced at the cell and tissue level have increased the failing heart's susceptibility to dynamic instabilities and arrhythmias under rapid pacing. However, the observed increase in arrhythmogenic potential is

  4. Electrophysiology of Heart Failure Using a Rabbit Model: From the Failing Myocyte to Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michael; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Klug, William S.; Garfinkel, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death, yet its underlying electrophysiological (EP) mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we use a multiscale approach to analyze a model of heart failure and connect its results to features of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The heart failure model is derived by modifying a previously validated electrophysiology model for a healthy rabbit heart. Specifically, in accordance with the heart failure literature, we modified the cell EP by changing both membrane currents and calcium handling. At the tissue level, we modeled the increased gap junction lateralization and lower conduction velocity due to downregulation of Connexin 43. At the biventricular level, we reduced the apex-to-base and transmural gradients of action potential duration (APD). The failing cell model was first validated by reproducing the longer action potential, slower and lower calcium transient, and earlier alternans characteristic of heart failure EP. Subsequently, we compared the electrical wave propagation in one dimensional cables of healthy and failing cells. The validated cell model was then used to simulate the EP of heart failure in an anatomically accurate biventricular rabbit model. As pacing cycle length decreases, both the normal and failing heart develop T-wave alternans, but only the failing heart shows QRS alternans (although moderate) at rapid pacing. Moreover, T-wave alternans is significantly more pronounced in the failing heart. At rapid pacing, APD maps show areas of conduction block in the failing heart. Finally, accelerated pacing initiated wave reentry and breakup in the failing heart. Further, the onset of VF was not observed with an upregulation of SERCA, a potential drug therapy, using the same protocol. The changes introduced at the cell and tissue level have increased the failing heart’s susceptibility to dynamic instabilities and arrhythmias under rapid pacing. However, the observed increase in arrhythmogenic potential is

  5. Concentric layer ramjet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burdette, G.W.; Francis, J.P.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a solid fuel ramjet grain comprising concentric layers of solid ramjet fuel having a perforation therethrough along the center axis of the grain. The performation is connected to a combustion after-chamber. The solid ramjet fuel layers comprises a pure hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel or a mixture of a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene hydrocarbon fuel and from about 5 to about 60 percent by weight of an additive to increase the fuel regression rate selected from the group consisting of magnesium, boron carbide, aluminum, and zirconium such that, when buried in the operation of the ramjet, each fuel layer produces a different level of thrust.

  6. Tomorrow's engines and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Douaud, A. )

    1995-02-01

    The paper discusses global views and trends in vehicles and fuels. This includes important progress in Europe in vehicle fuel consumption; lower consumption being stimulated by CO[sub 2] emission limits; reduced vehicle emission; and new air quality strategy on ozone and toxic gas controls. The paper then discusses new engine and fuel technologies for low consumption and emissions. These include three-way catalyst engines; advanced after-treatments; clean and efficient fuels; reformulated gasoline in the US and Europe; diesel fuel reformulation; new fuels and dedicated engines for specialized markets; and gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG, biofuels, and hydrogen).

  7. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  8. Fuel transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-03-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool. 6 figures.

  9. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  10. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  11. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  12. Communication fail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  13. Failing Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Dexter Evans recalled being taught the basics of social studies in high school: the U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence and three branches of federal government. Although it was more than five years ago when he graduated high school, he says most of the social studies/civics lessons were taught in the classroom and with limited…

  14. Motor vehicle fuel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1997-08-05

    A gas detecting system is described for classifying the type of liquid fuel in a container or tank. The system includes a plurality of semiconductor gas sensors, each of which differs from the other in its response to various organic vapors. The system includes a means of processing the responses of the plurality of sensors such that the responses to any particular organic substance or mixture is sufficiently distinctive to constitute a recognizable ``signature``. The signature of known substances are collected and divided into two classes based on some other known characteristic of the substances. A pattern recognition system classifies the signature of an unknown substance with reference to the two user-defined classes, thereby classifying the unknown substance with regard to the characteristic of interest, such as its suitability for a particular use. 14 figs.

  15. Motor vehicle fuel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A gas detecting system for classifying the type of liquid fuel in a container or tank. The system includes a plurality of semiconductor gas sensors, each of which differs from the other in its response to various organic vapors. The system includes a means of processing the responses of the plurality of sensors such that the responses to any particular organic substance or mixture is sufficiently distinctive to constitute a recognizable "signature". The signature of known substances are collected and divided into two classes based on some other known characteristic of the substances. A pattern recognition system classifies the signature of an unknown substance with reference to the two user-defined classes, thereby classifying the unknown substance with regard to the characteristic of interest, such as its suitability for a particular use.

  16. Design of a new portable fork detector for research reactor spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are many situations in nonproliferation and international safeguards when one needs to verify spent research-reactor fuel. Special inspections, a reactor coming under safeguards for the first time, and failed surveillance are prime examples. Several years ago, Los Alamos developed the FORK detector for the IAEA and EURATOM. This detector, together with the GRAND electronics package, is used routinely by inspectors to verify light-water-reactor spent fuels. Both the FORK detector and the GRAND electronics technologies have been transferred and are now commercially available. Recent incidents in the world indicate that research-reactor fuel is potentially a greater concern for proliferation than light-water-reactor fuels. A device similar to the FORK/GRAND should be developed to verify research-reactor spent fuels because the signals from light-water-reactor spent fuel are quite different than those from research-reactor fuels.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOEpatents

    Riley, B.

    1988-04-22

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

  18. Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

  19. HIV-1-infected patients with advanced disease failing a raltegravir-containing salvage regimen in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Cavalcanti, Jaqueline; de Paula Ferreira, Joao Leandro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; de Souza Guimarães, Paula Morena; Moreira, Denise Helena; de Macedo Brigido, Luis Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Raltegravir (RAL) is the first licensed antiretroviral integrase inhibitor that may be used both for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients and for salvage therapy. The Brazilian public free access programme limits its use for salvage therapy, with scarce information regarding RAL resistance from patients failing a RAL-containing salvage regimen. This study evaluated RAL resistance mutations detected by population sequencing in 69 HIV-infected patients with advanced disease failing a RAL-containing regimen in a real-world setting. RAL resistance mutations were identified in 47/69 patients (68%). The most common salvage regimen, used by 56/69 patients (81%), included lamivudine, tenofovir, darunavir/ritonavir and RAL. At failure, major RAL resistance mutations included Q148H/R/K (21/47; 45%), N155H (14/47; 30%), Y143R/H/C (3/47; 6%) and E92Q (1/47; 2%). Most samples with Q148H/R/K also showed G140S/A/C (21/47; 45%). RAL resistance was significantly associated with less than two active drugs in the optimised background therapy regimen at failure [39/39 (100%) vs. 9/17 (53%); P<0.001] and with a longer cumulative duration with detectable viraemia (viral load >50 copies/mL) (86 weeks vs. 32 weeks; P=0.001). A high frequency of RAL mutations was observed in this study. In addition, these results reinforce the importance of close monitoring of RAL-containing regimens to reduce the time of failure and consequent resistance accumulation.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.