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Sample records for falciparum freshly isolates

  1. Low Anticoagulant Heparin Disrupts Plasmodium falciparum Rosettes in Fresh Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Anna M.; Blomqvist, Karin; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Samje, Moses; Nde, Peter; Titanji, Vincent; Wahlgren, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The binding of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes (rosetting) is associated with severe malaria. The glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate is an important receptor for rosetting. The related glycosaminoglycan heparin was previously used in treatment of severe malaria, although abandoned because of the occurrence of severe bleedings. Instead, low anticoagulant heparin (LAH) has been suggested for treatment. LAH has successfully been evaluated in safety studies and found to disrupt rosettes and cytoadherence in vitro and in vivo in animal models, but the effect of LAH on fresh parasite isolates has not been studied. Herein, we report that two different LAHs (DFX232 and Sevuparin) disrupt rosettes in the majority of fresh isolates from Cameroonian children with malaria. The rosette disruption effect was more pronounced in isolates from complicated cases than from mild cases. The data support LAH as adjunct therapy in severe malaria. PMID:21363975

  2. Indolone-N-oxide derivatives: in vitro activity against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, stage specificity and in vitro interactions with established antimalarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Rachida; Vivas, Livia; Basco, Leonardo; Thompson, Eloise; Ibrahim, Hany; Boyer, Jérémie; Nepveu, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Indolone-N-oxides are characterized by the presence of a highly reactive pharmacophore, the nitrone moiety (C=N(+)-O(-)), which undergoes oxidation-reduction reactions. The aims of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the in vitro activity of the parent compound, designated as compound 1, against 34 fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) compare the activity of compound 1 with that of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin to assess the potential for cross-resistance; (iii) investigate drug interactions of indolone-N-oxides with standard antimalarials; and (iv) determine the stage-dependent activity of indolone-N-oxides. In vitro antimalarial activity was evaluated against clinical isolates collected from Cameroonian patients by the [(3)H]hypoxanthine incorporation assay. In vitro interactions between compound 1 or another analogue, compound 4, and established antimalarial drugs were assessed by the fixed ratio method. Stage specificity was evaluated by light microscopy using highly synchronized P. falciparum cultures. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of compound 1 was 48.6 nM. Its activity did not differ between the chloroquine-susceptible and the chloroquine-resistant isolates. There was no correlation between chloroquine and compound 1 responses (r = 0.015; P > 0.05), but the in vitro responses of compound 1 and dihydroartemisinin were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.444; P < 0.05). No significant in vitro interaction was observed between indolone-N-oxide derivatives and established antimalarial drugs (artemisinin and its derivatives, chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine and mefloquine). Compound 1 and compound 4, as well as artesunate, inhibited parasite maturation at the ring stage. These findings suggest that other indolone-N-oxide derivatives with more potent activity than the parent compound may hold promise as antimalarials in the future.

  3. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  4. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria . We conducted blinded ex vivo activity...Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates... malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum refer- ence clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from

  5. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference...Southeast Asia. Keywords: Immediate ex vivo Plasmodium falciparum drug susceptibility testing, HRP-2 ELISA, Malaria SYBR green fluorescence assay, Cambodia... malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Malar J 2012, 11:325. 22. Le

  6. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXV. In vitro activity of fosmidomycin and its derivatives against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and sequence analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase.

    PubMed

    Tahar, Rachida; Basco, Leonardo K

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro activities of fosmidomycin derivatives, chloroquine, and pyrimethamine were assessed by the radioisotopic assay in clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. In a series of experiments with RPMI 1640 medium-10% fetal bovine serum, the geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) (n = 34) for fosmidomycin and FR900098 were 301 nM and 118 nM, respectively. In another series of experiments, the geometric mean IC(50)s (n = 33) for fosmidomycin and TH II46 were 413 nM and 249 nM, respectively. The IC(50)s were 2-3 times lower with RPMI-10% fetal bovine serum than the IC(50)s obtained with RPMI-10% human serum. FR900098 and TH II46 were 2.6 and 1.7 times more potent, respectively, than fosmidomycin. There was no correlation between chloroquine or pyrimethamine and fosmidomycin, which suggested the absence of in vitro cross-resistance. Sequence analysis showed five amino acid substitutions, but their possible relationship with the response to fosmidomycin is not clear. Fosmidomycin derivatives are promising candidates for further development.

  8. [In vitro cultivation of fields isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Mali].

    PubMed

    Djimde, A A; Kirkman, L; Kassambara, L; Diallo, M; Plowe, C V; Wellems, T E; Doumbo, O K

    2007-02-01

    Malaria immunology, molecular biology and pathogenicity studies often require the adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates to continuous in vitro cultivation. For this purpose we have established propagation protocols of asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum samples from malaria patients or asymptomatic carriers in Mali. The parasites were grown in standard culture medium supplemented by human serum and in a culture medium without human serum but supplemented by AlbuMax 1. The candle jar environment and tissue culture flasks gassed with 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 obtained from a portable gas mixer were used. Protocols for parasite cultivation in a resource-poor setting were developed. These protocols were successfully applied to fresh isolates in Mali as well as to blood samples frozen in liquid nitrogen and shipped to a laboratory in U.S.A.

  9. Characterization of the repertoire diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum stevor multigene family in laboratory and field isolates

    PubMed Central

    Blythe, Jane E; Niang, Makhtar; Marsh, Kevin; Holder, Anthony A; Langhorne, Jean; Preiser, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Background The evasion of host immune response by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been linked to expression of a range of variable antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface. Several genes are potentially involved in this process with the var, rif and stevor multigene families being the most likely candidates and coding for rapidly evolving proteins. The high sequence diversity of proteins encoded by these gene families may have evolved as an immune evasion strategy that enables the parasite to establish long lasting chronic infections. Previous findings have shown that the hypervariable region (HVR) of STEVOR has significant sequence diversity both within as well as across different P. falciparum lines. However, these studies did not address whether or not there are ancestral stevor that can be found in different parasites. Methods DNA and RNA sequences analysis as well as phylogenetic approaches were used to analyse the stevor sequence repertoire and diversity in laboratory lines and Kilifi (Kenya) fresh isolates. Results Conserved stevor genes were identified in different P. falciparum isolates from different global locations. Consistent with previous studies, the HVR of the stevor gene family was found to be highly divergent both within and between isolates. Importantly phylogenetic analysis shows some clustering of stevor sequences both within a single parasite clone as well as across different parasite isolates. Conclusion This indicates that the ancestral P. falciparum parasite genome already contained multiple stevor genes that have subsequently diversified further within the different P. falciparum populations. It also confirms that STEVOR is under strong selection pressure. PMID:19558642

  10. Stage specificity of pasak bumi root (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) isolate on Plasmodium falciparum cycles.

    PubMed

    Sholikhah, E N; Wijayanti, M A; Nurani, L H; Mustofa

    2008-07-01

    In previous study, in vitro antiplasmodial activity fractions isolated from methanol extract of E. longifolia, Jack. have been evaluated. Among 5 isolates evaluated from the study, isolate 4 showed high in vitro antiplasmodial activity. However, which stage specificity of the isolates on P. falciparum cycles has not been evaluated. This study was intended to evaluate the stage specificity of the isolate on P. falciparum cycles. The study was conducted by observing the percentage of each stages of P. falciparum microscopically after 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, and 72 hours incubation periods with 3 various concentration of isolate 4 compared with control. The result showed that isolate 4 of E. longifolia root methanol soluble fractions most potent at trophozoites stages of P. falciparum.

  11. Short report: polymorphisms in the chloroquine resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Yoshinaga, Kazumi; Suryanatha, Aan; Suarsana, Nyoman; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2004-07-01

    The polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) genes, which are associated with chloroquine resistance, were examined in 48 P. falciparum isolates from uncomplicated malaria patients from the West Lombok District in Indonesia. The point mutation N86Y in pfmdr1 was present in 35.4% of the isolates and mutation K76T in pfcrt was found in all but one of the samples studied. Identified pfcrt haplotypes were mainly identical to the Papua New Guinea type S(agt)VMNT (42 of 48, 87.5%), and a few isolates had the Southeast Asia type CVIET (5 of 48, 10.4%). Moreover, one P. falciparum isolate harbored the K76N mutation, giving rise to the haplotype CVMNN, which was not previously reported in field isolates. Our findings suggest that chloroquine resistance in this area might have the same origin as in Papua New Guinea.

  12. Mutation in pfmdr1 gene in chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates, Southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Jalousian, Fatemeh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Soleymanloo, Faramarz; Naghizadeh, Ramin

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to detect point mutations at positions 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) in blood samples collected from malaria patients in Chabahar, a harbor city located in Southeast Iran. Twenty-six blood samples from patients infected with P. falciparum, who had a chloroquine (CQ) response failure, were collected pre-treatment. Following treatment with CQ, drug susceptibility was assessed using an in vivo test. Molecular detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was carried out using the LightCycler hybridization probe assay. The pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was found in six isolates (23.1%). Mutations at the four other positions were not observed in any isolates. The present study showed no mutation at codon positions 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of pfmdr1 in any of the Iranian P. falciparum isolates; thus these alleles cannot serve as markers for CQ resistance in Iran.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates use complement receptor 1 (CR1) as a receptor for invasion of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awandare, Gordon A; Spadafora, Carmenza; Moch, J Kathleen; Dutta, Sheetij; Haynes, J David; Stoute, José A

    2011-05-01

    A majority of Plasmodium falciparum strains invade erythrocytes through interactions with sialic acid (SA) on glycophorins. However, we recently reported that complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a SA-independent invasion receptor of many laboratory strains of P. falciparum. To determine the role of CR1 in erythrocyte invasion among P. falciparum field isolates, we tested eight isolates obtained from children in Kenya. All the parasites examined were capable of invading in a SA-independent manner, and invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes was nearly completely blocked by anti-CR1 and soluble CR1 (sCR1). In addition, anti-CR1 and sCR1 partially inhibited invasion of intact erythrocytes in a majority of isolates tested. Sequencing of the hypervariable region of P. falciparum AMA-1 showed considerable diversity among all the isolates. These data demonstrate that CR1 mediates SA-independent erythrocyte invasion in P. falciparum field isolates.

  14. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Jongsakul, Krisada; Gawee, Jariyanart; Sok, Somethy; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Thamnurak, Chatchadaporn; Chann, Soklyda; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Praditpol, Chantida; Buathong, Nillawan; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Smith, Philip; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Huy, Rekol; Prom, Satharath; Fukuda, Mark M; Bethell, Delia; Walsh, Douglas S; Lanteri, Charlotte; Saunders, David

    2016-10-21

    The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV) histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2) assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai-Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA), though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in this region, and urgently requires alternative therapy. The temporary re

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Mating Patterns and Mosquito Infectivity of Natural Isolates of Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morlais, Isabelle; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Toussile, Wilson; Abate, Luc; Annan, Zeinab; Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Fontenille, Didier; Rousset, François; Berry, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infections in malaria endemic areas often harbor multiple clones of parasites. However, the transmission success of the different genotypes within the mosquito vector has remained elusive so far. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites was measured by using microsatellite markers in gametocyte isolates from 125 asymptomatic carriers. For a subset of 49 carriers, the dynamics of co-infecting genotypes was followed until their development within salivary glands. Also, individual oocysts from midguts infected with blood from 9 donors were genotyped to assess mating patterns. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) was high both in gametocyte isolates and sporozoite populations, reaching up to 10 genotypes. Gametocyte isolates with multiple genotypes gave rise to lower infection prevalence and intensity. Fluctuations of genotype number occurred during the development within the mosquito and sub-patent genotypes, not detected in gametocyte isolates, were identified in the vector salivary glands. The inbreeding coefficient Fis was positively correlated to the oocyst loads, suggesting that P. falciparum parasites use different reproductive strategies according to the genotypes present in the gametocyte isolate. The number of parasite clones within an infection affects the transmission success and the mosquito has an important role in maintaining P. falciparum genetic diversity. Our results emphasize the crucial importance of discriminating between the different genotypes within an infection when studying the A. gambiae natural resistance to P. falciparum, and the need to monitor parasite diversity in areas where malaria control interventions are implemented. PMID:25875840

  16. MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF Plasmodium vivax AND Plasmodium falciparum DHFR MUTATIONS IN ISOLATES FROM SOUTHERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI-SARASIABI, Khojasteh; HAGHIGHI, Ali; KAZEMI, Bahram; TAGHIPOUR, Niloofar; MOJARAD, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; GACHKAR, Latif

    2016-01-01

    In Iran, both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria have been detected, but P. vivax is the predominant species. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in both Plasmodia are the major mechanisms of pyrimethamine resistance. From April 2007 to June 2009, a total of 134 blood samples in two endemic areas of southern Iran were collected from patients infected with P. vivax and P. falciparum. The isolates were analyzed for P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) point mutations using various PCR-based methods. The majority of the isolates (72.9%) had wild type amino acids at five codons of pvdhfr. Amongst mutant isolates, the most common pvdhfr alleles were double mutant in 58 and 117 amino acids (58R-117N). Triple mutation in 57, 58, and 117 amino acids (57L/58R/117N) was identified for the first time in the pvdhfr gene of Iranian P. vivax isolates. All the P. falciparumsamples analyzed (n = 16) possessed a double mutant pfdhfrallele (59R/108N) and retained a wild-type mutation at position 51. This may be attributed to the fact that the falciparum malaria patients were treated using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. The presence of mutant haplotypes in P. vivax is worrying, but has not yet reached an alarming threshold regarding drugs such as SP. The results of this study reinforce the importance of performing a molecular surveillance by means of a continuous chemoresistance assessment. PMID:27007559

  17. K13-Propeller Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Patients in Mayotte in 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Torrentino-Madamet, Marylin; Collet, Louis; Lepère, Jean François; Benoit, Nicolas; Amalvict, Rémy; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from 29 malaria patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine in Mayotte in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-four cases (83%) consisted of imported malaria. Seventeen percent of the isolates presented mutations in one of the six K13-propeller blades (N490H, F495L, N554H/K, and E596G). A total of 23.8% of the isolates from the Union of Comoros showed K13-propeller polymorphisms. Three of the 18 isolates (16.7%) from Grande Comore showed polymorphisms (N490H, N554K, and E596G). PMID:26416865

  18. Molecular surveillance of drug resistance through imported isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, Tomas; Peyerl-Hoffmann, Gabriele; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Wichmann, Ole; Wilhelm, Michael; Schmider, Nadja; Grobusch, Martin P; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Gascon, Joaquim; Laferl, Hermann; Hatz, Christoph; Alifrangis, Michael; Burchard, Gerd; McWhinney, Paul; Schulze, Marco; Kollaritsch, Herwig; da Cunha, Saraiva; Beřan, Jiři; Kern, Peter; Gjørup, Ida; Cuadros, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Background Results from numerous studies point convincingly to correlations between mutations at selected genes and phenotypic resistance to antimalarials in Plasmodium falciparum isolates. In order to move molecular assays for point mutations on resistance-related genes into the realm of applied tools for surveillance, we investigated a selection of P. falciparum isolates that were imported during the year 2001 into Europe to study the prevalence of resistance-associated point mutations at relevant codons. In particular, we tested for parasites which were developing resistance to antifolates and chloroquine. The screening results were used to map the prevalence of mutations and, thus, levels of potential drug resistance in endemic areas world-wide. Results 337 isolates have been tested so far. Prevalence of mutations that are associated with resistance to chloroquine on the pfcrt and pfmdr genes of P. falciparum was demonstrated at high levels. However, the prevalence of mutations associated with resistance to antifolates at the DHFR and DHPS genes was unexpectedly low, rarely exceeding 60% in endemic areas. Conclusions Constant screening of imported isolates will enable TropNetEurop to establish a screening tool for emerging resistance in endemic areas. PMID:12423552

  19. Baseline in vitro efficacy of ACT component drugs on Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Mali.

    PubMed

    Kaddouri, Halima; Djimdé, Abdoulaye; Dama, Souleymane; Kodio, Aly; Tekete, Mamadou; Hubert, Véronique; Koné, Aminatou; Maiga, Hamma; Yattara, Oumar; Fofana, Bakary; Sidibe, Bakary; Sangaré, Cheick P O; Doumbo, Ogobara; Le Bras, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    In vitro susceptibility to antimalarial drugs of Malian Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected between 2004 and 2006 was studied. Susceptibility to chloroquine and to three artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) component drugs was assessed as a first, to our knowledge, in vitro susceptibility study in Mali. Overall 96 Malian isolates (51 from around Bamako and 45 collected from French travellers returning from Mali) were cultivated in a CO(2) incubator. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) were measured by either hypoxanthine incorporation or Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISA. Although the two sets of data were generated with different methods, the global IC(50) distributions showed parallel trends. A good concordance of resistance phenotype with pfcrt 76T mutant genotype was found within the sets of clinical isolates tested. We confirm a high prevalence of P. falciparum in vitro resistance to chloroquine in Mali (60-69%). While some isolates showed IC(50)s close to the cut-off for resistance to monodesethylamodiaquine, no decreased susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin or lumefantrine was detected. This study provides baseline data for P. falciparum in vitro susceptibility to ACT component drugs in Mali.

  20. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    SciTech Connect

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W.; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. {yields} This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. {yields} We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  1. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration in freshly isolated sheep lungs.

    PubMed

    Wong, William D; Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2017-02-01

    Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect. Neural reflex initiated by stretch receptors in the lung are known to inhibit the broncho-motor tone and enhance vasodilatation; the former directly reduces airway resistance, and the latter facilitates removal of contractile agonists through the bronchial circulation. If the DI effect is solely mediated by factors extrinsic to the lung, the DI effect would be absent in isolated, nonperfused lungs. Here we examined the DI effect in freshly isolated, nonperfused sheep lungs. We found that imposition of DI on isolated lungs resulted in significant bronchodilation, that this DI effect was present only after the lungs were challenged with a contractile agonist (acetylcholine or histamine), and that the effect was independent of the difference in lung volume observed pre- and post-DI. We conclude that a significant portion of the bronchodilatory DI effect stems from factors internal to the lung related to the activation of ASM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Assessment and characterization of Ca2+-ATPase expression in selected isolates and clones of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Happi, T C; Bababunmi, E A

    2012-06-07

    Ca2+-ATPase expression in 15 selected isolates from malaria patients at the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan and two cloned strains (W2-chloroquine resistant, D6-chloroquine sensitive) of P.falciparum was assessed using spectrophotometric assay method. The kinetics of activity of Ca2+- ATPase in three isolates (NCP 14, NCP5, NCP1) and two clones (W2, D6) also assessed. 12% SDS-PAGE analysis of total proteins in one isolate (NCP14) and two clones (W2, D6) was also investigated. All the selected isolates and the two cloned strains exhibited measurable Ca2+-ATPase activity. The Ca2+-ATPase activity in cloned strain D6 (6.50 + 0.74mmolPi/min/mg protein) was higher than in cloned strain W2 (3.93 + 0.61mmolPi/min/mg protein. The Ca2+-ATPase activity in isolates from malaria patients varied widely (1.95 + 0.74 - 21.56 +1.43mmolPi/min/mg protein). The kinetic constants obtained for the two cloned strains showed that clone W2 had a higher Vmax (Vmax = 363mmolPi/min/mg protein) than clone D6 (Vmax = 74mmolPi/min/mg protein). All the isolates and the two cloned strains showed similar affinity for ATP (Km ~ 10mM). Scan of SDS-PAGE gel of total proteins in the isolate and cloned strains showed the presence of oligopeptide bands of molecular weights range of 148-176 kDa; 116-123 kDa respectively. These suggest the presence of predicted polypeptide of Ca2+-ATPase nature of molecular weight estimate of 139 kDa. The study agrees with previous findings that Ca2+-ATPase is functionally expressed in P.falciparum, The study also indicates that Ca2+-ATPase functional expression may vary with isolate or clone but the ATP binding mechanism to the enzyme is similar in all isolates and clones of P. falciparum. The study further suggests a possible association between acquisition of chloroquine resistance and Ca2+-ATPase functional expression in P. falciparum.

  3. Full-length sequence analysis of chloroquine resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lii Lian; Lau, Tiek Ying; Timothy, William; Prabakaran, Dhanaraj

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in falciparum malaria was identified to be associated with several mutations in the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) that encodes the transmembrane transporter in digestive vacuole membrane of the parasite. This study aimed to investigate the point mutations across the full-length pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 31 P. falciparum positive samples collected from Keningau, Kota Kinabalu, and Kudat, Sabah, were analyzed. pfcrt was PCR amplified and cloned prior to sequence analysis. This study showed that all the previously described 10 point mutations associated with CQR at codons 72, 74, 75, 76, 97, 220, 271, 326, 356, and 371 were found with different prevalence. Besides, two novel point mutations, I166V and H273N, were identified with 22.5% and 19.3%, respectively. Three haplotypes, namely, CVMNK (29%), CVIET (3.2%), and SVMNT (67.7%), were identified. High prevalence of SVMNT among P. falciparum isolates from Sabah showed that these isolates are closer to the P. falciparum isolates from Papua New Guinea rather than to the more proximal Southeast Asian CVIET haplotype. Full-length analysis of pfcrt showed that chloroquine resistant P. falciparum in Sabah is still prevalent despite the withdrawal of chloroquine usage since 1979.

  4. Full-Length Sequence Analysis of Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Gene in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lii Lian; Lau, Tiek Ying; Timothy, William; Prabakaran, Dhanaraj

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in falciparum malaria was identified to be associated with several mutations in the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) that encodes the transmembrane transporter in digestive vacuole membrane of the parasite. This study aimed to investigate the point mutations across the full-length pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 31 P. falciparum positive samples collected from Keningau, Kota Kinabalu, and Kudat, Sabah, were analyzed. pfcrt was PCR amplified and cloned prior to sequence analysis. This study showed that all the previously described 10 point mutations associated with CQR at codons 72, 74, 75, 76, 97, 220, 271, 326, 356, and 371 were found with different prevalence. Besides, two novel point mutations, I166V and H273N, were identified with 22.5% and 19.3%, respectively. Three haplotypes, namely, CVMNK (29%), CVIET (3.2%), and SVMNT (67.7%), were identified. High prevalence of SVMNT among P. falciparum isolates from Sabah showed that these isolates are closer to the P. falciparum isolates from Papua New Guinea rather than to the more proximal Southeast Asian CVIET haplotype. Full-length analysis of pfcrt showed that chloroquine resistant P. falciparum in Sabah is still prevalent despite the withdrawal of chloroquine usage since 1979. PMID:25574497

  5. Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with uncomplicated malaria promote endothelial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Ana María; Blair, Silvia; García, Luis F; Segura, Cesar

    2017-02-01

    The ability of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (Pf-IEs) to activate endothelial cells has been described; however, the interaction of the endothelium with Pf-IEs field isolates from patients has been less characterized. Previous reports have shown that isolates alter the endothelial permeability and apoptosis. In this study, the adhesion of 19 uncomplicated malaria isolates to Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HDMEC), and their effect on the expression of ICAM-1 and proinflammatory molecules (sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1) was evaluated. P. falciparum isolates adhered to resting and TNFα-activated HDEMC cells at different levels. All isolates increased the ICAM-1 expression on the membrane (mICAM-1) of HDMEC and increased the release of its soluble form (sICAM-1), as well the production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 by HDMEC with no signs of cell apoptosis. No correlation between parasite adhesion and production of cytokines was observed. In conclusion, isolates from uncomplicated malaria can induce a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells that may play a role during the initial inflammatory response to parasite infection; however, a continuous activation of the endothelium can contribute to pathogenesis.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from areas of repeated emergence of drug resistant malaria show no evidence of hypermutator phenotype.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyler S; Jacob, Christopher G; Silva, Joana C; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Djimdé, Abdoulaye; Dondorp, Arjen M; Fukuda, Mark; Noedl, Harald; Nyunt, Myaing Myaing; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Mayxay, Mayfong; Hien, Tran Tinh; Plowe, Christopher V; Cummings, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    Multiple transcontinental waves of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have originated in Southeast Asia before spreading westward, first into the rest of Asia and then to sub-Saharan Africa. In vitro studies have suggested that hypermutator P. falciparum parasites may exist in Southeast Asia and that an increased rate of acquisition of new mutations in these parasites may explain the repeated emergence of drug resistance in Southeast Asia. This study is the first to test the hypermutator hypothesis using field isolates. Using genome-wide SNP data from human P. falciparum infections in Southeast Asia and West Africa and a test for relative rate differences we found no evidence of increased relative substitution rates in P. falciparum isolates from Southeast Asia. Instead, we found significantly increased substitution rates in Mali and Bangladesh populations relative to those in populations from Southeast Asia. Additionally we found no association between increased relative substitution rates and parasite clearance following treatment with artemisinin derivatives.

  7. Susceptibility of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether

    PubMed Central

    Thaithong, Sodsri; Beale, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager—Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10-7-10-8 mol/litre and artemether at 10-8 mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%). Slight variation in the sensitivity of different isolates was found, but there was no correlation between sensitivity to artemisinine or artemether and sensitivity to pyrimethamine, pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine, or chloroquine. The action of artemisinine and artemether was reduced when the initial parasitaemia of the treated cultures was raised. PMID:3899399

  8. Different patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Tehama region, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasari, Adel; Sady, Hany; Dawaki, Salwa S.; Elyana, Fatin N.; Al-Areeqi, Mona A.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R.; Azzani, Meram; Ithoi, Init; Lau, Yee Ling; Surin, Johari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the efforts of the malaria control programme, malaria morbidity is still a common health problem in Yemen, with 60% of the population at risk. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 99% of malaria cases. The emergence in Yemen of parasite resistance to chloroquine (CQ) prompted the adoption of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in 2009, which involves the use of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP). However, CQ was retained as the drug of choice for vivax malaria. To assess the impact of the change in the malaria treatment policy five years after its introduction, the present study investigated the mutations in the CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) and multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes. Method. A molecular investigation of 10 codons of pfcrt (72–76, 220, 271, 326, 356, and 371) and five codons of pfmdr1 (86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) was conducted on P. falciparum isolates from districts with the highest malaria endemicity in the Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates in Tehama region, Yemen. A total of 86 positive cases of falciparum monoinfection were investigated for the presence of mutations related to CQ and other antimalarials using a PCR-RFLP assay. Results. There was a wide prevalence of pfcrt gene mutations with the pfcrt 76T CQ resistance marker being predominant (97.7%). The prevalence of other pfcrt mutations varied from high (75E: 88%) to moderate (74I: 79.1%, 220S: 69.8%, 271E and 371I: 53.5%) or low (326S: 36%, 72S: 10.5%). Mutated pfcrt 72–76 amino acids haplotypes were highly prevalent (98.8%). Among these, the CVIET classic, old-world African/Southeast Asian haplotype was the most predominant, and was mostly found in the isolates from the Khamis Bani Saad district of Al-Mahwit (93.1%) and the AdDahi district of Hodeidah (88.9%). However, it was only found in 26.3% of the isolates from the Bajil district of Hodeidah. Surprisingly, the SVMNT new-world South American haplotype was exclusively detected

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates Commonly Use Erythrocyte Invasion Pathways That Are Independent of Sialic Acid Residues of Glycophorin A

    PubMed Central

    Okoyeh, Jude Nnaemeka; Pillai, C. R.; Chitnis, Chetan E.

    1999-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is mediated by specific molecular interactions. Sialic acid residues of glycophorin A are used as invasion receptors by Plasmodium falciparum. In vitro invasion studies have demonstrated that some cloned P. falciparum lines can use alternate receptors independent of sialic acid residues of glycophorin A. It is not known if invasion by alternate pathways occurs commonly in the field. In this study, we used in vitro growth assays and erythrocyte invasion assays to determine the invasion phenotypes of 15 P. falciparum field isolates. Of the 15 field isolates tested, 5 multiply in both neuraminidase and trypsin-treated erythrocytes, 3 multiply in neuraminidase-treated but not trypsin-treated erythrocytes, and 4 multiply in trypsin-treated but not neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes; 12 of the 15 field isolates tested use alternate invasion pathways that are not dependent on sialic acid residues of glycophorin A. Alternate invasion pathways are thus commonly used by P. falciparum field isolates. Typing based on two polymorphic markers, MSP-1 and MSP-2, and two microsatellite markers suggests that only 1 of the 15 field isolates tested contains multiple parasite genotypes. Individual P. falciparum lines can thus use multiple invasion pathways in the field. These observations have important implications for malaria vaccine development efforts based on EBA-175, the P. falciparum protein that binds sialic acid residues of glycophorin A during invasion. It may be necessary to target parasite ligands responsible for the alternate invasion pathways in addition to EBA-175 to effectively block erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. PMID:10531229

  10. In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum by substances isolated from Amazonian antimalarial plants.

    PubMed

    de Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Pohlit, Adrian M; Pinto, Ana Cristina S; Silva, Ellen Cristina C; Nogueira, Karla L; Melo, Márcia R S; Henrique, Marycleuma C; Amorim, Rodrigo C N; Silva, Luis Francisco R; Costa, Mônica R F; Nunomura, Rita C S; Nunomura, Sergio M; Alecrim, Wilson D; Alecrim, M das Graças C; Chaves, F Célio M; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, a quassinoid, neosergeolide, isolated from the roots and stems of Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae), the indole alkaloids ellipticine and aspidocarpine, isolated from the bark of Aspidosperma vargasii and A. desmanthum (Apocynaceae), respectively, and 4-nerolidylcatechol, isolated from the roots of Pothomorphe peltata (Piperaceae), all presented significant in vitro inhibition (more active than quinine and chloroquine) of the multi-drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Neosergeolide presented activity in the nanomolar range. This is the first report on the antimalarial activity of these known, natural compounds. This is also the first report on the isolation of aspidocarpine from A. desmanthum. These compounds are good candidates for pre-clinical tests as novel lead structures with the aim of finding new antimalarial prototypes and lend support to the traditional use of the plants from which these compounds are derived.

  11. In vivo and in vitro analysis of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Ousmane; Myrick, Alissa; Daily, Johanna; Diop, Bernard M; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Sow, Pape Salif; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F

    2005-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of chloroquine (CQ) resistance markers in Senegal, Plasmodium falciparum DNA polymorphisms in pfmdr1and pfcrt were examined in relation to clinical outcome. Despite CQ treatment, 17% of patients had parasitemia after 28 days. Examination of molecular markers of CQ resistance revealed that 64% of all isolates had the T76 resistant allele at the pfcrt locus, while 30% carried the Y86 resistant allele at the pfmdr1 locus. The pfcrt T76 allele was present not only in all in vivo resistant isolates, 89% of in vitro resistant isolates, but also in 35% of in vitro sensitive isolates. The pfmdr1 N86Y polymorphism did not correlate with in vitro or in vivo CQ resistance. Our data suggest that the pfcrt T76 allele alone is required but not a sufficient predictor for in vivo CQ resistance.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine drug resistance among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in malaria endemic areas of Assam.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J; Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Soni, M; Dey, D; Mahanta, J

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antimalarial drug resistance malaria parasite is widespread in North eastern region of India. During January 2012-December 2013, we conducted active surveillance for detection of antifolate resistance-associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from different malaria endemic areas of Assam. A total of 281 field samples were collected from suspected malaria patients of which 106 malaria P. falciparum positive cases were detected in microscopic slide examination. A nested PCR was done for amplification of a 648 bp portion of the dhfr gene and 710 bp portion of the dhps gene. Mutation analysis revealed existence of three different haplotypes of the P. falciparum dhfr gene of which ANRNI was highly prevalent (90%). Triple mutant haplotypes AIRNI (N51I+C59R+S108N) of the dhfr gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance were prevalent in Chirang district of Assam. Whereas, dhps mutation study revealed that triple mutant haplotype AGEAA (S436A+A437G+K540E) associated with Sulphadoxine resistance was found among 26% of P. falciparum field isolates. However, P. falciparum dhfr-dhps two locus mutation analysis showed that there were a total of nine dhfr-dhps genotypes. It was noticed that 93.62% (88/94) isolates had mutations in the sequences of both enzymes, which is an indication of prevalence of high grade of Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine resistance in P. falciparum malaria parasites in Assam.

  13. Molecular analysis of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Sankar; Rodriguez, Betzabe; Soto, Aida Mercedes; Macedo De Oliveira, Alexandre; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is used as a first-line therapy for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nicaragua. We investigated the prevalence of molecular markers associated with CQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in P. falciparum isolates obtained from the North Atlantic Autonomous Region of Nicaragua. Blood spots for this study were made available from a CQ and SP drug efficacy trial conducted in 2005 and also from a surveillance study performed in 2011. Polymorphisms in P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase gene loci that are associated with resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine, and sulfadoxine, respectively, were detected by DNA sequencing. In the 2005 dataset, only 2 of 53 isolates had a CQ resistance allele (CVIET), 2 of 52 had a pyrimethamine resistance allele, and 1 of 49 had a sulfadoxine resistance allele. In the 2011 dataset, none of 45 isolates analyzed had CQ or SP resistance alleles.

  14. Roseomonas sediminicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water.

    PubMed

    He, Dan; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Jiang, Xiao-Ye; Park, Hye-Yoon; Sun, Changkai; Yu, Hong-San; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Jin, Feng Xie; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated FW-3(T) was isolated from fresh water and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain FW-3(T) was found to grow at 10-37 °C and at pH 7.0 in the absence of NaCl on nutrient agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FW-3(T) was shown to belong to the family Acetobacteraceae and to be related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) (97.2 % sequence similarity) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 68.0 %. The major menaquinone was determined to be Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 7 (comprising C18:1 ω9c/ω12t/ω7c as defined by the MIDI system; 55.4 %), and C18:1 2OH (29.8 %). DNA and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain FW-3(T) to the genus Roseomonas. Strain FW-3(T) could be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from the recognized species of the genus Roseomonas. The novel isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Roseomonas sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain FW-3(T) (=KACC 16616(T) = JCM 18210(T)).

  15. Arenimonas maotaiensis sp. nov., isolated from fresh water.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Nogi, Yuichi; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Ren-Gang; Lv, Jie

    2014-12-01

    A translucent, white, Gram-reaction-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-flagellated, slightly curved or curved bacterial strain, designated YT8(T), was isolated from the fresh water of the Maotai section of Chishui River, China. Cells were catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YT8(T) is a member of the genus Arenimonas with similarity to other members of this genus ranging from 93.7 to 95.0 %. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 8 (Q-8), major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids, while major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain YT8(T) was 66.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic features studied, strain YT8(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Arenimonas, for which the name Arenimonas maotaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YT8(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12726(T) = JCM 19710(T)).

  16. Mucilaginibacter aquaedulcis sp. nov., isolated from fresh water.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yochan; Kang, Heeyoung; Lee, Beom-Il; Kim, Haneul; Joh, Kiseong; Kim, Kyu-Joong

    2015-02-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain PGW1-R01(T), was isolated from fresh water from the Yeongju in the Republic of Korea. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 6-8 on R2A agar. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 [comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c (50.2 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (24.8 %)]. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The G+C contents were 39.4 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, the strain belongs to the genus Mucilaginibacter. The strain PGW1-R01(T) was closely related to 'Mucilaginibacter ginsenosidivorax' (96.6 % sequence similarity), Mucilaginibacter lappiensis (96.4 %) and Mucilaginibacter flavus (96.4 %). On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain PGW1-R01(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter http://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.11437aquaedulcis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is PGW1-R01(T)( = KCTC 23942(T) = CECT 8102(T)).

  17. Molecular analysis of erythrocyte invasion in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Cameron V; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Zilversmit, Martine; Bei, Amy K; Rayner, Julian; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Wirth, Dyann F; Mboup, Souleymane; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2007-07-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, utilizes multiple ligand-receptor interactions for the invasion of human erythrocytes. Members of the reticulocyte binding protein homolog (PfRh) family have been shown to be critical for directing parasites to alternative erythrocyte receptors that define invasion pathways. Recent studies have identified gene amplification, sequence polymorphism, and variant expression of PfRh paralogs as mechanisms underlying discrimination between pathways for invasion. In this study, we find considerable heterogeneity in the invasion profiles of clonal, uncultured P. falciparum parasite isolates from a low-transmission area in Senegal. Molecular analyses revealed minimal variation in protein expression levels of the PfRh ligands, PfRh1, PfRh2a, and PfRh2b, and an absence of gene amplification in these isolates. However, significant sequence polymorphism was found within repeat regions of PfRh1, PfRh2a, and PfRh2b. Furthermore, we identified a large sequence deletion ( approximately 0.58 kb) in the C-terminal region of the PfRh2b gene at a high prevalence in this population. In contrast to findings of earlier studies, we found no associations between specific sequence variants and distinct invasion pathways. Overall these data highlight the importance of region-specific elaborations in PfRh sequence and expression polymorphisms, which has important implications in our understanding of how the malaria parasite responds to polymorphisms in erythrocyte receptors and/or evades the immune system.

  18. Bacillus rigui sp. nov., isolated from wetland fresh water.

    PubMed

    Baik, Keun Sik; Lim, Chae Hong; Park, Seong Chan; Kim, Eun Mi; Rhee, Moon Soo; Seong, Chi Nam

    2010-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive strains, WPCB074(T) and WPCB165, were isolated from fresh water collected from the Woopo wetland (Republic of Korea). Both strains were strictly aerobic, motile, endospore-forming rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains WPCB074(T) and WPCB165 belonged to the genus Bacillus and that strain WPCB074(T) was most closely related to Bacillus solisalsi YC1(T) (98.4 % sequence similarity), B. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) (97.7 %), B. macauensis ZFHKF-1(T) (96.9 %), B. arsenicus Con a/3(T) (96.4 %) and B. gelatini LMG 21880(T) (95.1 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains WPCB074(T) and WPCB165 differed at one position (99.9 % similarity), suggesting that these two strains constitute a single species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain WPCB074(T) and the type strains of B. solisalsi, B. barbaricus, B. macauensis, B. arsenicus and B. gelatini were 26, 17, 20, 14 and 7 %, respectively. Strain WPCB074(T) was characterized by having cell-wall peptidoglycan based on meso-diaminopimelic acid, MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain WPCB074(T) was 41.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogeny and genomic distinctiveness, strain WPCB074(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus for which the name Bacillus rigui sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WPCB074(T) (=KCTC 13278(T) =JCM 16348(T)).

  19. K13-propeller mutations confer artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Straimer, Judith; Gnädig, Nina F.; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Duru, Valentine; Ramadani, Arba Pramundita; Dacheux, Mélanie; Khim, Nimol; Zhang, Lei; Lam, Stephen; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Ménard, Didier; Fidock, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia imperils efforts to reduce the global malaria burden. We genetically modified the Plasmodium falciparum K13 locus using zinc-finger nucleases and measured ring-stage survival rates after drug exposure in vitro; these rates correlate with parasite clearance half-lives in artemisinin-treated patients. With isolates from Cambodia, where resistance first emerged, survival rates decreased from 13 to 49% to 0.3 to 2.4% after the removal of K13 mutations. Conversely, survival rates in wild-type parasites increased from ≤0.6% to 2 to 29% after the insertion of K13 mutations. These mutations conferred elevated resistance to recent Cambodian isolates compared with that of reference lines, suggesting a contemporary contribution of additional genetic factors. Our data provide a conclusive rationale for worldwide K13-propeller sequencing to identify and eliminate artemisinin-resistant parasites. PMID:25502314

  20. In vitro activity of pyronaridine against field isolates and reference clones of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Childs, G E; Häusler, B; Milhous, W; Chen, C; Wimonwattrawatee, T; Pooyindee, N; Boudreau, E F

    1988-01-01

    Pyronaridine, a 9-substituted 1-aza-acridine, was assayed for in vitro activity against clinical and field isolates as well as characterized clones of Plasmodium falciparum. The in vitro antimalarial activity of pyronaridine was compared to activities of standard antimalarials against multidrug-resistant isolates of P. falciparum from eastern and northern Thailand using an assay based on the inhibition of schizont maturation. Isolates from eastern Thailand (n = 30) were susceptible to pyronaridine (IC50 8.40 nM), mefloquine (IC50 6.97 nM), and amodiaquine (IC50 12.7 nM) and resistant to chloroquine (IC50 361 nM), quinine (IC50 388 nM), and pyrimethamine (IC50 11,800 nM). The isolates from northern Thailand (n = 7) showed no statistical difference in susceptibility to pyronaridine (IC50 10.1 nM), amodiaquine (IC50 7.29 nM), and mefloquine (IC50 5.48 nM); however, isolates were significantly more susceptible to chloroquine (IC50 167 nM), quinine (IC50 248 nM), and pyrimethamine (IC50 1,980 nM). These data suggest a lack of cross-resistance between pyronaridine and either chloroquine, quinine, or pyrimethamine. Using the same assay system the in vitro activity of pyronaridine was evaluated against isolates from treatment failures of mefloquine or enpiroline from eastern Thailand. The IC50 values for mefloquine against five recrudescent isolates were significantly higher (IC50 16.4 nM) than the field isolates collected from the same region (IC50 6.97 nM); however, there was no significant difference in the pyronaridine susceptibility between the isolates from the field study (IC50 8.89 nM) and the isolates from the treatment failures (IC50 8.40 nM). These observations suggest a lack of cross-resistance to mefloquine following treatment failure with either mefloquine or enpiroline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Moon, Sung-Ung; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lin, Khin; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2010-05-17

    Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and MSP-2 of Plasmodium falciparum are potential vaccine candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development. However, extensive genetic polymorphism of the antigens in field isolates of P. falciparum represents a major obstacle for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, genetic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 among P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar was analysed. A total of 63 P. falciparum infected blood samples, which were collected from patients attending a regional hospital in Mandalay Division, Myanmar, were used in this study. The regions flanking the highly polymorphic characters, block 2 for MSP-1 and block 3 for MSP-2, were genotyped by allele-specific nested-PCR to analyse the population diversity of the parasite. Sequence analysis of the polymorphic regions of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was also conducted to identify allelic diversity in the parasite population. Diverse allelic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was identified in P. falciparum isolates from Myanmar and most of the infections were determined to be mixed infections. Sequence analysis of MSP-1 block 2 revealed that 14 different alleles for MSP-1 (5 for K1 type and 9 for MAD20 type) were identified. For MSP-2 block 3, a total of 22 alleles (7 for FC27 type and 15 for 3D7 type) were identified. Extensive genetic polymorphism with diverse allele types was identified in MSP-1 and MSP-2 in P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar. A high level of mixed infections was also observed, as was a high degree of multiplicity of infection.

  2. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and MSP-2 of Plasmodium falciparum are potential vaccine candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development. However, extensive genetic polymorphism of the antigens in field isolates of P. falciparum represents a major obstacle for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, genetic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 among P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar was analysed. Methods A total of 63 P. falciparum infected blood samples, which were collected from patients attending a regional hospital in Mandalay Division, Myanmar, were used in this study. The regions flanking the highly polymorphic characters, block 2 for MSP-1 and block 3 for MSP-2, were genotyped by allele-specific nested-PCR to analyse the population diversity of the parasite. Sequence analysis of the polymorphic regions of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was also conducted to identify allelic diversity in the parasite population. Results Diverse allelic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 was identified in P. falciparum isolates from Myanmar and most of the infections were determined to be mixed infections. Sequence analysis of MSP-1 block 2 revealed that 14 different alleles for MSP-1 (5 for K1 type and 9 for MAD20 type) were identified. For MSP-2 block 3, a total of 22 alleles (7 for FC27 type and 15 for 3D7 type) were identified. Conclusion Extensive genetic polymorphism with diverse allele types was identified in MSP-1 and MSP-2 in P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar. A high level of mixed infections was also observed, as was a high degree of multiplicity of infection. PMID:20478015

  3. Major surface antigen p190 of Plasmodium falciparum: detection of common epitopes present in a variety of plasmodia isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Gentz, R; Certa, U; Takacs, B; Matile, H; Döbeli, H; Pink, R; Mackay, M; Bone, N; Scaife, J G

    1988-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum merozoites are covered with polymorphic proteins that are processed from a 190 kd (p190) precursor protein. These are candidates for an antimalarial vaccine. We cloned and expressed a number of DNA fragments, comprising almost the entire p190 gene of the K1 isolate, in Escherichia coli. Pooled human endemic-area sera and rabbit antibodies raised against p190 protein isolated from K1 parasites react with only a limited number of the recombinant proteins. From these studies we could select two antigenic polypeptides containing conserved amino acid stretches of the otherwise highly polymorphic protein. Rabbits and mice injected with the purified recombinant proteins produce antibodies reacting differentially with various isolates of P. falciparum. We obtained antibodies detecting all isolates tested and a monoclonal antibody specific for isolates containing a K1 type allele of the p190 gene. Images PMID:2452082

  4. Antimalarial drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from forest fringe dwelling aborigines (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lambros, C; Davis, D R; Lewis, G E

    1989-07-01

    The drug susceptibility of 70 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum to standard and experimental antimalarials was evaluated using a radioisotope microdilution method. All isolates were from forest fringe dwelling Orang Asli, the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia. The geometric mean IC50 values were: chloroquine, 10 ng/ml; amodiaquine, 4.7 ng/ml; mefloquine, 2.8 ng/ml; quinine, 40.5 ng/ml; halofantrine, 1.5 ng/ml; enpiroline, 3 ng/ml; and pyrimethamine, 21 ng/ml. Four isolates exhibited decreased susceptibility to chloroquine (IC50 greater than 60 ng/ml), and one exhibited decreased susceptibility to quinine (IC50 = 161 ng/ml). Three isolates showed decreased susceptibility to mefloquine (IC50 = 10-11 ng/ml). The lack of drug pressure may account for the high prevalence of P. falciparum isolates susceptible to chloroquine.

  5. Large Variation in Detection of Histidine-Rich Protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F.; Díaz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel

    2010-01-01

    Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

  6. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Baka Pygmies and their Bantu neighbours in the north of Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mvé-Ondo, Bertrand; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Arnathau, Céline; Rougeron, Virginie; Bisvigou, Ulrich; Mouele, Lauriane Yacka; Boundenga, Larson; Durand, Patrick; Elguero, Eric; Lemmers, Simone; Délicat-Loembet, Lucrèce M; Diamella-Moukodoum, Nancy; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck; Ollomo, Benjamin

    2015-10-09

    There have been many reports on the population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum from different endemic regions especially sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have been performed on neglected populations, such as the Pygmy populations. In this study, the population genetic structure of P. falciparum was investigated in the Baka Pygmies of Gabon and compared to that observed in neighboring villages composed mostly of Bantu farmers. A total of 342 blood samples were collected from 170 Baka Pygmies and 172 Bantus in the north of Gabon (Woleu Ntem Province). Plasmodium infections were characterized by sequencing a portion of the parasite cytochrome b gene. Population genetic structure of P. falciparum in the different villages was analysed using microsatellite markers and genes coding for antigenic proteins (MSP1, MSP2, GLURP, and EBA-175). Overall, prevalence of P. falciparum was around 57 % and no significant difference of prevalence was observed between Pygmies and Bantus. No significant differences of population genetic structure of P. falciparum was found between Pygmy and Bantu people except for one antigen-coding gene, glurp, for which genetic data suggested the existence of a potentially disruptive selection acting on this gene in the two types of populations. The genetic structure of P. falciparum followed a pattern of isolation by distance at the scale of the study. The prevalence and genetic diversity of P. falciparum observed in Baka demonstrates a significant transmission of the parasite in this population, and some exchanges of parasites with Bantu neighbours. Despite that, some antigen-coding genes seem to have had a particular evolutionary trajectory in certain Pygmy populations due to specific local human and/or mosquito characteristics.

  7. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, L; Plowe, C; Goldman, I; Lal, A A

    1999-09-01

    The present study was designed to characterize mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genes of Plasmodium falciparum in the Bolivar region of Venezuela, where high levels of clinical resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, Fansidar; F. Hoffman-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland) has been documented. We used a nested mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion methods to measure 1) the prevalence of DHFR mutations at 16, 50, 51, 59, 108, and 164 codon positions, and 2) the prevalence of mutations in the 436, 437, 581, and 613 codon sites in DHPS gene. In the case of the DHFR gene, of the 54 parasite isolates analyzed, we detected the presence of Asn-108 and Ile-51 in 96% of the isolates and Arg-50 mutation in 64% of the isolates. Each of these mutations has been associated with high level of resistance to pyrimethamine. Only 2 samples (4%) showed the wild type Ser-108 mutation and none showed Thr-108 and Val-16 mutations that are specific for resistance to cycloguanil. In the case of DHPS gene, we found a mutation at position 437 (Gly) in 100% of the isolates and Gly-581 in 96% of the isolates. The simultaneous presence of mutations Asn-108 and Ile-51 in the DHFR gene and Gly-437 and Gly-581 in the DHPS gene in 96% of the samples tested suggested that a cumulative effect of mutations could be the major mechanism conferring high SP resistance in this area.

  8. Artemisinin Resistance-Associated Polymorphisms at the K13-Propeller Locus Are Absent in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tamar E.; Boulter, Alexis; Existe, Alexandre; Romain, Jean R.; St. Victor, Jean Yves; Mulligan, Connie J.; Okech, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs are a key tool in malaria elimination programs. With the emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia, an effort to identify molecular markers for surveillance of resistant malaria parasites is underway. Non-synonymous mutations in the kelch propeller domain (K13-propeller) in Plasmodium falciparum have been associated with artemisinin resistance in samples from southeast Asia, but additional studies are needed to characterize this locus in other P. falciparum populations with different levels of artemisinin use. Here, we sequenced the K13-propeller locus in 82 samples from Haiti, where limited government oversight of non-governmental organizations may have resulted in low-level use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. We detected a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 1,359 in a single isolate. Our results contribute to our understanding of the global genomic diversity of the K13-propeller locus in P. falciparum populations. PMID:25646258

  9. Prevalence of antifolate resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Awab, Ghulam R; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jamornthanyawat, Natsuda; Yamin, Fazel; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2013-03-15

    Artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) is now first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection in several south Asian countries, including Afghanistan. Molecular studies provide a sensitive means to investigate the current state of drug susceptibility to the SP component, and can also provide information on the likely efficacy of other potential forms of artemisinin-combination therapy. During the years 2007 to 2010, 120 blood spots from patients with P. falciparum malaria were obtained in four provinces of Afghanistan. PCR-based methods were used to detect drug-resistance mutations in dhfr, dhps, pfcrt and pfmdr1, as well as to determine copy number of pfmdr1. The majority (95.5%) of infections had a double mutation in the dhfr gene (C59R, S108N); no mutations at dhfr positions 16, 51 or 164 were seen. Most isolates were wild type across the dhps gene, but five isolates from the provinces of Kunar and Nangarhar in eastern Afghanistan had the triple mutation A437G / K540E / A581G; all five cases were successfully treated with three receiving AS+SP and two receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. All isolates showed the pfcrt SVNMT chloroquine resistance haplotype. Five of 79 isolates had the pfmdr1 N86Y mutation, while 52 had pfmdr1 Y184F; positions 1034, 1042 and 1246 were wild type in all isolates. The pfmdr1 gene was not amplified in any sample. This study indicates that shortly after the adoption of AS+SP as first-line treatment in Afghanistan, most parasites had a double mutation haplotype in dhfr, and a small number of isolates from eastern Afghanistan harboured a triple mutation haplotype in dhps. The impact of these mutations on the efficacy of AS+SP remains to be assessed in significant numbers of patients, but these results are clearly concerning since they suggest a higher degree of SP resistance than previously detected. Further focused molecular and clinical studies in this region are urgently required.

  10. Prevalence of antifolate resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) is now first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection in several south Asian countries, including Afghanistan. Molecular studies provide a sensitive means to investigate the current state of drug susceptibility to the SP component, and can also provide information on the likely efficacy of other potential forms of artemisinin-combination therapy. Methods During the years 2007 to 2010, 120 blood spots from patients with P. falciparum malaria were obtained in four provinces of Afghanistan. PCR-based methods were used to detect drug-resistance mutations in dhfr, dhps, pfcrt and pfmdr1, as well as to determine copy number of pfmdr1. Results The majority (95.5%) of infections had a double mutation in the dhfr gene (C59R, S108N); no mutations at dhfr positions 16, 51 or 164 were seen. Most isolates were wild type across the dhps gene, but five isolates from the provinces of Kunar and Nangarhar in eastern Afghanistan had the triple mutation A437G / K540E / A581G; all five cases were successfully treated with three receiving AS+SP and two receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. All isolates showed the pfcrt SVNMT chloroquine resistance haplotype. Five of 79 isolates had the pfmdr1 N86Y mutation, while 52 had pfmdr1 Y184F; positions 1034, 1042 and 1246 were wild type in all isolates. The pfmdr1 gene was not amplified in any sample. Conclusions This study indicates that shortly after the adoption of AS+SP as first-line treatment in Afghanistan, most parasites had a double mutation haplotype in dhfr, and a small number of isolates from eastern Afghanistan harboured a triple mutation haplotype in dhps. The impact of these mutations on the efficacy of AS+SP remains to be assessed in significant numbers of patients, but these results are clearly concerning since they suggest a higher degree of SP resistance than previously detected. Further focused molecular and clinical studies in this region are urgently

  11. Defining the origin of Plasmodium falciparum resistant dhfr isolates in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Daily, J P; Sarr, O; Ndir, O; Gaye, O; Mboup, S; Roper, C; Wirth, D F

    2006-08-01

    We previously reported a high baseline prevalence of mutations in the dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum throughout Senegal. The highest prevalence of the triple dhfr pyrimethamine associated mutations were found in isolates obtained in the western part of the country near the capital city of Dakar. In this study, we sought out to determine the relatedness of dhfr wild type and mutated strains by analyzing three microsatellite regions upstream of the dhfr locus. Twenty-six of the 31 wild type strains had a unique microsatellite pattern. In contrast, of the 17 isolates containing the triple mutation in dhfr, 11 had an identical microsatellite pattern. Diverse geographical isolates in Senegal containing the triple dhfr mutation have arisen from a limited number of ancestral strains. In addition, we demonstrate that these isolates have shared ancestry with the previously reported triple mutation haplotype found in Tanzania, South Africa, and southeast Asia. This common ancestry may have implications for the malaria control strategy for reducing the spread of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Senegal and elsewhere in Africa.

  12. Quantitative assessment of antimalarial activities from Malaysian Plasmodium falciparum isolates by modified in vitro microtechnique.

    PubMed Central

    Hoon, A H; Lam, C K; Wah, M J

    1995-01-01

    Malaysian, TGR (Thailand), and Gambian (West African) Plasmodium falciparum isolates were cultured in vitro by the candle jar method and were characterized for their susceptibilities to present antimalarial drugs by the modified in vitro microtechnique. Results showed that 93 and 47% of the Malaysian isolates were resistant at 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.1415 to 0.7737 and 0.1025 to 0.1975 microM, respectively, while the rest were susceptible to choloroquine and cycloguanil at 0.0376 and 0.0306 to 0.0954 microM, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to mefloquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine at 0.0026 to 0.0172, 0.0062 to 0.0854, and 0.0149 to 0.0663 microM, respectively. In contrast, the Gambian isolate was susceptible to multiple drugs at 0.0024 to 0.0282 microM; TGR was resistant to chloroquine at 0.8147 microM but was susceptible to mefloquine, quinine, cycloguanil, and pyrimethamine at 0.0024, 0.0096, 0.0143, and 0.0495 microM, respectively. PMID:7793863

  13. In vitro chloroquine susceptibility and PCR analysis of pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan M; Ndir, Omar; Dieng, Therese; Mboup, Souleymane; Wypij, David; Maguire, James H; Wirth, Dyann F

    2002-05-01

    Chloroquine resistance has been linked to mutations in the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes of Plasmodium falciparum. To estimate the prevalence of the pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, and pfmdr1 D1246Y polymorphisms, isolates of P. falciparum from Senegal, West Africa, were analyzed, and the results were compared to in vitro chloroquine susceptibility. By the in vitro DELI test, 31% of these samples were resistant to chloroquine. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays and confirmatory sequencing demonstrated the pfcrt T76, pfmdr1 Y86, and pfmdr1 Y1246 alleles in 79%, 31%, and 2% of the isolates, respectively. All three mutant alleles were present in both in vitro susceptible and resistant isolates. On the basis of these findings, it appears that these molecular markers are not consistently predictive of in vitro chloroquine resistance in Senegal.

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South America Use an Atypical Red Blood Cell Invasion Pathway Associated with Invasion Ligand Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L. D.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Blair, Silvia; Gamboa, Dionicia; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple

  15. A YAC contig map of plasmodium falciparum chromosome 4: Characterization of a DNA amplification between two recently separated isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, J.P.; Triglia, T.; Cowman, A.F.

    1995-03-20

    We have generated a physical map of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 4 using yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). The map is defined by a YAC contig spanning approximately 1.05 Mb, which has been restriction mapped to a resolution of 30 kb and is punctuated by 22 sequence-tagged sites. The physical information obtained has enabled us to compare and contrast the structure of chromosome 4 in detail between FCR3 and B8, two recently separated isolates of P. falciparum, leading to characterization of a novel chromosome polymorphism occurring in a subtelomeric region. Comparison of chromosomes 4 from 10 different isolates has shown that chromosome size polymorphisms are restricted to both subtelomeric regions. These analyses provide a high-resolution physical map that will be important to complement genetic analysis of this human pathogen. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-Ying; Chang, An-Chi; Wang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Fu-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ya; Liu, Der-Zen; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2010-08-01

    It has been documented that cannabidiol (CBD) induced apoptosis in a variety of transformed cells, including lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias. In contrast, a differential sensitivity between normal lymphocytes and monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis has been reported. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on human peripheral monocytes that were either freshly isolated or precultured for 72 h. CBD markedly enhanced apoptosis of freshly isolated monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas precultured monocytes were insensitive. By comparison, both cells were sensitive to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. CBD significantly diminished the cellular thiols and glutathione in freshly isolated monocytes. The apoptosis induced by CBD was abrogated in the presence of N-acetyl-{sub L}-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione. In addition, precultured monocytes contained a significantly greater level of glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) compared to the freshly isolated cells. The HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin partially but significantly restored the sensitivity of precultured monocytes to CBD-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, our results demonstrated a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect of CBD between precultured and freshly isolated monocytes, which was closely associated with the cellular level of glutathione and the antioxidative capability of the cells.

  17. Sequence analysis of coding DNA fragments of pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Sasmita Kumari Das; Gupta, Bhavna; Ranjit, Manoranjan; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Das, Aparup

    2011-02-01

    The global emergence and spread of malaria parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs is the major problem in malaria control. The genetic basis of the parasite's resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) is well-documented, allowing for the analysis of field isolates of malaria parasites to address evolutionary questions concerning the origin and spread of CQ-resistance. Here, we present DNA sequence analyses of both the second exon of the Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the 5' end of the P. falciparum multidrug-resistance 1 (pfmdr-1) gene in 40 P. falciparum field isolates collected from eight different localities of Odisha, India. First, we genotyped the samples for the pfcrt K76T and pfmdr-1 N86Y mutations in these two genes, which are the mutations primarily implicated in CQ-resistance. We further analyzed amino acid changes in codons 72-76 of the pfcrt haplotypes. Interestingly, both the K76T and N86Y mutations were found to co-exist in 32 out of the total 40 isolates, which were of either the CVIET or SVMNT haplotype, while the remaining eight isolates were of the CVMNK haplotype. In total, eight nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed, six in the pfcrt gene and two in the pfmdr-1 gene. One poorly studied SNP in the pfcrt gene (A97T) was found at a high frequency in many P. falciparum samples. Using population genetics to analyze these two gene fragments, we revealed comparatively higher nucleotide diversity in the pfcrt gene than in the pfmdr-1 gene. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium was found to be tight between closely spaced SNPs of the pfcrt gene. Finally, both the pfcrt and the pfmdr-1 genes were found to evolve under the standard neutral model of molecular evolution.

  18. Rapid Acquisition of Isolate-Specific Antibodies to Chondroitin Sulfate A-Adherent Plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Ghanaian Primigravidae

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Sharon E.; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul; Bulmer, Judith N.; Hviid, Lars; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Kirkwood, Betty R.; Riley, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM), associated with maternal anemia and low birth weight, results from preferential sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) in the placenta via binding of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on the surface of pRBC to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). The VSA mediating CSA binding (VSACSA) and thus sequestration of pRBC in the placenta are antigenically distinct from those that mediate pRBC sequestration elsewhere in the body, and it has been suggested that VSACSA are relatively conserved and may thus constitute an attractive target for vaccination against PAM. Using flow cytometry, levels of antibody to VSA and VSACSA expressed on the surface of red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum isolates were measured during pregnancy and lactation in Ghanaian primigravid women enrolled in a trial of maternal vitamin A supplementation. Antibody responses to VSACSA were detected within the first trimester of pregnancy and increased with increasing duration of pregnancy, and they seemed to be isolate specific, indicating that different CSA-adherent parasite lines express antigenically distinct VSA and thus may not be as antigenically conserved as has been previously suggested. Levels of anti-VSACSA were not significantly associated with placental malarial infection determined by histology, indicating that primary immune responses to VSACSA may not be sufficient to eradicate placental parasitemia in primigravidae. PMID:15845489

  19. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Pahang, Malaysia based on MSP-1 and MSP-2 genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia especially in the interior parts of Peninsular Malaysia and the states of Sabah and Sarawak (East Malaysia). This is the first study on the genetic diversity and genotype multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaysia. Methods Seventy-five P. falciparum isolates were genotyped by using nested-PCR of MSP-1 (block 2) and MSP-2 (block 3). Results MSP-1 and MSP-2 allelic families were identified in 65 blood samples. RO33 was the predominant MSP-1 allelic family identified in 80.0% (52/65) of the samples while K1 family had the least frequency. Of the MSP-2 allelic families, 3D7 showed higher frequency (76.0%) compared to FC27 (20.0%). The multiplicity of P. falciparum infection (MOI) was 1.37 and 1.20 for MSP-1 and MSP-2, respectively. A total of seven alleles were detected; of which three MSP-1 allelic families (RO33, MAD20 and K1) were monomorphic in terms of size while MSP-2 alleles were polymorphic (two 3D7 and two FC27). Heterozygosity (HE) was 0.57 and 0.55 for MSP-1 and MSP-2, respectively. Conclusions The study showed that the MOI of P. falciparum is low, reflected the low intensity of malaria transmission in Pahang, Malaysia; RO33 and 3D7 were the most predominant circulating allelic families. The findings showed that P. falciparum has low allelic diversity with a high frequency of alleles. As a result, antimalarial drug efficacy trials based on MSP genotyping should be carefully interpreted. PMID:22166488

  20. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Pahang, Malaysia based on MSP-1 and MSP-2 genes.

    PubMed

    Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed Ak; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Surin, Johari

    2011-12-13

    Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia especially in the interior parts of Peninsular Malaysia and the states of Sabah and Sarawak (East Malaysia). This is the first study on the genetic diversity and genotype multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum in Malaysia. Seventy-five P. falciparum isolates were genotyped by using nested-PCR of MSP-1 (block 2) and MSP-2 (block 3). MSP-1 and MSP-2 allelic families were identified in 65 blood samples. RO33 was the predominant MSP-1 allelic family identified in 80.0% (52/65) of the samples while K1 family had the least frequency. Of the MSP-2 allelic families, 3D7 showed higher frequency (76.0%) compared to FC27 (20.0%). The multiplicity of P. falciparum infection (MOI) was 1.37 and 1.20 for MSP-1 and MSP-2, respectively. A total of seven alleles were detected; of which three MSP-1 allelic families (RO33, MAD20 and K1) were monomorphic in terms of size while MSP-2 alleles were polymorphic (two 3D7 and two FC27). Heterozygosity (HE) was 0.57 and 0.55 for MSP-1 and MSP-2, respectively. The study showed that the MOI of P. falciparum is low, reflected the low intensity of malaria transmission in Pahang, Malaysia; RO33 and 3D7 were the most predominant circulating allelic families. The findings showed that P. falciparum has low allelic diversity with a high frequency of alleles. As a result, antimalarial drug efficacy trials based on MSP genotyping should be carefully interpreted.

  1. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates-Mediated Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by Fasudil: Therapeutic Implications for Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zang-Edou, Estelle S.; Bisvigou, Ulrick; Taoufiq, Zacharie; Lékoulou, Faustin; Lékana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Traoré, Yves; Mazier, Dominique; Touré-Ndouo, Fousseyni S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection can abruptly progress to severe malaria, a life-threatening complication resulting from sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) in the microvasculature of various organs such as the brain and lungs. PRBC adhesion can induce endothelial cell (EC) activation and apoptosis, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, hemozoin, the malarial pigment, induces the erythroid precursor apoptosis. Despite the current efficiency of antimalarial drugs in killing parasites, severe malaria still causes up to one million deaths every year. A new strategy targeting both parasite elimination and EC protection is urgently needed in the field. Recently, a rho-kinase inhibitior Fasudil, a drug already in clinical use in humans for cardio- and neuro-vascular diseases, was successfully tested on laboratory strains of P. falciparum to protect and to reverse damages of the endothelium. We therefore assessed herein whether Fasudil would have a similar efficiency on P. falciparum taken directly from malaria patients using contact and non-contact experiments. Seven (23.3%) of 30 PRBC preparations from different patients were apoptogenic, four (13.3%) acting by cytoadherence and three (10%) via soluble factors. None of the apoptogenic PRBC preparations used both mechanisms indicating a possible mutual exclusion of signal transduction ligand. Three PRBC preparations (42.9%) induced EC apoptosis by cytoadherence after 4 h of coculture (“rapid transducers”), and four (57.1%) after a minimum of 24 h (“slow transducers”). The intensity of apoptosis increased with time. Interestingly, Fasudil inhibited EC apoptosis mediated both by cell-cell contact and by soluble factors but did not affect PRBC cytoadherence. Fasudil was found to be able to prevent endothelium apoptosis from all the P. falciparum isolates tested. Our data provide evidence of the strong anti-apoptogenic effect of Fasudil and show that endothelial cell-P. falciparum

  2. Nocardioides taihuensis sp. nov., isolated from fresh water lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hang; Li, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Feng

    2017-09-01

    A novel actinobacterial strain, designated X17T, was isolated from the sediment of Taihu Lake in China and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed milky-white colonies comprising aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped cells. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belonged to the genus Nocardioides and consistently formed a distinct cluster with Nocardioides agariphilus JCM 16020T and Nocardioides islandensis MSL 26T, sharing 95.5 and 94.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.9 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, the isolate contained ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8 (H4) as the predominant menaquinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as the polar lipids found in the cell wall. The major fatty acids were 18 : 1 ω9c (38.6 %), 16 : 0 iso (20.3 %), 15 : 0 iso (6.8 %) and 18 : 0 (5.8 %). Based on its physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strain represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides taihuensis sp. nov. (type strain X17T=CGMCC 4.7318T=NBRC 112321T) is proposed.

  3. Diversity of the var gene family of Indonesian Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The large polymorphic protein PfEMP1 is encoded by the var gene family. PfEMP1 has been shown to play an important role as cytoadherence ligand on the surface of infected erythrocytes and thereby contributes to the distinct pathogenesis of malaria. The study explored the diversity of the DBL1α and DBL2β-C2 domains of the protein from Indonesian Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Methods Samples of patients with severe and uncomplicated malaria from two different malaria-endemic areas in Indonesia were collected and DNA directly extracted. Dried blood on filter paper was prepared for RNA extraction. PCR amplicons were either cloned and subsequently sequenced or directly sequenced for analysis on nucleotide and amino acid level. Recently published as well as self-designed primers were used for amplification. Results Blood from eight patients was finally used for analysis. Seventy-one different sequences out of over 500 DBL1α sequenced clones were observed, resulting in an average of 8.9 different DBL1α sequences per isolate. The average DBL1α sequence similarity within isolates was similar to between isolates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated no clustering of sequences regarding strain or geographical origin. The DBL1α sequences were analysed by distribution of semi-conserved features (cysteine/PoLV1-4 grouping) and classified into six sequence groups. The DBL1α cys2 type was observed in all expressed sequences in vivo. Expression of certain DBL sequences implied potential involvement in the pathogenesis. As expected, the DBL2β-C2 domains showed high to moderate homology among each other. Conclusion The DBL1α domains of PfEMP1 from clinical Indonesian isolates showed high divergence among same isolates and some similarities with other Asia-Pacific strains. Further investigations of important var gene domains with a larger sample size are required to confirm with statistical significance observed associations with severe malaria in Indonesian

  4. PFMDR1 POLYMORPHISMS INFLUENCE ON IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF THAI PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM ISOLATES TO PRIMAQUINE, SITAMAQUINE AND TAFENOQUINE.

    PubMed

    Kaewpruk, Napaporn; Tan-ariya, Peerapan; Ward, Stephen A; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2016-05-01

    Primaquine (PQ), an 8-aminoquinoline, is considered a tissue schizonticide drug for radical cure in vivax and ovale malaria, with minimal impact on asexual erythrocytic stages at therapeutic concentrations. Tafenoquine (TQ), a new 8-aminoquinoline analog of PQ, is active against both malaria parasite tissue and blood stages and is being promoted as a drug candidate for antimalarial chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis and potential transmission blocking against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. This study compared in vitro sensitivity of Thai P. falciparum isolates against three 8-aminoquinolines, PQ, TQ and sitamaquine (SQ), a related 8-aminoquinoline and assessed the importance of pfmdr1 polymorphism on the in vitro response. Seventy-eight laboratory adapted Thai P. falciparum isolates were evaluated for in vitro sensitivity to the three 8-aminoquinolines using a radioisotopic assay, and pfmdr1 polymorphisms were determined using PCR-based methods. All three drugs have weak antiplasmodial activity against asexual erythrocytic stage with SQ being the most potent by almost 10 folds. Cross susceptibility was observed in all three 8-aminoquinolines. Parasites containing pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y or 1034S allele exhibit significantly higher PQ IC₅₀. TQ sensitivity was reduced in those parasites containing pfmdr1 86Y, 1034S or 1042N allele. However, there was no significant influence of pfmdr1 alleles on SQ sensitivity. The data highlight unique differences among three representative 8-aminoquinoline drugs that may be useful in understanding their potential utility in antimalarial development.

  5. Mechanisms of the statins cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Narges; Heidari, Reza; Azarmi, Yadollah; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Statins are potent drugs, used as lipid-lowering agents in cardiovascular diseases. Hepatotoxicity is one of the serious adverse effects of statins, and the exact mechanism of hepatotoxicity is not yet clear. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the most commonly used statins, that is, atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin toward isolated rat hepatocytes, were evaluated. Markers, such as cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the amount of reduced and oxidized glutathione in the statin-treated hepatocytes, were investigated. It was found that the statins caused cytotoxicity toward rat hepatocytes dose dependently. An elevation in ROS formation, accompanied by a significant amount of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial depolarization, was observed. Cellular glutathione reservoirs were decreased, and a significant amount of oxidized glutathione was formed. This study suggests that the adverse effect of statins toward hepatocytes is mediated through oxidative stress and the hepatocytes mitochondria play an important role in the statin-induced toxicity.

  6. Ex Vivo Drug Sensitivity Profiles of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, Determined by a Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-13

    01 JUN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field...PCR (RT-PCR) targeting the 18 s rRNA gene. Specimens with a microscopically or RT-PCR confirmed malaria co- infection at time zero, Plasmodium vivax... falciparum isolates from submitting study locations were plated directly onto malaria drug coated plates without prior culture adaptation [5]. All

  7. Two new sesquiterpene glycosides isolated from the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun-Chuan; Ye, Liang; Zhao, Man-Xi; Yan, Cui-Qi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Quan-Shu; Liang, Kai; Meng, Bao-Hua; Ke, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpene glycosides, namely massonside A (1) and massonside B (2), were isolated from the n-Bu extract of the fresh needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb. Their structures were established by 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Their biological activities were profiled by the anti-HBV and anti-HCV assays.

  8. Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from UK travellers: in vitro drug sensitivity, clonality and drug resistance markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The screening of lead compounds against in vitro parasite cultures is an essential step in the development of novel anti-malarial drugs, but currently relies on laboratory parasite lines established in vitro during the last century. This study sought to establish in continuous culture a series of recent Plasmodium falciparum isolates to represent the current parasite populations in Africa, all of which are now exposed to artemisinin combination therapy. Methods Pre-treatment P. falciparum isolates were obtained in EDTA, and placed into continuous culture after sampling of DNA. One post-treatment blood sample was also collected for each donor to monitor parasite clonality during clearance in vivo. IC50 estimates were obtained for 11 anti-malarial compounds for each established parasite line, clonal multiplicity measured in vivo and in vitro, and polymorphic sites implicated in parasite sensitivity to drugs were investigated at the pfmdr1, pfcrt, pfdhfr, pfdhps and pfap2mu loci before and after treatment, and in the cultured lines. Results Plasmodium falciparum isolates from seven malaria patients with recent travel to three West African and two East African countries were successfully established in long-term culture. One of these, HL1211, was from a patient with recrudescent parasitaemia 14 days after a full course of artemether-lumefantrine. All established culture lines were shown to be polyclonal, reflecting the in vivo isolates from which they were derived, and at least two lines reliably produce gametocytes in vitro. Two lines displayed high chloroquine IC50 estimates, and carried the CVIET haplotype at codons 72–76, whereas the remaining five lines carried the CVMNK haplotype and were sensitive in vitro. All were sensitive to the endoperoxides dihydroartemisinin and OZ277, but IC50 estimates for lumefantrine varied, with the least sensitive parasites carrying pfmdr1 alleles encoding Asn at codon 86. Conclusions This study describes the

  9. Investigation of functional and morphological integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, A; Bode, D C; Pruss, J; Bilir, B; Smith, G D; Zeisloft, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a pressing need for alternative therapeutic methods effective in the treatment of patients with liver insufficiency. Isolated human hepatocytes may be a viable alternative or adjunct to orthotopic liver transplantation in such patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability and functional integrity of freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes, in preparation for a multi-center human hepatocyte transplantation trial. We are currently processing transplant-grade human parenchymal liver cells from nondiseased human livers that are obtained through a network of organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Thus far, sixteen hepatocyte transplants have been performed using hepatocytes processed by our methods. At the time of referral all specimens were deemed unsuitable for transplantation due to anatomical anomalies, high fat content, medical history, etc. Hepatocytes were isolated from encapsulated liver sections by a modified two-step perfusion technique. Isolated cells were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for one to twelve months. The total yield of freshly isolated hepatocytes averaged 3.7x10(7) cells per gram of wet tissue. Based on trypan blue exclusion, fresh preparations contained an average of 85% viable hepatocytes vs. 70% in cryopreserved samples. The plating efficiencies of cells seeded immediately after isolation ranged from 87% to 98%, while those of cryopreserved/thawed cells were markedly lower. Flow cytometry analysis of cells labeled with 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) showed that there was no significant difference in viability compared with trypan blue staining. Both freshly isolated hepatocytes and those recovered from cryopreservation showed typical and intact morphology as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. The product of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reaction was always expressed more intensely in cultures of freshly

  10. Comparative sequence analysis of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 from Saudi Arabia and worldwide isolates.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; AlSheikh, Adel Ali H; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2016-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1) plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion and is a target of protective antibodies. Although domain I of PfAMA1 has been considered a promising vaccine component, extensive sequence diversity in this domain could compromise an effective vaccine design. To explore the extent of sequence diversity in domain I of PfAMA1, P. falciparum-infected blood samples from Saudi Arabia collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed and compared with those from worldwide parasite populations. Forty-six haplotypes and a novel codon change (M190V) were found among Saudi Arabian isolates. The haplotype diversity (0.948±0.004) and nucleotide diversity (0.0191±0.0008) were comparable to those from African hyperendemic countries. Positive selection in domain I of PfAMA1 among Saudi Arabian parasite population was observed because nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) significantly exceeded synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and Tajima's D and its related statistics significantly deviated from neutrality in the positive direction. Despite a relatively low prevalence of malaria in Saudi Arabia, a minimum of 17 recombination events occurred in domain I. Genetic differentiation was significant between P. falciparum in Saudi Arabia and parasites from other geographic origins. Several shared or closely related haplotypes were found among parasites from different geographic areas, suggesting that vaccine derived from multiple shared epitopes could be effective across endemic countries.

  11. The Genotypic and Phenotypic Stability of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates in Continuous In Vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Yeda, Redemptah; Ingasia, Luicer A.; Cheruiyot, Agnes C.; Okudo, Charles; Chebon, Lorna J.; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Akala, Hoseah M.; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture system is critical for genotypic and phenotypic analyses of the parasites. For genotypic analysis, the genomic DNA can be obtained directly from the patient blood sample or from culture adapted parasites whereas for phenotypic analysis, immediate ex vivo or in vitro culture adapted parasites are used. However, parasite biology studies have not investigated whether culture adaptation process affects genotypic and/or phenotypic characteristics of the parasites in short- or long-term cultures. Here, we set out to study the dynamics and stability of parasite genetic and phenotypic profiles as field isolate parasites were adapted in continuous cultures. Parasites collected from three different patients presenting with uncomplicated malaria were adapted and maintained in drug-free continuous cultures. Aliquots from the continuous cultures were collected every 24–48 hours for analyses. Each aliquot was treated as a separate parasite sample. For genetic analysis, microsatellite (MS) typing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses of 23 drug resistance markers were done. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for some of the samples were also established for four antimalarial drugs. Samples from each patient (parasite-line) were compared as they were passed through the continuous culture. Data revealed genotypic and phenotypic profiles for the three parasite-lines fluctuated from one generation to the next with no specific pattern or periodicity. With few exceptions, multilocus analysis revealed samples from each parasite-line had high genetic diversity with unique haplotypes. Interestingly, changes in MS and SNP profiles occurred simultaneously. The difference in the IC50s of samples in each parasite-line reached statistical significance. However, phenotypic changes did not correspond or correlate to genotypic changes. Our study revealed parasite genetic and phenotypic characteristics fluctuates in short- and long

  12. Refrigeration provides a simple means to synchronize in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lili; Hao, Mingming; Wu, Lanou; Zhao, Zhen; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Li, Xiaomei; He, Yongshu; Sun, Ling; Feng, Guohua; Xiang, Zheng; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is usually asynchronous during in vitro culture. Highly synchronized cultures of P. falciparum are routinely used in malaria research. Here, we describe a simple synchronization procedure for P. falciparum asexual erythrocytic culture, which involves storage at 4°C for 8-24 h followed by routine culture. When cultures with 27-60% of ring stage were synchronized using this procedure, 70-93% ring stages were obtained after 48 h of culture and relative growth synchrony remained for at least two erythrocytic cycles. To test the suitability of this procedure for subsequent work, drug sensitivity assays were performed using four laboratory strains and four freshly adapted clinical P. falciparum isolates. Parasites synchronized by sorbitol treatment or refrigeration showed similar dose-response curves and comparable IC50 values to four antimalarial drugs. The refrigeration synchronization method is simple, inexpensive, time-saving, and should be especially useful when large numbers of P. falciparum culture are handled.

  13. In vivo responses to antimalarials by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from isolated Gag Island off northwest Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fryauff, D J; Sumawinata, I; Purnomo; Richie, T L; Tjitra, E; Bangs, M J; Kadir, A; Ingkokusumo, G

    1999-04-01

    There is renewed interest in the rich nickel and cobalt deposits of Pulau Gag, an isolated but malarious island off the northwest coast of Irian Jaya. In preparation for an expanded workforce, an environmental assessment of malaria risk was made, focusing upon malaria prevalence in the small indigenous population, and the in vivo sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P), the respective first- and second-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria in Indonesia. During April-June 1997, mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic malaria infections were found in 24% of 456 native residents. Infections by P. falciparum accounted for 60% of the cases. Respective day 28 cure rates for CQ (10 mg base/kg on days 0 and 1; 5 mg/kg on day 2) in children and adults were 14% and 55% (P < 0.005). Type RII and RIII resistance characterized only 5% of the CQ failures. Re-treatment of 36 P. falciparum CQ treatment failures with S/P (25 mg/kg and 1.25 mg/kg, respectively) demonstrated rapid clearance and complete sensitivity during the 28-day follow-up period. More than 97% of the P. vivax malaria cases treated with CQ cleared parasitemia within 48 hr. Three cases of P. vivax malaria recurred between days 21 and 28, but against low drug levels in the blood. The low frequency of RII and RIII P. falciparum resistance to CQ, the complete sensitivity of this species to S/P, and the absence of CQ resistance by P. vivax are in contrast to in vivo and in vitro test results from sites on mainland Irian Jaya.

  14. Hemolytic and urease activities in vibrios isolated from fresh and frozen oysters.

    PubMed

    Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to survey the Vibrio microbiota of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from restaurants in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, and to identify virulence factors. The isolated vibrios were submitted to biochemical identification and were tested for hemolytic and urease activities. The isolated strains belonged to 13 species, with predominance of Vibrio mimicus. Of the strain isolates only from fresh samples, 20.5% and 2.8% showed hemolytic and urease activities, respectively. The findings support the little-publicized claim that Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus can represent a health risk to public health.

  15. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Fresh Produce Marketed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shanker P; Wang, Hua; Adams, Jennifer K; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella continues to rank as one of the most costly foodborne pathogens, and more illnesses are now associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Microbiological Data Program (MDP) sampled select commodities of fresh fruit and vegetables and tested them for Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria. The Salmonella strains isolated were further characterized by serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. This article summarizes the Salmonella data collected by the MDP between 2002 and 2012. The results show that the rates of Salmonella prevalence ranged from absent to 0.34% in cilantro. A total of 152 isolates consisting of over 50 different serotypes were isolated from the various produce types, and the top five were Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, S. enterica subspecies arizonae (subsp. IIIa) and diarizonae (subsp. IIIb), and S. enterica serotypes Newport, Javiana, and Infantis. Among these, Salmonella serotypes Newport and Javiana are also listed among the top five Salmonella serotypes that caused most foodborne outbreaks. Other serotypes that are frequent causes of infection, such as S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were also found in fresh produce but were not prevalent. About 25% of the MDP samples were imported produce, including 65% of green onions, 44% of tomatoes, 42% of hot peppers, and 41% of cantaloupes. However, imported produce did not show higher numbers of Salmonella-positive samples, and in some products, like cilantro, all of the Salmonella isolates were from domestic samples. About 6.5% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds tested, but no single commodity or serotype was found to be the most common carrier of resistant strains or of resistance. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the produce isolates showed similarities with Salmonella isolates from meat samples and from outbreaks, but

  16. Genetic diversity and natural selection at the domain I of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum in isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mardani, Ahmad; Keshavarz, Hossein; Heidari, Aliehsan; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeisi, Ahmad; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2012-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum is a prime malaria asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate. Antigenic variation is one of the main obstacles in the development of a universal effective malaria vaccine. The extracellular region of P. falciparum AMA-1 (PfAMA-1) consists of three domains (I-III), of which the domain I is the most diverse region of this antigen. The objective of our study was to investigate and analyze the extent of genetic diversity and the effectiveness of natural selection at the AMA-1 domain I of P. falciparum in isolates from Iran. A fragment of ama-1 gene spanning domain I was amplified by nested PCR from 48 P. falciparum isolates collected from two major malaria endemic areas of Iran during 2009 to August 2010 and sequenced. Genetic polymorphism and statistical analyses were performed using DnaSP and MEGA software packages. Analysis of intrapopulation diversity revealed relatively high nucleotide and haplotype diversity at the PfAMA-1 domain I of Iranian isolates. Neutrality tests provided strong evidence of positive natural selection acting on the sequenced gene region. The findings also demonstrated that, in addition to natural selection, intragenic recombination may contribute to the diversity observed at the domain I. The results obtained will have significant implications in the design and the development of an AMA-1-based vaccine against falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2016-09-01

    The study of genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum is necessary to understand the distribution and dynamics of parasite populations. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 and 2 has been extensively studied from different parts of world. However, limited data are available from India. This study was aimed to determine the genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) of P. falciparum population in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. A total of 80day-zero blood samples from Kolkata were collected during a therapeutic efficacy study in 2008-2009. DNA was extracted; allelic frequency and diversity were investigated by PCR-genotyping method for msp1 and msp2 gene and fragment sizing was done by Bio-Rad Gel-Doc system using Image Lab (version 4.1) software. P. falciparum msp1 and msp2 markers were highly polymorphic with low allele frequencies. In Kolkata, 27 msp1 different genotypes (including 11of K1, 6 of MAD20 and 10 of Ro33 allelic families) and 30 different msp2 genotypes (of which 17 and 13 belonged to the FC27 and 3D7 allelic families, respectively) were recorded. The majority of these genotypes occurred at a frequency below 10%. The mean MOI for msp1 and msp2 gene were 2.05 and 3.72, respectively. The P. falciparum population of Kolkata was genetically diverse. As the frequencies of most of the msp1 and msp2 alleles were low, the probability of new infection with genotype identical to that in pretreatment infection was very rare. This information will serve as baseline data for evaluation of malaria control interventions as well as for monitoring the parasite population structure.

  18. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Palva, Airi

    2016-04-07

    The autochthonousLactobacillus brevisstrain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. Copyright © 2016 Kant et al.

  19. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    The autochthonous Lactobacillus brevis strain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production. PMID:27056237

  20. Limited polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum ookinete surface antigen, von Willebrand factor A domain-related protein from clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jack S; MacDonald, Nicholas J; Eisen, Damon P

    2006-01-01

    Background As malaria becomes increasingly drug resistant and more costly to treat, there is increasing urgency to develop effective vaccines. In comparison to other stages of the malaria lifecycle, sexual stage antigens are under less immune selection pressure and hence are likely to have limited antigenic diversity. Methods Clinical isolates from a wide range of geographical regions were collected. Direct sequencing of PCR products was then used to determine the extent of polymorphisms for the novel Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage antigen von Willebrand Factor A domain-related Protein (PfWARP). These isolates were also used to confirm the extent of diversity of sexual stage antigen Pfs28. Results PfWARP was shown to have non-synonymous substitutions at 3 positions and Pfs28 was confirmed to have a single non-synonymous substitution as previously described. Conclusion This study demonstrates the limited antigenic diversity of two prospective P. falciparum sexual stage antigens, PfWARP and Pfs28. This provides further encouragement for the proceeding with vaccine trials based on these antigens. PMID:16820064

  1. A Method for Amplicon Deep Sequencing of Drug Resistance Genes in Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Isolates from India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pavitra N.; Uplekar, Swapna; Kayal, Sriti; Mallick, Prashant K.; Bandyopadhyay, Nabamita; Kale, Sonal; Singh, Om P.; Mohanty, Akshaya; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge to global malaria control and elimination is early detection and containment of emerging drug resistance. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods provide the resolution, scalability, and sensitivity required for high-throughput surveillance of molecular markers of drug resistance. We have developed an amplicon sequencing method on the Ion Torrent PGM platform for targeted resequencing of a panel of six Plasmodium falciparum genes implicated in resistance to first-line antimalarial therapy, including artemisinin combination therapy, chloroquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. The protocol was optimized using 12 geographically diverse P. falciparum reference strains and successfully applied to multiplexed sequencing of 16 clinical isolates from India. The sequencing results from the reference strains showed 100% concordance with previously reported drug resistance-associated mutations. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clinical isolates revealed a number of known resistance-associated mutations and other nonsynonymous mutations that have not been implicated in drug resistance. SNP positions containing multiple allelic variants were used to identify three clinical samples containing mixed genotypes indicative of multiclonal infections. The amplicon sequencing protocol has been designed for the benchtop Ion Torrent PGM platform and can be operated with minimal bioinformatics infrastructure, making it ideal for use in countries that are endemic for the disease to facilitate routine large-scale surveillance of the emergence of drug resistance and to ensure continued success of the malaria treatment policy. PMID:27008882

  2. DNA fragmentation dynamics in fresh versus frozen thawed plus gradient-isolated human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gosálvez, Jaime; de la Torre, Joaquina; López-Fernández, Carmen; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Ortega, Leonor; Caballero, Pedro; Nuñez, Rocio

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (rSDF; increase of SDF over time) in fresh and gradient isolated frozen-thawed semen samples from male sperm donors of proven fertility. SDF was assessed in the two samples obtained from the same fifteen male donors after 0.5, 1.5, 4.5, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air at 37 degrees C. Analysis was performed based on chromatin dispersion patterns evaluated using the Halosperm kit. No significant differences in SDF were obtained when fresh and gradient-isolated frozen-thawed spermatozoa were compared at baseline. However, the rSDF shown by the two samples differed and gradient-isolation selected for sperm subpopulations showing a lower variance for SDF. At the individual level, sperm selection by density gradient purification in frozen-thawed samples did not improve the levels of SDF when compared with the values obtained in fresh samples at baseline.

  3. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from retail fresh meats and poultry.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, M P; Schoeni, J L

    1987-01-01

    A total of 896 samples of retail fresh meats and poultry was assayed for Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 by a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-immunoblot procedure developed specifically to isolate the organism from foods. The procedure involves several steps, including selective enrichment, filtration of enrichment culture through hydrophobic grid membrane filters, incubation of each filter on nitrocellulose paper on selective agar, preparation of an immunoblot (by using antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate) of each nitrocellulose paper, selection from the filters of colonies which corresponded to immunopositive sites on blots, screening of isolates by a Biken test for precipitin lines from metabolites and antiserum to E. coli O157:H7 culture filtrate, and confirmation of isolates as Vero cell cytotoxic E. coli O157:H7 by biochemical, serological, and Vero cell cytotoxicity tests. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from 6 (3.7%) of 164 beef, 4 (1.5%) of 264 pork, 4 (1.5%) of 263 poultry, and 4 (2.0%) of 205 lamb samples. One of 14 pork samples and 5 of 17 beef samples contaminated with the organism were from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, grocery stores, whereas all other contaminated samples were from Madison, Wis., retail outlets. This is the first report of the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from food other than ground beef, and results indicate that the organism is not a rare contaminant of fresh meats and poultry. Images PMID:3322190

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Isolated from Fresh-Marketed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafael dos Santos; Leite, Lana Oliveira; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of seafood by bacteria of fecal origin, especially Escherichia coli, is a widely documented sanitary problem. The objective of the present study was to isolate E. coli strains from the gills, muscle, and body surface of farmed Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) fresh-marketed in supermarkets in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics of different families (amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim), and to determine the nature of resistance by plasmid curing. Forty-four strains (body surface = 25, gills = 15, muscle = 4) were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Gill and body surface samples yielded 11 isolates resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, 4 of which of plasmidial nature. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was higher for strains isolated from body surface than from gills. The overall high antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from fresh-marketed tilapia was satisfactory, although the occasional finding of plasmidial resistance points to the need for close microbiological surveillance of the farming, handling, and marketing conditions of aquaculture products. PMID:24808957

  5. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2015-10-20

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread.

  6. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of Southeast Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Brandyce; Miller, Becky; Burton, Timothy A.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Men, Sary; Sovannaroth, Siv; Fay, Michael P.; Miotto, Olivo; Gwadz, Robert W.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. This knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to Africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. Here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. We show that contemporary artemisinin-resistant isolates from Cambodia develop and produce sporozoites in two Southeast Asian vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus, and the major African vector, Anopheles coluzzii (formerly Anopheles gambiae M). The ability of artemisinin-resistant parasites to infect such highly diverse Anopheles species, combined with their higher gametocyte prevalence in patients, may explain the rapid expansion of these parasites in Cambodia and neighbouring countries, and further compromise efforts to prevent their global spread. PMID:26485448

  7. Emergence of Mutations in the K13 Propeller Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Dakar, Senegal, in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Boussaroque, Agathe; Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Benoit, Nicolas; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Dionne, Pierre; Fall, Kadidiatou Ba; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    The kelch 13 (K13) propeller gene is associated with artemisinin resistance. In a previous work, there were no mutations found in 138 Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 2012 and 2013 from patients residing in Dakar, Senegal (M. Torrentino-Madamet et al., Malar J 13:472, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-472). However, the N554H, Q613H, and V637I mutations were identified in the propeller region of K13 in 92 (5.5%) isolates in 2013 and 2014. There were five polymorphisms identified in the Plasmodium/Apicomplexa-specific domain (K123R, N137S, N142NN/NNN, T149S, and K189T/N). PMID:26503652

  8. High prevalence of mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps genes in field isolates from Sabah, Northern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Noor Rain; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Jelip, Jenarun; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Mohd Sidek, Hasidah; Ismail, Zakiah; Noedl, Harald

    2013-06-12

    Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been in use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia since the 1970s and is still widely employed in spite of widespread clinical resistance. Resistance to SP is known to be mediated by mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of pfdhfr and pfdhps gene polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kalabakan, Sabah, in northern Borneo. A total number of 619 individuals were screened from 23 study sites of which 31 were positive for P. falciparum. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) was used to identify polymorphism in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes at positions 16, 51, 59, 108, 164 and 437, 540, 581, respectively. All samples had at least one mutation in each of the genes associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of pfdhfr 59arg, 164leu and 108asn were 100%, 80.65% and 58.06%, respectively. Pfdhps mutants 437gly and 581gly accounted for 100% and 74.19% respectively. In pfdhfr, the most common mutant genotypes were combination 59arg + 164leu (22.58%) and 59arg + 108asn + 164leu (51.61%). In pfdhps the most common genotype was 437gly + 581gly (74.19%). One individual (3.22%) harboured parasites with four pfdhfr (16 val + 59arg + 108asn + 164leu) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly) mutations. The highest quintuple pfdhfr/pfdhps (41.94%) was three pfdhfr (59arg + 108asn + 164gly) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly). The data suggest a high prevalence of genetic variations conferring resistance to SP which can predict treatment failure before becoming clinically evident. In areas like this, the use of SP may no longer be indicated.

  9. Growth characteristics and biofilm formation of various spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Min; Zheng, Ling; Hyun, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kyu-Seok; Heu, Sunggi; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce including growth at various temperatures, biofilm formation, cell hydrophobicity, and colony spreading. The number of spoilage bacteria present when stored at 35 °C was significantly greater than when stored at lower temperatures, and maximum population size was achieved after 10 h. However, Bacillus pumilus, Dickeya zeae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum Pcc21, and Bacillus pumilus (RDA-R) did not grow at the storage temperature of 5 °C. The biofilm formation by Clavibacter michiganensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and A. calcoaceticus (RDA-R) are higher than other spoilage bacteria. Biofilm formation showed low correlation between hydrophobicity, and no significant correlation with colony spreading. These results might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures, and could be basic information on the growth characteristics and biofilm formation properties of spoilage bacteria from fresh produce. Growth of spoilage bacteria was different depending on the bacteria strains and storage temperature. Between biofilm formation and cell hydrophobicity was low correlation on spoilage bacteria. Therefore, growth characteristics and biofilm formation of spoilage bacteria might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Different strategies of energy storage in cultured and freshly isolated Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Hung-Kai; Jhu, Chu-Sian; Cheng, Jing-O; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship between cnidarians and Symbiodinium is critical for the survival of coral reefs. In this study, we developed a protocol to rapidly and freshly separate Symbiodinium from corals and sea anemones. Furthermore, we compared these freshly-isolated Symbiodinium with cultured Symbiodinium to investigate host and Symbiodinium interaction. Clade B Symbiodinium had higher starch content and lower lipid content than those of clades C and D in both freshly isolated and cultured forms. Clade C had the highest lipid content, particularly when associated with corals. Moreover, the coral-associated Symbiodinium had higher protein content than did cultured and sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium. Regarding fatty acid composition, cultured Symbiodinium and clades B, C, and D shared similar patterns, whereas sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium had a distinct pattern compared coral-associated Symbiodinium. Specifically, the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids were lower than those of the saturated fatty acids, and the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the highest in all examined Symbiodinium. Furthermore, PUFAs levels were higher in coral-associated Symbiodinium than in cultured Symbiodinium. These results altogether indicated that different Symbiodinium clades used different energy storage strategies, which might be modified by hosts. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Implementing Patch Clamp and Live Fluorescence Microscopy to Monitor Functional Properties of Freshly Isolated PKD Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Tengis S; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Pochynyuk, Oleh; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Cyst initiation and expansion during polycystic kidney disease is a complex process characterized by abnormalities in tubular cell proliferation, luminal fluid accumulation and extracellular matrix formation. Activity of ion channels and intracellular calcium signaling are key physiologic parameters which determine functions of tubular epithelium. We developed a method suitable for real-time observation of ion channels activity with patch-clamp technique and registration of intracellular Ca2+ level in epithelial monolayers freshly isolated from renal cysts. PCK rats, a genetic model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), were used here for ex vivo analysis of ion channels and calcium flux. Described here is a detailed step-by-step procedure designed to isolate cystic monolayers and non-dilated tubules from PCK or normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and monitor single channel activity and intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. This method does not require enzymatic processing and allows analysis in a native setting of freshly isolated epithelial monolayer. Moreover, this technique is very sensitive to intracellular calcium changes and generates high resolution images for precise measurements. Finally, isolated cystic epithelium can be further used for staining with antibodies or dyes, preparation of primary cultures and purification for various biochemical assays.

  12. Molecular mutation profile of pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum isolates imported from Africa in Henan province.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Yun; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Yu-Ling; Li, Su-Hua; Qian, Dan; Xu, Bian-Li

    2016-05-10

    Anti-malarial drug resistance is a primary public health problem. Haplotypes of pfcrt gene have been implicated to be molecular markers of chloroquine (CQ) resistance. This study aims to explore the prevalence of polymorphisms in pfcrt in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients imported from Africa in Henan province. Blood samples were collected from 502 patients who were infected with P. falciparum returning from Africa in Henan province during 2012-2015. The single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt (codons 72-76) were assessed by nested PCR with DNA sequencing and restriction digestion, the haplotype prevalences were also determined. Four haplotypes coding 72-76 of pfcrt were found including CVMNK (wild type), CVIET (mutation type), CVIEK (mutation type), and CV M/I N/E/D/K K/T (mixed type), with 61.95 % (311/502), 33.07 % (166/502), 0.20 % (1/502), and 4.78 % (24/502) prevalence, respectively. Except mixed type, CVIET and CVIEK were the largest proportion of the mutant type in West Africa, accounting for 44.83 % (91/203), followed by East Africa (8/21, 38.10 %), North Africa (4/11, 36.36 %), Central Africa (36/135, 26.67 %), and South Africa (28/132, 21.21 %). There was significant difference among the groups (χ(2) = 23.78, P < 0.05). Mixed type was the largest proportion in North Africa (9.09 %), followed by Central Africa (6.67 %), East Africa (4.76 %), South Africa (4.55 %), and West Africa (3.45 %). There was no significant difference among the groups (χ(2) = 2.31, P > 0.05). The position 72 and 73 of pfcrt showed predominance for the wild type with rates of 100 % (502/502). This study identified four haplotypes of pfcrt in P. falciparum-infected patients imported from Africa in Henan province. The prevalence of mutations in the pfcrt was dropped comparing with other people's researches. It establishes fundamental data for detection of P. falciparum CQR with molecular markers for the imported P. falciparum in China, and it also

  13. Polymorphism and epitope sharing between the alleles of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum among Indian isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mamillapalli, Anitha; Sunil, Sujatha; Diwan, Suraksha S; Sharma, Surya K; Tyagi, Prajesh K; Adak, Tridibes; Joshi, Hema; Malhotra, Pawan

    2007-01-01

    Background The C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) is one of the leading candidates for vaccination against the erythrocytic stages of malaria. However, a major concern in the development of MSP-1 based malaria vaccine is the polymorphism observed in different geographical Plasmodium falciparum isolates. To explore whether the sequence heterogeneity of PfMSP-1 leads to variation in naturally acquired anti-MSP-119 antibodies, the present study was undertaken to study PfMSP-119 sequence polymorphism in malaria-endemic villages in eastern India and also carried out a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using three PfMSP-119 variant forms. Methods The sequence variations in the C-terminal region of PfMSP-119 were determined in a malaria endemic region. Three PfMSP-119 variants were produced in Escherichia coli (PfMSP119QKNG-L, PfMSP119EKNG-L and PfMSP119ETSR-F) and an immunodepletion assay was carried out using the corresponding patients' sera. Results Results revealed predominance of PfMAD20 allele among Indian field isolates. Seven PfMSP-119 variant forms were isolated in a singe geographical location. Three of PfMSP-119 variant forms when expressed in E. coli showed presence of cross-reaction as well as variant specific antibodies in malaria infected patient sera. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the existence of allele specific antibodies in P. falciparum-infected patient sera, however their role in protection requires further investigation. These results thereby, suggest the importance of a multi-allelic PfMSP-119 based vaccine for an effective malaria control. PMID:17659072

  14. Comparative genomic analyses of freshly isolated Giardia intestinalis assemblage A isolates.

    PubMed

    Ankarklev, Johan; Franzén, Oscar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Lebbad, Marianne; Andersson, Jan; Andersson, Björn; Svärd, Staffan G

    2015-09-15

    The diarrhea-causing protozoan Giardia intestinalis makes up a species complex of eight different assemblages (A-H), where assemblage A and B infect humans. Comparative whole-genome analyses of three of these assemblages have shown that there is significant divergence at the inter-assemblage level, however little is currently known regarding variation at the intra-assemblage level. We have performed whole genome sequencing of two sub-assemblage AII isolates, recently axenized from symptomatic human patients, to study the biological and genetic diversity within assemblage A isolates. Several biological differences between the new and earlier characterized assemblage A isolates were identified, including a difference in growth medium preference. The two AII isolates were of different sub-assemblage types (AII-1 [AS175] and AII-2 [AS98]) and showed size differences in the smallest chromosomes. The amount of genetic diversity was characterized in relation to the genome of the Giardia reference isolate WB, an assemblage AI isolate. Our analyses indicate that the divergence between AI and AII is approximately 1 %, represented by ~100,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) distributed over the chromosomes with enrichment in variable genomic regions containing surface antigens. The level of allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) in the two AII isolates was found to be 0.25-0.35 %, which is 25-30 fold higher than in the WB isolate and 10 fold higher than the assemblage AII isolate DH (0.037 %). 35 protein-encoding genes, not found in the WB genome, were identified in the two AII genomes. The large gene families of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) and high cysteine membrane proteins (HCMPs) showed isolate-specific divergences of the gene repertoires. Certain genes, often in small gene families with 2 to 8 members, localize to the variable regions of the genomes and show high sequence diversity between the assemblage A isolates. One of the families, Bactericidal

  15. Permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae for growth of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Binet, Marie; Bouteleux, Celine; Herbelin, Pascaline; Soreau, Sylvie; Héchard, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in water and responsible for severe pneumonia. Free-living amoebae are protozoa also found in water, which feed on bacteria by phagocytosis. Under favorable conditions, some L. pneumophila are able to resist phagocytic digestion and even multiply within amoebae. However, it is not clear whether L. pneumophila could infect at a same rate a large range of amoebae or if there is some selectivity towards specific amoebal genera or strains. Also, most studies have been performed using collection strains and not with freshly isolated strains. In our study, we assess the permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae, belonging to three common genera (i.e. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba), for growth of L. pneumophila at three different temperatures. Our results indicated that all the tested strains of amoebae were permissive to L. pneumophila Lens and that there was no significant difference between the strains. Intracellular proliferation was more efficient at a temperature of 40°C. In conclusion, our work suggests that, under favorable conditions, virulent strains of L. pneumophila could equally infect a large number of isolates of common freshwater amoeba genera.

  16. Polymorphism of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance and chloroquine resistance transporter genes and in vitro susceptibility to aminoquinolines in isolates from the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Roncal, Norma; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Long, Ton That Ai; Gerena, Lucia; Garcia, Coralith; Solari, Lely; Magill, Alan J; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2004-05-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity to chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ) and quinine was investigated in 60 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from malaria patients in Padrecocha, a village in the Amazonian Department of Loreto, Peru. All isolates showed resistance to CQ, decreased susceptibility to quinine, and sensitivity to MQ. These isolates were examined for mutations in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) genes previously linked to CQ resistance. The mutations N86Y and D1246Y, two of the five mutations commonly observed in the pfmdr1 gene of CQ-resistant clones, were not found. The pfcrt mutation K76T, associated with CQ resistance, was identified in all the isolates tested. Sequence analysis of codons 72-76 in the pfcrt gene showed the haplotypes SVMNT and CVMNT.

  17. Isolation, molecular identification and quinolone-susceptibility testing of Arcobacter spp. isolated from fresh vegetables in Spain.

    PubMed

    González, Ana; Bayas Morejón, Isidro Favián; Ferrús, María Antonia

    2017-08-01

    Some species of the Arcobacter genus are considered emerging foodborne and waterborne enteropathogens. However, the presence of Arcobacter spp. in vegetables very little is known, because most studies have focused on foods of animal origin. On the other hand, quinolones are considered as first-line drugs for the treatment of infection by campylobacteria in human patients, but few data are currently available about the resistance levels to these antibiotics among Arcobacter species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of arcobacters isolated from fresh vegetables such as lettuces, spinaches, chards and cabbages. Resistance to quinolones of the isolates was also investigated. One hundred fresh vegetables samples purchased from seven local retail markets in Valencia (Spain) during eight months were analysed. The study included 41 lettuces, 21 spinaches, 34 chards and 4 cabbages. Samples were analysed by culture and by molecular methods before and after enrichment. By culture, 17 out of 100 analysed samples were Arcobacter positive and twenty-five isolates were obtained from them. Direct detection by PCR was low, with only 4% Arcobacter spp. positive samples. This percentage increased considerably, up 20%, after 48 h enrichment. By polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), 17 out of the 25 isolates were identified as A. butzleri and 8 as A. cryaerophilus. Only two A. butzleri isolates showed resistance to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The sequencing of a fragment of the QRDR region of the gyrA gene from the quinolones-resistant isolates revealed the presence of a mutation in position 254 of this gene (C-T transition). This study is the first report about the presence of pathogenic species of Arcobacter spp. in chards and cabbages and confirms that fresh vegetables can act as transmission vehicle to humans. Moreover, the presence of A. butzleri quinolone resistant in vegetables could

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  19. Reduction of multiplicity of infections but no change in msp2 genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Congolese children after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Ibara-Okabande, Rod; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Ndounga, Mathieu; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey; Malonga, Vladimir; Casimiro, Prisca Nadine; Ibara, Jean Rosaire; Sidibe, Anissa; Ntoumi, Francine

    2012-12-07

    In this first study conducted after the introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT), the major objective was to evaluate Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection in isolates from Congolese children between one and nine years of age enrolled and followed up for one year. The secondary objective was to characterize the msp2 profiles of P. falciparum isolates collected from successive malaria episodes in ten children who had four or more clinical episodes during the follow up. Three-hundred and thirteen children residing in southern part of Brazzaville participated in this study. Blood samples were obtained from all children at enrollment and checked for P. falciparum infection. Based on the one year follow-up data, two clinical groups were considered according to the number of malaria episodes presented over the follow up period: "protected"(children who did not experience any episode) and "unprotected" (those who experienced more that two episodes). Therefore, the msp2 genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates collected at enrollment in the two groups was characterized by allele-specific nested PCR and compared. The msp2 profiles of P. falciparum isolates collected from successive malaria episodes was also characterized by allele-specific nested PCR. Forty-three percent of FC27 and fifty-seven percent of 3D7 in protected vs fifty-six percent of FC27 and forty-four percent of 3D7 in isolates from unprotected children were detected. Seven and two alleles belonging to the FC27, and six and three alleles belonging to 3D7 families were distinguished in isolates from protected and unprotected children respectively. The mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) values at inclusion for the msp2 locus was 1.29 and 1.43 for protected and unprotected children respectively. 43 isolates were obtained from the ten children who had four or more clinical episodes during the follow up. A total of 63 alleles or fragments corresponding to 57% (36

  20. Reduction of multiplicity of infections but no change in msp2 genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Congolese children after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this first study conducted after the introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT), the major objective was to evaluate Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection in isolates from Congolese children between one and nine years of age enrolled and followed up for one year. The secondary objective was to characterize the msp2 profiles of P. falciparum isolates collected from successive malaria episodes in ten children who had four or more clinical episodes during the follow up. Methods Three-hundred and thirteen children residing in southern part of Brazzaville participated in this study. Blood samples were obtained from all children at enrollment and checked for P. falciparum infection. Based on the one year follow-up data, two clinical groups were considered according to the number of malaria episodes presented over the follow up period: “protected”(children who did not experience any episode) and “unprotected” (those who experienced more that two episodes). Therefore, the msp2 genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates collected at enrollment in the two groups was characterized by allele-specific nested PCR and compared. The msp2 profiles of P. falciparum isolates collected from successive malaria episodes was also characterized by allele-specific nested PCR. Results Forty-three percent of FC27 and fifty-seven percent of 3D7 in protected vs fifty-six percent of FC27 and forty-four percent of 3D7 in isolates from unprotected children were detected. Seven and two alleles belonging to the FC27, and six and three alleles belonging to 3D7 families were distinguished in isolates from protected and unprotected children respectively. The mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) values at inclusion for the msp2 locus was 1.29 and 1.43 for protected and unprotected children respectively. 43 isolates were obtained from the ten children who had four or more clinical episodes during the follow up. A total of 63 alleles or

  1. Inferring Strain Mixture within Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Genomic Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, John D.; Amenga-Etego, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We present a rigorous statistical model that infers the structure of P. falciparum mixtures—including the number of strains present, their proportion within the samples, and the amount of unexplained mixture—using whole genome sequence (WGS) data. Applied to simulation data, artificial laboratory mixtures, and field samples, the model provides reasonable inference with as few as 10 reads or 50 SNPs and works efficiently even with much larger data sets. Source code and example data for the model are provided in an open source fashion. We discuss the possible uses of this model as a window into within-host selection for clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:27362949

  2. Optimizing the HRP-2 In Vitro Malaria Drug Susceptibility Assay Using a Reference Clone to Improve Comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    analysed using the LC/MS system consisting of a reversed phase column (XTerra MS C18, 3.5 μm, 2.1 x 50 mm, Waters Corporation, MA, USA) and pre-column of...of such systems to evaluate field isolates for artemisinin resistance, particularly when used in isolation, without clinical correlation. The most...effort is the use of standardized Plasmodium falciparum reference clones to provide context for variability among the several assay systems

  3. Anti-Pfs25 Human Plasma Reduces Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates That Have Diverse Genetic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Da, Dari F.; Dixit, Saurabh; Sattabonkot, Jetsumon; Mu, Jianbing; Abate, Luc; Ramineni, Bhanumati; Ouedraogo, Jean Bosco; MacDonald, Nicholas J.; Fay, Michael P.; Su, Xin-zhuan; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Pfs25 is a leading candidate for a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine whose potential has been demonstrated in a phase 1 trial with recombinant Pfs25 formulated with Montanide ISA51. Because of limited sequence polymorphism, the anti-Pfs25 antibodies induced by this vaccine are likely to have transmission-blocking or -reducing activity against most, if not all, field isolates. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated transmission-blocking activities by membrane feeding assay of anti-Pfs25 plasma from the Pfs25/ISA51 phase 1 trial against Plasmodium falciparum parasites from patients in two different geographical regions of the world, Thailand and Burkina Faso. In parallel, parasite isolates from these patients were sequenced for the Pfs25 gene and genotyped for seven microsatellites. The results indicate that despite different genetic backgrounds among parasite isolates, the Pfs25 sequences are highly conserved, with a single nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphism detected in 1 of 41 patients in Thailand and Burkina Faso. The anti-Pfs25 immune plasma had significantly higher transmission-reducing activity against parasite isolates from the two geographical regions than the nonimmune controls (P < 0.0001). PMID:23509152

  4. High prevalence of pfcrt K76t mutants among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Yaccob, Norhayati; Jelip, Jenarun; Dony, Jiloris F; Ruslan, Khairul Faiz; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd; Noedl, Harald; Ismail, Zakiah

    2011-11-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) remains the first line drug for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Malaysia in spite of the fact that resistance to CQ has been observed in Malaysia since the 1960s. CQ-resistance is associated with various mutations in pfcrt, which encodes a putative transporter located in the digestive vacuolar membrane of P. falciparum. Substitution of lysine (K) to threonine (T) at amino acid 76 (K76T) in pfcrt is the primary genetic marker conferring resistance to CQ. To determine the presence of T76 mutation in pfcrt from selected areas of Kalabakan, Malaysia 619 blood samples were screened for P. falciparum, out of which 31 were positive. Blood samples were collected on 3 MM Whatman filter papers and DNA was extracted using QIAmp DNA mini kit. RFLP-PCR for the detection of the CQ-resistant T76 and sensitive K76 genotype was carried out. Twenty-five samples were shown to have the point mutation in pfcrt whereas the remaining samples were classified as CQ-sensitive (wild-type). In view of the fact that CQ is the first line anti-malarial drug in Malaysia, this finding could be an important indication that treatment with CQ may no longer be effective in the future.

  5. Population genomics of virulence genes of Plasmodium falciparum in clinical isolates from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ruybal-Pesántez, Shazia; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Tonkin-Hill, Gerry; Rask, Thomas S; Kamya, Moses R; Greenhouse, Bryan; Dorsey, Grant; Duffy, Michael F; Day, Karen P

    2017-09-18

    Plasmodium falciparum causes a spectrum of malarial disease from asymptomatic to uncomplicated through to severe. Investigations of parasite virulence have associated the expression of distinct variants of the major surface antigen of the blood stages known as Pf EMP1 encoded by up to 60 var genes per genome. Looking at the population genomics of var genes in cases of uncomplicated malaria, we set out to determine if there was any evidence of a selective sweep of specific var genes or clonal epidemic structure related to the incidence of uncomplicated disease in children. By sequencing the conserved DBLα domain of var genes from six sentinel sites in Uganda we found that the parasites causing uncomplicated P. falciparum disease in children were highly diverse and that every child had a unique var DBLα repertoire. Despite extensive var DBLα diversity and minimal overlap between repertoires, specific DBLα types and groups were conserved at the population level across Uganda. This pattern was the same regardless of the geographic distance or malaria transmission intensity. These data lead us to propose that any parasite can cause uncomplicated malarial disease and that these diverse parasite repertoires are composed of both upsA and non-upsA var gene groups.

  6. Fructophilic Lactobacillus kunkeei and Lactobacillus brevis isolated from fresh flowers, bees and bee-hives.

    PubMed

    Neveling, Deon P; Endo, Akihito; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-11-01

    Two-hundred-and-thirty-six isolates were collected from fresh flowers, bees and bee-hives. Of these, 20 isolates preferred D-fructose as carbon source, produced lactic acid and acetic acid but trace amounts of ethanol and were classified as fructophilic. Poor growth was recorded when strains were incubated anaerobically in the presence of D-glucose as sole carbon source. Good growth was, however, recorded when D-glucose was metabolized in the presence of external electron acceptors such as fructose, pyruvate and oxygen. Nineteen of the strains were classified as Lactobacillus kunkeei and one as Lactobacillus brevis based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA sequences, recA sequences and DNA homology. This is the first description of a fructophilic strain of L. brevis.

  7. Angiotensin II has acute effects on TRPC6 channels in podocytes of freshly isolated glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Palygin, Oleg; Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Vladislav; Negulyaev, Yuri A.; Ma, Rong; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A key role for podocytes in the pathogenesis of proteinuric renal diseases has been established. Angiotensin II causes depolarization and increased intracellular calcium concentration in podocytes; members of the cation TRPC channels family, particularly TRPC6, are proposed as proteins responsible for calcium flux. Angiotensin II evokes calcium transient through TRPC channels and mutations in the gene encoding the TRPC6 channel result in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of angiotensin II on intracellular calcium ion levels and endogenous channels in intact podocytes of freshly isolated decapsulated mouse glomeruli. An ion channel with distinct TRPC6 properties was identified in wild type, but was absent in TRPC6 knockout mice. Single channel electrophysiological analysis found that angiotensin II acutely activated native TRPC-like channels in both podocytes of freshly isolated glomeruli and TRPC6 channels transiently overexpressed in CHO cells; the effect was mediated by changes in the channel open probability. Angiotensin II evoked intracellular calcium transients in the wild type podocytes, which was blunted in TRPC6 knockout glomeruli. Pan-TRPC inhibitors gadolinium and SKF 96365 reduced the response in wild type glomerular epithelial cells, whereas the transient in TRPC6 knockout animals was not affected. Thus, angiotensin II-dependent activation of TRPC6 channels in podocytes may have a significant role in the development of kidney diseases. PMID:24646854

  8. Different Patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 Polymorphisms in P. falciparum Isolates from Nigeria and Brazil: The Potential Role of Antimalarial Drug Selection Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gbotosho, Grace O.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Bustamante, Carolina; Pereira da Silva, Luis Hildebrando; Mesquita, Elieth; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Zalis, Mariano G.; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.; Happi, Christian T.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of antimalarial drug selection on pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two distinct geographical locations was determined in 70 and 18 P. falciparum isolates from Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, using nested polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing approaches. All isolates from Brazil and 72% from Nigeria harbored the mutant SVMNT and CVIET pfcrt haplotype, respectively. The pfcrt CVMNT haplotype was also observed in (7%) of the Nigerian samples. One hundred percent (100%) and 54% of the parasites from Brazil and Nigeria, respectively, harbored wild-type pfmdr1Asn86. We provide first evidence of emergence of the CVMNT haplotype in West Africa. The high prevalence of pfcrt CVIET and SVMNT haplotypes in Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, is indicative of different selective pressure by chloroquine and amodiaquine. Continuous monitoring of pfcrt SVMNT haplotype is required in endemic areas of Africa, where artesunate-amodiaquine combination is used for treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria. PMID:22302850

  9. Erythrocyte invasion profiles are associated with a common invasion ligand polymorphism in Senegalese isolates of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lantos, P M; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Jennings, C V; Sarr, O; Ndir, O; Wirth, D F; Mboup, S; Duraisingh, M T

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites use multiple ligand-receptor interactions to invade human erythrocytes. Variant expression levels of members of the PfRh and PfEBA ligand families are associated with the use of different erythrocyte receptors, defining invasion pathways. Here we analyse a major polymorphism, a large sequence deletion in the PfRh2b ligand, and erythrocyte invasion profiles in uncultured Senegalese isolates. Parasites vary considerably in their use of sialic acid-containing and protease-sensitive erythrocyte receptors for invasion. The erythrocyte selectivity index was not related to invasion pathway usage, while parasite multiplication rate was associated with enhanced use of a trypsin-resistant invasion pathway. PfRh2b protein was expressed in all parasite isolates, although the PfRh2b deletion was present in a subset (approximately 68%). Parasites with the PfRh2b deletion were found to preferentially utilize protease-resistant pathways for erythrocyte invasion. Sialic acid-independent invasion is reduced in parasites with the PfRh2b deletion, but only in isolates derived from blood group O patients. Our results suggest a significant role for PfRh2b sequence polymorphism in discriminating between alternative erythrocyte receptors for invasion and as a possible determinant of virulence.

  10. Genetic variation of pfhrp2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Yemen and the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Jasari, Adel; Sady, Hany; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ithoi, Init; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Surin, Johari

    2015-07-22

    The genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) gene that may compromise the use of pfhrp2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of malaria was assessed in P. falciparum isolates from Yemen. This study was conducted in Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates, Yemen. A total of 622 individuals with fever were examined for malaria by CareStart malaria HRP2-RDT and Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films. The Pfhrp2 gene was amplified and sequenced from 180 isolates, and subjected to amino acid repeat types analysis. A total of 188 (30.2%) participants were found positive for P. falciparum by the RDT. Overall, 12 different amino acid repeat types were identified in Yemeni isolates. Six repeat types were detected in all the isolates (100%) namely types 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 12 while types 9 and 11 were not detected in any of the isolates. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of the used PfHRP2-based RDTs were high (90.5% and 96.1%, respectively). The present study provides data on the genetic variation within the pfhrp2 gene, and its potential impact on the PfHRP2-based RDTs commonly used in Yemen. CareStart Malaria HRP2-based RDT showed high sensitivity and specificity in endemic areas of Yemen.

  11. Bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of active antiplasmodial compounds from Murraya koenigii extracts against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is an overwhelming impact in the poorest countries in the world due to their prevalence, virulence and drug resistance ability. Currently, there is inadequate armoury of drugs for the treatment of malaria. This underscores the continuing need for the discovery and development of new effective and safe antimalarial drugs. To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of the leaf ethyl acetate extract of Murraya koenigii, bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation was employed for the isolation and purification of antimalarial compounds. The in vitro antimalarial activity was assayed by the erythrocytic stages of chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. The in vivo assay was done by administering mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65) four consecutive daily doses of the extracts through oral route following Peter's 4-day curative standard test. The percentage suppression of parasitaemia was calculated for each dose level by comparing the parasitaemia in untreated control with those of treated mice. Cytotoxicity was determined against HeLa cells using MTT assay. Histopathology was studied in kidney, liver and spleen of isolated compound-treated Swiss albino mice. The leaf crude ethyl acetate extract of M. koenigii showed good in vitro antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The in vivo test of the leaf crude ethyl acetate extract (600 mg/kg) showed reduced malaria parasitaemia by 86.6% against P. berghei in mice. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf ethyl acetate extract of M. koenigii led to the isolation of two purified fractions C3B2 (2.84 g) and C3B4 (1.97 g). The purified fractions C3B2 and C3B4 were found to be active with IC50 values of 10.5 ± 0.8 and 8.25 ± 0.2 μg/mL against P. falciparum, and in vivo activity significantly reduced parasitaemia by 82.6 and 88.2% at 100 mg/kg/body weight on day 4 against P. berghei, respectively

  12. Plasmodium falciparum: Nitric Oxide Modulates Heme Speciation in Isolated Food Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Ostera, Graciela; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Teixeira, Clarissa; Collin, Nicolas; Sa, Juliana; Hume, Jennifer; Kumar, Sanjai; Ribeiro, Jose; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and NO-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are present in the food vacuole (FV) of P. falciparum trophozoites. The product of PFL1555w, a putative cytochrome b5, localizes in the FV membrane, similar to what was previously observed for the product of PF13_0353, a putative cytochrome b5 reductase. These two gene products may contribute to NO generation by denitrification chemistry from nitrate and/or nitrite present in the erythrocyte cytosol. The possible coordination of NO to heme species present in the food vacuole was probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data revealed that in situ generated NO interacts with heme inside the intact FVs to form ferrous heme nitrosyl complexes that influence intra-vacuolar heme solubility. The formation of heme nitrosyl complexes within the FV is a previously unrecognized factor that could affect the equilibrium between soluble and crystallized heme within the FV in vivo. PMID:20493843

  13. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax specific lactate dehydrogenase: genetic polymorphism study from Indian isolates.

    PubMed

    Keluskar, Priyadarshan; Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Purva; Ingle, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    Control and eradication of malaria is hindered by the acquisition of drug resistance by Plasmodium species. This has necessitated a persistent search for novel drugs and more efficient targets. Plasmodium species specific lactate dehydrogenase is one of the potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets, because of its indispensable role in endoerythrocytic stage of the parasite. A target molecule that is highly conserved in the parasite population can be more effectively used in diagnostics and therapeutics, hence, in the present study polymorphism in PfLDH (Plasmodiumfalciparum specific LDH) and PvLDH (Plasmodiumvivax specific LDH) genes was analyzed using PCR-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Forty-six P. falciparum and thirty-five P. vivax samples were screened from different states of India. Our findings have revealed presence of a single PfLDH genotype and six PvLDH genotypes among the studied samples. Interestingly, along with synonymous substitutions, nonsynonymous substitutions were reported to be present for the first time in the PvLDH genotypes. Further, through amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling studies we observed that the catalytic residues were conserved in all PvLDH genotypes and the nonsynonymous substitutions have not altered the enzyme structure significantly. Evolutionary genetics studies have confirmed that PfLDH and PvLDH loci are under strong purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis of the pLDH gene sequences revealed that P. falciparum compared to P. vivax, has recent origin. The study therefore supports PfLDH and PvLDH as suitable therapeutic and diagnostic targets as well as phylogenetic markers to understand the genealogy of malaria species.

  14. Effect of chloroquine phosphate and toxic concentrations of lead acetate on Ca2+-ATPase activity in isolates and clones of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Happi, T C; Oduola, A M J; Babafunmi, E A

    2011-12-20

    The basal activity of Ca2+-ATPase in two isolates (NL56, UNC) and two clones (D6, W2) of P.falciparum was assessed. The effects of various concentrations of chloroquine phosphate and toxic concentrations of lead acetate were also evaluated in the clones and strains of P.falciparum. The Ca2+-ATPase activity was measured by monitoring the rate of release of inorganic phosphate from the gamma-position of ATP on spectrophotometer at 820nm wavelength. The various concentrations of chloroquine (3, 6, 9, 12, 18µg/ml) and lead acetate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40µg/ml) on Ca2+-ATPase activity were measured respectively. Chloroquine phosphate inhibited Ca2+-ATPase activity in both the isolates and the cloned strains of P.falciparum in concentration dependent manner. Median Inhibitory concentration of chloroquine (MIC50) estimated from the plot of activity against chloroquine concentration was found to be 2.6mg/ml at pH 7.4 for both the isolates and cloned strains examined. Lead acetate at concentrations 5-20µg/ml inhibited Ca2+-ATPase activity in concentration dependent manner in clone W2 (Chloroquine resistant strain) while the same range of concentrations of lead acetate stimulated the activity of the enzyme in clone D6 (Chloroquine sensitive strain).The inhibitory effect of lead acetate on the enzyme in clone D6 was observed at concentrations above 20µg/ml. The result also suggests that lead ions could modulate and moderate calcium ion homeostasis in P. falciparum via its effect on Ca2+-ATPase activity. Also sufficient influx of lead ions into P. falciparum may transform the biochemical or bioenergetics nature of chloroquine sensitive strain of P. falciparum (D6) to that similar to chloroquine resistant strain (W2). In conclusion, inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity of P.falciparum may be part of the mechanism of action of chloroquine in its use as chemotherapy for malaria. The study implies that populations simultaneously exposed to lead pollution and malaria infection may

  15. Evaluation of an in vitro assay system for drug susceptibility of field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Childs, G E; Wimonwattrawatee, T; Pooyindee, N

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro assay system has been developed to evaluate the susceptibility of field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum to standard and new antimalarials. The assay used drugs which were serially diluted in the field and determined effective drug concentrations by quantitating schizont maturation after a variable incubation period. Based on the ID50 values, a series of isolates from Yala in southern Thailand were shown to be resistant to chloroquine (187 nM) but only moderately resistant to amodiaquine (23.7 nM), a structurally related 4-aminoquinoline. Five aminocarbinols were evaluated. The parasites were resistant to quinine (219 nM), but comparatively much more susceptible to mefloquine (9.04 nM), halofantrine (1.23 nM), and enpiroline (6.23 nM). The isolates were also relatively sensitive to WR 194,965 (9.04 nM). Two dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (WR 99,210 and pyrimethamine) were tested. The isolates were comparatively sensitive to a dihydrotriazine, WR 99,210 (2.85 nM). The in vitro values for pyrimethamine (1,870 nM) were higher than the values for the other drugs tested, but were less than values from other regions of Thailand. As compared to a survey conducted in this region four years previously, values for chloroquine, pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and mefloquine have remained relatively unchanged. However, there was a greater than 20-fold rise in the susceptibility values for quinine, suggesting the introduction of quinine-resistant isolates from eastern Thailand into southern Thailand during this period.

  16. Simple in vitro assay for determining the sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax isolates from fresh human blood to antimalarials in areas where P. vivax is endemic.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bruce M; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Rieckmann, Karl H; Kotecka, Barbara M; Coleman, Russell E; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, field-practical, and effective in vitro method for determining the sensitivity of fresh erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax isolates to a range of antimalarials. The method used is a modification of the standard World Health Organization (WHO) microtest for determination of P. falciparum drug sensitivity. The WHO method was modified by removing leukocytes and using a growth medium supplemented with AB(+) serum. We successfully carried out 34 in vitro drug assays on 39 P. vivax isolates collected from the Mae Sod malaria clinic, Tak Province, Thailand. The mean percentage of parasites maturing to schizonts (six or more merozoites) in control wells was 66.5% +/- 5.9% (standard deviation). This level of growth in the control wells enabled rapid microscopic determination (5 min per isolate per drug) of the MICs of chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, WR238605 (tafenoquine), and sulfadoxine. P. vivax was relatively sensitive to chloroquine (MIC = 160 ng/ml, 50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 49.8 ng/ml) and dihydroartemisinin (MIC = 0.5 ng/ml, IC(50) = 0.47 ng/ml). The poor response of P. vivax to both tafenoquine (MIC = 14,000 ng/ml, IC(50) = 9,739 ng/ml) and sulfadoxine (MIC = 500,000 ng/ml, IC(50) = 249,000 ng/ml) was due to the slow action of these drugs and the innate resistance of P. vivax to sulfadoxine. The in vitro assay developed in our study should be useful both for assessing the antimalarial sensitivity of P. vivax populations and for screening new antimalarials in the absence of long-term P. vivax cultures.

  17. An Analysis of the Binding Characteristics of a Panel of Recently Selected ICAM-1 Binding Plasmodium falciparum Patient Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Aymen M.; Alkurbi, Mohammed O.; Szestak, Tadge; Bengtsson, Anja; Patil, Pradeep R.; Wu, Yang; Alharthi, Saeed; Jensen, Anja T. R.; Pleass, Richard; Craig, Alister G.

    2014-01-01

    The basis of severe malaria pathogenesis in part includes sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) from the peripheral circulation. This phenomenon is mediated by the interaction between several endothelial receptors and one of the main parasite-derived variant antigens (PfEMP1) expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of the commonly used host receptors is ICAM-1, and it has been suggested that ICAM-1 has a role in cerebral malaria pathology, although the evidence to support this is not conclusive. The current study examined the cytoadherence patterns of lab-adapted patient isolates after selecting on ICAM-1. We investigated the binding phenotypes using variant ICAM-1 proteins including ICAM-1Ref, ICAM-1Kilifi, ICAM-1S22/A, ICAM-1L42/A and ICAM-1L44/A using static assays. The study also examined ICAM-1 blocking by four anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) under static conditions. We also characterised the binding phenotypes using Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HDMEC) under flow conditions. The results show that different isolates have variant-specific binding phenotypes under both static and flow conditions, extending our previous observations that this variation might be due to variable contact residues on ICAM-1 being used by different parasite PfEMP1 variants. PMID:25360558

  18. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Peirotén, Ángela; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study. PMID:24971351

  19. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  20. Abnormal PfEMP1/knob display on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes containing hemoglobin variants: fresh insights into malaria pathogenesis and protection

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Rick M.; Bess, Cameron D.; Krause, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) variants are associated with reduced risk of life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum malaria syndromes, including cerebral malaria and severe malarial anemia. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms by which common Hb variants – sickle HbS, HbC, α-thalassemia, fetal HbF – protect African children against severe and fatal malaria have not been fully elucidated. In vitro experimental and epidemiological data have long suggested that Hb variants do not confer malaria protection by restricting the growth of parasites in red blood cells (RBCs). Recently, four Hb variants were found to impair cytoadherence, the binding of P. falciparum-infected RBCs (PfRBCs) to microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), a centrally important event in both parasite survival and malaria pathogenesis in humans. Impaired cytoadherence is associated with abnormal display of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the parasite’s major cytoadherence ligand and virulence factor, on the surface of host RBCs. We propose a model in which Hb variants allow parasites to display relatively low levels of PfEMP1, sufficient for sequestering PfRBCs in microvessels and avoiding their clearance from the bloodstream by the spleen. By preventing the display of high levels of PfEMP1, Hb variants may weaken the binding of PfRBCs to MVECs, compromising their ability to activate endothelium and initiate the downstream microvascular events that drive the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:22634344

  1. Characteristics of glucomannan isolated from fresh tuber of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume).

    PubMed

    Yanuriati, Anny; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso; Rochmadi; Harmayani, Eni

    2017-01-20

    Porang is a potential source of glucomannan. This research objective was to find a direct glucomannan isolation method from fresh porang corm to produce high purity glucomannan. Two isolation methods were performed. In first method, sample was water dissolved using Al2(SO4)3 as flocculant for 15 (AA15) or 30 (AA30) minutes with purification. In second method, sample was repeatedly milled using ethanol as solvent and filtered for 5 (EtOH5) or 7 (EtOH7) times without purification. The characteristics of obtained glucomannan were compared to those of commercial porang flour (CPF) and purified konjac glucomannan (PKG). High purity (90.98%), viscosity (27,940 cps) and transparency (57.74%) of amorphous glucomannan were isolated by EtOH7. Ash and protein level significantly reduced to 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively, with no starch content. Water holding capacity (WHC) of EtOH7 glucomannan significantly enhanced, whereas its solubility was lower than those of PKG due to its ungrounded native granular form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-06-27

    Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels.

  3. Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels. PMID:26167808

  4. The course of infections and pathology in immunomodulated NOD/LtSz-SCID mice inoculated with Plasmodium falciparum laboratory lines and clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alicia; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Arahuetes, Susana; Eguiluz, Cesar; Van Rooijen, Nico; Benito, Agustin

    2006-03-01

    Human chimeras are potentially invaluable models for hemoprotozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. The work presented assesses the susceptibility of immunomodulated NOD/LtSz-SCID mice to genetically distinct P. falciparum parasites. To this end, mice grafted with human erythrocytes were inoculated with two P. falciparum laboratory lines, 3D7 and Dd2 and four clinical isolates, ISCIII-230, ISCIII-231, ISCIII-381 and ISCIII-399. The results showed that, without a previous period of parasite adaptation, 100% of the inoculated mice developed an infection, generally self-limited, though some mice died. The parasitemias ranged from 0.05 to 8% and lasted an average of 19 days (15-26 days) depending on the line or isolate studied. Sexual forms of different maturity, stage II-IV and mature gametocytes were observed in the peripheral blood of mice in 22, 50, 25, 72 and 80% of the mice infected with Dd2, ISCIII-399, ISCIII-230, ISCIII-231 and ISCIII-381 isolates, respectively. The study of the clinical symptoms, the haematological parameters and the histopathological changes in the infected mice showed that most of the malaria features were present in the infected mice except that the sequestration of infected erythrocytes was absent or at most a minor phenomenon, as also indicated by the presence of mature forms of the parasites in the peripheral blood. This study shows that the human chimeras allow the complete asexual and sexual erythrocytic cycle of different P. falciparum lines and clinical isolates to be observed in vivo. It opens a new way to investigate any parasite population in terms of infectivity, transmission, and drug resistance.

  5. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Bakoua, Damien; Fesser, Anna; Nkombo, Michael; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has not been evaluated in the Republic of Congo since its implementation in 2006 and there is no published data on molecular markers of SP resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women. This first study in this country aimed to describe the prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) point mutations and haplotypes in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women with asymptomatic infection. From March 2012 to December 2013, pregnant women attending Madibou health centre (in Southern Brazzaville) for antenatal visits were enrolled in this study after obtaining their written informed consent. Blood samples were collected and P. falciparum infections were characterized using PCR. A total of 363 pregnant women were enrolled. P. falciparum infection was detected in 67 (18.4%) samples as their PCR amplification of dhfr and dhps genes yielded bands and all the PCR products were successfully digested. Out of these 67 isolates, 59 (88%), 57 (85%) and 53 (79.1%) carried 51I, 59R and 108N dhfr mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps 436A, 437G and 540E mutations were 67.1% (45/67), 98.5% (66/67) and 55.2% (37/67), respectively. More than one-half of the isolates carried quintuple mutations, with highly resistant haplotype dhfr51I/59R/108N + dhps437G/540E detected in 33% (22/67) whereas 25% (17/67) were found to carry sextuple mutations. We observed significantly higher frequencies of triple dhps mutations 436A/437G/540E and quintuple mutations dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E in isolates from women who received IPTp-SP than those who did not. Overall, this study shows high prevalence rates of SP-associated resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women. The presence of the dhps mutant allele 540E and the high prevalence of isolates carrying quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations are here

  6. Molecular assessment of atpase6 mutations associated with artemisinin resistance among unexposed and exposed Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to artemisinin-based combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the mainstay of global efforts for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but decline in its efficacy is the most important obstacle towards malaria control and elimination. Therefore, the present molecular analysis provides information on putative mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum clinical population unexposed and exposed to artesunate 4 years after adoption of ACT as the first-line anti-malarial therapy in Iran. Methods In this study, blood samples (n = 226) were collected from uncomplicated P. falciparum-infected patients from different health centers of Chabahar district in Sistan and Baluchistan province in the south-eastern part of Iran, during 2003 to 2010. All collected isolates were analysed for putative candidate mutations (TTA) L263E (GAA), (GAA) E431K (AAA), (GCA) A623E (GAA) and (AGT) S769N (AAT) of pfatpase6 gene using nested PCR/RFLP, followed by sequencing. Furthermore, the gene copy number was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence of SYBR green. Results Neither the pfatpase6 L263E nor the A623E mutation was detected among all examined isolates. The E431K mutation was found in 23% of the analysed samples unexposed to ACT; however, it was detected in 17.8% (34/191) of P. falciparum isolates exposed to artesunate after 2007. High frequency of this single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (overall 18.6%) among both examined groups (X2 test, P>0.05) indicated that this SNP should be considered as an unrelated mutation to artemisinin resistance. In contrast, S769N mutation was not detected in unexposed isolates; however, it was found in 2.6% (5/191), four years after introduction of ACT in this malaria setting. Also, detected SNPs were not significantly frequent in both unexposed and exposed examined isolates (X2 test, P> 0.05). Investigation in the copy number of pfatpase6 gene revealed a similar number of copy (n = 1) as in an isolate

  7. Molecular assessment of atpase6 mutations associated with artemisinin resistance among unexposed and exposed Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Hemati, Samaneh; Pirahmadi, Sakineh; Afsharpad, Mandana; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid D

    2012-11-09

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the mainstay of global efforts for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but decline in its efficacy is the most important obstacle towards malaria control and elimination. Therefore, the present molecular analysis provides information on putative mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum clinical population unexposed and exposed to artesunate 4 years after adoption of ACT as the first-line anti-malarial therapy in Iran. In this study, blood samples (n = 226) were collected from uncomplicated P. falciparum-infected patients from different health centers of Chabahar district in Sistan and Baluchistan province in the south-eastern part of Iran, during 2003 to 2010. All collected isolates were analysed for putative candidate mutations (TTA) L263E (GAA), (GAA) E431K (AAA), (GCA) A623E (GAA) and (AGT) S769N (AAT) of pfatpase6 gene using nested PCR/RFLP, followed by sequencing. Furthermore, the gene copy number was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence of SYBR green. Neither the pfatpase6 L263E nor the A623E mutation was detected among all examined isolates. The E431K mutation was found in 23% of the analysed samples unexposed to ACT; however, it was detected in 17.8% (34/191) of P. falciparum isolates exposed to artesunate after 2007. High frequency of this single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (overall 18.6%) among both examined groups (X2 test, P>0.05) indicated that this SNP should be considered as an unrelated mutation to artemisinin resistance. In contrast, S769N mutation was not detected in unexposed isolates; however, it was found in 2.6% (5/191), four years after introduction of ACT in this malaria setting. Also, detected SNPs were not significantly frequent in both unexposed and exposed examined isolates (X2 test, P> 0.05). Investigation in the copy number of pfatpase6 gene revealed a similar number of copy (n = 1) as in an isolate sensitive to artemisinin

  8. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region. PMID:22694953

  9. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon.

    PubMed

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel trypsin inhibitor from fresh lily bulbs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2008-04-01

    A 17-kDa trypsin inhibitor was isolated from fresh lily bulbs with an isolation procedure that involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Its N-terminal sequence displayed similarity to a short segment of the sequences of the Populus tremula trypsin inhibitor, a putative trypsin inhibitor from Arabidopsis thaliana and sporamin B from sweet potato. The trypsin inhibitor was adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, unadsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, and adsorbed on SP-Sepharose. It dose-dependently inhibited trypsin with an IC (50) value of 1.3 microM. There was a stimulatory effect on macrophage production of nitric oxide. Unlike field bean trypsin inhibitor it did not inhibit [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells and MBL2 cells when tested up to 100 microM. In contrast to broad bean trypsin inhibitor, there was no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when lily bulb trypsin inhibitor was tested up to 100 microM. The present report is one of the very few on bulbs in contrast to the voluminous literature on seeds.

  11. Protective effect of NAC against malathion-induced oxidative stress in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Saeedi Kouzehkonani, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Induction of oxidative stress by Organophosphate compounds (OPs) has been previously reported. In the present work, the mechanism of protective effects of N-acetylcysteine as a glutathion (GSH) prodrug against malathion–induced cell toxicity was investigated. In this work, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used to determine the effect of NAC on malathion-induced cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: Rat hepatocytes were isolated using collagenase perfusion and then cell viability, mitchondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ROS formation were determined using trypan blue exclusion, Rhodamine 123 fluorescence and fluorogenic probe, 2', 7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), respectively. Results: Despite the protective effect of NAC on malathion-induced cell toxicity and MMP dysfunction, its efficacy against ROS formation was not adequate to completely protect the cells. Conclusion: Cytotoxic effects of malathion regardless of its cholinergic feature, is started with gradual free radical production but, the main factor that causes cell death, is mitochondrial dysfunction, so that reduction of ROS formation alone is not sufficient for cell survival, and the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different mechanisms is the most ameliorative factor specially at high levels of cell damage, as NAC seemed to protect cells with various fashions apart from ROS scavenging in concentrations higher than malathion’s LC50. PMID:24312774

  12. Characterization of lactococci isolated from minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W J; Davey, G P; Ward, L J

    1998-12-08

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetable products were identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on the basis of phenotypic tests, presence of lactococcal IS elements, and partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Isolated bacteria were differentiated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI digests of genomic DNA. Sprouted seeds were the best source of strains, and lactococci appear to be the dominant microflora on these products during the period they are intended to be eaten. Although these plant strains showed many similarities to strains of L. lactis used as dairy starter cultures, their carbohydrate fermentation patterns were unusual and probably reflect their environmental origin. Most strains fermented sucrose and xylose, and some also fermented raffinose and melibiose. Most of the bacteriocin-producing strains produced nisin, and nisin genes could also be detected in strains that showed no bacteriocin activity, or that produced a different bacteriocin with a narrow spectrum of activity. One strain produced nisin but was unable to ferment sucrose, properties that have been generally regarded as linked. These strains may have uses as biopreservatives for minimally processed plant products.

  13. Emergence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Indian isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Moirangthem, Romilla; Gahlawat, Suresh Kumar; Chandra, Jagdish; Gupta, Purva; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anup; Singh, Vineeta

    2015-12-01

    Genotyping the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) genes will help in identifying the genes under drug selection and the emergence of resistance in dhfr and dhps genes. India is an important hotspot for studying malaria due to the immense climatic diversity prevalent in the country. The central and eastern parts of the country are most vulnerable sites where malaria cases are reported throughout the year. From different regions of the country 173 field isolates were genotyped at various loci in dhfr and dhps genes collected between 1994 and 2013. This encompasses the period before antimalarial resistance emerged and the period after the use of combination therapy was made mandatory in the country. We observed the rise of resistant SP alleles from very low frequencies (in the year 1994) to steadily rising (in the year 2000) and maintaining this increasing trend subsequently (in the year 2013) as shown by the sequence analysis of dhfr and dhps genes. This study assessed the prevalence of mutations in dhfr and dhps genes associated with SP resistance in samples indicative of increase in resistance levels of Plasmodium falciparum to SP even after the change in malaria treatment policy in the country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVIII. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-2 gene in isolates from symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Tahar, Rachida; Escalante, Ananias

    2004-03-01

    Merozoite surface antigen-2 (MSA-2) is a polymorphic genetic marker that is highly discriminatory for characterizing Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Genetic diversity of isolates obtained from symptomatic patients residing in Yaounde, Cameroon was analyzed by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of amplification products. Of 137 isolates, 25 (18%) had only FC27-type alleles, 40 (29%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 72 (53%) had multiple parasite populations with both alleles. Of 295 fragments, 145 (49.2%) and 150 (50.8%) belonged to FC27 and 3D7 alleles, respectively. There were 23 different MSA-2 alleles (10 FC27-type and 13 3D7-type that yielded 44 different combinations in multiple infections). DNA sequencing showed distinct individual sequences. Sequences belonging to the FC27 allelic family were relatively conserved, with most of the polymorphism arising from differences in the number of repeat units. In contrast, the sequences within the GSA-rich region in 3D7 allelic family were less conserved, but many of the sequences in Cameroonian isolates have been identified in other isolates from geographically distant origins. Our results show an extensive diversity of the central region of MSA-2 in size, allelic family, combinations of these two features in multiple infections, and sequence variations underlying the complex population structure of P. falciparum clinical isolates in Yaounde, Cameroon.

  15. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh

  16. Increased pfmdr1 copy number in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Suriname.

    PubMed

    Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Adhin, Malti R

    2013-07-01

    Amplification of the pfmdr1 gene is associated with clinical failures and reduced in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to both mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine in South-East Asia. Several African countries have reported the absence or very low prevalence of increased copy number, whilst South American reports are limited to Peru without and Venezuela with increased pfmdr1 multiplication. The relative pfmdr1 copy numbers were assessed in 68 isolates from Suriname collected from different endemic villages (2005) and from mining areas (2009). 11% of the isolates harbour multiple copies of the pfmdr1 gene. Isolates originating from mining areas do not yet display a higher tendency for increased copy number and no significant differences could be registered within a time span of 4 years, but the mere presence of increased copy number warrants caution and should be considered as an early warning sign for emerging drug resistance in Suriname and South America.

  17. Characterization of Virulence Potential of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Bovine Meat, Fresh Fish, and Smoked Fish

    PubMed Central

    Benie, Comoé Koffi Donatien; Dadié, Adjéhi; Guessennd, Nathalie; N’gbesso-Kouadio, Nadège Ahou; Kouame, N’zebo Désiré; N’golo, David Coulibaly; Aka, Solange; Dako, Etienne; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa owns a variability of virulence factors. These factors can increase bacterial pathogenicity and infection severity. Despite the importance of knowledge about them, these factors are not more characterized at level of strains derived from local food products. This study aimed to characterize the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa isolated from various animal products. Several structural and virulence genes of P. aeruginosa including lasB, exoS, algD, plcH, pilB, exoU, and nan1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 204 strains of P. aeruginosa. They were isolated from bovine meat (122), fresh fish (49), and smoked fish (33). The 16S rRNA gene was detected on 91.1% of the presumptive strains as Pseudomonas. The rpoB gene showed that 99.5% of the strains were P. aeruginosa. The lasB gene (89.2%) was the most frequently detected (p < 0.05). In decreasing importance order, exoS (86.8%), algD (72.1%), plcH (72.1%), pilB (40.2%), and exoU (2.5%) were detected. The lasB gene was detected in all strains of P. aeruginosa serogroups O11 and O16. The prevalence of algD, exoS, and exoU genes in these strains varied from 51.2% to 87.4%. The simultaneous determination of serogroups and virulence factors is of interest for the efficacy of surveillance of infections associated with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28386471

  18. Kinetics of Arsenic Methylation by Freshly Isolated B6C3F1 Mouse Hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kedderis, Gregory L.; Elmore, Amy R.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Yager, Janice W.; Goldsworthy, Thomas L.

    2006-06-10

    The toxic and carcinogenic effects of arsenic may be mediated by both inorganic and methylated arsenic species. The methylation of arsenicIII takes place via sequential oxidative methylation and reduction steps to form monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic (DMA) species. The kinetics of arsenic methylation were determined in freshly isolated hepatocytes from male B6C3F1 mice. Hepatocytes (>90% viability) were isolated by collagenase perfusion and suspended in Williams Medium E with various concentrations of arsenicIII (sodium m-arsenite). Aliquots of the cell suspension were lysed with 1.0% Triton X-100 and analyzed for arsenic species by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. The formation of MMAIII from sodium arsenite (1 ?M) was linear with respect to time for >90 min. DMAIII formation did not become significant until 60 min. MMAV and DMAV were not consistently observed in the incubations. These results suggest that the reduction of MMAV to MMAIII is rapid relative to the methylation rate since MMAV was not observed as a major product of arsenicIII metabolism in mouse hepatocytes. Metabolism of arsenicV was not observed in mouse hepatocytes, consistent with inhibition of arsenicV active cellular uptake by phosphate in the medium. The formation of MMAIII increased with increasing arsenicIII concentrations up to approximately 2 ?M and declined thereafter. The concentration dependence is consistent with a saturable methylation reaction accompanied by substrate inhibition of the reaction by arsenicIII. Kinetic analysis of the data suggested an apparent KM of approximately 3.6 ?M arsenicIII, an apparent Vmax of approximately 38.9 ?g MMAIII formed/L/hr/million cells, and an apparent KI of approximately 1.3 ?M arsenicIII. The results of this study can be used in the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for arsenic disposition in mice to predict the concentration of MMAIII in liver and other tissues.

  19. Single-Cell Metabolomics: Changes in the Metabolome of Freshly Isolated and Cultured Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites are involved in a diverse range of intracellular processes, including a cell’s response to a changing extracellular environment. Using single-cell capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we investigated how placing individual identified neurons in culture affects their metabolic profile. First, glycerol-based cell stabilization was evaluated using metacerebral neurons from Aplysia californica; the measurement error was reduced from ∼24% relative standard deviation to ∼6% for glycerol-stabilized cells compared to those isolated without glycerol stabilization. In order to determine the changes induced by culturing, 14 freshly isolated and 11 overnight-cultured neurons of two metabolically distinct cell types from A. californica, the B1 and B2 buccal neurons, were characterized. Of the more than 300 distinctive cell-related signals detected, 35 compounds were selected for their known biological roles and compared among each measured cell. Unsupervised multivariate and statistical analysis revealed robust metabolic differences between these two identified neuron types. We then compared the changes induced by overnight culturing; metabolite concentrations were distinct for 26 compounds in the cultured B1 cells. In contrast, culturing had less influence on the metabolic profile of the B2 neurons, with only five compounds changing significantly. As a result of these culturing-induced changes, the metabolic composition of the B1 neurons became indistinguishable from the cultured B2 cells. This observation suggests that the two cell types differentially regulate their in vivo or in vitro metabolomes in response to a changing environment. PMID:23077722

  20. Emticicia aquatica sp. nov., a species of the family Cytophagaceae isolated from fresh water.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yochan; Seo, Mi-Ae; Kang, Heeyoung; Kim, Haneul; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Joh, Kiseong

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-gliding, orange-pigmented bacterial strain, designated HMF2925T, was isolated from fresh water in Korea. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HMF2925T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Emticicia. Strain HMF2925T was closely related to Emticicia oligotrophica DSM 17448T (95.5 %) and Emticicia ginsengisoli Gsoil 085T (94.1 %). The major fatty acids of strain HMF2925T were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and C16 : 0.The major polar lipids of strain HMF2925T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain HMF2925T was 36.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain HMF2925T represents a novel species of the genus Emticicia, for which the name Emticicia aquatica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HMF2925T ( = KCTC 42574T = CECT 8858T).

  1. Oxidation process of adrenaline in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes: formation of adrenochrome, quinoproteins, and GSH adduct.

    PubMed

    Costa, Vera Marisa; Silva, Renata; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria Lourdes; Carvalho, Rui Albuquerque; Carvalho, Márcia; Remião, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    High concentrations of circulating biogenic catecholamines often exist during the course of several cardiovascular disorders. Additionally, coronary dysfunctions are prominent and frequently related to the ischemic and reperfusion phenomenon (I/R) in the heart, which leads to the release of large amounts of catecholamines, namely adrenaline, and to a sustained generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, this work aimed to study the toxicity of adrenaline either alone or in the presence of a system capable of generating ROS [xanthine with xanthine oxidase (X/XO)], in freshly isolated, calcium tolerant cardiomyocytes from adult rats. Studies were performed for 3 h, and cardiomyocyte viability, ATP level, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation content, and glutathione status were evaluated, in addition to the formation of adrenaline's oxidation products and quinoproteins. Intracellular GSH levels were time-dependently depleted with no GSSG formation when cardiomyocytes were exposed to adrenaline or to adrenaline with X/XO. Meanwhile, a time-dependent increase in the rate of formation of adrenochrome and quinoproteins was observed. Additionally, as a new outcome, 5-(glutathion- S-yl)adrenaline, an adrenaline adduct of glutathione, was identified and quantified. Noteworthy is the fact that the exposure to adrenaline alone promotes a higher rate of formation of quinoproteins and glutathione adduct, while adrenochrome formation is favored where ROS production is stimulated. This study shows that the redox status of the surrounding environment greatly influences adrenaline's oxidation pathway, which may trigger cellular changes responsible for cardiotoxicity.

  2. Evaluation of lytic activity of staphylococcal bacteriophage Sb‐1 against freshly isolated clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kvachadze, Leila; Balarjishvili, Nana; Meskhi, Tamila; Tevdoradze, Ekaterine; Skhirtladze, Natia; Pataridze, Tamila; Adamia, Revaz; Topuria, Temur; Kutter, Elizabeth; Rohde, Christine; Kutateladze, Mzia

    2011-01-01

    Summary In recent decades the increase in antibiotic‐resistant bacterial strains has become a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus has become a major problem in hospitals of many countries, including developed ones. Today the interest in alternative remedies to antibiotics, including bacteriophage treatment, is gaining new ground. Here, we describe the staphylococcal bacteriophage Sb‐1 – a key component of therapeutic phage preparation that was successfully used against staphylococcal infections during many years in the Former Soviet Union. This phage still reveals a high spectrum of lytic activity in vitro against freshly isolated, genetically different clinical samples (including methicillin‐resistant S. aureus) obtained from the local hospitals, as well as the clinics from different geographical areas. The sequence analyses of phage genome showed absence of bacterial virulence genes. A case report describes a promising clinical response after phage application in patient with cystic fibrosis and indicates the efficacy of usage of Sb‐1 phage against various staphylococcal infections. PMID:21481199

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh porcine skin xenografts: risk to recipients with thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Busby, Stacey-Ann; Robb, Andrew; Lang, Sue; Takeuchi, Yasu; Vesely, Pavel; Scobie, Linda

    2014-03-01

    The previous use of fresh porcine xenografts at the Prague Burn Centre had raised concerns over the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. This study examines the risk of zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus colonisation of burn patients from fresh porcine skin xenografts. Samples were collected from the nares, skin and perineum of commercial pigs (n=101) and were screened for methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacy of the antibiotic wash used in decontamination of the pigskin was tested against planktonic- and biofilm-grown isolates. The spa type of each isolate was also confirmed. All pig swabs were negative for MRSA but 86% positive for MSSA. All planktonic-grown isolates of MSSA were sensitive to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin and 44% of isolates were resistant to streptomycin. Isolates grown as biofilm exhibited higher rates of antimicrobial resistance. Sequence analysis revealed three distinct spa types of the MRSA ST398 clonal type. This finding demonstrates the existence of a MSSA reservoir containing spa types resembling those of well-known MRSA strains. These MSSA exhibit resistance to antibiotics used for decontamination of the pigskin prior to xenograft. Amended use of procurement could allow the use of fresh pigskin xenografts to be reinstated.

  4. Prevalence of 5' insertion mutants and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism in the erythrocyte binding-like 1 (ebl-1) gene in Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Githui, Elijah K; Peterson, David S; Aman, Rashid A; Abdi, Abdirahman I

    2010-08-01

    Plasmodium merozoites attach to and invade red blood cells (RBCs) during the erythrocytic cycle. The invasion process requires recognition of RBC surface receptors by proteins of the Plasmodium Duffy binding like erythrocyte binding like (DBL-EBP) family. Clones and isolates of Plasmodium falciparum have varying abilities to utilize different RBC receptors, and multiple distinct pathways so far identified depend on glycophorins A, B, C, and as yet unidentified receptors. At present, five members of the DBL-EBP family have been identified in the P. falciparum genome, based on gene structure and amino acid sequence homology. The cardinal features of this family consist of conserved 5' and 3' cysteine-rich regions (regions II and VI, respectively) whose cysteine residues are highly conserved along with the majority of aromatic amino acids. In contrast to the single DBL-EBP family member in Plasmodium vivax, in P. falciparum all DBL-EBP family members have a duplication of the conserved 5' cysteine-rich region denoted as the F1 and F2 domains. These cysteine-rich regions are considered crucial in recognition of erythrocyte receptors and it has been shown that several bind to glycophorins on the erythrocyte surface. Several studies, on both field isolates and laboratory strains have uncovered a relatively high degree of sequence polymorphism in the DBP-EBL genes. This study is now extended to include field isolates collected from sites within Kenya. DNA isolated from blood samples of infected patients was utilized to amplify the region I sequence of ebl-1 gene in order to investigate polymorphism in the region immediately adjacent to the 5' cysteine-rich domains, and to determine the prevalence of an insertion mutant that effectively knocks out the gene. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of viable Plasmodium falciparum merozoites to define erythrocyte invasion events and advance vaccine and drug development

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Michelle J.; Wilson, Danny W.; Richards, Jack S.; Riglar, David T.; Tetteh, Kevin K. A.; Conway, David J.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Baum, Jake; Beeson, James G.

    2010-01-01

    During blood-stage infection by Plasmodium falciparum, merozoites invade RBCs. Currently there is limited knowledge of cellular and molecular invasion events, and no established assays are available to readily measure and quantify invasion-inhibitory antibodies or compounds for vaccine and drug studies. We report the isolation of viable merozoites that retain their invasive capacity, at high purity and yield, purified by filtration of highly synchronous populations of schizonts. We show that the half-life of merozoite invasive capacity after rupture is 5 min at 37 °C, and 15 min at room temperature. Studying the kinetics of invasion revealed that 80% of invasion events occur within 10 min of mixing merozoites and RBCs. Invasion efficiency was maximum at low merozoite-to-RBC ratios and occurred efficiently in the absence of serum and with high concentrations of dialyzed nonimmune serum. We developed and optimized an invasion assay by using purified merozoites that enabled invasion-inhibitory activity of antibodies and compounds to be measured separately from other mechanisms of growth inhibition; the assay was more sensitive for detecting inhibitory activity than established growth-inhibition assays. Furthermore, with the use of purified merozoites it was possible to capture and fix merozoites at different stages of invasion for visualization by immunofluorescence microscopy and EM. We thereby demonstrate that processing of the major merozoite antigen merozoite surface protein-1 occurs at the time of RBC invasion. These findings have important implications for defining invasion events and molecular interactions, understanding immune interactions, and identifying and evaluating inhibitors to advance vaccine and drug development. PMID:20660744

  6. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting.

  7. Molecular markers associated with resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate-Yemen during the transmission season.

    PubMed

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-10-01

    Since 2005, artesunate (AS) plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) combination has been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Yemen in response to the high level of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency distribution of molecular markers associated with resistance to CQ and AS plus SP combination among P. falciparum isolates from a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate, Yemen. Fifty P. falciparum isolates were collected during a cross-sectional study in Mawza district, Taiz, in the period from October 2013 to April 2014. The isolates were investigated for drug resistance-associated molecular markers in five genes, including P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) 86Y as markers of resistance to CQ, mutations in the Kelch 13 (K13) propeller domain for resistance to AS, and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes for resistance to SP. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify target genes in DNA extracts of the isolates followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism for detecting 76T and 86Y mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1, respectively, and by DNA sequencing for detecting mutations in K13, pfdhfr and pfdhps. All the investigated isolates from Mawza district were harboring the pfcrt 76T mutant and the pfmdr1 N86 wild-type alleles. The pfdhfr 51I/108N double mutant allele was found in 2.2% (1/45) of the isolates; however, no mutations were detected at codons 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613 of pfdhps. All P. falciparum isolates that were successfully sequenced (n=47) showed the K13 Y493, R539, I543 and C580 wild-type alleles. In conclusion, the pfcrt 76T mutant allele is fixed in the study area about six years after the official withdrawal of CQ, possibly indicating its over-the-counter availability and continued use as a

  8. Magnetic isolation of Plasmodium falciparum schizonts iRBCs to generate a high parasitaemia and synchronized in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Mata-Cantero, Lydia; Lafuente, Maria J; Sanz, Laura; Rodriguez, Manuel S

    2014-03-21

    The establishment of methods for an in vitro continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is essential for gaining knowledge into its biology and for the development of new treatments. Previously, several techniques have been used to synchronize, enrich and concentrate P. falciparum, although obtaining cultures with high parasitaemia continues being a challenging process. Current methods produce high parasitaemia levels of synchronized P. falciparum cultures by frequent changes of culture medium or reducing the haematocrit. However, these methods are time consuming and sometimes lead to the loss of synchrony. A procedure that combines Percoll and sorbitol treatments, the use of magnetic columns, and the optimization of the in vitro culture conditions to reach high parasitaemia levels for synchronized Plasmodium falciparum cultures is described. A new procedure has been established using P. falciparum 3D7, combining previous reported methodologies to achieve in vitro parasite cultures that reach parasitaemia up to 40% at any intra-erythrocytic stage. High parasitaemia levels are obtained only one day after magnetic column purification without compromising the parasite viability and synchrony. The described procedure allows obtaining a large scale synchronized parasite culture at a high parasitaemia with less manipulations than other methods previously described.

  9. Magnetic isolation of Plasmodium falciparum schizonts iRBCs to generate a high parasitaemia and synchronized in vitro culture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The establishment of methods for an in vitro continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is essential for gaining knowledge into its biology and for the development of new treatments. Previously, several techniques have been used to synchronize, enrich and concentrate P. falciparum, although obtaining cultures with high parasitaemia continues being a challenging process. Current methods produce high parasitaemia levels of synchronized P. falciparum cultures by frequent changes of culture medium or reducing the haematocrit. However, these methods are time consuming and sometimes lead to the loss of synchrony. Methods A procedure that combines Percoll and sorbitol treatments, the use of magnetic columns, and the optimization of the in vitro culture conditions to reach high parasitaemia levels for synchronized Plasmodium falciparum cultures is described. Results A new procedure has been established using P. falciparum 3D7, combining previous reported methodologies to achieve in vitro parasite cultures that reach parasitaemia up to 40% at any intra-erythrocytic stage. High parasitaemia levels are obtained only one day after magnetic column purification without compromising the parasite viability and synchrony. Conclusions The described procedure allows obtaining a large scale synchronized parasite culture at a high parasitaemia with less manipulations than other methods previously described. PMID:24655321

  10. Comparison of Automated and Manual DNA Isolation Methods for DNA Methylation Analysis of Biopsy, Fresh Frozen, and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Colorectal Cancer Samples.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Wichmann, Barnabás; Patai, Árpád V; Barták, Barbara K; Nagy, Zsófia B; Furi, István; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-12-01

    Automated DNA isolation can decrease hands-on time in routine pathology. Our aim was to apply automated DNA isolation and perform DNA methylation analyses. DNA isolation was performed manually from fresh frozen (CRC = 10, normal = 10) specimens and colonic biopsies (CRC = 10, healthy = 10) with QIAamp DNA Mini Kit and from FFPE blocks (CRC = 10, normal = 10) with QIAamp DNA FFPET Kit. Automated DNA isolation was performed with MagNA Pure DNA and Viral NA SV kit on MagNA Pure 96 system. DNA methylation of MAL, SFRP1, and SFRP2 were analyzed with methylation-specific high-resolution melting analysis. Yield of automatically isolated samples was equal in fresh frozens and significantly lower compared to manually isolated biopsy and FFPE samples. OD260/280 of fresh frozen and biopsy samples were similar after both isolations, automated isolation resulted in lower purity in FFPE samples. Both protocols resulted in similar OD260/230 from fresh frozens, automated isolation method was superior in biopsies and manual protocol in FFPE samples. DNA methylation of biopsies, fresh frozen samples were highly similar after both methods, results of automatically and manually isolated FFPE samples were different. Automated DNA isolation from fresh frozen samples can be suitable for high-throughput laboratories. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2009-05-01

    L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  12. Flavobacterium anatoliense sp. nov., isolated from fresh water, and emended description of Flavobacterium ceti.

    PubMed

    Kacagan, Murat; Inan, Kadriye; Belduz, Ali Osman; Canakci, Sabriye

    2013-06-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strain isolated from fresh water in Trabzon, Turkey and designated MK3(T) was characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods in order to determine its phylogenetic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain MK3(T) was shown to belong to the genus Flavobacterium, being most closely related to Flavobacterium ceti CECT 7184(T) (93.6%). Sequence similarity with other species of the genus Flavobacterium with validly published names was less than 91.6%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain MK3(T) to the genus Flavobacterium. The only menaquinone was MK-6; the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (45.2%), summed feature 9 (C16:0 10-methyl and/or iso-C17:1ω9c; 20.4%) and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c; 13.3%) and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.6 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain MK3(T) to be distinguished phenotypically from Flavobacterium ceti CECT 7184(T). Strain MK3(T), therefore, represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium anatoliense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MK3(T) (=LMG 26441(T)=NCCB 100384(T)). An emended description of Flavobacterium ceti is also proposed.

  13. Metabolism of cyclosporin A. I. Study in freshly isolated rabbit hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Fabre, G.; Bertault-Peres, P.; Fabre, I.; Maurel, P.; Just, S.; Cano, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The metabolism of cyclosporin A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressive agent, was evaluated in freshly isolated rabbit hepatocytes by HPLC which separated CsA from its major group of derivatives, e.g. first generation metabolites (monohydroxylated and N-demethylated) and second generation derivatives (dihydroxylated and dihydroxy-N-demethylated). After exposure of hepatocytes to radiolabeled CsA (0.5 mg/liter), CsA was rapidly accumulated inside the cells and metabolized. The dihydroxylated metabolites represent the major intracellular forms after 1 hr. CsA metabolites synthesized inside the cells are then rapidly detected in the extracellular compartment. Unchanged drug and the various metabolites are concentrated inside the cells with transmembrane chemical gradients ranging between 20:1 and 40:1. Transport and metabolic processes for CsA have been evaluated over the following CsA extracellular concentration range, 0.1-10 mg/liter. Metabolism appears to be the rate-limiting step. The apparent affinity constant of CsA for the enzyme system involved in its metabolism is approximately 15 microM. Besides the lipophilicity of the molecule, which is responsible for the retention of CsA and its metabolites in the intracellular compartment, the presence of a binding component(s) in the hepatocytes was also demonstrated. CsA and its metabolites seem to have similar affinities for this binding site. These studies demonstrate that CsA is rapidly transformed inside the hepatocytes to various metabolites which may play an important role in the pharmacological activity of the drug and/or in its clinical toxicity.

  14. Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: potential roles in toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2009-05-01

    L-methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 degrees C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-d-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-dl-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

  15. Additive effects of ciprofloxacin on the in-vitro activity of chloroquine against a clinical isolate of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Kazzim, O J; Adegbolagun, O M; Osho, O; Anumudu, C I

    2006-10-01

    As chloroquine and ciprofloxacin each possess substantial inhibitory activity against the schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, it seems possible that a combination of the two drugs may be clinically useful. The effects on the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum of combined treatment with chloroquine and ciprofloxacin were therefore evaluated in vitro, using the World Health Organization's standardized micro test. When used alone, the median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of chloroquine against the schizonts in the assay mixtures was found to be 7.75 microg/ml, whereas the corresponding value for ciprofloxacin was markedly lower, at 3.35 microg/ml. When they were used together, however, there was marked and statistically significant mutual enhancement of schizont inhibition by the two drugs, indicating that a chloroquine-ciprofloxacin combination may be useful clinically, in the treatment and management of P. falciparum malaria.

  16. Natural antisense transcripts in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with complicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Boopathi, P A; Garg, Shilpi; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Pakalapati, Deepak; Saxena, Vishal; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Orekondy, Harsha B; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Sirohi, Paramendra; Kochar, Sanjay K; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Das, Ashis

    2014-06-01

    Mechanisms regulating gene expression in malaria parasites are not well understood. Little is known about how the parasite regulates its gene expression during transition from one developmental stage to another and in response to various environmental conditions. Parasites in a diseased host face environments which differ from the static, well adapted in vitro conditions. Parasites thus need to adapt quickly and effectively to these conditions by establishing transcriptional states which are best suited for better survival. With the discovery of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) in this parasite and considering the various proposed mechanisms by which NATs might regulate gene expression, it has been speculated that these might be playing a critical role in gene regulation. We report here the diversity of NATs in this parasite, using isolates taken directly from patients with differing clinical symptoms caused by malaria infection. Using a custom designed strand specific whole genome microarray, a total of 797 NATs targeted against annotated loci have been detected. Out of these, 545 NATs are unique to this study. The majority of NATs were positively correlated with the expression pattern of the sense transcript. However, 96 genes showed a change in sense/antisense ratio on comparison between uncomplicated and complicated disease conditions. The antisense transcripts map to a broad range of biochemical/metabolic pathways, especially pathways pertaining to the central carbon metabolism and stress related pathways. Our data strongly suggests that a large group of NATs detected here are unannotated transcription units antisense to annotated gene models. The results reveal a previously unknown set of NATs that prevails in this parasite, their differential regulation in disease conditions and mapping to functionally well annotated genes. The results detailed here call for studies to deduce the possible mechanism of action of NATs, which would further help in

  17. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F.; Morton, Lindsay C.; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Barnwell, John W.

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region. PMID:28301474

  18. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rachid Viana, Giselle Maria; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Lima Barbosa, Danielle Regina; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Goldman, Ira F; Morton, Lindsay C; Huber, Curtis; Anez, Arletta; Dantas Machado, Ricardo Luiz; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo; Costa Negreiros do Valle, Suiane; Marins Póvoa, Marinete; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Barnwell, John W

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

  19. Genotoxic and enzymatic effects of fluoranthene in microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes from sole (Solea solea).

    PubMed

    Wessel, N; Ménard, D; Pichavant-Rafini, K; Ollivier, H; Le Goff, J; Burgeot, T; Akcha, F

    2012-02-01

    The fluoranthene (Fluo) is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human food and in marine compartments. However, the existing data on its genotoxicity is poor and controversial. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the potential genotoxicity of Fluo in sole and its possible effect on CYP450 modulation. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed for 24 h to a range of Fluo concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μM in both culture flasks and microplate wells. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as an indicator of the activity of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring both DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts by the alkaline comet assay and the postlabeling technique respectively. Calf thymus DNA was also exposed to Fluo in the presence of sole liver microsomes in order to check for Fluo DNA adduct formation. In sole hepatocytes, Fluo was shown to induce a decrease in the EROD activity in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant genotoxic effect was observed in terms of DNA strand breakage from an exposure concentration of 5 μM: despite a concentration-dependent effect was observed, it did not follow a linear dose-response. The response was similar whatever the way of exposure in flasks or in wells. One reproducible adduct was detected in the hepatocytes exposed to the highest concentrations of Fluo. The formation of Fluo adducts was confirmed by the detection of one reproducible adduct following in vitro exposure of calf thymus DNA to 100 and 200 μM of Fluo in the presence of sole microsomes. These results demonstrate the potential of sole hepatocytes to metabolize Fluo in 24 h into reactive species, able to induce genotoxicity by DNA strand breakage and DNA adduct formation. Moreover, a miniaturized cell exposure system was validated for further experiments using fewer amounts of hepatocytes and contaminants, and allowing exposure to PAH metabolites. Copyright

  20. Prevalence of mutations associated with antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum isolates prior to the introduction of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Afsharpad, Mandana; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2007-01-01

    Background This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. Methods The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L and codons S436F/A, A437G, K540E, A581E, and A613S/T in pfdhps genes were genotyped by PCR/RFLP methods in 206 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Chabahar and Sarbaz districts in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran, during 2003–2005. Results All P. falciparum isolates carried the 108N, while 98.5% parasite isolates carried the 59R mutation. 98.5% of patients carried both 108N and 59R. The prevalence of pfdhps 437G mutation was 17% (Chabahar) and 33% (Sarbaz) isolates. 20.4% of samples presented the pfdhfr 108N, 59R with pfdhps 437G mutations. The frequency of allele pfcrt 76T was 98%, while 41.4% (Chabahar) and 27.7% (Sarbaz) isolates carried pfmdr1 86Y allele. Eight distinct haplotypes were identified in all 206 samples, while the most prevalent haplotype was T76/N86/N51R59N108/A437 among both study areas. Conclusion Finding the fixed level of CQ resistance polymorphisms (pfcrt 76T) suggests that CQ must be withdrawn from the current treatment strategy in Iran, while SP may remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria. PMID:17999755

  1. Prevalence of mutations associated with antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum isolates prior to the introduction of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Afsharpad, Mandana; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2007-11-13

    This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Iran. The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L and codons S436F/A, A437G, K540E, A581E, and A613S/T in pfdhps genes were genotyped by PCR/RFLP methods in 206 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Chabahar and Sarbaz districts in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran, during 2003-2005. All P. falciparum isolates carried the 108N, while 98.5% parasite isolates carried the 59R mutation. 98.5% of patients carried both 108N and 59R. The prevalence of pfdhps 437G mutation was 17% (Chabahar) and 33% (Sarbaz) isolates. 20.4% of samples presented the pfdhfr 108N, 59R with pfdhps 437G mutations. The frequency of allele pfcrt 76T was 98%, while 41.4% (Chabahar) and 27.7% (Sarbaz) isolates carried pfmdr1 86Y allele. Eight distinct haplotypes were identified in all 206 samples, while the most prevalent haplotype was T76/N86/N51R59N108/A437 among both study areas. Finding the fixed level of CQ resistance polymorphisms (pfcrt 76T) suggests that CQ must be withdrawn from the current treatment strategy in Iran, while SP may remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria.

  2. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  3. Identification of antibiotic resistance cassettes in class 1 integrons in Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fresh fish (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sarria-Guzmán, Yohanna; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Chávez-Romero, Yosef; Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Dendooven, Luc; Bello-López, Juan Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Forty-six Aeromonas spp. strains were isolated from fresh fish and investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of Class 1 integrons by PCR, and arrangement of gene cassettes. Selected isolates were further characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Twenty isolates were found to carry Class 1 integrons. Amplification of the variable regions of the integrons revealed diverse bands ranging in size from 150 to 1,958 pb. Sequence analysis of the variable regions revealed the presence of several gene cassettes, such as adenylyl transferases (aadA2 and aadA5), dihydrofolate reductases (dfrA17 and dfrA1), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (catB3), β-lactamase (oxa2), lincosamide nucleotidil transferase (linF), aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (apha15), and oxacillinase (bla OXA-10). Two open reading frames with an unknown function were identified as orfC and orfD. The aadA2 cassette was the most common integron found in this study. Interestingly, five integrons were detected in the plasmids that might be involved in the transfer of resistance genes to other bacteria. This is a first report of cassette encoding for lincosamides (linF) resistance in Aeromonas spp. Implications on the incidence of integrons in isolates of Aeromonas spp. from fresh fish for human consumption, and its possible consequences to human health are discussed.

  4. Characterization and pharmacological potential of Lactobacillus sakei 1I1 isolated from fresh water fish Zacco koreanus.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Han, Jeong-Ho; Nam, Gyeong-Jun; Majumder, Rajib; Park, Chanseo; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon Kee; Rather, Irfan A; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-03-15

    There are still a large variety of microorganisms among aquatic animals which have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Hence, present study was aimed to isolate and characterize a potent lactic acid bacterium from fresh water fish sample Zacco koreanus, and to confirm its pharmacological potential. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh water fish samples was done using serial dilution method. Biochemical identification and molecular characterization of selected LAB isolate 1I1, based on its potent antimicrobial efficacy, was accomplished using API kit and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Further, 1I1 was assessed for α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory potential as well as antiviral efficacy against highly pathogenic human influenza virus H1N1 using MDCK cell line in terms of its pharmacological potential. Here, we first time report isolation as well as biochemical and molecular characterization of a lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 1I1 isolated from the intestine of a fresh water fish Z. koreanus. As a result, L. sakei 1I1 exhibited potent antimicrobial effect in vitro, and diameter of zones of inhibition of 1I1 against the tested pathogens was found in the range of 13.32 ± 0.51 to 23.16 ± 0.32 mm. Also L. sakei 1I1 at 100 mg/ml exhibited significant (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities by 60.69 and 72.59%, in terms of its anti-diabetic and anti-melanogenic potential, respectively. Moreover, L. sakei 1I1 displayed profound anti-cytopathic effect on MDCK cell line when treated with its ethanol extract (100 mg/ml), confirming its potent anti-viral efficacy against H1N1 influenza virus. These findings reinforce the suggestions that L. sakei 1I1 isolated from the intestine of fresh water fish Z. koreanus might be a candidate of choice for using in pharmacological preparations as an effective drug.

  5. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh and smoked fish in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63.6%). Similar duality of prevalence was observed only for L. monocytogenes of 1/2b-3b-7 serogroup (14 strains; 24.6%), which was identified in 11 (23.9%) marine and 3 (27.3%) freshwater fish. All isolates harboured 10 virulence-associated genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, lmo2672, plcA, plcB, hlyA, actA, and mpl) and most of them (56; 98.2%) also possessed the flaA marker. Several strains displayed resistance to oxacillin (33; 57.9%), ceftriaxone (18; 31.6%), or clindamycin (5; 8.8%), and two isolates of serogroup 1/2a-3a showed multiresistance to all three. Genetic subtyping showed the presence of different pulsotypes belonging to six PFGE clusters. The obtained results provide useful information regarding fish contamination with L. monocytogenes which may have implications for public health.

  6. Mefloquine failure in a case of falciparum malaria induced with a multidrug-resistant isolate in a non-immune subject.

    PubMed

    Cosgriff, T M; Pamplin, C L; Canfield, C J; Willet, G P

    1985-07-01

    In a volunteer with infection induced by injection of the mefloquine-sensitive, multidrug-resistant Vietnam Smith isolate of P. falciparum, parasitemia recurred following treatment with the candidate antimalarial drug enpiroline. Parasitemia also recurred after subsequent treatment with mefloquine and again after retreatment with the same drug. All recurrences were at the RI level. Parasite drug sensitivities determined by a semi-automated isotope microdilution method after the second and third recurrences revealed a progressive decrease in sensitivity to all arylaminoalcohols tested (halofantrine, enpiroline, and mefloquine). Decreased sensitivity persisted after 30 days of isolate culture. The parallel changes in parasite sensitivity to the synthetic arylaminoalcohols argue for development of drugs which are chemically dissimilar.

  7. A SYBR Green 1-based in vitro test of susceptibility of Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to a panel of anti-malarial drugs.

    PubMed

    Quashie, Neils B; Duah, Nancy O; Abuaku, Benjamin; Quaye, Lydia; Ayanful-Torgby, Ruth; Akwoviah, George A; Kweku, Margaret; Johnson, Jacob D; Lucchi, Naomi W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Duplessis, Christopher; Kronmann, Karl C; Koram, Kwadwo A

    2013-12-17

    Based on report of declining efficacy of chloroquine, Ghana shifted to the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2005 as the first-line anti-malarial drug. Since then, there has not been any major evaluation of the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Ghana in vitro. The sensitivity of Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum isolates to anti-malarial drugs was, therefore, assessed and the data compared with that obtained prior to the change in the malaria treatment policy. A SYBR Green 1 fluorescent-based in vitro drug sensitivity assay was used to assess the susceptibility of clinical isolates of P. falciparum to a panel of 12 anti-malarial drugs in three distinct eco-epidemiological zones in Ghana. The isolates were obtained from children visiting health facilities in sentinel sites located in Hohoe, Navrongo and Cape Coast municipalities. The concentration of anti-malarial drug inhibiting parasite growth by 50% (IC50) for each drug was estimated using the online program, ICEstimator. Pooled results from all the sentinel sites indicated geometric mean IC50 values of 1.60, 3.80, 4.00, 4.56, 5.20, 6.11, 10.12, 28.32, 31.56, 93.60, 107.20, and 8952.50 nM for atovaquone, artesunate, dihydroartemisin, artemether, lumefantrine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, piperaquine, chloroquine, tafenoquine, quinine, and doxycycline, respectively. With reference to the literature threshold value indicative of resistance, the parasites showed resistance to all the test drugs except the artemisinin derivatives, atovaquone and to a lesser extent, lumefantrine. There was nearly a two-fold decrease in the IC50 value determined for chloroquine in this study compared to that determined in 2004 (57.56 nM). This observation is important, since it suggests a significant improvement in the efficacy of chloroquine, probably as a direct consequence of reduced drug pressure after cessation of its use. Compared to that measured prior to the change in treatment policy, significant elevation of

  8. Activity of selected phytochemicals against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Astelbauer, Florian; Gruber, Maria; Brem, Brigitte; Greger, Harald; Obwaller, Andreas; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-08-01

    According to the WHO, in 2008, there were 247 million reported cases of malaria and nearly one million deaths from the disease. Parasite resistance against first-line drugs, including artemisinin and mefloquine, is increasing. In this study the plant-derived compounds aglafolin, rocaglamid, kokusaginine, arborine, arborinine and tuberostemonine were investigated for their anti-plasmodial activity in vitro. Fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates were taken from patients in the area of Mae Sot, north-western Thailand in 2008 and the inhibition of schizont maturation was determined for the respective compounds. With inhibitory concentrations effecting 50%, 90% and 99% inhibition (IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99)) of 60.95 nM, 854.41 nM and 7351.49 nM, respectively, rocaglamid was the most active of the substances, closely followed by aglafoline with 53.49 nM, 864.55 nM and 8354.20 nM. The activity was significantly below that of artemisinin, but moderately higher than that of quinine. Arborine, arborinine, tuberostemonine and kokusaginine showed only marginal activity against P. falciparum characterized by IC(50) and IC(99) values higher than 350 nM and 180 μM, respectively, and regressions with relatively shallow slopes S>14.38. Analogues of rocaglamid and aglafoline merit further exploration of their anti-plasmodial activity.

  9. Fibrin hydrogels functionalized with cartilage extracellular matrix and incorporating freshly isolated stromal cells as an injectable for cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, H V; Eswaramoorthy, R; Cunniffe, G M; Buckley, C T; O'Brien, F J; Kelly, D J

    2016-05-01

    Freshly isolated stromal cells can potentially be used as an alternative to in vitro expanded cells in regenerative medicine. Their use requires the development of bioactive hydrogels or scaffolds which provide an environment to enhance their proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation in vivo. The goal of the current study was to develop an injectable fibrin hydrogel functionalized with cartilage ECM microparticles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 as a putative therapeutic for articular cartilage regeneration. ECM microparticles were produced by cryomilling and freeze-drying porcine articular cartilage. Up to 2% (w/v) ECM could be incorporated into fibrin without detrimentally affecting its capacity to form stable hydrogels. To access the chondroinductivity of cartilage ECM, we compared chondrogenesis of infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells in fibrin hydrogels functionalized with either particulated ECM or control gelatin microspheres. Cartilage ECM particles could be used to control the delivery of TGF-β3 to IFP-derived stem cells within fibrin hydrogels in vitro, and furthermore, led to higher levels of sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen accumulation compared to control constructs loaded with gelatin microspheres. In vivo, freshly isolated stromal cells generated a more cartilage-like tissue within fibrin hydrogels functionalized with cartilage ECM particles compared to the control gelatin loaded constructs. These tissues stained strongly for type II collagen and contained higher levels of sGAGs. These results support the use of fibrin hydrogels functionalized with cartilage ECM components in single-stage, cell-based therapies for joint regeneration. An alternative to the use of in vitro expanded cells in regenerative medicine is the use of freshly isolated stromal cells, where a bioactive scaffold or hydrogel is used to provide an environment that enhances their proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation in vivo. The

  10. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XI. Geographic distribution of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in southern and central Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ndounga, Mathieu; Tejiokem, Mathurin; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Youmba, Jean-Christian; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

    2002-10-01

    The DNA sequence of the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene, a molecular marker for pyrimethamine resistance, was determined for 178 field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected along the east-west axis in southern Cameroon. The proportion of isolates having the wild-type dhfr allele varied from 48.1% in the east (city of Bertoua) to 11.3-15.7% in central provinces (Yaounde and Eseka) and 0% in the littoral region (port city of Douala). Isolates with a single Asn-108 mutation or double mutations (Ile-51 or Arg-59 and Asn-108) constituted approximately 10% of the samples. Isolates with triple mutations (Ile-51, Arg-59, and Asn-108) were present in an equal proportion (48.1%) as the wild-type isolates in the east (Bertoua), while triple mutations predominated in Yaounde (62.3%), Eseka (62.7%), and Douala (78.9%). The distribution of triple dhfr mutations along the east-west axis in southern Cameroon suggests the presence of a decreasing gradient from the west coastal region to the central region and then to the east towards the interior of the country.

  11. Temporal changes in Plasmodium falciparum anti-malarial drug sensitivity in vitro and resistance-associated genetic mutations in isolates from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koleala, Tamarah; Karl, Stephan; Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R; Benjamin, John; Barnadas, Celine; Robinson, Leanne J; Kattenberg, Johanna H; Javati, Sarah; Wong, Rina P M; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Betuela, Inoni; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2015-01-28

    In northern Papua New Guinea (PNG), most Plasmodium falciparum isolates proved resistant to chloroquine (CQ) in vitro between 2005 and 2007, and there was near-fixation of pfcrt K76T, pfdhfr C59R/S108N and pfmdr1 N86Y. To determine whether the subsequent introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and reduced CQ-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine pressure had attenuated parasite drug susceptibility and resistance-associated mutations, these parameters were re-assessed between 2011 and 2013. A validated fluorescence-based assay was used to assess growth inhibition of 52 P. falciparum isolates from children in a clinical trial in Madang Province. Responses to CQ, lumefantrine, piperaquine, naphthoquine, pyronaridine, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, artemether were assessed. Molecular resistance markers were detected using a multiplex PCR ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay. CQ resistance (in vitro concentration required for 50% parasite growth inhibition (IC₅₀) >100 nM) was present in 19% of isolates. All piperaquine and naphthoquine IC₅₀s were <100 nM and those for lumefantrine, pyronaridine and the artemisinin derivatives were in low nM ranges. Factor analysis of IC₅₀s showed three groupings (lumefantrine; CQ, piperaquine, naphthoquine; pyronaridine, dihydroartemisinin, artemether, artesunate). Most isolates (96%) were monoclonal pfcrt K76T (SVMNT) mutants and most (86%) contained pfmdr1 N86Y (YYSND). No wild-type pfdhfr was found but most isolates contained wild-type (SAKAA) pfdhps. Compared with 2005-2007, the geometric mean (95% CI) CQ IC₅₀ was lower (87 (71-107) vs 167 (141-197) nM) and there had been no change in the prevalence of pfcrt K76T or pfmdr1 mutations. There were fewer isolates of the pfdhps (SAKAA) wild-type (60 vs 100%) and pfdhfr mutations persisted. Reflecting less drug pressure, in vitro CQ sensitivity appears to be improving in Madang Province despite continued near-fixation of pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1

  12. Characterization of freshly retrieved preantral follicles using a low-invasive, mechanical isolation method extended to different ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Langbeen, A; Jorssen, E P A; Fransen, E; Rodriguez, A P A; García, M Chong; Leroy, J L M R; Bols, P E J

    2015-10-01

    Due to the increased interest in preantral follicular physiology, non-invasive retrieval and morphological classification are crucial. Therefore, this study aimed: (1) to standardize a minimally invasive isolation protocol, applicable to three ruminant species; (2) to morphologically classify preantral follicles upon retrieval; and (3) to describe morphological features of freshly retrieved follicles compared with follicle characteristics using invasive methods. Bovine, caprine and ovine ovarian cortex strips were retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries and dispersed. This suspension was filtered, centrifuged, re-suspended and transferred to a Petri dish, to which 0.025 mg/ml neutral red (NR) was added to assess the viability of the isolated follicles. Between 59 and 191 follicles per follicle class and per species were collected and classified by light microscopy, based on follicular cell morphology. Subsequently, follicle diameters were measured. The proposed isolation protocol was applicable to all three species and showed a significant, expected increase in diameter with developmental stage. With an average diameter of 37 ± 5 μm for primordial follicles, 47 ± 6.3 μm for primary follicles and 67.1 ± 13.1 μm for secondary follicles, no significant difference in diameter among the three species was observed. Bovine, caprine and ovine follicles (63, 59 and 50% respectively) were graded as viable upon retrieval. Using the same morphological characteristics as determined by invasive techniques [e.g. haematoxylin-eosin (HE) sections], cumulus cell morphology and follicle diameter could be used routinely to classify freshly retrieved follicles. Finally, we applied a mechanical, minimally invasive, follicle isolation protocol and extended it to three ruminant species, yielding viable preantral follicles without compromising further in vitro processing and allowing routine follicle characterization upon retrieval.

  13. In vivo tissue engineering of functional skeletal muscle by freshly isolated satellite cells embedded in a photopolymerizable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Carlo Alberto; Flaibani, Marina; Blaauw, Bert; Pozzobon, Michela; Figallo, Elisa; Reggiani, Carlo; Vitiello, Libero; Elvassore, Nicola; De Coppi, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    The success of skeletal muscle reconstruction depends on finding the most effective, clinically suitable strategy to engineer myogenic cells and biocompatible scaffolds. Satellite cells (SCs), freshly isolated or transplanted within their niche, are presently considered the best source for muscle regeneration. Here, we designed and developed the delivery of either SCs or muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) via an in situ photo-cross-linkable hyaluronan-based hydrogel, hyaluronic acid-photoinitiator (HA-PI) complex. Partially ablated tibialis anterior (TA) of C57BL/6J mice engrafted with freshly isolated satellite cells embedded in hydrogel showed a major improvement in muscle structure and number of new myofibers, compared to muscles receiving hydrogel + MPCs or hydrogel alone. Notably, SCs embedded in HA-PI also promoted functional recovery, as assessed by contractile force measurements. Tissue reconstruction was associated with the formation of both neural and vascular networks and the reconstitution of a functional SC niche. This innovative approach could overcome previous limitations in skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

  14. Antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli, isolated from freshly slaughtered poultry and from chilled poultry at retail outlets.

    PubMed

    Bensink, J C; Botham, F P

    1983-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from poultry was investigated. Poultry carcases were examined immediately after slaughter or at retail outlets; the carcases were from the same processing plant and 100 were examined from each source. Approximately 85% of the total of 13,858 isolates examined were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Highly significant differences were found in the levels of antibiotic resistance from the 2 sources; ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulphonamide resistance was found more frequently in isolates from poultry at retail, while resistance against streptomycin and neomycin occurred more frequently in isolates from poultry examined at slaughter. The data were insufficient to explain these changes. Transfer of resistance occurred less frequently in isolates from poultry at retail; in particular the transfer of resistance from coliforms other than Escherichia coli was found to be greatly reduced.

  15. Rapid detection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates by FRET and in vivo response to chloroquine among children from Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Ogungbamigbe, Titus O; Fagbenro-Beyioku, Adetayo F; Fendel, Rolf; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen FJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ) has been in use in Africa for a long time. Because of misuse, this drug has now lost its efficacy due to the emergence of resistance strains in most parts of Africa. Recently, it was shown that after chloroquine has been withdrawn from the market, chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum re-emerged and chloroquine could again be used successfully as an antimalarial. Surveillance of parasite populations is, therefore, important to decide whether chloroquine could be re-introduced. Methods To estimate the prevalence of the most pivotal polymorphisms, including Pfcrt K76T, Pfmdr1 N86Y and Pfmdr1 Y184F mutations, and their contributions to the outcome of CQ treatment, isolates from Osogbo Western Nigeria were tested using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) method on a real-time PCR instrument. Results 116 children with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria infections were treated with the standard dosage of CQ and followed-up for 28 days. Blood samples were collected on filter paper at enrollment and during follow-up for identification of parasite carrying the chloroquine resistant transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum-multi drug resistance (pfmdr1) gene mutations. Parasitological assessment of response to treatment showed that 62% of the patients were cured and 38% failed the CQ treatment. The presence of single mutant pfcrt (T76) alleles (P = 0.003) and in combination with mutant pfmdr1 Y86 (P = 0.028) was significantly associated with in vivo CQR. No other mutation on its own or in combinations was significantly associated with treatment outcome. Mutant pfcrt was more prevalent in both pre- and post-treatment isolates. No association was observed between age or initial level of parasitaemia and chloroquine treatment outcome. Conclusion The result established the usefulness and accuracy of real time PCR in pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutation detection and also give further evidence to the reliability of the pfcrt T76 point

  16. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XIV. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PFCRT) gene sequences of isolates before and after chloroquine treatment.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ndounga, Mathieu; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Soula, Georges

    2002-10-01

    Laboratory studies have strongly suggested that the gene coding for Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PFCRT) may play a determinant role in chloroquine resistance. A clinical study in Mali also found evidence for selection of the key PFCRT amino acid substitution, Lys76Thr, in patients who fail to respond to chloroquine treatment. To test the hypothesis that in vivo selection of mutant PFCRT alleles occurs after chloroquine treatment, PFCRT and merozoite surface antigen 2 (msa-2) polymorphisms were compared between 61 pretreatment and posttreatment paired samples from children with either clinical or parasitologic failure. There were six wild-type PFCRT alleles, 44 mutant alleles, and 11 mixed alleles among pretreatment isolates. All posttreatment parasites had mutant PFCRT alleles. Recrudescence accounted for 42 of 61 posttreatment infections, while 19 posttreatment infections were due to new infection (including all isolates with Lys-76 before treatment and Thr-76 after treatment). Seven pretreatment isolates with mixed PFCRT alleles had only Thr-76 on recrudescence, providing a direct evidence for in vivo selection for mutant PFCRT. Although the presence of mutant PFCRT alleles in pretreatment isolates is not predictive of chloroquine treatment failure, our data support the hypothesis that in vivo selection for recrudescent parasites carrying mutant PFCRT alleles occurs. These results may have important implications for the future surveillance of chloroquine resistance by the use of molecular markers.

  17. Sequence Variation in the T-Cell Epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein among Field Isolates Is Temporally Stable: a 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Jalloh, Amadu; van Thien, Huynh; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Ohashi, Jun; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Kanbe, Toshio; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kawamoto, Fumihiko

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to decipher the nature and extent of antigen polymorphisms of malaria parasites in a setting where malaria is hypomesoendemic, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study (1998 to 2003) by sequencing the Th2R and Th3R epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of 142 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Bao Loc, Vietnam. Samples were collected during the high-transmission season, September through December 1998 (n = 43), as well as from July 2000 to August 2001 (n = 34), September 2001 to July 2002 (n = 33), and August 2002 to July 2003 (n = 32). Marked sequence diversity was noted during the high-transmission season in 1998, but no significant variation in allele frequencies was observed over the years (χ2 = 70.003, degrees of freedom = 57, P = 0.116). The apparent temporal stability in allele frequency observed in this Bao Loc malaria setting may suggest that polymorphism in the Th2R and Th3R epitopes is not maintained by frequency-dependent immune selection. By including 36 isolates from Flores Island, Indonesia, and 19 isolates from Thaton, Myanmar, we investigated geographical patterns of sequence polymorphism for these epitopes in Southeast Asia; among the characterized isolates, a globally distributed variant appears to be predominant in Vietnam (75 of 142 isolates, or 52.8%) as well as in Myanmar (15 of 19 isolates, or 78.9%) and Indonesia (31 of 36 isolates, or 86.1%). Further analyses involving worldwide CSP sequences revealed distinct regional patterns, a finding which, together with the unique mutations observed here, may suggest a possible role for host or local factors in the generation of sequence diversity in the T-cell epitopes of CSP. PMID:16597843

  18. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019) has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN) susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146) while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p < 0.01). These QNR associated genotype features were mainly due to the over representation of profile 7 among isolates (76.5%). The majority of parasites had pfcrt76T and wild-type pfmdr1 (> 95%) thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world. PMID:21669011

  19. Dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of freshly isolated human nasal epithelial cells concomitant with abrogation of IL-8 production.

    PubMed

    Bobic, S; van Drunen, C M; Callebaut, I; Hox, V; Jorissen, M; Fokkens, W J; Hellings, P W

    2010-12-01

    Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) are the first line of immune defense and are able to produce mediators that recruit, activate and prolong survival of immune cells, among which IL-8 takes an important place. Studies on IL-8 and effects of dexamethasone on hNECs have been hampered by methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the study is to investigate the contribution of freshly isolated hNECs to IL-8 production in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwithNP). Secondly, the effects of dexamethasone treatment on hNEC apoptosis and IL-8 production are investigated. hNECs were freshly isolated from nasal polyp tissue and healthy inferior turbinate of NP patients (n=12) and from inferior turbinates of healthy donors (n=19) by protease treatment and two negative selection procedures. hNECs were incubated with IL-1β (10ng/ml), TNFα (10ng/ml) or dexamethasone (10, 100 and 1000 Amicrog/ml). After 24h, IL-8 levels were determined in the supernatants by ELISA. Finally, hNECs were incubated with increasing doses of dexamethasone and stained with trypan-blue and annexin-FITC/PI to study apoptosis. hNECs isolated from nasal turbinates of healthy and NP patients and polyp tissue from NP patients produced similar levels of IL-8. IL-1β induced higher levels of IL-8 production in all types of hNECs without differences between control and NP tissue. Dexamethasone induced apoptosis of hNECs concomitant with abrogation of IL-8 production by hNECs. IL-8 production by human nasal epithelial cells does not differ between NP and healthy tissue under baseline nor stimulatory conditions. Dexamethasone induces apoptosis of hNECs and abrogates IL-8 production.

  20. Pantoea sp. Isolated from Tropical Fresh Water Exhibiting N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen-Si; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25197715

  1. Pantoea sp. isolated from tropical fresh water exhibiting N-acyl homoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry.

  2. Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water of a brook in a cavern.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Svec, Pavel; Saavedra, Ma José; Figueras, Ma José; Sedlacek, Ivo

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas P2973 was isolated from the water of a brook in a cavern in the Czech Republic. This isolate could not be biochemically identified at the species level, considering all updated species descriptions. Subsequent extensive phenotypic characterisation, DNA-DNA hybridisation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of 7 housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4705 bp) was employed in an attempt to ascertain the taxonomy of this isolate. Based on this polyphasic approach, we describe a novel species of the genus Aeromonas, for which the name Aeromonas cavernicola sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CCM7641(T) (DSM24474(T), CECT7862(T)) as the type strain.

  3. Insulin resistance in uremia. Characterization of lipid metabolism in freshly isolated and primary cultures of hepatocytes from chronic uremic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Caro, J F; Lanza-Jacoby, S

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism(s) of hyperlipidemia and liver insulin sensitivity in a rat model of severe chronic uremia (U). Basal lipid synthesis was decreased in freshly isolated hepatocytes from U when compared with sham-operated ad lib.-fed controls (alfC). Basal lipid synthesis in pair-fed controls (pfC) was in between U and alfC. Similarly, the activity of liver acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was diminished in U. Muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase was also decreased. Insulin stimulated lipid synthesis in freshly isolated hepatocytes from alfC. Hepatocytes from U and pfC were resistant to this effect of insulin. To ascertain if the insulin resistance in U was due to starvation (chow intake 50% of alfC) or to uremia itself, the U and pfC were intragastrically fed an isocaloric diet via a Holter pump the last week of the experimental period. Hepatocytes from orally fed U and pfC were also cultured for 24 h in serum-free medium. While freshly isolated and cultured U hepatocytes remained insulin resistant, those from pfC normalized, in vivo and in vitro, when they were provided with enough nutrients. Conclusions: (a) Hyperlipidemia in uremia is not due to increased synthesis, but to defect(s) in clearance. (b) Insulin does not stimulate lipid synthesis in uremia. This finding, along with our recent demonstration that insulin binding and internalization are not decreased in the uremic liver, suggests that a post-binding defect(s) in the liver plays an important role in the mechanism(s) of insulin resistance in uremia. (c) Cultured hepatocytes from uremic rats remain insulin resistant. This quality renders these cells useful in studying the postinsulin binding events responsible for the insulin-resistant state in the absence of complicating hormonal and substrate changes that occur in vivo. PMID:6350367

  4. Reduced BRCA1 transcript levels in freshly isolated blood leukocytes from BRCA1 mutation carriers is mutation specific.

    PubMed

    Chehade, Rania; Pettapiece-Phillips, Rachael; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotlyar, Max; Jurisica, Igor; Narod, Steven A; Akbari, Mohammad R; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2016-08-17

    BRCA1 mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer. Haploinsufficiency is thought to predispose these women to cancer by reducing the pool of available BRCA1 transcript and protein, thereby compromising BRCA1 function. Whether or not cancer-free BRCA1 mutation carriers have lower messenger (m)RNA transcript levels in peripheral blood leukocytes has not been evaluated. The primary aim of this study was to characterize an association between BRCA1 mutation status and BRCA1 mRNA leukocyte expression levels among healthy women with a BRCA1 mutation. RNA was extracted from freshly isolated peripheral blood leukocytes of 58 cancer-free, female participants (22 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 36 non-carriers). The expression levels of 236 cancer-associated genes, including BRCA1, were quantified using the Human Cancer Reference gene panel from the Nanostring Technologies nCounter Analysis System. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that carrying a BRCA1 mutation was the most significant predictor of BRCA1 mRNA levels. BRCA1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in BRCA1 mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (146.7 counts vs. 175.1 counts; P = 0.002). Samples with BRCA1 mutations within exon 11 had lower BRCA1 mRNA levels than samples with mutations within the 5' and 3' regions of the BRCA1 gene (122.1 counts vs. 138.9 and 168.6 counts, respectively; P = 0.003). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles from freshly isolated blood leukocytes revealed that BRCA1 mutation carriers cluster more closely with other BRCA1 mutation carriers than with BRCA1 wild-type samples. Moreover, a set of 17 genes (including BRCA1) previously shown to be involved in carcinogenesis, were differentially expressed between BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Overall, these findings support the concept of BRCA1 haploinsufficiency wherein a specific mutation results in dosage-dependent alteration of BRCA1 at the

  5. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  6. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions—exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism. PMID:26710336

  7. Ex vivo anti-malarial drugs sensitivity profile of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Burkina Faso five years after the national policy change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent reports on the decreasing susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives along the Thailand and Myanmar border are worrying. Indeed it may spread to India and then Africa, repeating the same pattern observed for chloroquine resistance. Therefore, it is essential to start monitoring P. falciparum sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives and its partner drugs in Africa. Efficacy of AL and ASAQ were tested by carrying out an in vivo drug efficacy test, with an ex vivo study against six anti-malarial drugs nested into it. Results of the latter are reported here. Methods Plasmodium falciparum ex-vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q), lumefantrine (Lum), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDA), piperaquine (PPQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was investigated in children (6 months – 15 years) with a parasitaemia of at least ≥4,000/μl. The modified isotopic microtest technique was used. The results of cellular proliferation were analysed using ICEstimator software to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results DHA was the most potent among the 6 drugs tested, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 nM to 0.9 nM (Geometric mean IC50 = 0.8 nM; 95% CI [0.8 - 0.9]). High IC50 values ranged between 0.8 nM to 166.1 nM were reported for lumefantrine (Geometric mean IC50 = 25.1 nM; 95% CI [22.4 - 28.2]). MDA and Q IC50s were significantly higher in CQ-resistant than in CQ-sensitive isolates (P = 0.0001). However, the opposite occurred for Lum and DHA (P < 0.001). No difference was observed for PPQ. Conclusion Artemisinin derivatives are still very efficacious in Burkina Faso and DHA-PPQ seems a valuable alternative ACT. The high lumefantrine IC50 found in this study is worrying as it may indicate a decreasing efficacy of one of the first-line treatments. This should be further investigated and monitored over time with large in vivo and ex vivo studies that will include also plasma drug measurements

  8. Ex vivo anti-malarial drugs sensitivity profile of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Burkina Faso five years after the national policy change.

    PubMed

    Tinto, Halidou; Bonkian, Léa N; Nana, Louis A; Yerbanga, Isidore; Lingani, Moussa; Kazienga, Adama; Valéa, Innocent; Sorgho, Hermann; Kpoda, Hervé; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Mens, Petronella F; Schallig, Henk; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2014-05-31

    The recent reports on the decreasing susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives along the Thailand and Myanmar border are worrying. Indeed it may spread to India and then Africa, repeating the same pattern observed for chloroquine resistance. Therefore, it is essential to start monitoring P. falciparum sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives and its partner drugs in Africa. Efficacy of AL and ASAQ were tested by carrying out an in vivo drug efficacy test, with an ex vivo study against six anti-malarial drugs nested into it. Results of the latter are reported here. Plasmodium falciparum ex-vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q), lumefantrine (Lum), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDA), piperaquine (PPQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was investigated in children (6 months - 15 years) with a parasitaemia of at least ≥4,000/μl. The modified isotopic microtest technique was used. The results of cellular proliferation were analysed using ICEstimator software to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. DHA was the most potent among the 6 drugs tested, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 nM to 0.9 nM (Geometric mean IC50 = 0.8 nM; 95% CI [0.8 - 0.9]). High IC50 values ranged between 0.8 nM to 166.1 nM were reported for lumefantrine (Geometric mean IC50 = 25.1 nM; 95% CI [22.4 - 28.2]). MDA and Q IC50s were significantly higher in CQ-resistant than in CQ-sensitive isolates (P = 0.0001). However, the opposite occurred for Lum and DHA (P < 0.001). No difference was observed for PPQ. Artemisinin derivatives are still very efficacious in Burkina Faso and DHA-PPQ seems a valuable alternative ACT. The high lumefantrine IC50 found in this study is worrying as it may indicate a decreasing efficacy of one of the first-line treatments. This should be further investigated and monitored over time with large in vivo and ex vivo studies that will include also plasma drug measurements.

  9. Starvation-Survival Patterns of Sixteen Freshly Isolated Open-Ocean Bacteria †

    PubMed Central

    Amy, Penny S.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen marine isolates from a NORPAX cruise, which were transferred once on medium after initial isolation, survived nutrient deprivation for at least 8 months (longest period test). All but one isolate remained cellularly intact, although their sizes and shapes changed greatly, and all became smaller, decreasing in size from 40 to 79%. Three starvation-survival patterns were demonstrated, namely (i) an initial increase in viable cells followed by a decrease until a constant number was reached, (ii) an increase in viable cells until a constant number was reached, and (iii) a decrease in viable cells until a constant number was reached. One isolate from each starvation-survival pattern was starved for 8 months and then was tested in comparison with 4-month-starved Ant-300 for [14C]glutamic acid uptake, respiration, and incorporation. The response to glutamic acid was rapid and linear in each case. The data indicate that the starvation-survival of Ant-300 is not an anomalous situation and that open ocean bacteria can withstand nutrient deprivation for long periods of time and still retain the capacity for active metabolism, if the nutrients become available. Images PMID:16346231

  10. Amplification of pfmdr1, pfcrt, pvmdr1, and K13 propeller polymorphisms associated with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax isolates from the China-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Zhou, Daili; Lin, Yingxue; Xiao, Huihui; Yan, He; Xia, Zhigui

    2015-05-01

    Malaria in the China-Myanmar border region is still severe; local transmission of both falciparum and vivax malaria persists, and there is a risk of geographically expanding antimalarial resistance. In this research, the pfmdr1, pfcrt, pvmdr1, and K13-propeller genotypes were determined in 26 Plasmodium falciparum and 64 Plasmodium vivax isolates from Yingjiang county of Yunnan province. The pfmdr1 (11.5%), pfcrt (34.6%), and pvmdr1 (3.1%) mutations were prevalent at the China-Myanmar border. The indigenous samples exhibited prevalences of 14.3%, 28.6%, and 14.3% for pfmdr1 N86Y, pfcrt K76T, and pfcrt M74I, respectively, whereas the samples from Myanmar showed prevalences of 10.5%, 21.1%, and 5.3%, respectively. The most prevalent genotypes of pfmdr1 and pfcrt were Y86Y184 and M74N75T76, respectively. No pvmdr1 mutation occurred in the indigenous samples but was observed in two cases coming from Myanmar. In addition, we are the first to report on 10 patients (38.5%) with five different K13 point mutations. The F446I allele is predominant (19.2%), and its prevalence was 28.6% in the indigenous samples of Yingjiang county and 15.8% in samples from Myanmar. The present data might be helpful for enrichment of the molecular surveillance of antimalarial resistance and useful for developing and updating guidance for the use of antimalarials in this region.

  11. Limited artemisinin resistance-associated polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller and PfATPase6 gene isolated from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Chen, Jiangtao; Xie, Dongde; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Ondo Obono, Maximo Miko; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Liye; Yang, Huitian; Lin, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective With emergence and geographically expanding of antimalarial resistance worldwide, molecular markers are essential tool for surveillance of resistant Plasmodium parasites. Recently, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller (K13-propeller) domain are shown to be associated with artemisinin (ART) resistance in vivo and in vitro. This study aims to investigate the ART resistance-associated polymorphisms of K13-propeller and PfATPase6 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A total of 172 samples were collected from falciparum malaria patients on Bioko Island between 2013 and 2014. The polymorphisms of K13-propeller and PfATPase6 genes were analyzed by Nest-PCR and sequencing. Results Sequences of K13-propeller and PfATPase6 were obtained from 90.74% (98/108) and 91.45% (139/152) samples, respectively. The 2.04% (2/98) cases had non-synonymous K13-propeller A578S mutation but no found the mutations associated with ART resistance in Southeast Asia. For PfATPase6, the mutations were found at positions N569K and A630S with the mutation prevalence of 7.91% (11/139) and 1.44% (2/139), respectively. In addition, a sample with the mixed type at position I723V was discovered (0.72%, 1/139). Conclusions This study initially offers an insight of K13-propeller and PfATPase6 polymorphisms on Bioko Island, EG. It suggests no widespread ART resistance or tolerance in the region, and might be helpful for developing and updating guidance for the use of ART-based combination therapies (ACTs). PMID:27054064

  12. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helicobacter pullorum Isolated from Fresh Chicken Meat: Antibiotic Resistance and Genomic Traits of an Emerging Foodborne Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Vítor; Santos, Andrea; Correia, Cristina Belo; Saraiva, Margarida; Ménard, Armelle; Vieira, Luís; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Pinheiro, Miguel; Gomes, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products are important sources of human intestinal infections. We report the isolation of Helicobacter pullorum strains from chicken meat. Bacteria were isolated from 4 of the 17 analyzed fresh chicken meat samples, using a membrane filter method. MIC determination revealed that the four strains showed acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin; one was also resistant to erythromycin, and another one was resistant to tetracycline. Whole-genome sequencing of the four strains and comparative genomics revealed important genetic traits within the H. pullorum species, such as 18 highly polymorphic genes (including a putative new cytotoxin gene), plasmids, prophages, and a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS was found in three out of the four isolates, suggesting that it may play a role in H. pullorum pathogenicity and diversity. This study suggests that the emerging pathogen H. pullorum can be transmitted to humans by chicken meat consumption/contact and constitutes an important contribution toward a better knowledge of the genetic diversity within the H. pullorum species. In addition, some genetic traits found in the four strains provide relevant clues to how this species may promote adaptation and virulence. PMID:26386065

  14. Involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial/lysosomal cross-talk in olanzapine cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Aziz; Azarmi, Yadollah; Parvizpur, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    1. Olanzapine (OLZ) is a widely used atypical antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders. Serious hepatotoxicity and elevated liver enzymes have been reported in patients receiving OLZ. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the OLZ hepatotoxicity are unknown. 2. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of OLZ on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was assessed. Our results showed that the cytotoxicity of OLZ in hepatocytes is mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial potential collapse, lysosomal membrane leakiness, GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation preceding cell lysis. All the aforementioned OLZ-induced cellular events were significantly (p < 0.05) prevented by ROS scavengers, antioxidants, endocytosis inhibitors and adenosine triphosphate generators. Also, the present results demonstrated that CYP450 is involved in OLZ-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity mechanism. 3. It is concluded that OLZ hepatotoxicity is associated with both mitochondrial/lysosomal involvement following the initiation of oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

  15. Kanagawa-negative, tdh- and trh-positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh oysters marketed in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Regine H S F; Costa, Renata A; Menezes, Francisca G R; Silva, Giselle C; Theophilo, Grace N D; Rodrigues, Dália P; Maggioni, Rodrigo

    2011-08-01

    Between October 2008 and June 2009, 15 samples of 10 live oysters each (Crassostrea rhizophorae) measuring 8.31-10.71 cm were purchased from a restaurant on the seashore of Fortaleza, Brazil. The Vibrio count ranged from 75 (estimated) to 43,500 CFU/g. Fourteen species were identified among the 56 isolated Vibrio strains, with V. parahaemolyticus as the most prevalent. Two of the 17 V. parahaemolyticus strains were urease-positive and tdh- and trh-positive on multiplex PCR, but neither produced β-hemolysis halos in Wagatsuma agar. Thus, fresh oysters served in natura in Fortaleza, Brazil, were found to contain Vibrio strains known to cause gastroenteritis in humans.

  16. Characterization of voltage-gated calcium currents in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from rat tail main artery.

    PubMed

    Petkov, G V; Fusi, F; Saponara, S; Gagov, H S; Sgaragli, G P; Boev, K K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from rat tail main artery in the presence of 5 mmol L(-1) external Ca2+. Calcium currents were identified on the basis of their voltage dependencies and sensitivity to nifedipine, Ni2+ and cinnarizine. In the majority of the cells studied, T- and L-type currents were observed, while the remaining cells showed predominantly L-type currents. In the latter group of cells, holding potential change from -50 to either -70 or -90 mV increased the corresponding inward current amplitude while its voltage activation threshold remained unchanged. The steady state inactivation of L-type Ca2+ channels showed half-maximal inactivation at -38 mV. A Ca2+-dependent inactivation was also evident. Nifedipine (3 micromol L(-1)) blocked L-type but not T-type Ca2+ currents. Ni2+ (50 micromol L(-1)) as well as cinnarizine (1 micromol L(-1)) suppressed the nifedipine-resistant, T-type component of the currents. At higher concentrations, both Ni2+ (0.3-1 mmol L(-1)) and cinnarizine (10 micromol L(-1)) blocked the net inward current. Replacement of Ca2+ with 10 mmol L(-)1 Ba2+ significantly increased the amplitude of L-type Ca2+ currents. These results demonstrate that smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from rat tail main artery may be divided into two populations, one expressing both L- and T-type and the other only L-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, this report shows that in arterial smooth muscle cells cinnarizine potently inhibited T-type currents at low concentrations (1 micromol L(-1)) but also blocked L-type Ca2+ currents at higher concentrations (10 micromol L(-1)).

  17. Isolation and characterisation of an enterocin P-producing Enterococcus lactis strain from a fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Ben Braïek, Olfa; Ghomrassi, Hamdi; Cremonesi, Paola; Morandi, Stefano; Fleury, Yannick; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Hani, Khaled; Bel Hadj, Omrane; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2017-03-07

    Screening for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh shrimp samples (Penaeus vannamei) collected from retail seafood markets in the Tunisian's coast, resulted in the isolation of an Enterococcus strain termed Q1. This strain was selected for its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae and against fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti). The Q1 strain was characterised using standard morphological and biochemical tests, growth assays at different temperatures, pH and salinity. 16S rRNA, rpoA and pheS gene sequencing, as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, were combined to identify strain Q1 as a strain of Enterococcus lactis. The bacteriocin produced by E. lactis Q1 is thermostable, active in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.0 and has a bactericidal mode of action. The enterocin P structural gene was detected by specific PCR in strain E. lactis Q1, which is in good agreement with SDS-PAGE data of the purified bacteriocin. A lack of significant antibiotic resistance genes and virulence determinants was confirmed by specific PCRs. This work provides the first description of an enterocin P producer E. lactis strain isolated from a fresh shrimp. Based on its safety properties (absence of haemolytic activity, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes), this strain has the potential to be used as a natural additive or adjunct protective culture in food biopreservation and/or probiotic culture.

  18. Inhibitory effect against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria of Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled and fresh fish.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, L

    1993-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of 209 Pseudomonas strains isolated from spoiled iced fish and newly caught fish were assessed by screening target organisms in agar diffusion assays. One-third (67 strains) inhibited the growth of one or several of six target organisms (Escherichia coli, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus), of which S. aureus and A. sobria were the most sensitive. The inhibitory action was most pronounced among the strains producing siderophores, and the presence of iron eliminated the antibacterial effect of two-thirds of the inhibitory strains. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron may explain the inhibitory activity of these strains. All but nine of the inhibiting strains were found to inhibit the growth of 38 psychrotrophic S. putrefaciens strains isolated from spoiling fish and fish products. Siderophore-containing Pseudomonas culture supernatants inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens, as did the addition of iron chelators (ethylenediamine dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [EDDHA]). In particular, Pseudomonas strains isolated from newly caught and spoiled Nile perch (Lates niloticus) inhibited S. putrefaciens. This suggests that microbial interaction (e.g., competition or antagonism) may influence the selection of a microflora for some chilled food products. PMID:8357253

  19. Isolation of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacterium JL-3 from fresh water and characterization of the proteorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjun; Lan, Yanli; Lou, Xiangdi; Han, Ning; Ran, Tingting; Xu, Langlai; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Wei-Wu

    2013-07-01

    Proteorhodopsins (PRs), light-driven proton pumps, constitute the largest family of the microbial rhodopsins. PRs are widely distributed in the oceanic environment and freshwater, but no bacteria with PRs have been isolated from freshwater so far. To facilitate isolation of the bacteria with PR genes, we constructed a vector system that can be used to clone potential PR genes and render color changes when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully isolated a strain with PR gene from freshwater and identified it as Exiguobacterium sp. JL-3. The full length PR gene was then cloned using the SEFA PCR method. Protein sequence alignment showed that JL-3_PR shares high sequence identity (84-89%) with the PRs from Exiguobacterium strains, but low sequence identity (< 38%) with other PRs. Surprisingly, we could not detect any proton-pumping activity in the native JL-3 cells and protoplasts, but the recombinant JL-3_PR do pump protons when overexpressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis further revealed that the PRs from Exiguobacterium had an unusual lysine as the proton donor instead of the typical acidic residue. These data suggest that JL-3_PR is a sensory PR rather than a proton pump.

  20. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple, using a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Chen, M; Chen, A; Dong, W; Hou, X; Pu, B

    2015-04-01

    To isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut apple, using a modelling method. Four kinds of pao cai were selected. A total of 122 isolates exhibited typical LAB characteristics: Gram-positive and catalase negative, among which 104 (85·24%) colonies showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella by the well diffusion assay. Four colonies showing maximum antibacterial radius against Salmonella were selected to co-inoculate with Salmonella on fresh-cut apple and stored at 10°C, further identified as three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Lactobacillus brevis by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. The modified Gompertz model was employed to analyse the growth of the micro-organisms on apple wedges. Two of the four selected strains showed antagonistic activity against Salmonella on fresh-cut apple, one of which, RD1, exhibited best inhibitory activity (Salmonella were greatly inhibited when co-inoculated with RD1 at 10°C at 168 h). No deterioration in odour or appearance of the apple piece was observed by the triangle test when fresh-cut apple was inoculated with RD1. The mathematical modelling method is essential to select LAB with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple. LAB RD1 holds promise for the preservation of fresh-cut apple. This study provided a new method on fresh-cut product preservation. Besides, to make the LAB isolating procedure a more correct one, this study first added the mathematical modelling method to the isolating procedure. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Recombinant Scorpine Produced Using SUMO Fusion Partner in Escherichia coli Has the Activities against Clinically Isolated Bacteria and Inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yaping; Zhou, Huayun; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel–nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+–NTA) resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+–NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future. PMID:25068263

  2. Deinococcus aquaticus sp. nov., isolated from fresh water, and Deinococcus caeni sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Im, Wan-Taek; Jung, Hae-Min; Ten, Leonid N; Kim, Myung Kyum; Bora, Nagamani; Goodfellow, Michael; Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2008-10-01

    The taxonomic positions of two environmental isolates from South Korea were established using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic data. The organisms, designated PB314(T) and Ho-08(T), were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming and had chemotaxonomic properties consistent with their classification in the genus Deinococcus 16S rRNA gene tree, the highest sequence similarities being shown to the type strains of Deinococcus grandis (96.3-96.7 %) and Deinococcus indicus (96.3-96.4 %). The isolates shared relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.1 %) but had a DNA-DNA relatedness value of only 22 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that both strains possess quinone system MK-8 as the predominant compound, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) as major fatty acids and ornithine as a diamino acid in the peptidoglycan structure, corroborating our assignment of the strains to the genus Deinococcus. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA relatedness values and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that the two strains represent distinct species. On the basis of these data, two novel species, Deinococcus aquaticus sp. nov. (type strain PB314(T) =KCTC 12552(T) =NBRC 101311(T)) and Deinococcus caeni sp. nov. (type strain Ho-08(T) =KCTC 12553(T) =NBRC 101312(T)), are proposed.

  3. Plasmid-Mediated Dimethoate Degradation by Bacillus licheniformis Isolated From a Fresh Water Fish Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain isolated from the intestine of Labeo rohita by an enrichment technique showed capability of utilizing dimethoate as the sole source of carbon. The bacterium rapidly utilized dimethoate beyond 0.6 mg/mL and showed prolific growth in a mineral salts medium containing 0.45 mg/mL dimethoate. The isolated B licheniformis exhibited high level of tolerance of dimethoate (3.5 mg/mL) in nutrient broth, while its cured mutant did not tolerate dimethoate beyond 0.45 mg/mL and it was unable to utilize dimethoate. The wild B licheniformis strain transferred dimethoate degradation property to E coli C600 (Nar, F−) strain. The transconjugant harbored a plasmid of the same molecular size (approximately 54 kb) as that of the donor plasmid; the cured strain was plasmid less. Thus a single plasmid of approximately 54 kb was involved in dimethoate degradation. Genes encoding resistance to antibiotic and heavy metal were also located on the plasmid. PMID:16192686

  4. Polyphasic assessment of fresh-water benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria isolated from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heath, Mark W; Wood, Susanna A; Ryan, Ken G

    2010-07-01

    Mat-forming benthic cyanobacteria are widespread throughout New Zealand rivers, and their ingestion has been linked to animal poisonings. In this study, potentially toxic benthic cyanobacterial proliferations were collected from 21 rivers and lakes throughout New Zealand. Each environmental sample was screened for anatoxins using liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS). Thirty-six cyanobacterial strains were isolated and cultured from these samples. A polyphasic approach was used to identify each isolate; this included genotypic analyses [16S rRNA gene sequences and intergenic spacer (ITS)] and morphological characterization. Each culture was analysed for anatoxins using LC-MS and screened for microcystin production potential using targeted PCR. The morphospecies Phormidium autumnale was found to be the dominant cyanobacterium in mat samples. Polyphasic analyses revealed multiple slight morphological variants within the P. autumnale clade and highlighted the difficulties in identifying Oscillatoriaceae. Only one morphospecies (comprising the two strains CYN52 and CYN53) of P. autumnale was found to produce anatoxins. These strains formed their own clade based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. These data indicate that benthic P. autumnale mats are composed of multiple morphospecies and toxin production is dependent on the presence of toxin-producing genotypes. Further cyanobacteria are also characterized, including Phormidium murrayi, which was identified for the first time outside of Antarctica.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Allelic Frequency of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Duru, Kimberley C; Thomas, Bolaji N

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate-rich protein is a Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) antigen found in all stages of the parasite and has been reported to induce clinical immunity. The R0 and R2 regions have been found to exhibit a high degree of conservation, therefore serving as a good vaccine design material. We assayed the genetic diversity of Pf glurp genes in the R0 and R2 regions, as well as evaluated the role of seasonality on allelic frequency. A total of 402 genomic DNA samples, extracted from filter paper blood samples, were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of Pf glurp R0 and R2 regions, in addition to fragment analysis of the polymorphic regions to identify allelic diversity of the parasite population. We found an extensive heterogeneity in the R2 region in general, and this heterogeneity is seasonally dependent, indicative of region plasticity. The R0 region displayed genetic conservation, as expected. We conclude that positive genotyping results with glurp R0 region should be seen as indicative of an active Pf infection, requiring adequate treatment. In addition, we advocate extending the possibility that an R0 region genotypic positivity could serve as diagnostic tool, thereby reducing cases of untreated or poorly treated infection, contributory to recrudescence or treatment failure. PMID:25452699

  6. Antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh shrimps in Shanghai fish markets, China.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Jin, Lanlan; Sun, Fengjiao; Hu, Qiongxia; Chen, Lanming

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a causative agent of human serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis disease and even death. Shrimps, often eaten raw or undercooked, are an important reservoir of the bacterium. In this study, we isolated and characterized a total of 400 V. parahaemolyticus strains from commonly consumed fresh shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, and Exopalaemon carinicauda) in Shanghai fish markets, China in 2013-2014. The results revealed an extremely low occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus carrying two major toxic genes (tdh and trh, 0.0 and 0.5 %). However, high incidences of antibiotic resistance were observed among the strains against ampicillin (99 %), streptomycin (45.25 %), rifampicin (38.25 %), and spectinomycin (25.50 %). Approximately 24 % of the strains derived from the P. monodon sample displayed multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, followed by 19, 12, and 6 % from the E. carinicauda, L. vannamei, and M. rosenbergii samples, respectively. Moreover, tolerance to heavy metals of Cr(3+) and Zn(2+) was observed in 90 antibiotic resistant strains, the majority of which also displayed resistance to Cu(2+) (93.3 %), Pb(2+) (87.8 %), and Cd(2+)(73.3 %). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-based genotyping of these strains revealed a total of 71 distinct pulsotypes, demonstrating a large degree of genomic variation among the isolates. The wide distribution of MDR and heavy-metal resistance isolates in the PFGE clusters suggested the co-existence of a number of resistant determinants in V. parahaemolyticus population in the detected samples. This study provided data in support of aquatic animal health management and food safety risk assessment in aquaculture industry.

  7. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s-1 under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone. PMID:26807127

  8. Mechanical properties of nerve roots and rami radiculares isolated from fresh pig spinal cords.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Ohgi, Junji; Ichihara, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xian; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics. Using the same tensile test device, the nerve root and ramus radiculares isolated from the spinal cords of pigs were subjected to the tensile test and stress relaxation test at load strain rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s(-1) under identical settings. The tensile strength of the nerve root was not rate dependent, while the ramus radiculares tensile strength tended to decrease as the strain rate increased. These findings provide important insights into cauda equina symptoms, radiculopathy, and clinical symptoms of the medullary cone.

  9. Isolation and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from fresh, low-temperature preserved, dried, and salted seafood products in two coastal areas of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Quan; Jiao, Xin-An; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Guo-Xiang; Fang, Wei-Ming; Gu, Rui-Xia

    2008-07-31

    A total of 1293 seafood samples from fishing farm, retail markets, restaurants and cooking rooms of hotels in Jiangsu province and Shanghai city of China were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during July to October in 2007. Two hundred and fifty one isolates of V. parahaemolyticus were identified, of which 8 isolates were positive for tdh and 2 were positive for trh gene. Three tdh positive isolates were identified from low-temperature preserved seafood samples and 5 isolates from fresh seafood samples, of these tdh positive isolates, 3 were positive in ORF8-PCR test. The genetic diversity among V. parahaemolyticus isolates was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and the results showed that there were 33 different genetic patterns that were clustered into nine groups (groups A to I) at 82% similarity level. About 31.9% of the isolates belong to type III9d that were widely distributed in fresh, iced, frozen, dried and salted seafood samples. Seven tdh positive isolates belonged to group A and one belonged to group C, 2 trh positive isolates were type I10d belonging to group F, which was identical to that of reference strains isolated from patients. This study demonstrated genetic variability within V. parahaemolyticus isolates from seafood in Chinese markets and confirmed the presence of toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus not only in fresh but also in iced and frozen seafood products indicating that low-temperature preserved seafood might be also a vehicle for transmitting pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus.

  10. Genome sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa type strain ATCC 49129 and strain FC1138, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce-processing plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 is a strong biofilm producer, isolated from a local fresh-cut produce processing plant. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 which includes two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete ...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans Strain C2-3, Isolated from a Fresh Volcanic Ash Deposit on the Island of Miyake, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Seok-Won; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    A diazotrophic, acidophilic, iron-oxidizing bacterium, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, known to be difficult to cultivate, was isolated from a fresh volcanic ash deposit on the island of Miyake, Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a cultured strain, C2-3. PMID:22815442

  12. Gram-negative bacterial isolates from fresh-cut processing plants enhance the presence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in dual-species biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofilms formed by resident microflora may provide a microenvironment for foodborne bacterial pathogens to survive and cause cross-contamination in fresh-cut processing and handling facilities. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of individual bacteria strains isolated from two l...

  13. Cytotoxicity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles towards fresh water algal isolate at low exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; T C, Prathna; Trivedi, Shruti; Myneni, Radhika; Raichur, Ashok M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-05-15

    The growing commercial applications had brought aluminium oxide nanoparticles under toxicologists' purview. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of two different sized aluminium oxide nanoparticles (ANP(1), mean hydrodynamic diameter 82.6±22nm and ANP(2), mean hydrodynamic diameter 246.9±39nm) towards freshwater algal isolate Chlorella ellipsoids at low exposure levels (≤1μg/mL) using sterile lake water as the test medium was assessed. The dissolution of alumina nanoparticles and consequent contribution towards toxicity remained largely unexplored owing to its presumed insoluble nature. Herein, the leached Al(3+) ion mediated toxicity has been studied along with direct particulate toxicity to bring out the dynamics of toxicity through colloidal stability, biochemical, spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The mean hydrodynamic diameter increased with time both for ANP(1) [82.6±22nm (0h) to 246.3±59nm (24h), to 1204±140nm (72h)] and ANP(2) [246.9±39nm (0h) to 368.28±48nm (24h), to 1225.96±186nm (72h)] signifying decreased relative abundance of submicron sized particles (<1000nm). The detailed cytotoxicity assays showed a significant reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. A significant increase in ROS and LDH levels were noted for both ANPs at 1μg/mL concentration. The zeta potential and FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (SEM, TEM, and CLSM). At 72h, significant Al(3+) ion release in the test medium [0.092μg/mL for ANP(1), and 0.19μg/mL for ANP(2)] was noted, and the resulting suspension containing leached ions caused significant cytotoxicity, revealing a substantial ionic contribution. This study indicates that both the nano-size and ionic dissolution play a significant role in the cytotoxicity of ANPs towards freshwater algae, and the exposure period largely determines

  14. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M.; Baker, Sandy T.; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation—6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung. PMID:26999050

  15. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Cameroon. XXX. Sequence Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Dihydropteroate Synthase Resistance Markers in Clinical Isolates from Children Treated with an Artesunate-Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination

    PubMed Central

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance. PMID:21734119

  17. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXX. sequence analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase resistance markers in clinical isolates from children treated with an artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

    PubMed

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance.

  18. Real-time electrochemical detection of ATP and H2O2 release in freshly isolated kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Pavlov, Tengis S.; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W.

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species are essential local signaling molecules in the kidney. However, measurements of changes in the interstitial concentrations of these substances in response to various stimuli remain hindered due to limitations of existing experimental techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a novel approach suitable for real-time measurements of ATP and H2O2 levels in freshly isolated rat kidney. Rats were anesthetized and the kidneys were flushed to clear blood before isolation for consequent perfusion. The perfused kidneys were placed into a bath solution and dual simultaneous amperometric recordings were made with the enzymatic microelectrode biosensors detecting ATP and H2O2. It was found that basal levels of H2O2 were increased in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats fed a high-salt diet compared with SS and Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low-salt diet and that medulla contained higher levels of H2O2 compared with cortex in both strains. In contrast, ATP levels did not change in SS rats when animals were fed a high-salt diet. Importantly, angiotensin II via AT1 receptor induced rapid release of both ATP and H2O2 and this effect was enhanced in SS rats. These results demonstrate that ATP and H2O2 are critical in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and that the current method represents a unique powerful approach for the real-time monitoring of the changes in endogenous substance levels in whole organs. PMID:23594827

  19. Mitigation of statins-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction by L-carnitine in freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, N.; Azarmi, Y.; Eghbal, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used as anti hyperlipidemic agents. Hepatotoxicity is one of their adverse effects appearing in some patients. No protective agents have yet been developed to treat statins-induced hepatotoxicity. Different investigations have suggested L-carnitine as a hepatoprotective agent against drugs-induced toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine on the cytotoxic effects of statins on the freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by collagenase enzyme perfusion via portal vein. Cells were treated with the different concentrations of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin and atorvastatin), alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial depolarization were assessed as toxicity markers. Furthermore, the effects of statins on cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione reservoirs were evaluated. In accordance with previous studies, an elevation in ROS formation, cellular oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation were observed after statins administration. Moreover, a decrease in cellular reduced glutathione level and cellular mitochondrial membrane potential collapse occurred. L-carnitine co-administration decreased the intensity of aforementioned toxicity markers produced by statins treatment. This study suggests the protective role of L-carnitine against statins-induced cellular damage probably through its anti oxidative and reactive radical scavenging properties as well as its effects on sub cellular components such as mitochondria. The mechanism of L-carnitine protection may be related to its capacity to facilitate fatty acid entry into mitochondria; possibly adenosine tri-phosphate or the reducing equivalents are increased, and the toxic effects of statins toward mitochondria are encountered. PMID:26487891

  20. GLUCOSE METABOLITE PATTERNS AS MARKERS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRESHLY ISOLATED AND CULTURED MOUSE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissell, M.J.

    1980-06-01

    In the mammary gland of nonruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lactation. We have measured the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U-{sup 14}C] glucose into intermediary metabolites and metabolic products in mammary epithelial cells from virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice and demonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate were important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells from pregnant mice have a pattern similar to freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. The pattern of cells from lactating mice is different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of the cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

  1. Novel robust in vitro hepatitis B virus infection model using fresh human hepatocytes isolated from humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuji; Yamasaki, Chihiro; Yanagi, Ami; Yoshizane, Yasumi; Fujikawa, Kazuyuki; Watashi, Koichi; Abe, Hiromi; Wakita, Takaji; Hayes, C Nelson; Chayama, Kazuaki; Tateno, Chise

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle are poorly understood because of the lack of appropriate in vitro infection models. Herein, we report a highly effective in vitro HBV infection system using fresh human hepatocytes (HHs) isolated from chimeric mice with humanized livers. After the inoculation of sera collected from HBV-infected chimeric mice or patients to HHs, we measured levels of HBV DNA, mRNA, covalently closed circular DNA, and viral protein expression in HHs. We investigated the neutralization activity of hepatitis B immune globulin and the effects of siRNA against sodium taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and clathrin heavy chain on HBV infection. We confirmed the expression of viral antigens in HHs and the presence of extracellular HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen. The maximum infection rate was approximately 80%. Lamivudine and hepatitis B immune globulin treatment reduced HBV DNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of sodium taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and clathrin heavy chain significantly reduced the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen. Infection was successfully established using different donor HHs and inocula. Elevation of extracellular HBV DNA levels and the increase of HBV-positive HHs were blocked by continuous hepatitis B immune globulin treatment, indicating virus spread in this model. Chimeric mouse-derived HHs provide a robust in vitro infection model that can completely support the HBV life cycle. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a fresh mixed sausage processing line in Pelotas-RS by PFGE

    PubMed Central

    von Laer, Ana Eucares; de Lima, Andréia Saldanha; Trindade, Paula dos Santos; Andriguetto, Cristiano; Destro, Maria Teresa; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium capable to adhere to the surfaces of equipment and utensils and subsequently form biofilms. It can to persist in the food processing environmental for extended periods of time being able to contaminate the final product. The aim of this study was to trace the contamination route of L. monocytogenes on a fresh mixed sausage processing line, from raw material to the final product. The isolates obtained were characterized by serotyping and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzymes ApaI and AscI. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25% of the samples. The samples of raw material were not contaminated, however, the microorganism was detected in 21% of the environmental samples (food contact and non-food contact), 20.8% of the equipments, 20% of the food worker’s hands, 40% of the mass ready to packaging and in all the final products samples, demonstrating that the contamination of final product occurred during the processing and the importance of cross contamination. PFGE yielded 22 pulsotypes wich formed 7 clusters, and serotyping yielded 3 serotypes and 1 serogroup, however, the presence of serotypes 4b and 1/2b in the final product is of great concern for public health. The tracing of contamination showed that some strains are adapted and persisted in the processing environment in this industry. PMID:24031402

  3. Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a fresh human fecal sample and emended description of the genus Blautia.

    PubMed

    Durand, Guillaume A; Pham, Thao; Ndongo, Sokhna; Traore, Sory Ibrahima; Dubourg, Grégory; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Michelle, Caroline; Armstrong, Nicholas; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Million, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    The strain GD9(T) is the type strain of the newly proposed species Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. It was isolated from a fresh stool sample collected from a healthy human using the culturomics strategy. Cells are Gram-negative rods, oxygen intolerant, non-motile and non-spore forming. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain GD9(T) was closely related to Blautia luti, with a 97.8% sequence similarity. Major fatty acids were C14:0 (19.8%) and C16:0 (53.2%). Strain GD9(T) exhibits a genome of 3,717,339 bp that contains 3,346 protein-coding genes and 81 RNAs genes including 63 tRNAs. The features of this organism are described here, with its complete genome sequence and annotation. Compared with other Blautia species which are Gram positive, the strain was Gram negative justifying an emended description of the genus Blautia.

  4. Polymorphisms of the Pfatpase 6 and Pfcrt gene and their relationship with the in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abobo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bla, Brice K; Yavo, William; Trébissou, Jonhson; Kipré, Rolland G; Yapi, Félix H; N'guessan, Jean D; Djaman, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of widespread resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Côte d'Ivoire since 2005. A thorough understanding of the molecular bases of P. falciparum resistance to existing drugs is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to analyze the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum field isolates from Abobo to CQ, pyronaridine (PYR) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA), and to investigate the polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The standard in vitro drug sensitivity microtechnique recommended by the WHO was used to assess the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in December 2006. The Pfcrt haplotype 76 was analysed by PCR-RFLP while Pfatpase 6 amplification products were sequenced. Associations between drug sensitivity and parasite gene polymorphisms were evaluated with Cohen's kappa test. The correlation between the IC50 values for different drugs was assessed by the coefficient of determination (r²). Significance was assumed at p<0.05. Of 128 in vitro tests performed, 112 (87.5%) were successful. Of the isolates, 56.2% were resistant for CQ and 48% for PYR. One isolate (3.6%) demonstrated reduced DHA sensitivity (IC50 higher than 10 nM). The mutant K76T pfcrt codon, present in 90% of DNA fragments analyzed, was associated with CQ-R (ĸ=0.76). The N669Y (16.1%), D734Y (28.6%) and D734H (1.8%) isolates were found to have mutant Pfatpase6, however, these mutations were not associated with diminished DHA sensitivity (k=0.01). These high levels of antimalarial drug resistance in Abobo (Côte d'Ivoire) demand further studies of drug efficacy across the whole country.

  5. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from fresh produce using STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C.

    PubMed

    Lin, Andrew; Nguyen, Lam; Clotilde, Laurie M; Kase, Julie A; Son, Insook; Lauzon, Carol R

    2012-11-01

    The ability to detect and isolate Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major challenge for food microbiologists. Although methods based on nucleic acids and antibodies have improved detection of STECs in foods, isolation of these bacteria remains arduous. STEC isolation is necessary for matching food, environmental, and clinical isolates during outbreak investigations and for distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C (SHIBAM) is a modification of washed sheep blood agar prepared by adding mitomycin-C and optimizing both the washed blood and base agar to better isolate STECs. Most STEC isolates produce a zone of hemolysis on SHIBAM plates and are easily distinguishable from background microbiota. Here, we present data supporting the use of SHIBAM to isolate STECs from fresh produce. SHIBAM was tested for accuracy in identifying STECs (365 of 410 STEC strains were hemolytic, and 63 of 73 E. coli strains that did not produce Shiga toxin were not hemolytic) and for recovery from artificially inoculated fresh produce (11 of 24 romaine lettuce samples and 6 of 24 tomato samples). STEC recovery with SHIBAM agar was greatly improved when compared with recovery on Levine's eosin-methylene blue agar as a reference method.

  6. In vitro activity of tafenoquine alone and in combination with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Ramharter, Michael; Noedl, Harald; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2002-07-01

    Emergence and spread of drug-resistant falciparum malaria has created an urgent demand for alternative therapeutic agents. This study was conducted to assess the in vitro blood schizontocidal activity of tafenoquine, the most advanced candidate drug of the 8-aminoquinolines, and of its 1:1 combination with artemisinin in fresh isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with multi-drug resistance, measuring the inhibition of schizont maturation. In 43 successfully tested parasite isolates, the mean effective concentrations (ECs) of tafenoquine were 209 nmol/L for the EC50, and 1,414 nmol/L for the EC90. Tafenoquine showed no significant activity relationships with mefloquine, artemisinin, and chloroquine. With quinine, a highly significant activity relationship was observed at the EC50, but not at the EC90. The EC50, and EC90 of the tafenoquine-artemisinin combination were 15.9 nmol/L and 84.3 nmol/L. The combination was synergistic. Tafenoquine appears to be a promising candidate for treating multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, especially in combination with artemisinin derivatives.

  7. Isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Listeria monocytogenes from modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut vegetables collected in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gillian A; O'Beirne, David

    2006-10-01

    The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut fruits and vegetables from chill cabinets of a supermarket in Ireland was investigated over a 2-year period. Overall, 9.58% of fresh-cut produce was contaminated with Listeria spp. Various species of Listeria were isolated from samples, including L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii. No fruit samples contained detectable L. monocytogenes. Overall, a total of 21 L. monocytogenes isolates (2.9% of samples) were recovered from a range of products, including dry coleslaw mix (80% shredded cabbage and 20% shredded carrot), bean sprouts, and leafy vegetables such iceberg, romaine, and radicchio lettuce and mixed salad leaves (curly endive, escarole, and radicchio leaves). Dry coleslaw mix appeared to have the highest incidence of Listeria contamination (20%) compared with other products. Listeria contamination was more frequent (P < 0.05) during the summer and autumn months than during the winter and spring months. The 21 L. monocytogenes isolates were subsequently subtyped by genomic macrorestriction techniques using ApaI with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE of digested DNA produced bands of 79 to 518 kb. Four PFGE profiles were identified, and approximately 50% of the isolates were associated with profile 1. This study indicates that fresh-cut vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere can support growth of numerous species of Listeria, including L. monocytogenes.

  8. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control

    PubMed Central

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  9. Genetic Characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates with Deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Genes in Colombia: The Amazon Region, a Challenge for Malaria Diagnosis and Control.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Erika Jimena; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Montenegro, Lidia Madeline; Diaz, Gustavo; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Murillo Solano, Claribel

    2016-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on 365 P. falciparum dried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparum endemic sites in Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparum parasites in the country. We found a high proportion of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes. Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks reported in Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53 PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in Amazonas because of the high proportion of parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be prioritised. Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparum parasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive

  10. L-Methionine Toxicity in Freshly-Isolated Mouse Hepatocytes is Gender-Dependent and Mediated in Part by Transamination

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Joseph T.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2008-01-01

    L-methionine (Met) has been implicated in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants and, at high levels, causes liver toxicity by mechanisms that are not clear. In this study, Met toxicity was characterized in freshly-isolated male and female mouse hepatocytes incubated with 5-30 mM Met for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, 20 mM Met was cytotoxic at 4 h as indicated by trypan blue exclusion and LDH leakage assays. Cytotoxicity was preceded by GSH depletion at 3 h without GSSG formation. Exposure to 30 mM Met resulted in increased cytotoxicity and GSH depletion. Interestingly, female hepatocytes were resistant to Met-induced cytotoxicity at these concentrations and showed increased cellular GSH levels compared to hepatocytes exposed to medium alone. The effects of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, and 3-deazaadenosine (3-DA), an inhibitor of the Met transmethylation pathway enzyme S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase on Met toxicity in male hepatocytes were then examined. Addition of 0.2 mM AOAA partially blocked Met-induced GSH depletion and cytotoxicity whereas 0.1 mM 3-DA potentiated Met-induced toxicity. Exposure of male hepatocytes to 0.3 mM 3-methylthiopropionic acid (3-MTP), a known Met transamination metabolite, resulted in cytotoxicity and cellular GSH depletion similar to that observed with 30 mM Met whereas incubations with D-methionine resulted in no toxicity. Female hepatocytes were less sensitive to 3-MTP toxicity than males which may partially explain their resistance to Met toxicity. Collectively, these results suggest that Met transamination and not transmethylation plays a major role in Met toxicity in male mouse hepatocytes. PMID:18552130

  11. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) blocks apoptosis and promotes ionizing radiation-induced necrosis of freshly-isolated normal mouse spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John S; Asmis, Reto; Tapp, Andrea A; Nelson, Brandy; Chu, Yanxia; Glass, Judith; Moneyhon, Micheal; Brown, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a pro-oxidant that kills cells by both apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol-containing compound that may act either as a pro- or anti-oxidant depending on the experimental conditions. This study was designed to determine whether PDTC would reduce or enhance IR-induced cell death of freshly-isolated normal mouse B6/129 spleen cells (NMSC). We determined the effect of increasing doses of IR, PDTC alone and PDTC followed by IR on the viability of NMSC. Annexin V and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining demonstrated a dose and time-dependent relationship in which PDTC enhanced the percentage of IR-induced apoptotic/necrotic NMSC. Trypan blue dye inclusion confirmed that a loss of membrane integrity was occurring 1 h after incubation with PDTC plus IR. Reduction in the glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and GSH demonstrated that both IR (8.5 Gy) and PDTC acted as pro-oxidants, but their mechanisms of action differed: In contrast to IR, which promoted p53 activation and caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis, PDTC inhibited IR-induced p53 and caspase 3/7 activity. However, PDTC increased H(2)O(2) formation and necrosis, resulting in an overall increase in IR-induced cell death. Catalase prevented the PDTC-induced increase in IR cytotoxicity implicating the generation of H(2)O(2) as a major factor in this mechanism. These results demonstrate that in NMSC PDTC acts as pro-oxidant and enhances IR-induced cell cytotoxicity by increasing H(2)O(2)formation and thiol oxidation. As such, they strongly suggest that the use of PDTC as an adjunct to reduce radiation toxicity should be avoided.

  12. L-methionine toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent and mediated in part by transamination.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-09-01

    L-methionine (Met) has been implicated in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants and, at high levels, it causes liver toxicity by mechanisms that are not clear. In this study, Met toxicity was characterized in freshly isolated male and female mouse hepatocytes incubated with 5 to 30 mM Met for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, 20 mM Met was cytotoxic at 4 h as indicated by trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays. Cytotoxicity was preceded by reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion at 3 h without glutathione disulfide formation. Exposure to 30 mM Met resulted in increased cytotoxicity and GSH depletion. It is interesting to note that female hepatocytes were resistant to Met-induced cytotoxicity at these concentrations and showed increased cellular GSH levels compared with hepatocytes exposed to medium alone. The effects of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, and 3-deazaadenosine (3-DA), an inhibitor of the Met transmethylation pathway enzyme S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, on Met toxicity in male hepatocytes were then examined. Addition of 0.2 mM AOAA partially blocked Met-induced GSH depletion and cytotoxicity, whereas 0.1 mM 3-DA potentiated Met-induced toxicity. Exposure of male hepatocytes to 0.3 mM 3-methylthiopropionic acid (3-MTP), a known Met transamination metabolite, resulted in cytotoxicity and cellular GSH depletion similar to that observed with 30 mM Met, whereas incubations with D-methionine resulted in no toxicity. Female hepatocytes were less sensitive to 3-MTP toxicity than males, which may partially explain their resistance to Met toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that Met transamination and not transmethylation plays a major role in Met toxicity in male mouse hepatocytes.

  13. Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p < 10-4) and in oocyst density of 90.5% (CI95 86.0 - 93.5; p < 10-4 ), while the ethanol extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments. PMID:24735564

  14. Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Ouédraogo, Robert K; Da, Dari F; Yao, Franck A; Yaméogo, Koudraogo B; Churcher, Thomas S; Lupidi, Giulio; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Habluetzel, Annette

    2014-04-15

    Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI₉₅ 12.0 - 79.0; p < 10-4) and in oocyst density of 90.5% (CI₉₅ 86.0 - 93.5; p < 10-4 ), while the ethanol extract from the same plant part did not exhibit any activity. No evidence of transmission blocking activity was found using G. senegalensis ethyl acetate extract from stem galls. The results of this study highlight the potential of antimalarial plants for the discovery of novel transmission blocking molecules, and open up the potential of developing standardized transmission blocking herbal formulations as malaria control tools to complement currently used antimalarial drugs and combination treatments.

  15. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System

    PubMed Central

    Panek, Jacek; Frąc, Magdalena; Bilińska-Wielgus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF) is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700), the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765), used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I) acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods. PMID:26815302

  16. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System.

    PubMed

    Panek, Jacek; Frąc, Magdalena; Bilińska-Wielgus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF) is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700), the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765), used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I) acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods.

  17. Ectopic osteogenic capacity of freshly isolated adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells supported with platelet-rich plasma: A simulation of intraoperative procedure.

    PubMed

    Najman, Stevo J; Cvetković, Vladimir J; Najdanović, Jelena G; Stojanović, Sanja; Vukelić-Nikolić, Marija Đ; Vučković, Ivica; Petrović, Dragan

    2016-10-01

    Bone defects represent a serious problem in cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells in combination with biological factors and bone substitutes were previously proposed as alternative to bone grafting. By simulating an intraoperative procedure we examined osteogenic capacity of the combination of two autologous components, freshly isolated adipose-derived SVF cells, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), delivered on bone mineral matrix (BMM) carrier (SPB group) in mice ectopic bone forming model. Implantation of BMM only (B group) was a control. The presence of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in SVF was detected by immunocytochemical analysis. Expression of bone- and endothelial-related genes was compared between freshly isolated SVF and ADSCs obtained from SVF after in vitro cultivation. The implants were analyzed using expression analysis of bone-related genes at one, two, four and eight weeks and histochemical, immunohistochemical and histomorphometrical analyses at two and eight weeks after implantation. Freshly isolated adipose-derived SVF contained ADSCs and exhibited promising osteogenic and vasculogenic capacity. At two and four weeks, significantly higher expression of bone-related genes was detected in SPB group compared to B group. The signs of osteogenic process were more pronounced in SPB than in B implants. By the end of experiment, percentage of infiltrated tissue and vascularization was significantly higher in SPB than in B implants. Adipose-derived SVF cells, PRP and BMM rapidly initiated osteogenesis what makes this combination promising candidate for treatment of bone defects.

  18. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-03

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. L-methionine-dl-sulfoxide metabolism and toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: gender differences and inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-11-01

    L-methionine-dl-sulfoxide (MetO) is an L-methionine (Met) metabolite, but its role in Met metabolism and toxicity is not clear. In this study, MetO uptake, metabolism to Met, cytotoxicity, and glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) status were characterized in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes incubated at 37 degrees C with 0 to 30 mM MetO for 0 to 5 h. In male hepatocytes, dose-dependent cytotoxicity concomitant with GSH depletion without GSSG formation occurred after exposure to 20 or 30 mM MetO but not after exposure to 10 mM MetO. Interestingly, female hepatocytes exposed to 30 mM MetO showed no cytotoxicity and exhibited increased intracellular GSH levels compared with control hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes had approximately 2-fold higher levels of intracellular Met-d-O or Met-l-O after MetO (30 mM) exposure for 0 to 1.5 h compared with female hepatocytes. In hepatocytes of both genders, Met-l-O was detected at nearly 5-fold higher levels than Met-d-O, and no significant increase in cellular Met levels was detected. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of transamination reactions, to MetO-exposed male hepatocytes resulted in higher cellular Met-d-O and Met-l-O levels and decreased the cytotoxicity of MetO. Interestingly, exposure of control male hepatocytes to AOAA selectively increased cellular Met-d-O levels to levels similar to those observed after exposure to MetO (30 mM). Analysis of MetO transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K in mouse liver cytosol revealed similar rates of MetO transamination in cytosol of both genders. Taken together, these results provide evidence for stereoselective oxidation of Met to Met-d-O under physiological conditions and suggest a major role for MetO transamination in MetO metabolism and toxicity.

  20. Synergism between mefloquine and artemisinin and its enhancement by retinol in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kerschbaumer, Gerwald; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Wiedermann, Ursula; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2010-10-01

    Following the advent of mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand in the 1990s, the combined treatment of falciparum malaria with artesunate and mefloquine was found to be highly effective in treating and curing the patients in the affected areas. Monitoring of the clinical-parasitological response and of the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum was systematically conducted in order to detect any signs of failure of this type of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). In earlier observations the in vitro activity of artemisinin was found to be significantly enhanced when combined with retinol. The same applies to mefloquine. In order to check whether the synergism between artemisinin and mefloquine was maintained in the presence of retinol, the pharmacodynamic interaction of the three compounds was investigated in the western border area of Thailand. Successful parallel tests with mefloquine, artemisinin, retinol, mefloquine-artemisinin 5:1 as well as mefloquine-artemisinin (5:1) + retinol low, medium and high were obtained with 43 fresh parasite isolates. The retinol concentrations in the low, medium and high formulations corresponded to the 50th, 65th and 80th percentile of the physiological mean concentrations in the blood of healthy adults. The IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99) values for mefloquine alone showed a further increase over the data of 2008. In the combinations with artemisinin and retinol moderate synergism was observed at the IC(50), but synergism increased strongly at the IC(90) and the IC(99).

  1. High prevalence of pfdhfr-pfdhps triple mutations associated with anti-malarial drugs resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates seven years after the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with artesunate as first-line treatment in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Maryam; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Pirahmadi, Sakineh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2015-04-01

    The spread of anti-malarial drug resistance will challenge any malaria control and elimination strategies, and routine monitoring of resistance-associated molecular markers of commonly used anti-malarial drugs is very important. Therefore, in the present investigation, the extent of mutations/haplotypes in dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n=72) was analyzed seven years after the introduction of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) as first-line anti-malarial treatment in Iran using PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed that the majority of the patients (97.2%) carried both 59R and 108N mutations in pure form with wild-type genotype at positions N51 and I164. Additionally, a significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in the frequency of R59N108/G437 haplotype (79.2%) during 2012-2014. This raise was because of the significant increase (P<0.05) in the frequency of 437G mutation (81.9%), which more likely was due to more availability of SP as anti-malarial drug for treatment of falciparum patients in these malaria-endemic areas of Iran. However, no quintuple mutations associated with treatment failure were detected. In conclusion, the present results along with in vivo assays suggest that seven years after the adoption of SP-AS as the first-line treatment in Iran, this drug remains efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, as a partner drug with AS in these malaria-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced mobilization of the bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells by intracoronary freshly isolated bone marrow cells transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Turan, R G; Bozdag-T, I; Turan, C H; Ortak, J; Akin, I; Kische, S; Schneider, H; Rauchhaus, M; Rehders, T C; Kleinfeldt, T; Belu, C; Amen, S; Hermann, T; Yokus, S; Brehm, M; Steiner, S; Chatterjee, T; Sahin, K; Nienaber, C A; Ince, H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation (BMCs-Tx) is a promising novel option for treatment of cardiovascular disease. We analysed in a randomized controlled study the influence of the intracoronary autologous freshly isolated BMCs-Tx on the mobilization of bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells (BM-CPCs) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixty-two patients with AMI were randomized to either freshly isolated BMCs-Tx or to a control group without cell therapy. Peripheral blood (PB) concentrations of CD34/45+- and CD133/45+-circulating progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in 42 AMI patients with cell therapy as well as in 20 AMI patients without cell therapy as a control group on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 3, 6 as well as 12 months after AMI. Global ejection fraction (EF) and the size of infarct area were determined by left ventriculography. We observed in patients with freshly isolated BMCs-Tx at 3 and 12 months follow up a significant reduction of infarct size and increase of global EF as well as infarct wall movement velocity. The mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs significantly increased with a peak on day 7 as compared to baseline after AMI in both groups (CD34/45+: P < 0.001, CD133/45+: P < 0.001). Moreover, this significant mobilization of BM-CPCs existed 3, 6 and 12 months after cell therapy compared to day 1 after AMI. In control group, there were no significant differences of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs mobilization between day 1 and 3, 6 and 12 months after AMI. Intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs by use of point of care system in patients with AMI may enhance and prolong the mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs in PB and this might increase the regenerative potency after AMI. PMID:21707914

  3. The MSPDBL2 codon 591 polymorphism is associated with lumefantrine in vitro drug responses in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Kilifi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ochola-Oyier, Lynette Isabella; Okombo, John; Mwai, Leah; Kiara, Steven M; Pole, Lewa; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Nzila, Alexis; Marsh, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms of drug resistance development in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite to lumefantrine (LUM), commonly used in combination with artemisinin, are still unclear. We assessed the polymorphisms of Pfmspdbl2 for associations with LUM activity in a Kenyan population. MSPDBL2 codon 591S was associated with reduced susceptibility to LUM (P = 0.04). The high frequency of Pfmspdbl2 codon 591S in Kenya may be driven by the widespread use of lumefantrine in artemisinin combination therapy (Coartem).

  4. Febrile temperatures induce cytoadherence of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pipitaporn, Busaba; Silamut, Kamolrat; Pinches, Robert; Kyes, Sue; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Newbold, Christopher; White, Nicholas J

    2002-09-03

    In falciparum malaria, the malaria parasite induces changes at the infected red blood cell surface that lead to adherence to vascular endothelium and other red blood cells. As a result, the more mature stages of Plasmodium falciparum are sequestered in the microvasculature and cause vital organ dysfunction, whereas the ring stages circulate in the blood stream. Malaria is characterized by fever. We have studied the effect of febrile temperatures on the cytoadherence in vitro of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Freshly obtained ring-stage-infected red blood cells from 10 patients with acute falciparum malaria did not adhere to the principle vascular adherence receptors CD36 or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, after a brief period of heating to 40 degrees C, all ring-infected red blood cells adhered to CD36, and some isolates adhered to ICAM-1, whereas controls incubated at 37 degrees C did not. Heating to 40 degrees C accelerated cytoadherence and doubled the maximum cytoadherence observed (P < 0.01). Erythrocytes infected by ring-stages of the ICAM-1 binding clone A4var also did not cytoadhere at 37 degrees C, but after heating to febrile temperatures bound to both CD36 and ICAM-1. Adherence of red blood cells infected with trophozoites was also increased considerably by brief heating. The factor responsible for heat induced adherence was shown to be the parasite derived variant surface protein PfEMP-1. RNA analysis showed that levels of var mRNA did not differ between heated and unheated ring-stage parasites. Thus fever-induced adherence appeared to involve increased trafficking of PfEMP-1 to the erythrocyte membrane. Fever induced cytoadherence is likely to have important pathological consequences and may explain both clinical deterioration with fever in severe malaria and the effects of antipyretics on parasite clearance.

  5. Intraoperative use of enriched collagen and elastin matrices with freshly isolated adipose-derived stem/stromal cells: a potential clinical approach for soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Ziyad; Almakadi, Sultan; Opländer, Christian; Vogt, Michael; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Pallua, Norbert

    2014-02-20

    Adipose tissue contains a large number of multipotent cells, which are essential for stem cell-based therapies. The combination of this therapy with suitable commercial clinically used matrices, such as collagen and elastin matrices (i.e. dermal matrices), is a promising approach for soft tissue reconstruction. We previously demonstrated that the liposuction method affects the adherence behaviour of freshly isolated adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) on collagen and elastin matrices. However, it remains unclear whether freshly isolated and uncultured ASCs could be directly transferred to matrices during a single transplantation operation without additional cell culture steps. After each fat harvesting procedure, ASCs were isolated and directly seeded onto collagen and elastin matrices. Different time intervals (i.e. 1, 3 and 24 h) were investigated to determine the time interval needed for cellular attachment to the collagen and elastin matrices. Resazurin-based vitality assays were performed after seeding the cells onto the collagen and elastin matrices. In addition, the adhesion and migration of ASCs on the collagen and elastin matrices were visualised using histology and two-photon microscopy. A time-dependent increase in the number of viable ASCs attached to the collagen and elastin matrices was observed. This finding was supported by mitochondrial activity and histology results. Importantly, the ASCs attached and adhered to the collagen and elastin matrices after only 1 h of ex vivo enrichment. This finding was also supported by two-photon microscopy, which revealed the presence and attachment of viable cells on the upper layer of the construct. Freshly isolated uncultured ASCs can be safely seeded onto collagen and elastin matrices for ex vivo cellular enrichment of these constructs after liposuction. Although we observed a significant number of seeded cells on the matrices after a 3-h enrichment time, we also observed an adequate number of isolated

  6. Purification of Immune Cell Populations from Freshly Isolated Murine Tumors and Organs by Consecutive Magnetic Cell Sorting and Multi-parameter Flow Cytometry-Based Sorting.

    PubMed

    Salvagno, Camilla; de Visser, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that tumors evolve together with nonmalignant cells, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. These cells constantly entangle and interact with each other creating the tumor microenvironment. Immune cells can exert both tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions. Detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of intra-tumoral immune cell subsets has become increasingly important in the field of cancer biology and cancer immunology. In this chapter, we describe a method for isolation of viable and pure immune cell subsets from freshly isolated murine solid tumors and organs. First, we describe a protocol for the generation of single-cell suspensions from tumors and organs using mechanical and enzymatic strategies. In addition, we describe how immune cell subsets can be purified by consecutive magnetic cell sorting and multi-parameter flow cytometry-based cell sorting.

  7. Mechanisms of trazodone-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effects of melatonin and/or taurine toward freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Taziki, Shohreh; Sattari, Mohammad Reza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that the bioactive intermediate metabolites of trazodone might cause hepatotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate the exact mechanism of hepatocellular injury induced by trazodone as well as the protective effects of taurine and/or melatonin against this toxicity. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were used. Trazodone was cytotoxic and caused cell death with LC50 of 300 µm within 2 h. Trazodone caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, malondialdehyde accumulation, depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), rise of oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which confirms the role of oxidative stress in trazodone-induced cytotoxicity. Preincubation of hepatocytes with taurine prevented ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, depletion of intracellular reduced GSH, and increase of oxidized GSSG. Taurine could also protect mitochondria against trazodone-induced toxicity. Administration of melatonin reduced the toxic effects of trazodone in isolated rat hepatocytes.

  8. Dual-species biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and environmental bacteria isolated from fresh-cut processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-02-03

    Biofilm formation is a mechanism adapted by many microorganisms that enhances the survival in stressful environments. In food processing facilities, foodborne bacterial pathogens, which many are poor biofilm formers, could potentially take advantage of this protective mechanism by interacting with other strong biofilm producers. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of bacteria native to fresh produce processing environments on the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms. Bacteria strains representing 13 Gram-negative species isolated from two fresh produce processing facilities in a previous study were tested for forming dual-species biofilms with E. coli O157:H7. Strong biofilm producing strains of Burkholderia caryophylli and Ralstonia insidiosa exhibited 180% and 63% increase in biofilm biomass, and significant thickening of the biofilms (B. caryophylli not tested), when co-cultured with E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 populations increased by approximately 1 log in dual-species biofilms formed with B. caryophylli or R. insidiosa. While only a subset of environmental isolates with strong biofilm formation abilities increased the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in biofilms, all tested E. coli O157:H7 exhibited higher incorporation in dual-species biofilms with R. insidiosa. These observations support the notion that E. coli O157:H7 and specific strong biofilm producing bacteria interact synergistically in biofilm formation, and suggest a route for increased survival potential of E. coli O157:H7 in fresh produce processing environments.

  9. Transfer and Detection of Freshly Isolated or Cultured Chicken (Gallus gallus) and Exotic Species’ Embryonic Gonadal Germ Stem Cells in Host Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Imus, Nastassja; Roe, Mandi; Charter, Suellen; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The management of captive avian breeding programs increasingly utilizes various artificial reproductive technologies, including in ova sexing of embryos to adjust population sex ratios. Currently, however, no attention has been given to the loss of genetic diversity following sex-selective incubation, even with respect to individuals from critically endangered species. This project evaluated the possibility of using xenotransfer of embryonic gonadal germline stem cells (GGCs) for future reintroduction of their germplasm into the gene pool. We examined and compared the host gonad colonization of freshly isolated and 3 day (3d) cultured donor GGCs from chicken and 13 species of exotic embryos. Following 3d-culture of GGCs, there was a significant increase in the percentage of stem cell marker (SSEA-1, -3, -4) positive cells. However, the percentage of positive host gonads with chicken donor-derived cells decreased from 68% (fresh) to 22% (3d), while the percentage of exotic species donor-cells positive host gonads decreased from 61% (fresh) to 49% (3d-cultured). Donor GGCs from both chicken and exotic species were localized within the caudal endoderm, including the region encompassing the gonadal ridge by 16 hours post-injection. Furthermore, donor-derived cells isolated from stage 36 host embryos were antigenic for anti SSEA-1, VASA/DDX4 and EMA-1 antibodies, presumably indicating maintenance of stem cell identity. This study demonstrates that GGCs from multiple species can migrate to the gonadal region and maintain presumed stemness following xenotransfer into a chicken host embryo, suggesting that germline stem cell migration is highly conserved in birds. PMID:24882096

  10. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples.

  11. Antiplasmodial activity-aided isolation and identification of quercetin-4'-methyl ether in Chromolaena odorata leaf fraction with high activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Ezenyi, I C; Salawu, O A; Kulkarni, R; Emeje, M

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract and gradient fractions through in vivo and in vitro tests, aimed at identifying its antiplasmodial constituents. Sub-fractions obtained from the most active gradient fraction were further tested for cytotoxicity against THP-1 cells, chloroquine-sensitive (HB3) and chloroquine-resistant (FCM29) Plasmodium falciparum. Our results showed the dichloromethane gradient fraction was most effective, significantly (P < 0.05) suppressing infection by 99.46% at 100 mg/kg body weight. Amongst its 13 sub-fractions (DF1-DF13), DF11 was highly active, with IC50 of 4.8 and 6.74 μg/ml against P. falciparum HB3 and FCM29, respectively. Cytotoxicity of DF11 was estimated to be above 50 μg/ml, and its separation by column chromatography yielded a flavonoid which was characterized as 3, 5, 7, 3' tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone from its spectroscopic data. It significantly suppressed infection (65.43-81.48%) in mice at 2.5-5 mg/kg doses and compared favourably with the effects of chloroquine and artemisinin. It may therefore serve as a useful phytochemical and antiplasmodial activity marker of C. odorata leaves, which exhibit potential for development as medicine against malaria.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm. PMID:26543108

  13. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis Strain MbURU-001, Isolated from Fresh Bovine Infected Samples.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Moira; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Iraola, Gregorio; Naya, Hugo; Castro-Ramos, Miguel; Juambeltz, Arturo; Robello, Carlos

    2015-11-05

    Bovine tuberculosis in cattle has a high incidence in Uruguay, where it is considered a disease of national importance. We present the genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis strain MbURU-001, isolated from pectoral lymph nodes of a bovine host from a cattle farm.

  14. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products. PMID:26221109

  15. Pectic polysaccharides of the fresh plum Prunus domestica L. isolated with a simulated gastric fluid and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Popov, Sergey V; Ovodova, Raisa G; Golovchenko, Victoria V; Khramova, Daria S; Markov, Pavel A; Smirnov, Vasily V; Shashkov, Alexandre S; Ovodov, Yury S

    2014-01-15

    A pectic polysaccharide, designated as PD, was extracted from fresh plums (Prunus domestica L.) with a simulated gastric fluid. Galacturonan, which was partially substituted with methyl and O-acetyl ester groups, and rhamnogalacturonan were the main constituents of the linear regions of the sugar chains of PD. The ramified region contained mainly 1,4-linked β-d-galactopyranose residues and, to a lesser extent, 1,5-linked α-l-arabinofuranose residues. The separation of PD, by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, yielded two pectic fractions: PD-1 and PD-2, eluted with 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl, respectively. Enzymatic digestion of PD with 1,4-α-d-polygalacturonase yielded the fraction PD-E. The parent pectin PD and the PD-1 fraction were found to diminish the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes at the concentrations of 0.05-1.0mg/ml. However, the PD-E fraction failed to have an effect on cell adhesion at the concentrations of 0.05-0.1mg/ml. PD, PD-1 and PD-E were found to inhibit the production of superoxide anion radicals by reducing xanthine oxidase activity by 38%, 97% and 47%, respectively. Therefore, the PD-1 fraction appeared to be an active fragment of pectic macromolecule isolated from fresh plum with a simulated gastric fluid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  17. Iodinated contrast media inhibit oxygen consumption in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells from elderly humans and diabetic rats: Influence of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Liss, Per; Hansell, Peter; Fasching, Angelica; Palm, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms underlying contrast medium (CM)-induced nephropathy remain elusive, but recent attention has been directed to oxygen availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the low-osmolar CM iopromide and the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol on oxygen consumption (QO2) in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells (PTC) from kidneys ablated from elderly humans undergoing nephrectomy for renal carcinomas and from normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Materials PTC were isolated from human kidneys, or kidneys of normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. QO2 was measured with Clark-type microelectrodes in a gas-tight chamber with and without each CM (10 mg I/mL medium). L-NAME was used to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production caused by nitric oxide synthase. Results Both CM reduced QO2 in human PTC (about -35%) which was prevented by L-NAME. PTC from normoglycemic rats were unaffected by iopromide, whereas iodixanol decreased QO2 (-34%). Both CM decreased QO2 in PTC from diabetic rats (-38% and -36%, respectively). L-NAME only prevented the effect of iopromide in the diabetic rat PTC. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that CM can induce NO release from isolated PTC in vitro, which affects QO2. Our results suggest that the induction of NO release and subsequent effect on the cellular oxygen metabolism are dependent on several factors, including CM type and pre-existing risk factors for the development of CM-induced nephropathy.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire. XXXI. Kelch 13 Propeller Sequences in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates before and after Implementation of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Djaman, Joseph Allico; Olefongo, Dagnogo; Ako, Aristide Berenger; Roman, Jocelyne; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Basco, Leonardo K; Tahar, Rachida

    2017-07-01

    Artemisinin-resistant malaria has not been reported from Africa, but resistance can possibly spread from Asia or arise independently in Africa. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Africa can be monitored by molecular assay of Kelch 13 (K13) propeller sequences. A total of 251 archived DNA samples of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 2002, 2003, and 2006 in Yaounde, Cameroon, and 47 samples collected in 2006 and 2013 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were analyzed for K13-propeller sequence polymorphism. Only one isolate carried a mutant K13-propeller allele (E602D). None of the isolates carried the key mutant alleles (Y493H, R539T, I543T, and C580Y) associated with artemisinin resistance in Cambodia. The presence of the mutant allele was not correlated with in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin determined by the classical hypoxanthine incorporation assay. There was no evidence of K13 mutations associated with artemisinin resistance before and soon after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. Taurine activates strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in neurons freshly isolated from nucleus accumbens of young rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhenglin; Krnjević, Kresimir; Wang, Fushun; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Although functional glycine receptors (GlyRs) are present in the mature nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important area of the mesolimbic dopamine system involved in drug addiction, their role has been unclear because the NAcc contains little glycine. However, taurine, an agonist of GlyRs, is abundant throughout the brain, especially during early development. In the present study on freshly dissociated NAcc neurons from young Sprague-Dawley rats (12- to 21-day old), we found that both glycine and taurine can strongly depolarize NAcc neurons and modulate their excitability. In voltage-clamped NAcc neurons, glycine and taurine elicited chloride currents (IGly and ITau) with an EC50 of 0.12 and 1.25 mM, respectively. The reversal potential of IGly or ITau was 0 mV in conventional whole cell mode and -30 mV in gramicidin-perforated mode. At concentrations <1 mM, both glycine and taurine were very effectively antagonized by strychnine and by picrotoxin (with an IC50 of 60 nM and 36.5 microM for IGly, and 40 nM and 42.2 microM for ITau) but were insensitive to 10 microM bicuculline. The currents elicited by taurine (< or =1 mM) showed complete cross-desensitization with IGly, but none with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced currents (IGABA). However, ITau elicited by very concentrated taurine (10 mM) showed partial cross-desensitization with IGABA, and it was substantially antagonized by 10 microM bicuculline. These results indicate that taurine binds mainly to GlyRs in NAcc, but it could be a partial agonist of GABAA receptors. By activating GlyRs, taurine may play an important physiological role in the control of NAcc function, especially during development.

  20. Amino acid sequences recognized by T cells: studies on a merozoite surface antigen from the FCQ-27/PNG isolate of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Rzepczyk, C M; Csurhes, P A; Baxter, E P; Doran, T J; Irving, D O; Kere, N

    1990-08-01

    Twenty-six overlapping peptides, spanning the entire FCQ-27/PNG sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen known as merozoite surface antigen 2 were screened for their ability to induce the proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) obtained from 12 donors living in Honiara, Solomon Islands where P. falciparum is endemic. A recombinant (r) form of MSA2, known as Ag 1609 was also screened in these assays and tetanus toxoid (TT) antigen was included as a control. The location of the predicted T cell determinants within MSA2 was examined using the algorithm, AMPHI and by scanning MSA2 for amino acid sequences showing the Rothbard motif. There were 13 predicted amphipathic helical sites and five examples of Rothbard sequences in the antigen. The location of these with regard to the peptides tested is shown. Nine of the 12 individuals responded to TT with high stimulation indices (greater than 4) being obtained in the majority of donors. Only three individuals responded to r-MSA2 with the stimulation indices (SI) in the range of 2.4-4.1. Peptides from both the constant and variable regions of MSA2 were recognized in the proliferative assays. However, the majority of the positive proliferative responses were to peptides which spanned the central variable region which included the two copies of the 32-amino-acid repeat occurring in the antigen. High SI comparable to those obtained to TT were seen in some individuals with some peptides. There was considerable variation between donors in number and nature of the peptides recognised and two donors did not respond to any of the antigens tested. The significance of these findings to vaccine development is discussed.

  1. Prevalences of Shiga toxin subtypes and selected other virulence factors among Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Reddy, Shanker

    2013-11-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were isolated from a variety of fresh produce, but mostly from spinach, with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5%. A panel of 132 produce STEC strains were characterized for the presence of virulence and putative virulence factor genes and for Shiga toxin subtypes. About 9% of the isolates were found to have the eae gene, which encodes the intimin binding protein, and most of these belonged to known pathogenic STEC serotypes, such as O157:H7 and O26:H11, or to serotypes that reportedly have caused human illness. Among the eae-negative strains, there were three O113:H21 strains and one O91:H21 strain, which historically have been implicated in illness and therefore may be of concern as well. The ehxA gene, which encodes enterohemolysin, was found in ∼60% of the isolates, and the saa and subAB genes, which encode STEC agglutinating adhesin and subtilase cytotoxin, respectively, were found in ∼30% of the isolates. However, the precise roles of these three putative virulence factors in STEC pathogenesis have not yet been fully established. The stx1a and stx2a subtypes were present in 22% and 56%, respectively, of the strains overall and were the most common subtypes among produce STEC strains. The stx2d subtype was the second most common subtype (28% overall), followed by stx2c (7.5%), and only 2 to 3% of the produce STEC strains had the stx2e and stx2g subtypes. Almost half of the produce STEC strains had only partial serotypes or were untyped, and most of those that were identified belonged to unremarkable serotypes. Considering the uncertainties of some of these Stx subtypes and putative virulence factors in causing human illness, it is difficult to determine the health risk of many of these produce STEC strains.

  2. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naman K.; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective. PMID:18826834

  3. Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Steele, R W

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old adolescent daughter of a missionary presented with fever and jaundice 1 week after returning from Africa. Examination of peripheral blood film revealed the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Therapy with oral quinine and doxycycline was curative. Diagnosis requires a travel history and a high index of suspicion. Because of the frequency of international travel, United States physicians need to be familiar with the presentation and management of imported P falciparum. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of chemoprophylaxis.

  4. Evaluating the Role of Drug Metabolism and Reactive Intermediates in Trazodone-Induced Cytotoxicity toward Freshly-Isolated Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Najibi, A; Heidari, R; Zarifi, J; Jamshidzadeh, A; Firoozabadi, N; Niknahad, H

    2016-11-01

    Background: Trazodone is an antidepressant agent widely administered for the treatment of depressive disorders. On the other hand, several cases of hepatic injury have been reported after Trazodone administration. Although the precise mechanism(s) of trazodone-induced liver injury is not known, some investigations proposed the role of reactive intermediates in this complication. This study was designed to investigate the role of reactive metabolites in hepatocytes injury induced by trazodone. Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes were prepared by the method of collagenase enzyme perfusion via the portal vein. Cells were treated with trazodone, its cytotoxic metabolite, and different enzyme inhibitors and cytoprotective agents. Results: It was found that trazodone was toxic towards hepatocytes and caused 50% cell death after 2 h of incubation at a dose of 450 µM. The trazodone postulated reactive metabolite; m-chlorophenyl piperazine (m-CPP) was less toxic and caused 50% cell death at a dose of 750 µM at a similar time period. Cellular glutathione (GSH) depletion and lipid peroxidation were detected when hepatocytes were treated with trazodone and/or m-CPP. Depleting hepatocytes GSH beforehand, increased cytotoxicity of both trazodone and m-CPP. Troleandomycin as the CYP3A4 inhibitor prevented cytotoxicity of trazodone but slightly affected m-CPP-induced cell injury. Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine and cimetidine increased the cytotoxicity of both trazodone and m-CPP. Antioxidants and ATP suppliers slightly prevented cytotoxicity of trazodone and m-CPP. Conclusion: As inhibitors of CYP3A4 and 2D6 affected trazodone cytotoxicity, it is suggested that trazodone -induced cytotoxicity, at least in part, is mediated by its reactive metabolites.

  5. Decreased glycation and structural protection properties of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Dehong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xuan; Wu, Zhaoxia; Bai, Bing; Ji, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    The antiglycative effect of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine (GSAC) peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales was investigated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. GSAC inhibited the increase of fluorescence intensity at about 440 nm in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced reacted free lysine side chains by 10.9%, 24.7% and 37.7%, as the GSAC concentrations increased from 0.1 to 2.5 mg mL(-1). Glycation-specific decline in BSA α-helix content (from 61.3% to 55.6%) and increase in β-sheet (from 2.1% to 5.4%) were prevented by GSAC (2.5 mg mL(-1)) in vitro, implying its stabilisation effect. GSAC treatment (2.5 mg mL(-1)) suppressed protein crosslinking to form polymers. Additionally, GSAC (10, 40, and 160 μg mL(-1)) showed radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities. In conclusion, GSAC has an antiglycative effect, which may involve its radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities.

  6. Aralar mRNA and protein levels in neurons and astrocytes freshly isolated from young and adult mouse brain and in maturing cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoman; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2012-12-01

    Intense glucose-based energy metabolism and glutamate synthesis by astrocytes require malate-aspartate-shuttle (MAS) activity to regenerate NAD⁺ from NADH formed during glycolysis, since brain lacks significant glycerophosphate shuttle activity. Aralar is a necessary aspartate/glutamate exchanger for MAS function in brain. Based on cytochemical immunoassays the absence of aralar in adult astrocytes was repeatedly reported. This would mean that adult astrocytes must regenerate NAD⁺ by producing lactate from pyruvate, eliminating its use by oxidative and biosynthetic pathways. We alternatively used astrocytes and neurons from adult brain, freshly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, to determine aralar protein by a specific antibody and its mRNA by real-time PCR. Both protein and mRNA expressions were identical in adult neurons and astrocytes and similar to whole brain levels. The same level of aralar expression was reached in well-differentiated astrocyte cultures, but not until late development, coinciding with the late-maturing brain capability for glutamate formation and degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiphasic stress relaxation response of freshly isolated and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells measured by quasi-in situ tensile test.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Saito, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo a phenotypic change from a contractile to a synthetic state under pathological conditions, such as atherogenesis and restenosis. Although the viscoelastic properties of SMCs are of particular interest because of their role in the development of these vascular diseases, the effects of phenotypic changes on their viscoelastic properties are unclear at this stage. We performed the stress relaxation test at constant strain (ε=30%) for the freshly isolated contractile SMCs (FSMCs) and the cultured synthetic SMCs (CSMCs) maintaining in situ cell shape and cytoskeletal integrity. We also investigated the effect of extracellular Ca2+ on their viscoelastic behaviors. FSMCs and CSMCs exhibited multiphasic stress relaxation, which consisted of rapid relaxation, occurring on a time scale of several seconds and several 10 seconds, and slow relaxation occurring on a time scale of 1000 seconds. The estimated elastic modulus of CSMCs was less than one-half that of FSMCs, that was associated with a decreased of amount of actin stress fibers (SFs) during the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes. FSMCs showed a conservation of tension with extracellular Ca2+ following rapid stress relaxation. In contrast, CSMCs showed a consecutive decrease in tension independent of Ca2+. This suggests that the decrease in tension in a long time scale may be involved in mechanical remodeling of SFs induced through a Rho-dependent pathway, which is Ca2+-independent and become predominant in the transition from contractile to synthetic phenotypes.

  8. The use of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes from newly isolated Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge for viscosity reduction in ethanol production with fresh sweet potato tubers as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Jin, Yanling; Shen, Weiliang; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Guohua; Zhao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge, which was isolated from rotten sweet potato, can produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) with high viscosity reducing capability for ethanol production using fresh sweet potato tubers as feedstock. The enzyme preparation was characterized by a broad enzyme spectrum including 13 kinds of enzymes with the activity to hydrolyze cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, and protein. The maximum viscosity-reducing capability was observed when the enzyme preparation was obtained after 5 days of fermentation using 20 g/L corncob as a sole carbon source, 4.5 g/L NH4 NO3 as a sole nitrogen source, and an initial medium pH of 6.5. The sweet potato mash treated with the enzyme preparation exhibited much higher fermentation efficiency (92.58%) compared with commercial cellulase (88.06%) and control (83.5%). The enzyme production was then scaled up to 0.5, 5, and 100 L, and the viscosity-reducing rates were found to be 85%, 90%, and 91%, respectively. Thus, P. ochrochloron Biourge displays potential viscosity-reducing capability for ethanol production.

  9. Effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of freshly roasted and freeze-dried Chinese chestnut.

    PubMed

    Gounga, M E; Xu, S-Y; Wang, Z; Yang, W G

    2008-05-01

    Harvested chestnut is characterized by a short shelf life, exposing many Chinese producers to a storage problem as product losses are very high. The objective of this study was to develop a suitable technology to extend the shelf life of harvested chestnut fruits for commercial use. The effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan (WPI-Pul) coating on fresh-roasted chestnuts (FRC) and roasted freeze-dried chestnut (RFDC) quality and shelf life was studied under 2 different storage temperature (4 and 20 degrees C) conditions. Coatings were formed directly onto the surface of the fruits by dipping them into a film solution. SEM micrographs showed homogeneous WPI-Pul to cover the whole surface of chestnut with good adherence and perfect integrity. Moisture loss or gain, fruit quality, and shelf life were evaluated by weight loss or gain, surface color development, and visible decay during the storage period of 15 to 120 d at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. WPI-Pul coating had a low, yet significant effect on reducing moisture loss and decay incidence of FRC, hence delaying changes in their external color. The results were satisfactory when the coating was done with freeze-drying at low temperature storage, thus improving the quality and increasing the shelf life. This provides an alternative strategy to minimize the significant losses in harvested chestnut.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum accompanied the human expansion out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Mita, Toshihiro; Jombart, Thibaut; Eriksson, Anders; Horibe, Shun; Palacpac, Nirianne; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Sawai, Hiromi; Sakihama, Naoko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Escalante, Ananias A; Prugnolle, Franck; Björkman, Anders; Färnert, Anna; Kaneko, Akira; Horii, Toshihiro; Manica, Andrea; Kishino, Hirohisa; Balloux, Francois

    2010-07-27

    Plasmodium falciparum is distributed throughout the tropics and is responsible for an estimated 230 million cases of malaria every year, with a further 1.4 billion people at risk of infection. Little is known about the genetic makeup of P. falciparum populations, despite variation in genetic diversity being a key factor in morbidity, mortality, and the success of malaria control initiatives. Here we analyze a worldwide sample of 519 P. falciparum isolates sequenced for two housekeeping genes (63 single nucleotide polymorphisms from around 5000 nucleotides per isolate). We observe a strong negative correlation between within-population genetic diversity and geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa (R(2) = 0.95) over Africa, Asia, and Oceania. In contrast, regional variation in transmission intensity seems to have had a negligible impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The striking geographic patterns of isolation by distance observed in P. falciparum mirror the ones previously documented in humans and point to a joint sub-Saharan African origin between the parasite and its host. Age estimates for the expansion of P. falciparum further support that anatomically modern humans were infected prior to their exit out of Africa and carried the parasite along during their colonization of the world. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA and DNA Isolated from Paired Fresh-Frozen and Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples of Human Cancer and Normal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Thorsen, Kasper; Lund, Mette Katrine; Hein, Anne-Mette K.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Vang, Søren; Nordentoft, Iver; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Hager, Henrik; Knudsen, Bjarne; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70–80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available. PMID:24878701

  12. Next-generation sequencing of RNA and DNA isolated from paired fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of human cancer and normal tissue.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Thorsen, Kasper; Lund, Mette Katrine; Hein, Anne-Mette K; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Vang, Søren; Nordentoft, Iver; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Hager, Henrik; Knudsen, Bjarne; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are an invaluable resource for clinical research. However, nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissues are fragmented and chemically modified making them challenging to use in molecular studies. We analysed 23 fresh-frozen (FF), 35 FFPE and 38 paired FF/FFPE specimens, representing six different human tissue types (bladder, prostate and colon carcinoma; liver and colon normal tissue; reactive tonsil) in order to examine the potential use of FFPE samples in next-generation sequencing (NGS) based retrospective and prospective clinical studies. Two methods for DNA and three methods for RNA extraction from FFPE tissues were compared and were found to affect nucleic acid quantity and quality. DNA and RNA from selected FFPE and paired FF/FFPE specimens were used for exome and transcriptome analysis. Preparations of DNA Exome-Seq libraries was more challenging (29.5% success) than that of RNA-Seq libraries, presumably because of modifications to FFPE tissue-derived DNA. Libraries could still be prepared from RNA isolated from two-decade old FFPE tissues. Data were analysed using the CLC Bio Genomics Workbench and revealed systematic differences between FF and FFPE tissue-derived nucleic acid libraries. In spite of this, pairwise analysis of DNA Exome-Seq data showed concordance for 70-80% of variants in FF and FFPE samples stored for fewer than three years. RNA-Seq data showed high correlation of expression profiles in FF/FFPE pairs (Pearson Correlations of 0.90 +/- 0.05), irrespective of storage time (up to 244 months) and tissue type. A common set of 1,494 genes was identified with expression profiles that were significantly different between paired FF and FFPE samples irrespective of tissue type. Our results are promising and suggest that NGS can be used to study FFPE specimens in both prospective and retrospective archive-based studies in which FF specimens are not available.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.

    PubMed

    Mberu, Edward K; Nzila, Alexis M; Nduati, Eunice; Ross, Amanda; Monks, Stephanie M; Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Watkins, William M; Hopkins Sibley, Carol

    2002-01-01

    We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered.

  14. Biochemical and functional characterization of Plasmodium falciparum GTP cyclohydrolase I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antifolates are currently in clinical use for malaria preventive therapy and treatment. The drugs kill the parasites by targeting the enzymes in the de novo folate pathway. The use of antifolates has now been limited by the spread of drug-resistant mutations. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) is the first and the rate-limiting enzyme in the folate pathway. The amplification of the gch1 gene found in certain Plasmodium falciparum isolates can cause antifolate resistance and influence the course of antifolate resistance evolution. These findings showed the importance of P. falciparum GCH1 in drug resistance intervention. However, little is known about P. falciparum GCH1 in terms of kinetic parameters and functional assays, precluding the opportunity to obtain the key information on its catalytic reaction and to eventually develop this enzyme as a drug target. Methods Plasmodium falciparum GCH1 was cloned and expressed in bacteria. Enzymatic activity was determined by the measurement of fluorescent converted neopterin with assay validation by using mutant and GTP analogue. The genetic complementation study was performed in ∆folE bacteria to functionally identify the residues and domains of P. falciparum GCH1 required for its enzymatic activity. Plasmodial GCH1 sequences were aligned and structurally modeled to reveal conserved catalytic residues. Results Kinetic parameters and optimal conditions for enzymatic reactions were determined by the fluorescence-based assay. The inhibitor test against P. falciparum GCH1 is now possible as indicated by the inhibitory effect by 8-oxo-GTP. Genetic complementation was proven to be a convenient method to study the function of P. falciparum GCH1. A series of domain truncations revealed that the conserved core domain of GCH1 is responsible for its enzymatic activity. Homology modelling fits P. falciparum GCH1 into the classic Tunnelling-fold structure with well-conserved catalytic residues at the active site. Conclusions

  15. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Guggisberg, Ann M.; Amthor, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria kills nearly 1 million people each year, and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum has become increasingly resistant to current therapies. Isoprenoid synthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway represents an attractive target for the development of new antimalarials. The phosphonic acid antibiotic fosmidomycin is a specific inhibitor of isoprenoid synthesis and has been a helpful tool to outline the essential functions of isoprenoid biosynthesis in P. falciparum. Isoprenoids are a large, diverse class of hydrocarbons that function in a variety of essential cellular processes in eukaryotes. In P. falciparum, isoprenoids are used for tRNA isopentenylation and protein prenylation, as well as the synthesis of vitamin E, carotenoids, ubiquinone, and dolichols. Recently, isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum has been shown to be regulated by a sugar phosphatase. We outline what is known about isoprenoid function and the regulation of isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum, in order to identify valuable directions for future research. PMID:25217461

  16. Increased pfmdr1 gene copy number and the decline in pfcrt and pfmdr1 resistance alleles in Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum isolates after the change of anti-malarial drug treatment policy.

    PubMed

    Duah, Nancy O; Matrevi, Sena A; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Binnah, Daniel D; Tamakloe, Mary M; Opoku, Vera S; Onwona, Christiana O; Narh, Charles A; Quashie, Neils B; Abuaku, Benjamin; Duplessis, Christopher; Kronmann, Karl C; Koram, Kwadwo A

    2013-10-30

    With the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2005, monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy, which includes the use of molecular tools to detect known genetic markers of parasite resistance, is important for first-hand information on the changes in parasite susceptibility to drugs in Ghana. This study investigated the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) copy number, mutations and the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) mutations in Ghanaian isolates collected in seven years to detect the trends in prevalence of mutations. Archived filter paper blood blots collected from children aged below five years with uncomplicated malaria in 2003-2010 at sentinel sites were used. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 756 samples were assessed for pfmdr1 gene copy number. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to detect alleles of pfmdr1 86 in 1,102 samples, pfmdr1 184, 1034, 1042 and 1246 in 832 samples and pfcrt 76 in 1,063 samples. Merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2) genotyping was done to select monoclonal infections for copy number analysis. The percentage of isolates with increased pfmdr1 copy number were 4, 27, 9, and 18% for 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08 and 2010, respectively. Significant increasing trends for prevalence of pfmdr1 N86 (×(2) = 96.31, p <0.001) and pfcrt K76 (×(2) = 64.50, p <0.001) and decreasing trends in pfmdr1 Y86 (x(2) = 38.52, p <0.001) and pfcrt T76 (x(2) = 43.49, p <0.001) were observed from 2003-2010. The pfmdr1 F184 and Y184 prevalence showed an increasing and decreasing trends respectively but were not significant (×(2) = 7.39,p=0.060; ×(2) = 7.49, p = 0.057 respectively). The pfmdr1 N86-F184-D1246 haplotype, which is alleged to be selected by artemether-lumefantrine showed a significant increasing trend (×(2) = 20.75, p < 0.001). Increased pfmdr1 gene copy number was observed in the isolates analysed and this finding has

  17. Multiple independent introductions of Plasmodium falciparum in South America

    PubMed Central

    Yalcindag, Erhan; Elguero, Eric; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Akiana, Jean; Anderson, Timothy J.; Aubouy, Agnes; Balloux, François; Besnard, Patrick; Bogreau, Hervé; Carnevale, Pierre; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Fontenille, Didier; Gamboa, Dionicia; Jombart, Thibaut; Le Mire, Jacques; Leroy, Eric; Maestre, Amanda; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ménard, Didier; Musset, Lise; Newton, Paul N.; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Noya, Oscar; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rogier, Christophe; Veron, Vincent; Wide, Albina; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Carme, Bernard; Legrand, Eric; Chevillon, Christine; Ayala, Francisco J.; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum in South America is controversial. Some studies suggest a recent introduction during the European colonizations and the transatlantic slave trade. Other evidence—archeological and genetic—suggests a much older origin. We collected and analyzed P. falciparum isolates from different regions of the world, encompassing the distribution range of the parasite, including populations from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and South America. Analyses of microsatellite and SNP polymorphisms show that the populations of P. falciparum in South America are subdivided in two main genetic clusters (northern and southern). Phylogenetic analyses, as well as Approximate Bayesian Computation methods suggest independent introductions of the two clusters from African sources. Our estimates of divergence time between the South American populations and their likely sources favor a likely introduction from Africa during the transatlantic slave trade. PMID:22203975

  18. Sentinel network for monitoring in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in Colombia: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Samanda L; Díaz, Gustavo; Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F; Ibarguen, Darío; Rios, Melissa; Murcia, Luz M; Quelal, Claudia; Murillo, Claribel; Gil, Pedro; Björkman, Anders; Osorio, Lyda

    2011-08-01

    Drug resistance is one of the principal obstacles blocking worldwide malaria control. In Colombia, malaria remains a major public health concern and drug-resistant parasites have been reported. In vitro drug susceptibility assays are a useful tool for monitoring the emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The present study was conducted as a proof of concept for an antimalarial drug resistance surveillance network based on in vitro susceptibility testing in Colombia. Sentinel laboratories were set up in three malaria endemic areas. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay-histidine rich protein 2 and schizont maturation methods were used to assess the susceptibility of fresh P. falciparum isolates to six antimalarial drugs. This study demonstrates that an antimalarial drug resistance surveillance network based on in vitro methods is feasible in the field with the participation of a research institute, local health institutions and universities. It could also serve as a model for a regional surveillance network. Preliminary susceptibility results showed widespread chloroquine resistance, which was consistent with previous reports for the Pacific region. However, high susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine compounds, currently used for treatment in the country, was also reported. The implementation process identified critical points and opportunities for the improvement of network sustainability strategies.

  19. Invasion of erythrocytes in vitro by Plasmodium falciparum can be inhibited by monoclonal antibody directed against an S antigen.

    PubMed

    Saul, A; Cooper, J; Ingram, L; Anders, R F; Brown, G V

    1985-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been produced which binds to the heat stable S antigen present in the FCQ-27/PNG isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. This monoclonal antibody also inhibits the invasion in vitro of erythrocytes by malarial merozoites thus demonstrating that the S antigens of Plasmodium falciparum may be a target of protective immune responses.

  20. DNA Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Gene: Amino Acid Sequence of Repetitive Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea, Vincenzo; Ellis, Joan; Zavala, Fidel; Arnot, David E.; Asavanich, Achara; Masuda, Aoi; Quakyi, Isabella; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.

    1984-08-01

    A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS β -lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  1. Pooled Amplicon Deep Sequencing of Candidate Plasmodium falciparum Transmission-Blocking Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Parobek, Christian M.; Brazeau, Nicholas F.; Ngasala, Billy; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Lon, Chanthap; Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette; Dhar, Ravi; Das, Bidyut K.; Hoffman, Irving; Martinson, Francis; Mårtensson, Andreas; Saunders, David L.; Kumar, Nirbhay; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms within Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens have the potential to compromise vaccine efficacy. Understanding the allele frequencies of polymorphisms in critical binding regions of antigens can help in the designing of strain-transcendent vaccines. Here, we adopt a pooled deep-sequencing approach, originally designed to study P. falciparum drug resistance mutations, to study the diversity of two leading transmission-blocking vaccine candidates, Pfs25 and Pfs48/45. We sequenced 329 P. falciparum field isolates from six different geographic regions. Pfs25 showed little diversity, with only one known polymorphism identified in the region associated with binding of transmission-blocking antibodies among our isolates. However, we identified four new mutations among eight non-synonymous mutations within the presumed antibody-binding region of Pfs48/45. Pooled deep sequencing provides a scalable and cost-effective approach for the targeted study of allele frequencies of P. falciparum candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:26503281

  2. Plasmodium falciparum mdr1 mutations and in vivo chloroquine resistance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Saladín, E; Fryauff, D J; Taylor, W R; Laksana, B S; Susanti, A I; Purnomo; Subianto, B; Richie, T L

    1999-08-01

    Mutations in the Pfmdr1 gene are reported to be associated with chloroquine resistance in some Plasmodium falciparum isolates. A polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for the detection of Pfmdr1 mutations in chloroquine-resistant field isolates of P. falciparum collected in Irian Jaya. The frequency of Pfmdr1 mutations was significantly higher in chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum parasites than background frequencies observed in the same location. The 7G8 mutation was identified in some parasites although always in a mixed genotype status. Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum specimens were characterized using the World Health Organization 28-day criteria, supplemented by demonstrating adequate chloroquine absorption and genetic analysis.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Resistance to Monodesethylamodiaquine, Dakar, Senegal, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Amalvict, Rémy; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar

    2016-01-01

    We successfully cultured 36 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from blood samples of 44 malaria patients admitted to the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) during August–December 2014. The prevalence of isolates with in vitro reduced susceptibility was 30.6% for monodesethylamodiaquine, 52.8% for chloroquine, 44.1% for mefloquine, 16.7% for doxycycline, 11.8% for piperaquine, 8.3% for artesunate, 5.9% for pyronaridine, 2.8% for quinine and dihydroartemisinin, and 0.0% for lumefantrine. The prevalence of isolates with reduced in vitro susceptibility to the artemisinin-based combination therapy partner monodesethylamodiaquine increased from 5.6% in 2013 to 30.6% in 2014. Because of the increased prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with impaired in vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine, the implementation of in vitro and in vivo surveillance of all artemisinin-based combination therapy partners is warranted. PMID:27088703

  4. Activity of Eurycoma longifolia root extract against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Ismail, Sabariah; Chan, Kit Lam; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Wernsdorfer, Gunther

    2009-10-01

    The habitats of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, a slender tree, are jungles in Malaysia and Indonesia. It belongs to the family Simaroubaceae and is a source of quassinoids with anabolic, antimalarial and cytostatic activity. In this study, conducted during 2008 in Mae Sot, Thailand, a standardized extract of E. longifolia containing three major quassinoids, eurycomanone (1), 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone (2) and 13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone (3) was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and its activity has been compared with that of artemisinin, using 38 fresh parasite isolates and assessment of inhibition of schizont maturation. The IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99) values for artemisinin were 4.30, 45.48 and 310.97 microg/l, and those for the root extract from E. longifolia 14.72, 139.65 and 874.15 microg/l respectively. The GMCOC for artemisinin was 337.81 mug/l, and for the plant extract it was 807.41 microg/l. The log-concentration probit regressions were parallel. The inhibitory activity of the E. longifolia extract was higher than that expected from the three quassinoids isolated from the plant, suggesting synergism between the quassinoids or the presence of other unidentified compounds.

  5. Improved Mobilization of the CD34+ and CD133+ Bone Marrow-Derived Circulating Progenitor Cells by Freshly Isolated Intracoronary Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bozdag-Turan, Ilkay; Ortak, Jasmin; Akin, Ibrahim; Kische, Stephan; Schneider, Henrik; Turan, Cem Hakan; Rehders, Tim Christopher; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Kleinfeldt, Tilo; Adolph, Ester; Brehm, Micheal; Yokus, Sedat; Steiner, Stephan; Sahin, Kurtulus; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Ince, Hüseyin

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising novel option for treatment of cardiovascular disease. Because the role of bone marrow-derived circulating progenitor cells (BM-CPCs) after cell therapy is less clear, we analyzed in this randomized, controlled study the influence of intracoronary autologous freshly isolated bone marrow cell transplantation (BMC-Tx) by using a point-of-care system on cardiac function and on the mobilization of BM-CPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Fifty-six patients with IHD were randomized to either receive freshly isolated BMC-Tx or a control group that did not receive cell therapy. Peripheral blood concentrations of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ CPCs were measured by flow cytometry pre-, immediately post-, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postprocedure in both groups. Global ejection fraction and the size of infarct area were determined by left ventriculography. We observed in patients with IHD after intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs-Tx at 3 and 12 months follow-up a significant reduction of the size of infarct area and increase of global ejection fraction as well as infarct wall movement velocity. The mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 months after cell therapy when compared with baseline in patients with IHD, although no significant changes were observed between pre- and immediately postintracoronary cell therapy administration. In the control group without cell therapy, there was no significant difference of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs mobilization between pre- and at 3, 6, and 12 months postcoronary angiography. Intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs by using a point-of-care system in patients with IHD may enhance and prolong the mobilization of CD34/45+ and CD133/45+ BM-CPCs in peripheral blood and this might increase the regenerative potency in IHD. PMID:21190450

  6. Experimental conditions affect the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum platelet-mediated clumping assays

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Mònica; Rowe, J Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Background Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) is a parasite adhesion phenotype that has been associated with severe malaria in some, but not all, field isolate studies. A variety of experimental conditions have been used to study clumping in vitro, with substantial differences in parasitaemia (Pt), haematocrit (Ht), and time of reaction between studies. It is unknown whether these experimental variables affect the outcome of parasite clumping assays. Methods The effects of Pt (1, 4 and 12%), Ht (2, 5 and 10%) and time (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h) on the clumping of P. falciparum clone HB3 were examined. The effects of platelet freshness and parasite maturity were also studied. Results At low Ht (2%), the Pt of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 12% Pt (mean 47% of IE in clumps) compared to 4% Pt (mean 26% IE in clumps) or 1% Pt (mean 7% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Similarly, at low Pt (1%), the Ht of the culture has a large effect on clumping, with significantly higher clumping occurring at 10% Ht (mean 62% IE in clumps) compared to 5% Ht (mean 25% IE in clumps) or 2% Ht (mean 10% IE in clumps) (ANOVA, p = 0.0004). Combinations of high Ht and high Pt were impractical because of the difficulty assessing clumping in densely packed IE and the rapid formation of enormous clumps that could not be counted accurately. There was no significant difference in clumping when fresh platelets were used compared to platelets stored at 4°C for 10 days. Clumping was a property of mature pigmented-trophozoites and schizonts but not ring stage parasites. Conclusion The Pt and Ht at which in vitro clumping assays are set up have a profound effect on the outcome. All previous field isolate studies on clumping and malaria severity suffer from potential problems in experimental design and methodology. Future studies of clumping should use standardized conditions and control for Pt

  7. Genetic evidence for contribution of human dispersal to the genetic diversity of EBA-175 in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Naka, Izumi; Patarapotikul, Jintana; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Ohashi, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The 175-kDa erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) of Plasmodium falciparum plays a crucial role in merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes. EBA-175 is believed to have been under diversifying selection; however, there have been no studies investigating the effect of dispersal of humans out of Africa on the genetic variation of EBA-175 in P. falciparum. The PCR-direct sequencing was performed for a part of the eba-175 gene (regions II and III) using DNA samples obtained from Thai patients infected with P. falciparum. The divergence times for the P. falciparum eba-175 alleles were estimated assuming that P. falciparum/Plasmodium reichenowi divergence occurred 6 million years ago (MYA). To examine the possibility of diversifying selection, nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates for Plasmodium species were also estimated. A total of 32 eba-175 alleles were identified from 131 Thai P. falciparum isolates. Their estimated divergence time was 0.13-0.14 MYA, before the exodus of humans from Africa. A phylogenetic tree for a large sequence dataset of P. falciparum eba-175 alleles from across the world showed the presence of a basal Asian-specific cluster for all P. falciparum sequences. A markedly more nonsynonymous substitutions than synonymous substitutions in region II in P. falciparum was also detected, but not within Plasmodium species parasitizing African apes, suggesting that diversifying selection has acted specifically on P. falciparum eba-175. Plasmodium falciparum eba-175 genetic diversity appeared to increase following the exodus of Asian ancestors from Africa. Diversifying selection may have played an important role in the diversification of eba-175 allelic lineages. The present results suggest that the dispersals of humans out of Africa influenced significantly the molecular evolution of P. falciparum EBA-175.

  8. The effect of declining exposure on T cell-mediated immunity to Plasmodium falciparum - an epidemiological "natural experiment".

    PubMed

    Bediako, Yaw; Ngoi, Joyce Mwongeli; Nyangweso, George; Wambua, Juliana; Opiyo, Michael; Nduati, Eunice Wambui; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Kevin; Ndungu, Francis Maina

    2016-09-22

    Naturally acquired immunity to malaria may be lost with lack of exposure. Recent heterogeneous reductions in transmission in parts of Africa mean that large populations of previously protected people may lose their immunity while remaining at risk of infection. Using two ethnically similar long-term cohorts of children with historically similar levels of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum who now experience very different levels of exposure, we assessed the effect of decreased parasite exposure on antimalarial immunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children in each cohort were stimulated with P. falciparum and their P. falciparum-specific proliferative and cytokine responses were compared. We demonstrate that, while P. falciparum-specific CD4(+) T cells are maintained in the absence of exposure, the proliferative capacity of these cells is altered considerably. P. falciparum-specific CD4(+) T cells isolated from children previously exposed, but now living in an area of minimal exposure ("historically exposed") proliferate significantly more upon stimulation than cells isolated from children continually exposed to the parasite. Similarly, PBMCs from historically exposed children expressed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with P. falciparum. Notably, we found a significant positive association between duration since last febrile episode and P. falciparum-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation, with more recent febrile episodes associated with lower proliferation. Considered in the context of existing knowledge, these data suggest a model explaining how immunity is lost in absence of continuing exposure to P. falciparum.

  9. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  10. A genome-wide map of diversity in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Volkman, Sarah K; Sabeti, Pardis C; DeCaprio, David; Neafsey, Daniel E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Milner, Danny A; Daily, Johanna P; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Lukens, Amanda; Derr, Alan; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Waggoner, Skye; Onofrio, Robert; Ziaugra, Liuda; Mauceli, Evan; Gnerre, Sante; Jaffe, David B; Zainoun, Joanne; Wiegand, Roger C; Birren, Bruce W; Hartl, Daniel L; Galagan, James E; Lander, Eric S; Wirth, Dyann F

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variation allows the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to overcome chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines and vector control strategies and remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Here we describe an initial survey of genetic variation across the P. falciparum genome. We performed extensive sequencing of 16 geographically diverse parasites and identified 46,937 SNPs, demonstrating rich diversity among P. falciparum parasites (pi = 1.16 x 10(-3)) and strong correlation with gene function. We identified multiple regions with signatures of selective sweeps in drug-resistant parasites, including a previously unidentified 160-kb region with extremely low polymorphism in pyrimethamine-resistant parasites. We further characterized 54 worldwide isolates by genotyping SNPs across 20 genomic regions. These data begin to define population structure among African, Asian and American groups and illustrate the degree of linkage disequilibrium, which extends over relatively short distances in African parasites but over longer distances in Asian parasites. We provide an initial map of genetic diversity in P. falciparum and demonstrate its potential utility in identifying genes subject to recent natural selection and in understanding the population genetics of this parasite.

  11. Synergistic enhancement of ectopic bone formation by supplementation of freshly isolated marrow cells with purified MSC in collagen-chitosan hydrogel microbeads.

    PubMed

    Wise, Joel K; Alford, Andrea I; Goldstein, Steven A; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate osteogenic lineages, but their tissue regeneration ability is inconsistent. The bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) fraction of adult bone marrow contains a variety of progenitor cells that may potentiate tissue regeneration. This study examined the utility of BMMC, both alone and in combination with purified MSC, as a cell source for bone regeneration. Fresh BMMC, culture-expanded MSC, and a combination of BMMC and MSC were encapsulated in collagen-chitosan hydrogel microbeads for pre-culture and minimally invasive delivery. Microbeads were cultured in growth medium for 3 days, and then in either growth or osteogenic medium for 17 days prior to subcutaneous injection in the rat dorsum. MSC remained viable in microbeads over 17 days in pre-culture, while some of the BMMC fraction were nonviable. After 5 weeks of implantation, microCT and histology showed that supplementation of BMMC with MSC produced a strong synergistic effect on the volume of ectopic bone formation, compared to either cell source alone. Microbeads containing only fresh BMMC or only cultured MSC maintained in osteogenic medium resulted in more bone formation than their counterparts cultured in growth medium. Histological staining showed evidence of residual microbead matrix in undifferentiated samples and indications of more advanced tissue remodeling in differentiated samples. These data suggest that components of the BMMC fraction can act synergistically with predifferentiated MSC to potentiate ectopic bone formation. The microbead system may have utility in delivering desired cell populations in bone regeneration applications.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum genetic crosses in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; Pinapati, Richard S.; Cheeseman, Ian H.; Camargo, Nelly; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Checkley, Lisa A.; Nair, Shalini; Hutyra, Carolyn A.; Nosten, François H.; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic crosses of phenotypically distinct strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are a powerful tool for identifying genes controlling drug resistance and other key phenotypes. Previous studies relied on the isolation of recombinant parasites from splenectomized chimpanzees, a research avenue that is no longer available. Here, we demonstrate that human-liver chimeric mice support recovery of recombinant progeny for the identification of genetic determinants of parasite traits and adaptations. PMID:26030447

  13. Sensitive and specific DNA probe for detection of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Enea, V

    1986-01-01

    The isolation and some characteristics of a very sensitive DNA probe for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum are described. The probe is species specific and represents a large, albeit variable, fraction of the genome in all the strains tested. In addition to its immediate practical uses for the detection and quantitation of parasites, the probe defines an interesting family of repeated sequences. Images PMID:3023833

  14. Isolation of guard cells from fresh epidermis using a piezo-power micro-dissection system with vibration-attenuated needles.

    PubMed

    Terpitz, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The Eppendorf Piezo-Power Microdissection (PPMD) system uses a tungsten needle (MicroChisel) oscillating in a forward-backward (vertical) mode to cut cells from surrounding tissue. This technology competes with laser-based dissection systems, which offer high accuracy and precision, but are more expensive and require fixed tissue. In contrast, PPMD systems can dissect freshly prepared tissue, but their accuracy and precision is lower due to unwanted lateral vibrations of the MicroChisel. Especially in tissues where elasticity is high, these vibrations can limit the cutting resolution or hamper the dissection. Here we describe a cost-efficient and simple glass capillary-encapsulation modification of MicroChisels for effective attenuation of lateral vibrations. The use of modified MicroChisels enables accurate and precise tissue dissection from highly elastic material.

  15. In vitro hatching of oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis using eggs isolated from fresh, frozen, formalin-fixed and ethanol-fixed segments.

    PubMed

    Negita, T; Ito, A

    1994-09-01

    In order to establish a simple means of handling eggs of taeniid cestodes under non-biohazardous conditions, gravid segments of Taenia taeniaeformis were fixed in ethanol or formalin or were frozen. In vitro hatching of oncospheres was carried out by the 0.5% sodium hypochlorite method using eggs isolated from the nonviable and viable segments. No oncospheres hatched from formalized eggs, whereas almost all oncospheres hatched from all other eggs but the number of oncospheres recovered was highly variable. Oncospheres hatched from eggs isolated from frozen segments were highly fragile. The highest figures for in vitro hatching of oncospheres were recorded when eggs isolated either from segments fixed in 70% ethanol or from viable segments were used.

  16. In-vitro interaction of tafenoquine and chloroquine in Plasmodium falciparum from northwestern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vollnberg, Anke; Prajakwong, Somsak; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2003-01-01

    The blood schizontocidal, pharmacodynamic interaction between tafenoquine (WR 238605--a 5-phenoxyprimaquine derivative--and chloroquine was investigated, using an in-vitro test for the inhibition of schizont maturation, in 15 fresh isolates of Plasmodium falciparum that originated from northwestern Thailand and neighbouring Myanmar. In this area the parasite is highly resistant to chloroquine. The geometric mean cut-off concentrations of schizont maturation for tafenoquine and chloroquine were 5261 nM and 7638 nM, respectively. With a mixture of tafenoquine and chloroquine, the mean cut-off concentration was 5252 nM, corresponding to 389 nM tafenoquine + 4863 nM chloroquine. Further analysis showed that the interaction between tafenoquine and chloroquine was additive within the range of EC20 and EC77. At concentrations higher than the EC77, interaction was moderately synergistic. While tafenoquine did not reverse the resistance to chloroquine to the degree of clinically relevant sensitivity, there was evidence that the blood schizontocidal efficacy of tafenoquine would be enhanced in the presence of chloroquine.

  17. Chromogenic agar medium for detection and isolation of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from fresh beef and cattle feces.

    PubMed

    Kalchayanand, Norasak; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wells, James E; Wheeler, Tommy L

    2013-02-01

    Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are clinically important foodborne pathogens. Unlike E. coli O157:H7, these foodborne pathogens have no unique biochemical characteristics to readily distinguish them from other E. coli strains growing on plating media. In this study, a chromogenic agar medium was developed in order to differentiate among non-O157 STEC strains of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on a single agar medium. The ability of this chromogenic agar medium to select and distinguish among these pathogens is based on a combination of utilization of carbohydrates, b -galactosidase activity, and resistance to selective agents. The agar medium in combination with immunomagnetic separation was evaluated and successfully allowed for the detection and isolation of these six serogroups from artificially contaminated fresh beef. The agar medium in combination with immunomagnetic separation also allowed successful detection and isolation of naturally occurring non-O157 STEC strains present in cattle feces. Thirty-five strains of the top six non-O157 STEC serogroups were isolated from 1,897 fecal samples collected from 271 feedlot cattle. This chromogenic agar medium could help significantly in routine screening for the top six non-O157 STEC serogroups from beef cattle and other food.

  18. Isolation and characterization of starch from industrial fresh pasta by-product and its potential use in sugar-snap cookie making.

    PubMed

    Ellouzi, Soumaya Zouari; Driss, Dorra; Maktouf, Sameh; Neifar, Mohamed; Kobbi, Ameni; Kamoun, Hounaida; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouze; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, starch was extracted from fresh pasta by-product (PS) and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Commercial wheat starch (CS) was used as reference. In general, purity was similar between starches studied. However, others compounds such as protein, lipid and ash were significantly different. PS starch granules had large lenticular-shape (25-33 μm) and small spherical-shape (5-8 μm). The pH and color of PS starch were similar to those reported for CS starch. On the other hand, PS had higher water absorption capacity, viscosity and cooking stability than CS. The gelatinization temperature of PS was similar to that of CS (60 and 61 °C). At high temperature (90 °C) both starches had similar rheological behavior. The results achieved suggest that PS starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures such the manufacture of sugar snap cookie. The effects of PS starch addition on the dough making stage and the final cookie quality were analyzed. Improvements in dough cohesiveness (24 %) and springiness (10 %) were significant relative to those of CS dough. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes.

  19. Gene copy number variation throughout the Plasmodium falciparum genome.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Ian H; Gomez-Escobar, Natalia; Carret, Celine K; Ivens, Alasdair; Stewart, Lindsay B; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Conway, David J

    2009-08-04

    Gene copy number variation (CNV) is responsible for several important phenotypes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, including drug resistance, loss of infected erythrocyte cytoadherence and alteration of receptor usage for erythrocyte invasion. Despite the known effects of CNV, little is known about its extent throughout the genome. We performed a whole-genome survey of CNV genes in P. falciparum using comparative genome hybridisation of a diverse set of 16 laboratory culture-adapted isolates to a custom designed high density Affymetrix GeneChip array. Overall, 186 genes showed hybridisation signals consistent with deletion or amplification in one or more isolate. There is a strong association of CNV with gene length, genomic location, and low orthology to genes in other Plasmodium species. Sub-telomeric regions of all chromosomes are strongly associated with CNV genes independent from members of previously described multigene families. However, approximately 40% of CNV genes were located in more central regions of the chromosomes. Among the previously undescribed CNV genes, several that are of potential phenotypic relevance are identified. CNV represents a major form of genetic variation within the P. falciparum genome; the distribution of gene features indicates the involvement of highly non-random mutational and selective processes. Additional studies should be directed at examining CNV in natural parasite populations to extend conclusions to clinical settings.

  20. Evolution of genetic polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Ketprathum, Kanchanok; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major public health problem in Thailand due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The understanding of genetic diversity of malaria parasites is essential for developing effective drugs and vaccines. The genetic diversity of the merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (PfMSP-2) genes was investigated in a total of 145 P. falciparum isolates collected from Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand during 3 different periods (1997-1999, 2005-2007, and 2009-2010). Analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed to track the evolution of genetic change of P. falciparum using PCR. Both individual genes and their combination patterns showed marked genetic diversity during the 3 study periods. The results strongly support that P. falciparum isolates in Thailand are markedly diverse and patterns changed with time. These 2 polymorphic genes could be used as molecular markers to detect multiple clone infections and differentiate recrudescence from reinfection in P. falciparum isolates in Thailand.

  1. Biodegradation studies and sequencing of microcystin-LR degrading bacteria isolated from a drinking water biofilter and a fresh water lake.

    PubMed

    Eleuterio, Lazaro; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2010-07-01

    The presence of microcystin-LR -degrading bacteria in an active anthracite biofilter and in Lake Mead, Nevada was investigated. Four bacterial isolates from enrichment culture were identified using 16S rRNA analysis. Microcystin biodegradation tests were performed with both, the enrichment cultures and the respective isolates, using microcystin alone and acetate as carbon sources. A newly recognized microcystin-degrading bacterium, Morganella morganii, was isolated from the biofilter and from Lake Mead. The results of the biodegradation tests indicated that addition of a carbon source (acetate), significantly repressed the degradation of microcystin-LR. The findings of this study inform on the prevalence of microcystin-degrading bacteria in the environment indicating bioaugmentation may not be needed, if biofiltration is used to remove microcystin from waters. The results also imply that, in a biofilter, biodegradable naturally organic matter (NOM) and microcystin will compete and therefore lower toxin removals are likely in waters with higher NOM content. The feasibility of removing microcystin by biofiltration depends on the toxin concentration and the concentration of biodegradable carbon sources in the biofilter.

  2. Decreasing pfmdr1 Copy Number Suggests that Plasmodium falciparum in Western Cambodia Is Regaining In Vitro Susceptibility to Mefloquine

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pharath; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila

    2015-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is the current frontline artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia but is now failing in several western provinces. To investigate artesunate plus mefloquine (AS+MQ) as a replacement ACT, we measured the prevalence of multiple pfmdr1 copies—a molecular marker for MQ resistance—in 844 P. falciparum clinical isolates collected in 2008 to 2013. The pfmdr1 copy number is decreasing in Western Cambodia, suggesting that P. falciparum is regaining in vitro susceptibility to MQ. PMID:25712365

  3. Chloroquine accumulation by purified plasma membranes from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Laurence M; Smith, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) has been associated with a decrease in CQ accumulation by parasitized erythrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of parasite plasma membranes (PPM) in the mechanism of CQ accumulation. CQ accumulation capabilities of membranes were determined using tritiated CQ. PPM isolated from chloroquine-sensitive parasites were found to accumulate less CQ than those isolated from chloroquine-resistant parasites. However, CQ accumulation was found to be ATP-independent suggesting that this accumulation results from binding rather than transport.

  4. Characterization of the 26S proteasome network in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Delahunty, Claire; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Rahlfs, Stefan; Helena Prieto, Judith; Yates, John R; Becker, Katja

    2015-12-07

    In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a key regulator of protein quality control is an excellent drug target. We therefore aimed to analyze the 26S proteasome complex in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which still threatens almost half of the world's population. First, we established an affinity purification protocol allowing for the isolation of functional 26S proteasome complexes from the parasite. Subunit composition of the proteasome and component stoichiometry were studied and physiologic interacting partners were identified via in situ protein crosslinking. Furthermore, intrinsic ubiquitin receptors of the plasmodial proteasome were determined and their roles in proteasomal substrate recognition were analyzed. Notably, PfUSP14 was characterized as a proteasome-associated deubiquitinase resulting in the concept that targeting proteasomal deubiquitinating activity in P. falciparum may represent a promising antimalarial strategy. The data provide insights into a profound network orchestrated by the plasmodial proteasome and identified novel drug target candidates in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  5. Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

    2011-07-01

    The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus.

  6. Effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saiwaew, Somporn; Sritabal, Juntima; Piaraksa, Nattaporn; Keayarsa, Srisuda; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Utaisin, Chirapong; Sila, Patima; Niramis, Rangsan; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Pongponratn, Emsri; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Leitgeb, Anna M.; Wahlgren, Mats; Lee, Sue J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2017-01-01

    In severe falciparum malaria cytoadherence of parasitised red blood cells (PRBCs) to vascular endothelium (causing sequestration) and to uninfected red cells (causing rosette formation) contribute to microcirculatory flow obstruction in vital organs. Heparin can reverse the underlying ligand-receptor interactions, but may increase the bleeding risks. As a heparin-derived polysaccharide, sevuparin has been designed to retain anti-adhesive properties, while the antithrombin-binding domains have been eliminated, substantially diminishing its anticoagulant activity. Sevuparin has been evaluated recently in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, and is currently investigated in a clinical trial for sickle cell disease. The effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand were investigated. Trophozoite stages of P. falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-iRBCs) were cultured from 49 patients with malaria. Pf-iRBCs were treated with sevuparin at 37°C and assessed in rosetting and in cytoadhesion assays with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) under static and flow conditions. The proportion of Pf-iRBCs forming rosettes ranged from 6.5% to 26.0% (median = 12.2%). Rosetting was dose dependently disrupted by sevuparin (50% disruption by 250 μg/mL). Overall 57% of P. falciparum isolates bound to HDMECs under static conditions; median (interquartile range) Pf-iRBC binding was 8.5 (3.0–38.0) Pf-iRBCs/1000 HDMECs. Sevuparin in concentrations ≥ 100 μg/mL inhibited cytoadherence. Sevuparin disrupts P. falciparum rosette formation in a dose dependent manner and inhibits cytoadherence to endothelial cells. The data support assessment of sevuparin as an adjunctive treatment to the standard therapy in severe falciparum malaria. PMID:28249043

  7. Effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Saiwaew, Somporn; Sritabal, Juntima; Piaraksa, Nattaporn; Keayarsa, Srisuda; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Utaisin, Chirapong; Sila, Patima; Niramis, Rangsan; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Pongponratn, Emsri; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Leitgeb, Anna M; Wahlgren, Mats; Lee, Sue J; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2017-01-01

    In severe falciparum malaria cytoadherence of parasitised red blood cells (PRBCs) to vascular endothelium (causing sequestration) and to uninfected red cells (causing rosette formation) contribute to microcirculatory flow obstruction in vital organs. Heparin can reverse the underlying ligand-receptor interactions, but may increase the bleeding risks. As a heparin-derived polysaccharide, sevuparin has been designed to retain anti-adhesive properties, while the antithrombin-binding domains have been eliminated, substantially diminishing its anticoagulant activity. Sevuparin has been evaluated recently in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, and is currently investigated in a clinical trial for sickle cell disease. The effects of sevuparin on rosette formation and cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand were investigated. Trophozoite stages of P. falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-iRBCs) were cultured from 49 patients with malaria. Pf-iRBCs were treated with sevuparin at 37°C and assessed in rosetting and in cytoadhesion assays with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) under static and flow conditions. The proportion of Pf-iRBCs forming rosettes ranged from 6.5% to 26.0% (median = 12.2%). Rosetting was dose dependently disrupted by sevuparin (50% disruption by 250 μg/mL). Overall 57% of P. falciparum isolates bound to HDMECs under static conditions; median (interquartile range) Pf-iRBC binding was 8.5 (3.0-38.0) Pf-iRBCs/1000 HDMECs. Sevuparin in concentrations ≥ 100 μg/mL inhibited cytoadherence. Sevuparin disrupts P. falciparum rosette formation in a dose dependent manner and inhibits cytoadherence to endothelial cells. The data support assessment of sevuparin as an adjunctive treatment to the standard therapy in severe falciparum malaria.

  8. Plasmodium vivax Populations Are More Genetically Diverse and Less Structured than Sympatric Plasmodium falciparum Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jennison, Charlie; Arnott, Alicia; Tessier, Natacha; Tavul, Livingstone; Koepfli, Cristian; Felger, Ingrid; Siba, Peter M.; Reeder, John C.; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, is proving more difficult to control and eliminate than Plasmodium falciparum in areas of co-transmission. Comparisons of the genetic structure of sympatric parasite populations may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the resilience of P. vivax and can help guide malaria control programs. Methodology/Principle findings P. vivax isolates representing the parasite populations of four areas on the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG) were genotyped using microsatellite markers and compared with previously published microsatellite data from sympatric P. falciparum isolates. The genetic diversity of P. vivax (He = 0.83–0.85) was higher than that of P. falciparum (He = 0.64–0.77) in all four populations. Moderate levels of genetic differentiation were found between P. falciparum populations, even over relatively short distances (less than 50 km), with 21–28% private alleles and clear geospatial genetic clustering. Conversely, very low population differentiation was found between P. vivax catchments, with less than 5% private alleles and no genetic clustering observed. In addition, the effective population size of P. vivax (30353; 13043–69142) was larger than that of P. falciparum (18871; 8109–42986). Conclusions/Significance Despite comparably high prevalence, P. vivax had higher diversity and a panmictic population structure compared to sympatric P. falciparum populations, which were fragmented into subpopulations. The results suggest that in comparison to P. falciparum, P. vivax has had a long-term large effective population size, consistent with more intense and stable transmission, and limited impact of past control and elimination efforts. This underlines suggestions that more intensive and sustained interventions will be needed to control and eventually eliminate P. vivax. This research clearly demonstrates how population genetic analyses can reveal deeper insight into transmission

  9. Prevalence of the K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum among chloroquine responders in India.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Biswas, Sukla; Dev, Vas; Kumar, Ashwani; Ansari, M A; Sharma, Y D

    2003-07-01

    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum needs to be monitored in the field for effective malaria control strategies. A point mutation K76T in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) protein has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for the faster detection of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in field. We describe here the evaluation of this marker in Indian P. falciparum isolates. A total of 274 Indian P. falciparum isolates were analyzed for the K76T mutation. This mutation was detected in all the clinical isolates obtained from the in vivo chloroquine non-responders. But majority of the clinical isolates from chloroquine responders (71 of 74 patients, i.e. 96%) also harbored this mutation. The K76T mutation was indeed highly prevalent (91%) among 213 clinical isolates. There was a significant association between K76T mutation and the in vitro chloroquine response (P<0.05) but six isolates showed discordant results. In conclusion, the K76T mutation fails to differentiate majority of the chloroquine responders from that of the non-responders and thus will be of limited use in the field in India.

  10. Alternative anaerobic enrichments to the bacteriological analytical manual culture method for isolation of Shigella sonnei from selected types of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Thunberg, Richard L; Johnson, Mildred L; Hammack, Thomas S; Andrews, Wallace H

    2004-01-01

    Alternative methods of reducing oxygen during anaerobic enrichment in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Shigella culture method were evaluated and compared to the current and less practical GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic methods included the use of reducing agents in Shigella broth and reducing culture container headspace volume to minimize atmospheric effects on oxygen concentration in Shigella broth during enrichment. The reducing agents evaluated were sodium thioglycollate, L-cystine, L-cysteine, titanium(III) citrate, and dithiothreitol, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01%. The use of Oxyrase for Broth with the enrichment medium (Shigella broth) was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 microL/mL. Recoveries of chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were determined with each anaerobic method, including the GasPak method, using inoculation levels ranging from 10(0)to 10(3) cells. For each anaerobic method, strain, inoculation level, and stress type, 5 replicate enrichments were evaluated by streaking to MacConkey agar for isolation. The numbers of cultures with each method from which S. sonnei was isolated were used to compare the alternative anaerobic methods to the GasPak method. The alternative anaerobic method with which chill- and freeze-stressed S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 were isolated most consistently was the use of Oxyrase for Broth in Shigella broth at a concentration of 20 microL/mL. This method was compared to the GasPak anaerobic method in evaluations on the recovery of S. sonnei strains 357 and 20143 from artificially contaminated test portions of parsley, cilantro, green onions, strawberries, carrots, and celery. A third anaerobic method included the use of 0.5 cm mineral oil overlay on cultures containing Oxyrase for Broth at concentrations of 20 microL/mL. Recovery rates of strain 357 were significantly greater (p < 0.05) with the GasPak method than with Oxyrase for Broth, with and

  11. Aspergillus clavatus Y2H0002 as a New Endophytic Fungal Strain Producing Gibberellins Isolated from Nymphoides pe ltata in Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Kwak, Tae Won; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-03-01

    Eighteen endophytic fungi with different colony morphologies were isolated from the roots of Nymphoides peltata growing in the Dalsung wetland. The fungal culture filtrates of the endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-c rice seedling to evaluate their plant growth-promoting activities. Culture filtrate of Y2H0002 fungal strain promoted the growth of the Waito-c rice seedlings. This strain was identified on the basis of sequences of the partial internal transcribed spacer region and the partial beta-tubulin gene. Upon chromatographic analysis of the culture filtrate of Y2H0002 strain, the gibberellins (GAs: GA1, GA3, and GA4) were detected and quantified. Molecular and morphological studies identified the Y2H0002 strain as belonging to Aspergillus clavatus. These results indicated that A. clavatus improves the growth of plants and produces various GAs, and may participate in the growth of plants under diverse environmental conditions.

  12. Chemical genetics of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Guiguemde, W. Armand; Shelat, Anang A.; Bouck, David; Duffy, Sandra; Crowther, Gregory J.; Davis, Paul H.; Smithson, David C.; Connelly, Michele; Clark, Julie; Zhu, Fangyi; Jiménez-Díaz, María B; Martinez, María S; Wilson, Emily B.; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Gut, Jiri; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Bathurst, Ian; El Mazouni, Farah; Fowble, Joseph W; Forquer, Isaac; McGinley, Paula L; Castro, Steve; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer, Santiago; Rosenthal, Philip J.; DeRisi, Joseph L; Sullivan, David J.; Lazo, John S.; Roos, David S.; Riscoe, Michael K.; Phillips, Margaret A.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Avery, Vicky M; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2010-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a catastrophic disease worldwide (880,000 deaths yearly). Vaccine development has proved difficult and resistance has emerged for most antimalarials. In order to discover new antimalarial chemotypes, we have employed a phenotypic forward chemical genetic approach to assay 309,474 chemicals. Here we disclose structures and biological activity of the entire library, many of which exhibited potent in vitro activity against drug resistant strains, and detailed profiling of 172 representative candidates. A reverse chemical genetic study identified 19 new inhibitors of 4 validated drug targets and 15 novel binders among 61 malarial proteins. Phylochemogenetic profiling in multiple organisms revealed similarities between Toxoplasma gondii and mammalian cell lines and dissimilarities between P. falciparum and related protozoans. One exemplar compound displayed efficacy in a murine model. Overall, our findings provide the scientific community with new starting points for malaria drug discovery. PMID:20485428

  13. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  14. Frozen Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells Differentiate into Higher Numbers of Functional Natural Killer Cells In Vitro than Mobilized Hematopoietic Stem Cells or Freshly Isolated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luevano, Martha; Domogala, Anna; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Derniame, Sophie; Escobedo-Cousin, Michelle; Querol, Sergio; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34+) being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34+) and frozen PBCD34+ to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34+ cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34+ cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34+ and PBCD34+ expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34+-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-γ and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34+-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34+ for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34+, without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC. PMID:24489840

  15. In vitro effects of flunisolide on MMP-9, TIMP-1, fibronectin, TGF-beta1 release and apoptosis in sputum cells freshly isolated from mild to moderate asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Profita, M; Gagliardo, R; Di Giorgi, R; Bruno, A; Riccobono, L; Bonanno, A; Bousquet, J; Vignola, A M

    2004-09-01

    Corticosteroids play an important role in inflammation and remodelling of airways and are considered an important therapeutic target in asthma. Inflammation in asthma is characterized by a dysregulation of eosinophil apoptosis and of markers of airways remodelling. We evaluated the ability of flunisolide to inhibit in vitro the release of metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) and fibronectin by sputum cells (SC) as well as to induce sputum eosinophil apoptosis. The SC, isolated from induced sputum samples of 12 mild-to-moderate asthmatics, were cultured for 24 h in the presence or absence of flunisolide (1, 10 and 100 microM). The release of mediators was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) whereas apoptosis was studied by TUNEL technique. Flunisolide (10 microM) significantly reduced MMP-9 and TIMP-1 (P = 0.0011 and P < 0.0001 respectively) and increased MMP-9/TIMP-1 molar ratio (P = 0.004). In addition, flunisolide decreased TGF-beta and fibronectin release by SC (P = 0.006; and P < 0.0001 respectively) and increased eosinophil apoptosis (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that flunisolide may play an important role in the inhibition of airway inflammation and remodelling, by promoting the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and by inhibiting the release of MMP-9, TIMP-1, TGF-beta and fibronectin.

  16. In vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Wongsrichanalai, C.; Wimonwattrawatee, T.; Sookto, P.; Laoboonchai, A.; Heppner, D. G.; Kyle, D. E.; Wernsdorfer, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the in vitro susceptibilities of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate, mefloquine, quinine and chloroquine of 86 isolates and to dihydroartemisinin of 45 isolates collected from areas of high resistance to mefloquine within Thailand near the borders with Myanmar and Cambodia, and from southern Thailand where P. falciparum is generally still sensitive to mefloquine. All the isolates were highly sensitive to artesunate, but the geometric mean IC50S were higher in isolates from the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodian borders than in those from southern Thailand. The IC50S for mefloquine and artesunate were strongly correlated (Pearson r = 0.605; n = 86; P < 0.00001). As expected, the in vitro sensitivities to dihydroartemisinin and artesunate were similar and strongly correlated (at IC50, Pearson r = 0.695; n = 45; P < 0.00002). The correlation between the activity of mefloquine and artesunate requires further investigation in order to determine the potential for development of cross-resistance in nature. Our results suggest that combination with mefloquine is not the ideal way of protecting the usefulness of artemisinin and its derivatives. A search for more suitable partner drugs to these compounds and careful regulation of their use are necessary in the interest of ensuring their long therapeutic life span. PMID:10361756

  17. Intracellular adenosine formation and release by freshly-isolated vascular endothelial cells from rat skeletal muscle: effects of hypoxia and/or acidosis.

    PubMed

    Le, G Y; Essackjee, H C; Ballard, H J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies suggested indirectly that vascular endothelial cells (VECs) might be able to release intracellularly-formed adenosine. We isolated VECs from the rat soleus muscle using collagenase digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The VEC preparation had >90% purity based on cell morphology, fluorescence immunostaining, and RT-PCR of endothelial markers. The kinetic properties of endothelial cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase suggested it was the AMP-preferring N-I isoform: its catalytic activity was 4 times higher than ecto-5'nucleotidase. Adenosine kinase had 50 times greater catalytic activity than adenosine deaminase, suggesting that adenosine removal in VECs is mainly through incorporation into adenine nucleotides. The maximal activities of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine kinase were similar. Adenosine and ATP accumulated in the medium surrounding VECs in primary culture. Hypoxia doubled the adenosine, but ATP was unchanged; AOPCP did not alter medium adenosine, suggesting that hypoxic VECs had released intracellularly-formed adenosine. Acidosis increased medium ATP, but extracellular conversion of ATP to AMP was inhibited, and adenosine remained unchanged. Acidosis in the buffer-perfused rat gracilis muscle elevated AMP and adenosine in the venous effluent, but AOPCP abolished the increase in adenosine, suggesting that adenosine is formed extracellularly by non-endothelial tissues during acidosis in vivo. Hypoxia plus acidosis increased medium ATP by a similar amount to acidosis alone and adenosine 6-fold; AOPCP returned the medium adenosine to the level seen with hypoxia alone. These data suggest that VECs release intracellularly formed adenosine in hypoxia, ATP during acidosis, and both under simulated ischaemic conditions, with further extracellular conversion of ATP to adenosine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and mefloquine in southeast Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kightlinger, M B; Kightlinger, L K

    1988-01-01

    46 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected in the Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin) area of Southeast Madagascar were assessed with WHO in vitro micro-technique test kits to determine their susceptibility to chloroquine and mefloquine. The results of the tests indicated low grade resistance to chloroquine and satisfactory response to mefloquine.

  19. PfEMP1-DBL1alpha amino acid motifs in severe disease states of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Normark, Johan; Nilsson, Daniel; Ribacke, Ulf; Winter, Gerhard; Moll, Kirsten; Wheelock, Craig E; Bayarugaba, Justus; Kironde, Fred; Egwang, Thomas G; Chen, Qijun; Andersson, Björn; Wahlgren, Mats

    2007-10-02

    An infection with Plasmodium falciparum may lead to severe malaria as a result of excessive binding of infected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. Vascular adhesion is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1), which is encoded for by highly polymorphic members of the var-gene family. Here, we profile var gene transcription in fresh P. falciparum trophozoites from Ugandan children with malaria through var-specific DBL1alpha-PCR amplification and sequencing. A method for subsectioning region alignments into homology areas (MOTIFF) was developed to examine collected sequences. Specific PfEMP1-DBL1alpha amino acid motifs correlated with rosetting and severe malaria, with motif location corresponding to distinct regions of receptor interaction. The method is potentially applicable to other families of variant proteins and may be useful in identifying sequence-phenotype relationships. The results suggest that certain PfEMP1 sequences are predisposed to inducing severe malaria.

  20. Molecular Investigation into a Malaria Outbreak in Cusco, Peru: Plasmodium falciparum BV1 Lineage is Linked to a Second Outbreak in Recent Times

    PubMed Central

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Chenet, Stella M.; Arrospide, Nancy; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas, Cesar; Matta, Jose Antonio; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes. PMID:26483121

  1. Mirincamycin, an old candidate for malaria combination treatment and prophylaxis in the 21st century: in vitro interaction profiles with potential partner drugs in continuous culture and field isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to existing drugs calls for the search for novel anti-malarial drugs and combinations for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Methods In vitro and ex vivo investigations were conducted with fresh P. falciparum field isolates and culture-adapted P. falciparum clones to evaluate the anti-malarial potential of mirincamycin, a lincosamide, alone and in combination with tafenoquine (TQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and chloroquine (CQ). All samples were tested in a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay. Results Interaction analysis showed additive to synergistic interaction profiles with these potential partner drugs, with an overall geometric mean fractional inhibitory concentration at 50% inhibition (FIC50) of 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80 for mirincamycin with TQ, DHA, and CQ, respectively. Antagonism was not found in any of the tested field isolates or clones. The strongest tendency toward synergy (i.e. the lowest FIC) was seen with a combination ratio of 1:0.27 to 1:7.2 (mean 1:2.7) for the combination with tafenoquine. The optimal combination ratios for DHA and CQ were 1:444.4 to 1:36,000 (mean 1:10,755.5) and 1:2.7 to 1:216 (mean 1:64.5), respectively. No evidence of an activity correlation (i.e. potential cross-resistance) with DHA, mefloquine, quinine or chloroquine was seen whereas a significant correlation with the activity of clindamycin and azithromycin was detected. Conclusions Mirincamycin combinations may be promising candidates for further clinical investigations in the therapy and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria or in combination with 4 or 8-aminoquinolines for the treatment and relapse prevention of vivax malaria. PMID:24916383

  2. Mirincamycin, an old candidate for malaria combination treatment and prophylaxis in the 21st century: in vitro interaction profiles with potential partner drugs in continuous culture and field isolates.

    PubMed

    Starzengruber, Peter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Swoboda, Paul; Ganesh, Deepa; Haque, Rashidul; Khan, Wasif A; Graninger, Wolfgang; Noedl, Harald

    2014-06-10

    Spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to existing drugs calls for the search for novel anti-malarial drugs and combinations for the treatment of falciparum malaria. In vitro and ex vivo investigations were conducted with fresh P. falciparum field isolates and culture-adapted P. falciparum clones to evaluate the anti-malarial potential of mirincamycin, a lincosamide, alone and in combination with tafenoquine (TQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and chloroquine (CQ). All samples were tested in a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay. Interaction analysis showed additive to synergistic interaction profiles with these potential partner drugs, with an overall geometric mean fractional inhibitory concentration at 50% inhibition (FIC₅₀) of 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80 for mirincamycin with TQ, DHA, and CQ, respectively. Antagonism was not found in any of the tested field isolates or clones. The strongest tendency toward synergy (i.e. the lowest FIC) was seen with a combination ratio of 1:0.27 to 1:7.2 (mean 1:2.7) for the combination with tafenoquine. The optimal combination ratios for DHA and CQ were 1:444.4 to 1:36,000 (mean 1:10,755.5) and 1:2.7 to 1:216 (mean 1:64.5), respectively. No evidence of an activity correlation (i.e. potential cross-resistance) with DHA, mefloquine, quinine or chloroquine was seen whereas a significant correlation with the activity of clindamycin and azithromycin was detected. Mirincamycin combinations may be promising candidates for further clinical investigations in the therapy and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria or in combination with 4 or 8-aminoquinolines for the treatment and relapse prevention of vivax malaria.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum picks (on) EPCR

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, Laurent O.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2014-01-01

    Of all the outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum infection, the coma of cerebral malaria (CM) is particularly deadly. Malariologists have long wondered how some patients develop this organ-specific syndrome. Data from two recent publications support a novel mechanism of CM pathogenesis in which infected erythrocytes (IEs) express specific virulence proteins that mediate IE binding to the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). Malaria-associated depletion of EPCR, with subsequent impairment of the protein C system promotes a proinflammatory, procoagulant state in brain microvessels. PMID:24246501

  4. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  5. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion **

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Elizabeth S.; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Moechtar, Mischka A.; Barteneva, Natasha S.; Weekes, Michael P.; Nobre, Luis V.; Gygi, Steven P.; Paulo, Joao A.; Frantzreb, Charles; Tani, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Junko; Watanabe, Seishi; Goldberg, Jonathan; Paul, Aditya S.; Brugnara, Carlo; Root, David E.; Wiegand, Roger C.; Doench, John G.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, precluding genetic manipulation in the cell where the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25954012

  7. In Vitro Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Rosette Formation by Curdlan Sulfate▿

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, Helen M.; Steen, Katie E.; Raza, Ahmed; Arman, Monica; Warimwe, George; Bull, Peter C.; Havlik, Ivan; Rowe, J. Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous binding of infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes to form rosettes is a property of some strains of Plasmodium falciparum that is linked to severe complications of malaria. Curdlan sulfate (CRDS) is a sulfated glycoconjugate compound that is chemically similar to known rosette-inhibiting drugs such as heparin. CRDS has previously been shown to have antimalarial activity in vitro and is safe for clinical use. Here we show that CRDS at therapeutic levels (10 to 100 μg/ml) significantly reduces rosette formation in vitro in seven P. falciparum laboratory strains and in a group of 18 African clinical isolates. The strong ability to inhibit rosetting suggests that CRDS has the potential to reduce the severe complications and mortality rates from P. falciparum malaria among African children. Our data support further clinical trials of CRDS. PMID:17283200

  8. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  9. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  10. Variation in use of erythrocyte invasion pathways by Plasmodium falciparum mediates evasion of human inhibitory antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Kristina E.M.; McCallum, Fiona J.; Reiling, Linda; Lister, Nicole A.; Stubbs, Janine; Cowman, Alan F.; Marsh, Kevin; Beeson, James G.

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes are believed to be an important component of immunity against malaria. During blood-stage infection, P. falciparum can use different pathways for erythrocyte invasion by varying the expression and/or utilization of members of 2 invasion ligand families: the erythrocyte-binding antigens (EBAs) and reticulocyte-binding homologs (PfRhs). Invasion pathways can be broadly classified into 2 groups based on the use of sialic acid (SA) on the erythrocyte surface by parasite ligands. We found that inhibitory antibodies are acquired by malaria-exposed Kenyan children and adults against ligands of SA-dependent and SA-independent invasion pathways, and the ability of antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion depended on the pathway used by P. falciparum isolates. Differential inhibition of P. falciparum lines that varied in their use of specific EBA and PfRh proteins pointed to these ligand families as major targets of inhibitory antibodies. Antibodies against recombinant EBA and PfRh proteins were acquired in an age-associated manner, and inhibitory antibodies against EBA175 appeared prominent among some individuals. These findings suggest that variation in invasion phenotype might have evolved as a mechanism that facilitates immune evasion by P. falciparum and that a broad inhibitory response against multiple ligands may be required for effective immunity. PMID:18064303

  11. Branch point identification and sequence requirements for intron splicing in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Tolzmann, Caitlin A; Melcher, Martin; Haas, Brian J; Gardner, Malcolm J; Smith, Joseph D; Feagin, Jean E

    2011-11-01

    Splicing of mRNA is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotic organisms, but intron-exon structures vary. Plasmodium falciparum has an extreme AT nucleotide bias (>80%), providing a unique opportunity to investigate how evolutionary forces have acted on intron structures. In this study, we developed an in vivo luciferase reporter splicing assay and employed it in combination with lariat isolation and sequencing to characterize 5' and 3' splicing requirements and experimentally determine the intron branch point in P. falciparum. This analysis indicates that P. falciparum mRNAs have canonical 5' and 3' splice sites. However, the 5' consensus motif is weakly conserved and tolerates nucleotide substitution, including the fifth nucleotide in the intron, which is more typically a G nucleotide in most eukaryotes. In comparison, the 3' splice site has a strong eukaryotic consensus sequence and adjacent polypyrimidine tract. In four different P. falciparum pre-mRNAs, multiple branch points per intron were detected, with some at U instead of the typical A residue. A weak branch point consensus was detected among 18 identified branch points. This analysis indicates that P. falciparum retains many consensus eukaryotic splice site features, despite having an extreme codon bias, and possesses flexibility in branch point nucleophilic attack.

  12. The therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Kabsi, Abdulgodos M; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Al-Harazy, Abdulilah Hussein; Harmal, Nabil S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivities of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) using in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo and Mark III in-vitro test techniques according to World Health Organization protocols of antimalarial drug tests were used to determine the SP susceptibility of the P. falciparum isolates from 100 malaria patients of both sexes between the ages of 3.5 and 45 years and living in Tihamah, Yemen. The study was conducted between 19 March and 12 May 2005. In vivo: no therapeutic failure occurred; the clinical outcome matched the parasitological response and all patients were parasite free by day 3 and remained so on days 7, 14 and 28. In vitro: all the P. falciparum isolates developed to schizonts in zero-drug-concentration wells, but were inhibited in 40 nmol/l of SP; the mean effective concentration (EC(99)) was 67.17 nmol/l. Our findings showed that the SP combination is still effective for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Yemen. It is recommended that further studies be carried out to address the importance of dihydropteroate synthetase/dihydrofolate reductase mutations as predictive markers of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance in Yemen. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability.

    PubMed

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L; Maki, Jennifer N; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2016-01-22

    Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Venous blood was collected from 33 P. falciparum-infected individuals at Goa Medical College and Hospital (Bambolim, Goa, India). Culture variables such as whole blood versus washed blood, heat-inactivated plasma versus Albumax, and different starting haematocrit levels were tested on fresh blood samples from patients. In vitro adaptation was considered successful when two four-fold or greater increases in parasitaemia were observed within, at most, 33 days of attempted culture. Subsequently, parasites from the same patients, which were originally cryopreserved following blood draw, were retested for adaptability for 45 days using identical host red blood cells (RBCs) and culture media. At a new endemic area research site, ~65% of tested patient samples, with varied patient history and clinical presentation, were successfully culture-adapted immediately after blood collection. Cultures set up at 1% haematocrit and 0.5% Albumax adapted most rapidly, but no single test condition was uniformly fatal to culture adaptation. Success was not limited by low patient parasitaemia nor by patient age. Some parasites emerged even after significant delays in sample processing and even after initiation of treatment with anti-malarials. When 'day 0' cryopreserved samples were retested in parallel many months later using identical host RBCs and media, speed to adaptation appeared to be an intrinsic property of the parasites collected from individual patients. Culture adaptation of P. falciparum in a field setting is formally shown to be

  14. TRALI Syndrome During the Treatment of a Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Case.

    PubMed

    Çaşkurlu, Hülya; Nurmuhammedov, Rahman; Htway, Zarni

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso. It developed immediately after the infusion of fresh frozen plasma during the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The patient's condition improved on respiratory support treatment in the intensive care unit for 48 hours without the need of mechanical ventilation. This case indicated that TRALI syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis as an emerging acute lung disease during the treatment of malaria.

  15. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  16. Contrasting Transmission Dynamics of Co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: Implications for Malaria Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Noviyanti, Rintis; Coutrier, Farah; Utami, Retno A. S.; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Tirta, Yusrifar K.; Trianty, Leily; Kusuma, Andreas; Sutanto, Inge; Kosasih, Ayleen; Kusriastuti, Rita; Hawley, William A.; Laihad, Ferdinand; Lobo, Neil; Marfurt, Jutta; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Outside of Africa, P. falciparum and P. vivax usually coexist. In such co-endemic regions, successful malaria control programs have a greater impact on reducing falciparum malaria, resulting in P. vivax becoming the predominant species of infection. Adding to the challenges of elimination, the dormant liver stage complicates efforts to monitor the impact of ongoing interventions against P. vivax. We investigated molecular approaches to inform the respective transmission dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax and how these could help to prioritize public health interventions. Methodology/ Principal Findings Genotype data generated at 8 and 9 microsatellite loci were analysed in 168 P. falciparum and 166 P. vivax isolates, respectively, from four co-endemic sites in Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Sumba and West Timor). Measures of diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure were used to gauge the transmission dynamics of each species in each setting. Marked differences were observed in the diversity and population structure of P. vivax versus P. falciparum. In Bangka, Kalimantan and Timor, P. falciparum diversity was low, and LD patterns were consistent with unstable, epidemic transmission, amenable to targeted intervention. In contrast, P. vivax diversity was higher and transmission appeared more stable. Population differentiation was lower in P. vivax versus P. falciparum, suggesting that the hypnozoite reservoir might play an important role in sustaining local transmission and facilitating the spread of P. vivax infections in different endemic settings. P. vivax polyclonality varied with local endemicity, demonstrating potential utility in informing on transmission intensity in this species. Conclusions/ Significance Molecular approaches can provide important information on malaria transmission that is not readily available from traditional epidemiological measures. Elucidation of the transmission dynamics circulating in a given

  17. Use of a colorimetric (DELI) test for the evaluation of chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax resistance to available anti-malarial drugs represents a major drawback in the control of malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoresistance profile of P. falciparum and P. vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in a malaria-endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study was carried out in Manaus (Amazonas state), in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 88 P. falciparum and 178 P. vivax isolates was collected from 2004 to 2007. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates was determined to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate and the sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was determined to chloroquine and mefloquine, by using the colorimetric DELI test. Results As expected, a high prevalence of P. falciparum isolates resistant to chloroquine (78.1%) was observed. The prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance or decreased sensitivity for quinine, mefloquine and artesunate was 12.7, 21.2 and 11.7%, respectively. In the case of P. vivax, the prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance for chloroquine and mefloquine was 9.8 and 28%, respectively. No differences in the frequencies of isolates with profile of resistance or geometric mean IC50s were seen when comparing the data obtained in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, for all tested anti-malarials. Conclusions The great majority of P. falciparum isolates in the Brazilian malaria-endemic area remain resistant to chloroquine, and the decreased sensitivity to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate observed in 10–20% of the isolates must be taken with concern, especially for artesunate. Plasmodium vivax isolates also showed a significant proportion of isolates with decreased sensitivity to chloroquine (first-line drug) and mainly to mefloquine. The data presented here also confirm the usefulness of the DELI test to generate results able to impact on public health

  18. Population genetic analysis of Plasmodium falciparum parasites using a customized Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay.

    PubMed

    Campino, Susana; Auburn, Sarah; Kivinen, Katja; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Mangano, Valentina; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Kiara, Steven M; Nzila, Alexis; Borrmann, Steffen; Marsh, Kevin; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter; Jiang, Hongying; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Socheat, Duong; Fairhurst, Rick M; Imwong, Mallika; Anderson, Timothy; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panos; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Newbold, Christopher I; Rockett, Kirk; Clark, Taane G; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2011-01-01

    The diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum genome can be used to explore parasite population dynamics, with practical applications to malaria control. The ability to identify the geographic origin and trace the migratory patterns of parasites with clinically important phenotypes such as drug resistance is particularly relevant. With increasing single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery from ongoing Plasmodium genome sequencing projects, a demand for high SNP and sample throughput genotyping platforms for large-scale population genetic studies is required. Low parasitaemias and multiple clone infections present a number of challenges to genotyping P. falciparum. We addressed some of these issues using a custom 384-SNP Illumina GoldenGate assay on P. falciparum DNA from laboratory clones (long-term cultured adapted parasite clones), short-term cultured parasite isolates and clinical (non-cultured isolates) samples from East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania. Eighty percent of the SNPs (n = 306) produced reliable genotype calls on samples containing as little as 2 ng of total genomic DNA and on whole genome amplified DNA. Analysis of artificial mixtures of laboratory clones demonstrated high genotype calling specificity and moderate sensitivity to call minor frequency alleles. Clear resolution of geographically distinct populations was demonstrated using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and global patterns of population genetic diversity were consistent with previous reports. These results validate the utility of the platform in performing population genetic studies of P. falciparum.

  19. Population dynamics of genetically diverse Plasmodium falciparum lineages: community-based prospective study in rural Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    ORJUELA-SÁNCHEZ, P.; SILVA-NUNES, M. DA; DA SILVA, N. S.; SCOPEL, K.K.G.; GONÇALVES, R. M.; MALAFRONTE, R. S.; FERREIRA, M. U.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Temporal changes in the prevalence of antigenic variants in Plasmodium falciparum populations have been interpreted as evidence of immune-mediated frequency-dependent selection, but evolutively neutral processes may generate similar patterns of serotype replacement. Over 4 years, we investigated the population dynamics of P. falciparum polymorphisms at the community level by using 11 putatively neutral microsatellite markers. Plasmodium falciparum populations were less diverse than sympatric P. vivax isolates, with less multiple-clone infections, lower number of alleles per locus and lower virtual heterozygosity, but both species showed significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium. Evolutively neutral P. falciparum polymorphisms showed a high turnover rate, with few lineages persisting for several months in the population. Similar results had previously been obtained, in the same community, for sympatric P. vivax isolates. In contrast, the prevalence of the 2 dimorphic types of a major antigen, MSP-2, remained remarkably stable throughout the study period. We suggest that the relatively fast turnover of parasite lineages represents the typical population dynamics of neutral polymorphisms in small populations, with clear implications for the detection of frequency-dependent selection of polymorphisms. PMID:19631016

  20. Fresh Frozen Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    therapeutic means). FFP can be prepared either by separation from whole blood or collection via plasmapheresis . Fresh frozen plasma contains the...FFP can be further separated into cryoprecipitate and what is known as “cryo-poor plasma,” a product rarely used for therapeutic means. Plasma is the

  1. Fresh Copernican Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    A subset of NAC Image M112162602L showing landslides bottom covering impact melt on the floor top of a fresh Copernican-age crater at the edge of Oceanus Procellarum and west of Balboa crater taken by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  2. Keeping Teaching Fresh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bataineh, Adel; Nur-Awaleh, Mohamed

    This paper discusses how experienced teachers can keep their teaching fresh. Though professional development can help teachers stay current with educational techniques and practices, it is often not prioritized. Instructional changes that can recharge teachers so they provide students with optimal learning include: providing regular teacher…

  3. Expression and characterisation of plasmepsin I from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Moon, R P; Tyas, L; Certa, U; Rupp, K; Bur, D; Jacquet, C; Matile, H; Loetscher, H; Grueninger-Leitch, F; Kay, J; Dunn, B M; Berry, C; Ridley, R G

    1997-03-01

    Two aspartic proteinases, plasmepsins I and II, are present in the digestive vacuole of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and are believed to be essential for parasite degradation of haemoglobin. Here we report the expression and kinetic characterisation of functional recombinant plasmepsin I. In order to generate active plasmepsin I from its precursor, an autocatalytic cleavage site was introduced into the propart of the zymogen by mutation of Lys110P to Val (P indicates a propart residue). Appropriate refolding of the mutated zymogen then permitted pH-dependent autocatalytic processing of the zymogen to the active mature proteinase. A purification scheme was devised that removed aggregated and misfolded protein to yield pure, fully processable, proplasmepsin I. Kinetic constants for two synthetic peptide substrates and four inhibitors were determined for both recombinant plasmepsin I and recombinant plasmepsin II. Plasmepsin I had 5-10-fold lower k(cat)/Km values than plasmepsin II for the peptide substrates, while the aspartic proteinase inhibitors, selected for their ability to inhibit P. falciparum growth, were found to have up to 80-fold lower inhibition constants for plasmepsin I compared to plasmepsin II. The most active plasmepsin I inhibitors were antagonistic to the antimalarial action of chloroquine on cultured parasites. Northern blot analysis of RNA, isolated from specific stages of the erythrocytic cycle of P. falciparum, showed that the proplasmepsin I gene is expressed in the ring stages whereas the proplasmepsin II gene is not transcribed until the later trophozoite stage of parasite growth. The differences in kinetic properties and temporal expression of the two plasmepsins suggest they are not functionally redundant but play distinct roles in the parasite.

  4. Prevalence of mutation and phenotypic expression associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Zakai, Haytham A; Khan, Wajihullah; Asma, Umme

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), which is commonly used to treat falciparum malaria, was assessed in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) and Plasmodium vivax (Grassi et Feletti, 1890) ofAligarh, Uttar Pradesh, North India and Taif, Saudi Arabia during 2011-2012. Both the species showed mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as they have common biochemical drug targets. Mutation rate for pfdhfr was higher compared to pvdhfr because the drug was mainly given to treat falciparum malaria. Since both the species coexist, P. vivax was also exposed to SP due to faulty species diagnosis or medication without specific diagnosis. Low level of mutations against SP in P. falciparum of Saudi isolates indicates that the SP combination is still effective for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Since SP is used as first-line of treatment because of high level of resistance against chloroquine (CQ), it may result in spread of higher level of mutations resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure in near future. Therefore, to avoid further higher mutations in the parasite, use of better treatment regimens such as artesunate combination therapy must be introduced against SP combination.

  5. Polymorphisms in Anopheles gambiae Immune Genes Associated with Natural Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Caroline; Lambrechts, Louis; Rousset, François; Abate, Luc; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Cohuet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Many genes involved in the immune response of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, have been identified, but whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in these genes underlie variation in resistance to the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is currently unknown. Here we carried out a candidate gene association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with natural resistance to P. falciparum. A. gambiae M form mosquitoes from Cameroon were experimentally challenged with three local wild P. falciparum isolates. Statistical associations were assessed between 157 SNPs selected from a set of 67 A. gambiae immune-related genes and the level of infection. Isolate-specific associations were accounted for by including the effect of the isolate in the analysis. Five SNPs were significantly associated to the infection phenotype, located within or upstream of AgMDL1, CEC1, Sp PPO activate, Sp SNAKElike, and TOLL6. Low overall and local linkage disequilibrium indicated high specificity in the loci found. Association between infection phenotype and two SNPs was isolate-specific, providing the first evidence of vector genotype by parasite isolate interactions at the molecular level. Four SNPs were associated to either oocyst presence or load, indicating that the genetic basis of infection prevalence and intensity may differ. The validity of the approach was verified by confirming the functional role of Sp SNAKElike in gene silencing assays. These results strongly support the role of genetic variation within or near these five A. gambiae immune genes, in concert with other genes, in natural resistance to P. falciparum. They emphasize the need to distinguish between infection prevalence and intensity and to account for the genetic specificity of vector-parasite interactions in dissecting the genetic basis of Anopheles resistance to human malaria. PMID:20862317

  6. Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert C. Piper, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Flow, Incorporated Portland, Oregon 97201...Phase 11 (24 Mar 95 - 23 Mar 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum DAMD...that infected patients become ill. Four species of Plasmodium infect humans. P. falciparum accounts for -85 % of the world’s malaria. P. falciparum is

  7. Malaria vaccine candidate antigen targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum produced at high level in plants.

    PubMed

    Voepel, Nadja; Boes, Alexander; Edgue, Güven; Beiss, Veronique; Kapelski, Stephanie; Reimann, Andreas; Schillberg, Stefan; Pradel, Gabriele; Fendel, Rolf; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Spiegel, Holger; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    Plants have emerged as low-cost production platforms suitable for vaccines targeting poverty-related diseases. Besides functional efficacy, the stability, yield, and purification process determine the production costs of a vaccine and thereby the feasibility of plant-based production. We describe high-level plant production and functional characterization of a malaria vaccine candidate targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum. CCT, a fusion protein composed of three sporozoite antigens (P. falciparum cell traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites [PfCelTOS], P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein [PfCSP], and P. falciparum thrombospondin-related adhesive protein [PfTRAP]), was transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, accumulated to levels up to 2 mg/g fresh leaf weight (FLW), was thermostable up to 80°C and could be purified to >95% using a simple two-step procedure. Reactivity of sera from malaria semi-immune donors indicated the immunogenic conformation of the purified fusion protein consisting of PfCelTOS, PfCSP_TSR, PfTRAP_TSR domains (CCT) protein. Total IgG from the CCT-specific mouse immune sera specifically recognized P. falciparum sporozoites in immunofluorescence assays and induced up to 35% inhibition in hepatocyte invasion assays. Featuring domains from three promising sporozoite antigens with different roles (attachment and cell traversal) in the hepatocyte invasion process, CCT has the potential to elicit broader immune responses against the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum and represents an interesting new candidate, also as a component of multi-stage, multi-subunit malaria vaccine cocktails.

  8. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene 5' upstream region.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Alissa; Sarr, Ousmane; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F

    2005-02-01

    Recent findings indicating a low level of polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum genome have led to the hypothesis that existent polymorphisms are likely to have functional significance. We tested this hypothesis by developing a map of the polymorphism in the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene 5' upstream region and assaying its correlation with drug resistance in a sample of field isolates from Dakar, Senegal. A comparison of six geographically diverse laboratory strains showed that the 1.94-kb 5'-untranslated region is highly monomorphic, with a total of four unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) being identified. All of the mutations were localized to a 462-basepair region proximal to the transcription start point. Analysis of this region in field isolates shows the prevalence of one SNP throughout the entire population of parasites, irrespective of drug resistance status. The SNP frequency of the pfmdr1 upstream region is lower than that found in the noncoding region of other genes.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterisation of the RESA gene, a marker of genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Eva M; González, Luis Miguel; Cuevas, Laureano; Perez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Santa-Maria, Ysmael; Benito, Agustín

    2010-07-01

    To identity immunodiagnostic antigen genes, a Plasmodium falciparum (Dd2 clone) expression library was screened using human immune sera. The ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) was isolated: this antigen of the resistant clone presents repeat tandem sequences like the 3D7 clone, albeit in different numbers. RESA has been studied as a marker of genetic diversity, with different sizes being observed in different isolates and clones of Plasmodium falciparum. The native protein was localised in cultures by western-blot and immuno-transmission electron microscopy. The antigenicity of RESA was evaluated by ELISA, using the carboxy-terminal repeat region as antigen. The assay's sensitivity and specificity were 78.2 and 94% respectively.

  10. Hemoglobinopathic Erythrocytes Affect the Intraerythrocytic Multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Svetlana; Balaban, Amanda; McQueen, Philip G.; Coutinho, Rosane; Miller, Jeffery L.; Nossal, Ralph; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms by which α-thalassemia and sickle cell traits confer protection from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria are not yet fully elucidated. We hypothesized that hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes reduce the intraerythrocytic multiplication of P. falciparum, potentially delaying the development of life-threatening parasite densities until parasite clearing immunity is achieved. Methods. We developed a novel in vitro assay to quantify the number of merozoites released from an individual schizont, termed the “intraerythrocytic multiplication factor” (IMF). Results. P. falciparum (3D7 line) schizonts produce variable numbers of merozoites in all erythrocyte types tested, with median IMFs of 27, 27, 29, 23, and 23 in control, HbAS, HbSS, and α- and β-thalassemia trait erythrocytes, respectively. IMF correlated strongly (r2 = 0.97; P < .001) with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and varied significantly with mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin content. Reduction of IMFs in thalassemia trait erythrocytes was confirmed using clinical parasite isolates with different IMFs. Mathematical modeling of the effect of IMF on malaria progression indicates that the lower IMF in thalassemia trait erythrocytes limits parasite density and anemia severity over the first 2 weeks of parasite replication. Conclusions. P. falciparum IMF, a parasite heritable virulence trait, correlates with erythrocyte indices and is reduced in thalassemia trait erythrocytes. Parasite IMF should be examined in other low-indices erythrocytes. PMID:24688070

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Associated with Successful Cure after Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yun Shan; Peng, Kaitian; Chia, Wan Ni; Siau, Anthony; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Gruner, Anne-Charlotte; Preiser, Peter; Mayxay, Mayfong; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Nosten, Francois; White, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    An effective antibody response can assist drug treatment to contribute to better parasite clearance in malaria patients. To examine this, sera were obtained from two groups of adult patients with acute falciparum malaria, prior to drug treatment: patients who (1) have subsequent recrudescent infection, or (2) were cured by Day 28 following treatment. Using a Plasmodium falciparum antigen library, we examined the antibody specificities in these sera. While the antibody repertoire of both sera groups was extremely broad and varied, there was a differential antibody profile between the two groups of sera. The proportion of cured patients with antibodies against EXP1, MSP3, GLURP, RAMA, SEA and EBA181 was higher than the proportion of patients with recrudescent infection. The presence of these antibodies was associated with higher odds of treatment cure. Sera containing all six antibodies impaired the invasion of P. falciparum clinical isolates into erythrocytes. These results suggest that antibodies specific against EXP1, MSP3, GLURP, RAMA, SEA and EBA181 in P. falciparum infections could assist anti-malarial drug treatment and contribute to the resolution of the malarial infection. PMID:27427762

  12. Protein-based signatures of functional evolution in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kate B; Sinha, Ipsita; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2011-09-14

    It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi) and across the genus (P. chabaudi). All genes contained coding elements highly conserved across the genus, but there were also a large number of regions of weakly or non-aligning coding sequence. These displayed remarkable levels of non-synonymous fixed differences within the hominid malaria clade indicating near complete release from purifying selection (dN/dS ratio at residues non-aligning across genus: 0.64, dN/dS ratio at residues identical across genus: 0.03). Regions of low conservation also possessed high levels of hydrophilicity, a marker of non-globularity. The propensity for such regions to act as potent sources of non-synonymous genetic drift within extant P. falciparum isolates was confirmed at chromosomal regions containing genes known to mediate drug resistance in field isolates, where 150 of 153 amino acid variants were located in poorly conserved regions. In contrast, all 22 amino acid variants associated with drug resistance were restricted to highly conserved regions. Additional mutations associated with laboratory-selected drug resistance, such as those in PfATPase4 selected by spiroindolone, were similarly restricted while mutations in another calcium ATPase (PfSERCA, a gene proposed to mediate artemisinin resistance) that reach significant frequencies in field isolates were located exclusively in poorly conserved regions consistent with genetic drift. Coding sequences of malaria parasites contain prospectively definable domains subject to neutral or nearly

  13. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Talman, Arthur M; Domarle, Olivier; McKenzie, F Ellis; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum. PMID:15253774

  14. Chromosome size polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum can involve deletions of the subtelomeric pPFrep20 sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Patarapotikul, J; Langsley, G

    1988-01-01

    The P. falciparum pPFrep20 repetitive element from the Palo Alto Uganda strain has been isolated and sequenced. The Palo Alto pPFrep20 repeat (pPFPArep20) has a clustered subtelomeric location and on chromosome 1 has been deleted from one end. Analysis of chromosome 1 from 5 other strains has revealed that pPFrep20 sequences have been deleted from one end in 3 of them. Thus, deletion of pPFrep20 appears to be a frequent event that could significantly contribute to chromosome size polymorphism in P. falciparum. Images PMID:2837730

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Cultivation Using the Petri Dish: Revisiting the Effect of the 'Age' of Erythrocytes and the Interval of Medium Change

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-A; Cha, Je-Eun; Ahn, Sun-Young; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Lee, Hyo-Il; Kim, Chang-Gyun; Seoh, Ju-Young

    2007-01-01

    Differences in the characteristics of the culture conditions can influence the multiplication rate of Plasmodium falciparum. The Petri dish method is one of the most popular methods of cultivating this parasite. In many previous studies, ideal culture conditions of the Petri dish method were achieved by using erythrocytes collected from blood that had been stored for at least 2 weeks, with daily changes of the medium. In the present study, we studied the multiplication rate of P. falciparum in cultures containing erythrocytes of various ages together with changing the medium at various intervals of time. Our results strongly suggest that the rate of in vitro multiplication of P. falciparum was higher in freshly collected erythrocytes than in aged erythrocytes regardless of the anticoagulant and that when the parasitemia is lower than 8% with a hematocrit of 5%, the medium change interval can be as long as 48 hr without a great reduction in the rate of multiplication. PMID:18162717

  16. Variation in Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (Pfhrp2) and Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 3 (Pfhrp3) Gene Deletions in Guyana and Suriname.

    PubMed

    Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Abdallah, Joseph F; Ceron, Nicolas; Adhin, Malti R; Chandrabose, Javin; Krishnalall, Karanchand; Huber, Curtis S; Goldman, Ira F; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Guyana and Suriname have made important progress in reducing the burden of malaria. While both countries use microscopy as the primary tool for clinical diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are useful in remote areas of the interior where laboratory support may be limited or unavailable. Recent reports indicate that histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based diagnostic tests specific for detection of P. falciparum may provide false negative results in some parts of South America due to the emergence of P. falciparum parasites that lack the pfhrp2 gene, and thus produce no PfHRP2 antigen. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified in parasite isolates collected from Guyana and Suriname to determine if there were circulating isolates with deletions in these genes. Pfhrp3 deletions were monitored because some monoclonal antibodies utilized in PfHRP2-based RDTs cross-react with the PfHRP3 protein. We found that all 97 isolates from Guyana that met the inclusion criteria were both pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-positive. In Suriname (N = 78), 14% of the samples tested were pfhrp2-negative while 4% were pfhrp3-negative. Furthermore, analysis of the genomic region proximal to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 revealed that genomic deletions extended to the flanking genes. We also investigated the population substructure of the isolates collected to determine if the parasites that had deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 belonged to any genetic subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed that there was no predominant P. falciparum population substructure among the isolates from either country, an indication of genetic admixture among the parasite populations. Furthermore, the pfhrp2-deleted parasites from Suriname did not appear to share a single, unique genetic background.

  17. Variation in Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (Pfhrp2) and Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 3 (Pfhrp3) Gene Deletions in Guyana and Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Abdallah, Joseph F.; Ceron, Nicolas; Adhin, Malti R.; Chandrabose, Javin; Krishnalall, Karanchand; Huber, Curtis S.; Goldman, Ira F.; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Barnwell, John W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Guyana and Suriname have made important progress in reducing the burden of malaria. While both countries use microscopy as the primary tool for clinical diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are useful in remote areas of the interior where laboratory support may be limited or unavailable. Recent reports indicate that histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based diagnostic tests specific for detection of P. falciparum may provide false negative results in some parts of South America due to the emergence of P. falciparum parasites that lack the pfhrp2 gene, and thus produce no PfHRP2 antigen. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified in parasite isolates collected from Guyana and Suriname to determine if there were circulating isolates with deletions in these genes. Pfhrp3 deletions were monitored because some monoclonal antibodies utilized in PfHRP2-based RDTs cross-react with the PfHRP3 protein. We found that all 97 isolates from Guyana that met the inclusion criteria were both pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-positive. In Suriname (N = 78), 14% of the samples tested were pfhrp2-negative while 4% were pfhrp3-negative. Furthermore, analysis of the genomic region proximal to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 revealed that genomic deletions extended to the flanking genes. We also investigated the population substructure of the isolates collected to determine if the parasites that had deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 belonged to any genetic subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed that there was no predominant P. falciparum population substructure among the isolates from either country, an indication of genetic admixture among the parasite populations. Furthermore, the pfhrp2-deleted parasites from Suriname did not appear to share a single, unique genetic background. PMID:25978499

  18. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbayi, Adebola M; Bolaji, Oloyede S; Akindele, Akeem A; Adefioye, Olusegun A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%), hookworm (5.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.6%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9%) and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%). For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9%) were more infected than males (2.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978). Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359) were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria. PMID:22091292

  19. Multiple genotypes of the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 in Plasmodium falciparum infections in a hypoendemic area in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Sedigheh; Bereczky, Sándor; Naimi, Parin; Pedro Gil, J; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Färnert, Anna; Snounou, Georges; Björkman, Anders

    2005-10-01

    In Iran, malaria transmission mainly occurs in south-eastern regions through both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates was analysed in 108 patients attending the regional hospital in Chabahar District, using the molecular markers msp1 and msp2. Multiple genotypes were detected in 87% of patients and the mean numbers of msp1 and msp2 genotypes were 2.51 (95% CI: 2.29-2.73) and 2.61 (95% CI: 2.39-2.83) respectively. Various allelic types of msp1 and msp2 were found, with msp2 3D7/IC type detected in 94% of infections. Plasmodium falciparum infections in south-east Iran appear to have a higher genetic diversity than expected for an area of low transmission. A situation of higher transmission in this area may be emerging, possibly because of reduced efficacy of first-line treatments.

  20. Toward a high-resolution Plasmodium falciparum linkage map: Polymorphic markers from hundreds of simple sequence repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Xin-Zhuan; Wellems, T.E.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 5.7 simple sequence repeats (SSRs or {open_quotes}microsatellites{close_quotes}) were identified from Plasmodium falciparum sequences in GenBank and from inserts in a genomic DNA library. Oligonucleotide primers from sequences that flank 224 of these SSRs were synthesized and used in PCR assays to test for simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs). Of the 224 SSRs, 188 showed SSLPs were assigned to chromosome linkage groups by physical mapping and by comparing their inheritance patterns against those of restriction fragment length polymorphism markers in a genetic cross (HB3XDd2). The predominant SSLPs in P. falciparum were found to contain [TA]{sub n}, and [TAA]{sub n}, a feature that is reminiscent of plant genomes and is consistent with the proposed algal-like origin of malaria parasites. Since such SSLPs are abundant and readily isolated, they are a powerful resource for genetic analysis of P. falciparum. 38 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum: food vacuole localization of nitric oxide-derived species in intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ostera, Graciela; Tokumasu, Fuyuki; Oliveira, Fabiano; Sa, Juliana; Furuya, Tetsuya; Teixeira, Clarissa; Dvorak, James

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has diverse biological functions. Numerous studies have documented NO’s biosynthetic pathway in a wide variety of organisms. Little is known, however, about NO production in intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum. Using diaminorhodamine-4-methyl acetoxymethylester (DAR-4M AM), a fluorescent indicator, we obtained direct evidence of NO and NO-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production in intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites, as well as in isolated food vacuoles from trophozoite stage parasites. We preliminarily identified two gene sequences that might be implicated in NO synthesis in intraerythrocytic P. falciparum. We showed localization of the protein product of one of these two genes, a molecule that is structurally similar to a plant nitrate reductase, in trophozoite food vacuole membranes. We confirmed previous reports on the antiproliferative effect of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibitors in P.falciparum cultures; however, we did not obtain evidence that NOS inhibitors had the ability to inhibit RNS production or that there is an active NOS in mature forms of the parasite. We concluded that a nitrate reductase activity produce NO and NO-derived RNS in or around the food vacuole in P. falciparum parasites. The food vacuole is a critical parasitic compartment involved in hemoglobin degradation, heme detoxification and a target for antimalarial drug action. Characterization of this relatively unexplored synthetic activity could provide important clues into poorly understood metabolic processes of the malaria parasite, PMID:18504040

  2. Driving mosquito refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum with engineered symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibao; Dos-Santos, André L A; Huang, Wei; Liu, Kun Connie; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Wei, Ge; Agre, Peter; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2017-09-29

    The huge burden of malaria in developing countries urgently demands the development of novel approaches to fight this deadly disease. Although engineered symbiotic bacteria have been shown to render mosquitoes resistant to the parasite, the challenge remains to effectively introduce such bacteria into mosquito populations. We describe a Serratia bacterium strain (AS1) isolated from Anopheles ovaries that stably colonizes the mosquito midgut, female ovaries, and male accessory glands and spreads rapidly throughout mosquito populations. Serratia AS1 was genetically engineered for secretion of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins, and the recombinant strains inhibit development of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Genome-wide SNP genotyping highlights the role of natural selection in Plasmodium falciparum population divergence

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Volkman, Sarah K; Park, Daniel; Montgomery, Philip; Milner, Danny A; Lukens, Amanda; Rosen, David; Daniels, Rachel; Houde, Nathan; Cortese, Joseph F; Tyndall, Erin; Gates, Casey; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Moraes, Sandra do Lago; Dash, Aditya P; Chitnis, Chetan E; Wiegand, Roger C; Hartl, Daniel L; Birren, Bruce W; Lander, Eric S; Sabeti, Pardis C; Wirth, Dyann F

    2008-01-01

    Background The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits abundant genetic diversity, and this diversity is key to its success as a pathogen. Previous efforts to study genetic diversity in P. falciparum have begun to elucidate the demographic history of the species, as well as patterns of population structure and patterns of linkage disequilibrium within its genome. Such studies will be greatly enhanced by new genomic tools and recent large-scale efforts to map genomic variation. To that end, we have developed a high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platform for P. falciparum. Results Using an Affymetrix 3,000 SNP assay array, we found roughly half the assays (1,638) yielded high quality, 100% accurate genotyping calls for both major and minor SNP alleles. Genotype data from 76 global isolates confirm significant genetic differentiation among continental populations and varying levels of SNP diversity and linkage disequilibrium according to geographic location and local epidemiological factors. We further discovered that nonsynonymous and silent (synonymous or noncoding) SNPs differ with respect to within-population diversity, inter-population differentiation, and the degree to which allele frequencies are correlated between populations. Conclusions The distinct population profile of nonsynonymous variants indicates that natural selection has a significant influence on genomic diversity in P. falciparum, and that many of these changes may reflect functional variants deserving of follow-up study. Our analysis demonstrates the potential for new high-throughput genotyping technologies to enhance studies of population structure, natural selection, and ultimately enable genome-wide association studies in P. falciparum to find genes underlying key phenotypic traits. PMID:19077304

  4. Origin and evolution of sulfadoxine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; McCollum, Andrea M; Sem, Rithy; Shah, Naman K; Lim, Pharath; Muth, Sinuon; Rogers, William O; Fandeur, Thierry; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Ariey, Frederick; Meshnick, Steven R; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-03-26

    The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s) of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated), a large proportion of the isolates (19.3%) contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each of these regions.

  5. Origin and Evolution of Sulfadoxine Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; McCollum, Andrea M.; Sem, Rithy; Shah, Naman K.; Lim, Pharath; Muth, Sinuon; Rogers, William O.; Fandeur, Thierry; Barnwell, John W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Ariey, Frederick; Meshnick, Steven R.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-01-01

    The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with sulfadoxine resistance. The present study was designed to reveal the origin(s) of sulfadoxine resistance in Cambodia and its evolutionary relationship to African and South American dhps alleles. We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. We also genotyped 10 microsatellite loci around dhps to determine the genetic backgrounds of various alleles and compared them with the backgrounds of alleles prevalent in Africa and South America. In addition to previously known highly-resistant triple mutant dhps alleles SGEGA and AGEAA (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, 613 are sequentially indicated), a large proportion of the isolates (19.3%) contained a 540N mutation in association with 437G/581G yielding a previously unreported triple mutant allele, SGNGA. Microsatellite data strongly suggest the strength of selection was greater on triple mutant dhps alleles followed by the double and single mutants. We provide evidence for at least three independent origins for the double mutants, one each for the SGKGA, AGKAA and SGEAA alleles. Our data suggest that the triple mutant allele SGEGA and the novel allele SGNGA have common origin on the SGKGA background, whereas the AGEAA triple mutant was derived from AGKAA on multiple, albeit limited, genetic backgrounds. The SGEAA did not share haplotypes with any of the triple mutants. Comparative analysis of the microsatellite haplotypes flanking dhps alleles from Cambodia, Kenya, Cameroon and Venezuela revealed an independent origin of sulfadoxine resistant alleles in each of these regions

  6. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  8. Nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay for the detection of minority-variant chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ariey, Frédéric; Mwapasa, Victor; Meshnick, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Background Strains of Plasmodium falciparum genetically resistant to chloroquine (CQ) due to the presence of pfcrt 76T appear to have been recently introduced to the island of Madagascar. The prevalence of such resistant genotypes is reported to be low (< 3%) when evaluated by conventional PCR. However, these methods are insensitive to low levels of mutant parasites present in patients with polyclonal infections. Thus, the current estimates may be an under representation of the prevalence of the CQ-resistant P. falciparum isolates on the island. Previously, minority variant chloroquine resistant parasites were described in Malawian patients using an isotopic heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), which can detect pfcrt 76T-bearing P. falciparum minority variants in individual patients that were undetectable by conventional PCR. However, as this assay required a radiolabeled probe, it could not be used in many resource-limited settings. Methods This study describes a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled chemiluminescent heteroduplex tracking assay (DIG-HTA) to detect pfcrt 76T-bearing minority variant P. falciparum. This assay was compared to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and to the isotopic HTA for detection of genetically CQ-resistant parasites in clinical samples. Results Thirty one clinical P. falciparum isolates (15 primary isolates and 16 recurrent isolates) from 17 Malagasy children treated with CQ for uncomplicated malaria were genotyped for the pfcrt K76T mutation. Two (11.7%) of 17 patients harboured genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains after therapy as detected by HTA. RFLP analysis failed to detect any pfcrt K76T-bearing isolates. Conclusion These findings indicate that genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum are more common than previously thought in Madagascar even though the fitness of the minority variant pfcrt 76T parasites remains unclear. In addition, HTAs for malaria drug resistance alleles are promising tools for the

  9. In vitro and clinical correlates of mefloquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Childs, G E; Bourdeau, E F; Wimonwattratee, T; Pang, L; Milhous, W K

    1991-05-01

    A series of isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from eastern Thailand was collected prior to and after treatment failure with mefloquine. Patterns of drug sensitivity to standard and new antimalarials were characterized by using an in vitro assay based on the inhibition of schizont maturation. In vitro levels of mefloquine sensitivity of isolates were correlated with clinical treatment failures. In vitro parasite resistance to mefloquine is defined as an inhibitory dose-50 value greater than 20 nM. For isolates collected prior to treatment, there was no significant difference in mefloquine sensitivity patterns between subsequent successes and failures, suggesting that mefloquine treatment failures could not be predicted based on in vitro sensitivity of pretreatment isolates. A series of paired isolates were collected both prior to treatment with mefloquine and after recrudescence. Recrudescent isolates showed significant decreases in sensitivity to mefloquine, WR 194965, enpiroline, and halofantrine; no significant changes in sensitivity to amodiaquine, qinghaosu, and pyrimethamine; and an increase in sensitivity to chloroquine.

  10. Irradiation of fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  11. Synchronous culture of Plasmodium falciparum at high parasitemia levels.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Azar; Méndez, Darío; Moneriz, Carlos; Linares, María; Marín-García, Patricia; Puyet, Antonio; Diez, Amalia; Bautista, José M

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing cultures of Plasmodium falciparum synchronized at any intraerythrocytic stage. Using this method, around 60% parasitized cells may be obtained. On the basis of Trager and Jensen's original continuous culture method, our approach relies on the use of fresh human blood not older than 2 weeks, a low hematocrit between 0.8 and 1.5%, a starting frozen inoculum of 10% ring-stage parasitemia, human serum replaced with AlbuMAX I and alternating sorbitol and Percoll synchronization methods to shorten the cycle window to 4-6 h and reduce sorbitol toxicity. From our synchronized high parasite density cultures, 3-5 ml of infected red blood cells can be obtained in 1 week, corresponding to 1.2 mg of total parasite protein per ml of harvested culture. On the basis of the variables parasitemia and packed cell volume, we provide an equation to accurately calculate the amount of complete medium required every 24 h corrected for the cycle stage and capacity of the culture flask. Ten days suffice to complete the protocol from a frozen stock of parasites.

  12. Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Fokou, Patrick Valere Tsouh; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Ndjakou, Bruno Lenta; Djouonzo, Paul Toukam; Mfopa, Alvine Ngoutane; Legac, Jennifer; Tsabang, Nole; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:28930201

  13. Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum.

    PubMed

    Yamthe, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha; Fokou, Patrick Valere Tsouh; Mbouna, Cedric Derick Jiatsa; Keumoe, Rodrigue; Ndjakou, Bruno Lenta; Djouonzo, Paul Toukam; Mfopa, Alvine Ngoutane; Legac, Jennifer; Tsabang, Nole; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-04-30

    The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery.

  14. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A; Shaw, A R; Leban, J; Perrin, L H

    1985-01-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from mRNA purified from asexual blood forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Among the members of this library we have identified a plasmid (pMC31-1) coding for a polypeptide exposed at the surface of merozoites, the invasive stage of the asexual cycle. This plasmid was identified by direct expression using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for a schizont polypeptide of 200 kd which has been shown to be processed to an 83-kd polypeptide expressed at the surface of merozoites. The cDNA portion of the pMC31-1 plasmid hybridizes with DNA from three isolates of P. falciparum. Antisera raised against extracts of Escherichia coli harbouring pMC31-1 react with surface and internal structures of schizonts and with the surface of merozoites from all the isolates of P. falciparum examined. These results suggest that plasmid pMC31-1 encodes an antigen of value for the development of a vaccine against malaria. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3894010

  15. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  16. Prevalence of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Soni, Monika; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    Two numbers of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Gossingpara, Runikhata area in Chirang district of Assam had shown multiple mutations in Pfcrt-dhfr-dhps gene (up to seven mutations: One mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene and three mutations in Pfdhps gene). Similarly, two cases in Bat camp, Miao area under Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh had shown a total of eight mutations, of which one mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene, three mutations in Pfdhps gene and one mutation in PfATPase6 gene. One case in 3 Miles, Miao area of Changlang district has shown mutations in Pfcrt(one mutation), Pfdhfr(four mutations) and Pfdhps(three mutations) gene. These results indicated that there is an existence of multiple mutant P. falciparum malaria cases in northeastern region of India.

  17. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  18. Jacaranone-derived glucosidic esters from Jacaranda glabra and their activity against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Gachet, M Salomé; Kunert, Olaf; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Muñoz, Ricardo A; Bauer, Rudolf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-04-23

    In a survey of plants from Ecuador with antiprotozoal activity, Jacaranda glabra was found to show promising activity against the Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain. Subsequently, activity-guided isolation of the dichloromethane extract from the leaves of J. glabra afforded four new phenylethanoid glucosides containing jacaranone-type moieties (1-4), named jacaglabrosides A-D. Their chemical structures were identified using NMR spectroscopy and MS techniques. The compounds were found to be active in vitro against the P. falciparum K1 strain (IC(50) 1, 1.02; 2, 0.56; 3, 0.56; and 4, 0.55 microg/mL) and generally possessed a low cytotoxicity toward L-6 cells, with the exception of compound 1 (IC(50) 1, 8.3; 2, >90; 3, 87; and 4, 85 microg/mL).

  19. The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion: a molecular epidemiology observational study.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Suwannasin, Kanokon; Kunasol, Chanon; Sutawong, Kreepol; Mayxay, Mayfong; Rekol, Huy; Smithuis, Frank M; Hlaing, Tin Maung; Tun, Kyaw M; van der Pluijm, Rob W; Tripura, Rupam; Miotto, Olivo; Menard, Didier; Dhorda, Mehul; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance). We collected blood spots from patients with microscopy or rapid test confirmed uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We used microsatellite genotyping to assess genetic relatedness. As part of studies on the epidemiology of artemisinin-resistant malaria between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2015, we collected 434 isolates. In 2014-15, a single long PfKelch13 C580Y haplotype (-50 to +31·5 kb) lineage, which emerged in western Cambodia in 2008, was detected in 65 of 88 isolates from northeastern Thailand, 86 of 111 isolates from southern Laos, and 14 of 14 isolates from western Cambodia, signifying a hard transnational selective sweep. Pfplasmepsin2 amplification occurred only within this lineage, and by 2015 these closely related parasites were found in ten of the 14 isolates from Cambodia and 15 of 15 isolates from northeastern Thailand. C580Y mutated parasites from Myanmar had a different genetic origin. Our results suggest that the dominant artemisinin-resistant P falciparum C580Y lineage probably arose in western Cambodia and then spread to Thailand and Laos, outcompeting other parasites and acquiring piperaquine resistance. The emergence and spread of fit artemisinin-resistant P falciparum parasite lineages, which then acquire partner drug resistance across the Greater Mekong subregion, threatens regional malaria control and elimination goals. Elimination of falciparum

  20. Complement receptor 1 is a sialic acid-independent erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, Carmenza; Awandare, Gordon A; Kopydlowski, Karen M; Czege, Jozsef; Moch, J Kathleen; Finberg, Robert W; Tsokos, George C; Stoute, José A

    2010-06-17

    Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion are incompletely understood. P. falciparum depends heavily on sialic acid present on glycophorins to invade erythrocytes. However, a significant proportion of laboratory and field isolates are also able to invade erythrocytes in a sialic acid-independent manner. The identity of the erythrocyte sialic acid-independent receptor has been a mystery for decades. We report here that the complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a sialic acid-independent receptor for the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. We show that soluble CR1 (sCR1) as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against CR1 inhibit sialic acid-independent invasion in a variety of laboratory strains and wild isolates, and that merozoites interact directly with CR1 on the erythrocyte surface and with sCR1-coated microspheres. Also, the invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes correlates with the level of CR1 expression. Finally, both sialic acid-independent and dependent strains invade CR1 transgenic mouse erythrocytes preferentially over wild-type erythrocytes but invasion by the latter is more sensitive to neuraminidase. These results suggest that both sialic acid-dependent and independent strains interact with CR1 in the normal red cell during the invasion process. However, only sialic acid-independent strains can do so without the presence of glycophorin sialic acid. Our results close a longstanding and important gap in the understanding of the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum that will eventually make possible the development of an effective blood stage vaccine.

  1. Conserved mosquito/parasite interactions affect development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Antonio M; Schlegelmilch, Timm; Cohuet, Anna; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; De Iorio, Maria; Fontenille, Didier; Morlais, Isabelle; Christophides, George K; Kafatos, Fotis C; Vlachou, Dina

    2008-05-16

    In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists.

  2. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  3. Fresh Veggies from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Marc Anderson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed a technology for use in plant-growth experiments aboard the Space Shuttle. Anderson's research and WCSAR's technology were funded by NASA and resulted in a joint technology licensed to KES Science and Technology, Inc. This transfer of space-age technology resulted in the creation of a new plant-saving product, an ethylene scrubber for plant growth chambers. This innovation presents commercial benefits for the food industry in the form of a new device, named Bio-KES. Bio-KES removes ethylene and helps to prevent spoilage. Ethylene accounts for up to 10 percent of produce losses and 5 percent of flower losses. Using Bio-KES in storage rooms and displays will increase the shelf life of perishable foods by more than one week, drastically reducing the costs associated with discarded rotten foods and flowers. The savings could potentially be passed on to consumers. For NASA, the device means that astronauts can conduct commercial agricultural research in space. Eventually, it may also help to grow food in space and keep it fresh longer. This could lead to less packaged food being taken aboard missions since it could be cultivated in an ethylene-free environment.

  4. On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, M. Andreina; Mugisha, Lawrence; André, Claudine; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Krief, Jean-Michel; Kasenene, John M.; Crandfield, Mike; Cornejo, Omar E.; Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Lin, Clara; Letourneur, Franck; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Rénia, Laurent; Snounou, Georges

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most dangerous forms of human malaria, remains controversial. Although investigations of homologous parasites in African Apes are crucial to resolve this issue, studies have been restricted to a chimpanzee parasite related to P. falciparum, P. reichenowi, for which a single isolate was available until very recently. Using PCR amplification, we detected Plasmodium parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples. In addition to P. reichenowi, three other hitherto unknown lineages were found in the chimpanzees. One is related to P. vivax and two to P. falciparum that are likely to belong to distinct species. In the bonobos we found P. falciparum parasites whose mitochondrial genomes indicated that they were distinct from those present in humans, and another parasite lineage related to P. malariae. Phylogenetic analyses based on this diverse set of Plasmodium parasites in African Apes shed new light on the evolutionary history of P. falciparum. The data suggested that P. falciparum did not originate from P. reichenowi of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), but rather evolved in bonobos (Pan paniscus), from which it subsequently colonized humans by a host-switch. Finally, our data and that of others indicated that chimpanzees and bonobos maintain malaria parasites, to which humans are susceptible, a factor of some relevance to the renewed efforts to eradicate malaria. PMID:20169187

  5. Construction of a human functional single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody recognizing the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wajanarogana, Sumet; Prasomrothanakul, Teerawat; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2006-04-01

    Falciparum malaria is one of the most deadly and profound human health problems around the tropical world. Antimalarial drugs are now considered to be a powerful treatment; however, there are drugs currently being used that are resistant to Plasmodium falciparum parasites spreading in different parts of the world. Although the protective immune response against intraerythrocytic stages of the falciparum malaria parasite is still not fully understood, immune antibodies have been shown to be associated with reduced parasite prevalence. Therefore antibodies of the right specificity present in adequate concentrations and affinity are reasonably effective in providing protection. In the present study, VH (variable domain of heavy chain) and VL (variable domain of light chain) were isolated from human blood lymphocytes of P. falciparum in one person who had high serum titre to RESA (ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen). Equal amounts of VH and VL were assembled together with universal linker (G4S)3 to generate scFvs (single-chain variable fragments). The scFv antibodies were expressed with a phage system for the selection process. Exclusively, an expressed scFv against asynchronous culture of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes was selected and characterized. Sequence analysis of selected scFv revealed that this clone could be classified into a VH family-derived germline gene (VH1) and Vkappa family segment (Vkappa1). Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we could show that soluble expressed scFv reacted with falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The results encourage the further study of scFvs for development as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.

  6. Targeting the gyrase of Plasmodium falciparum with topoisomerase poisons.

    PubMed

    Tang Girdwood, Sonya C; Nenortas, Elizabeth; Shapiro, Theresa A

    2015-06-15

    Drug-resistant malaria poses a major public health problem throughout the world and the need for new antimalarial drugs is growing. The apicoplast, a chloroplast-like organelle essential for malaria parasite survival and with no counterpart in humans, offers an attractive target for selectively toxic new therapies. The apicoplast genome (plDNA) is a 35 kb circular DNA that is served by gyrase, a prokaryotic type II topoisomerase. Gyrase is poisoned by fluoroquinolone antibacterials that stabilize a catalytically inert ternary complex of enzyme, its plDNA substrate, and inhibitor. We used fluoroquinolones to study the gyrase and plDNA of Plasmodium falciparum. New methods for isolating and separating plDNA reveal four topologically different forms and permit a quantitative exam of perturbations that result from gyrase poisoning. In keeping with its role in DNA replication, gyrase is most abundant in late stages of the parasite lifecycle, but several lines of evidence indicate that even in these cells the enzyme is present in relatively low abundance: about 1 enzyme for every two plDNAs or a ratio of 1 gyrase: 70 kb DNA. For a spectrum of quinolones, correlation was generally good between antimalarial activity and gyrase poisoning, the putative molecular mechanism of drug action. However, in P. falciparum there is evidence for off-target toxicity, particularly for ciprofloxacin. These studies highlight the utility of the new methods and of fluoroquinolones as a tool for studying the in situ workings of gyrase and its plDNA substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome scanning of Amazonian Plasmodium falciparum shows subtelomeric instability and clindamycin-resistant parasites

    PubMed Central

    Dharia, Neekesh V.; Plouffe, David; Bopp, Selina E.R.; González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Lucas, Carmen; Salas, Carola; Soberon, Valeria; Bursulaya, Badry; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Bacon, David J.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we fully characterize the genomes of 14 Plasmodium falciparum patient isolates taken recently from the Iquitos region using genome scanning, a microarray-based technique that delineates the majority of single-base changes, indels, and copy number variants distinguishing the coding regions of two clones. We show that the parasite population in the Peruvian Amazon bears a limited number of genotypes and low recombination frequencies. Despite the essentially clonal nature of some isolates, we see high frequencies of mutations in subtelomeric highly variable genes and internal var genes, indicating mutations arising during self-mating or mitotic replication. The data also reveal that one or two meioses separate different isolates, showing that P. falciparum clones isolated from different individuals in defined geographical regions could be useful in linkage analyses or quantitative trait locus studies. Through pairwise comparisons of different isolates we discovered point mutations in the apicoplast genome that are close to known mutations that confer clindamycin resistance in other species, but which were hitherto unknown in malaria parasites. Subsequent drug sensitivity testing revealed over 100-fold increase of clindamycin EC50 in strains harboring one of these mutations. This evidence of clindamycin-resistant parasites in the Amazon suggests that a shift should be made in health policy away from quinine + clindamycin therapy for malaria in pregnant women and infants, and that the development of new lincosamide antibiotics for malaria should be reconsidered. PMID:20829224

  8. Various pfcrt and pfmdr1 Genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum Cocirculate with P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax in Northern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Fançony, Cláudia; Gamboa, Dina; Sebastião, Yuri; Hallett, Rachel; Sutherland, Colin; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria has become widely available across Africa. Populations of Plasmodium falciparum that were previously dominated by chloroquine (CQ)-resistant genotypes are now under different drug selection pressures. P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri are sympatric with P. falciparum across the continent and are frequently present as coinfections. The prevalence of human Plasmodium species was determined by PCR using DNA from blood spots collected during a cross-sectional survey in northern Angola. P. falciparum was genotyped at resistance-associated loci in pfcrt and pfmdr1 by real-time PCR or by direct sequencing of amplicons. Of the 3,316 samples collected, 541 (16.3%) contained Plasmodium species infections; 477 (88.2%) of these were P. falciparum alone, 6.5% were P. falciparum and P. malariae together, and 1.1% were P. vivax alone. The majority of the remainder (3.7%) harbored P. ovale curtisi or P. ovale wallikeri alone or in combination with other species. Of 430 P. falciparum isolates genotyped for pfcrt, 61.6% carried the wild-type allele CVMNK at codons 72 to 76, either alone or in combination with the resistant allele CVIET. No other pfcrt allele was found. Wild-type alleles dominated at codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of the pfmdr1 locus among the sequenced isolates. In contrast to previous studies, P. falciparum in the study area comprises an approximately equal mix of genotypes associated with CQ sensitivity and with CQ resistance, suggesting either lower drug pressure due to poor access to treatment in rural areas or a rapid impact of the policy change away from the use of standard monotherapies. PMID:22850519

  9. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  10. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum Choline Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    interfere specifically with parasite membrane biogenesis inhibit the growth of the parasite in vitro, are non-toxic to human cell lines, impair the...phosphocholine. Collectively, our data supported by the USAMRMC provide a much better understanding of membrane biogenesis in P. falciparum and provide strong...characterize the role of the PJSCT1 (now renamed PfGAT) and PfCTL1 genes of the human malaria pathogen Plasmodiumfalciparum in membrane biogenesis

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  12. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  13. Maurer's clefts, the enigma of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Mundwiler-Pachlatko, Esther; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, completely remodels the infected human erythrocyte to acquire nutrients and to evade the immune system. For this process, the parasite exports more than 10% of all its proteins into the host cell cytosol, including the major virulence factor PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte surface protein 1). This unusual protein trafficking system involves long-known parasite-derived membranous structures in the host cell cytosol, called Maurer’s clefts. However, the genesis, role, and function of Maurer’s clefts remain elusive. Similarly unclear is how proteins are sorted and how they are transported to and from these structures. Recent years have seen a large increase of knowledge but, as yet, no functional model has been established. In this perspective we review the most important findings and conclude with potential possibilities to shed light into the enigma of Maurer’s clefts. Understanding the mechanism and function of these structures, as well as their involvement in protein export in P. falciparum, might lead to innovative control strategies and might give us a handle with which to help to eliminate this deadly parasite. PMID:24284172

  14. Survey of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 and chloroquine resistance transporter alleles in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Haiti where chloroquine (CQ) is widely used for malaria treatment, reports of resistance are scarce. However, recent identification of CQ resistance genotypes in one site is suggestive of an emerging problem. Additional studies are needed to evaluate genetic mutations associated with CQ resistance, especially in the Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) while expanding the already available information on P. falciparum CQ transporter gene (pfcrt) in Haiti. Methods Blood samples were collected on Whatman filter cards (FTA) from eight clinics spread across Haiti. Following the confirmation of P. falciparum in the samples, PCR protocols were used to amplify regions of pfmdr1and pfcrt codons of interest, (86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) and (72-76), respectively. Sequencing and site-specific restriction enzyme digestions were used to analyse these DNA fragments for the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to confer resistance to anti-malarial drugs. Results P. falciparum infection was confirmed in160 samples by amplifying a segment of the P. falciparum 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (pfssurrna). The sequence of pfmdr1 in 54 of these samples was determined between codons 86,184 codons 1034, 1042 and 1246. No sequence differences from that of the NF54 clone 3D7 were found among the 54 samples except at codon 184, where a non-silent mutation was found in all samples predicted to alter the amino acid sequence replacing tyrosine with phenylalanine (Y184F). This altered sequence was also confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. The sequence of pfmdr1 at codons 86, 184, 1034 and 1042 encoded the NFSN haplotype. The sequence of pfcrt codons 72-76 from 79 samples was determined and found to encode CVMNK, consistent with a CQ sensitive genotype. Conclusion The presence of the Y184F mutation in pfmdr1 of P. falciparum parasites in Haiti may have implications for resistance to antimalarial drugs. The absence of

  15. Survey of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-1 and chloroquine resistance transporter alleles in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Elbadry, Maha A; Existe, Alexandre; Victor, Yves S; Memnon, Gladys; Fukuda, Mark; Dame, John B; Yowell, Charles A; Okech, Bernard A

    2013-11-19

    In Haiti where chloroquine (CQ) is widely used for malaria treatment, reports of resistance are scarce. However, recent identification of CQ resistance genotypes in one site is suggestive of an emerging problem. Additional studies are needed to evaluate genetic mutations associated with CQ resistance, especially in the Plasmodium falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) while expanding the already available information on P. falciparum CQ transporter gene (pfcrt) in Haiti. Blood samples were collected on Whatman filter cards (FTA) from eight clinics spread across Haiti. Following the confirmation of P. falciparum in the samples, PCR protocols were used to amplify regions of pfmdr1and pfcrt codons of interest, (86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246) and (72-76), respectively. Sequencing and site-specific restriction enzyme digestions were used to analyse these DNA fragments for the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to confer resistance to anti-malarial drugs. P. falciparum infection was confirmed in160 samples by amplifying a segment of the P. falciparum 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (pfssurrna). The sequence of pfmdr1 in 54 of these samples was determined between codons 86,184 codons 1034, 1042 and 1246. No sequence differences from that of the NF54 clone 3D7 were found among the 54 samples except at codon 184, where a non-silent mutation was found in all samples predicted to alter the amino acid sequence replacing tyrosine with phenylalanine (Y184F). This altered sequence was also confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. The sequence of pfmdr1 at codons 86, 184, 1034 and 1042 encoded the NFSN haplotype. The sequence of pfcrt codons 72-76 from 79 samples was determined and found to encode CVMNK, consistent with a CQ sensitive genotype. The presence of the Y184F mutation in pfmdr1 of P. falciparum parasites in Haiti may have implications for resistance to antimalarial drugs. The absence of mutation in pfcrt at codon 76 among 79

  16. An Adjustable Gas-Mixing Device to Increase Feasibility of In Vitro Culture of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Volkman, Sarah K.; Ahouidi, Ambroise D.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge to conducting high-impact and reproducible studies of the mechanisms of P. falciparum drug resistance, invasion, virulence, and immunity is the lack of robust and sustainable in vitro culture in the field. While the technology exists and is routinely utilized in developed countries, various factors–from cost, to supply, to quality–make it hard to implement in malaria endemic countries. Here, we design and rigorously evaluate an adjustable gas-mixing device for the in vitro culture of P. falciparum parasites in the field to circumvent this challenge. The device accurately replicates the gas concentrations needed to culture laboratory isolates, short-term adapted field isolates, cryopreserved previously non-adapted isolates, as well as to adapt ex vivo isolates to in vitro culture in the field. We also show an advantage over existing alternatives both in cost and in supply. Furthermore, the adjustable nature of the device makes it an ideal tool for many applications in which varied gas concentrations could be critical to culture success. This adjustable gas-mixing device will dramatically improve the feasibility of in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in malaria endemic countries given its numerous advantages. PMID:24603696

  17. Amplification of the multidrug resistance gene pfmdr1 in Plasmodium falciparum has arisen as multiple independent events.

    PubMed

    Triglia, T; Foote, S J; Kemp, D J; Cowman, A F

    1991-10-01

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammalian tumor cells can involve amplification of mdr genes that results in overexpression of the protein product termed P-glycoprotein. Chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum has similarities with the MDR phenotype in tumor cells, and some isolates of P. falciparum have amplified levels of the pfmdr1 gene. To investigate the nature and origin of pfmdr1 amplicons, we have cloned large regions of a 110-kb amplicon from the CQR cloned isolate B8 by using the yeast artificial chromosome system. We have identified and sequenced the breakpoints of the amplicon by a novel method employing inverted polymerase chain reaction that is applicable to analysis of any large-scale repeat. We show that the five copies of the amplicon in this isolate are in a head to tail configuration. A string of 30 A's flank the breakpoints on each side of the amplified segment, suggesting a mechanism for the origin of the tandem amplification. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with oligonucleotides that cross the B8 breakpoint has shown in 26 independent CQR isolates, 16 of which contain amplified copies of pfmdr1, that amplification of the pfmdr1 gene in P. falciparum has arisen as multiple independent events. These results suggest that this region of the genome is under strong selective pressure.

  18. An adjustable gas-mixing device to increase feasibility of in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the field.

    PubMed

    Bei, Amy K; Patel, Saurabh D; Volkman, Sarah K; Ahouidi, Ambroise D; Ndiaye, Daouda; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-01-01

    A challenge to conducting high-impact and reproducible studies of the mechanisms of P. falciparum drug resistance, invasion, virulence, and immunity is the lack of robust and sustainable in vitro culture in the field. While the technology exists and is routinely utilized in developed countries, various factors-from cost, to supply, to quality-make it hard to implement in malaria endemic countries. Here, we design and rigorously evaluate an adjustable gas-mixing device for the in vitro culture of P. falciparum parasites in the field to circumvent this challenge. The device accurately replicates the gas concentrations needed to culture laboratory isolates, short-term adapted field isolates, cryopreserved previously non-adapted isolates, as well as to adapt ex vivo isolates to in vitro culture in the field. We also show an advantage over existing alternatives both in cost and in supply. Furthermore, the adjustable nature of the device makes it an ideal tool for many applications in which varied gas concentrations could be critical to culture success. This adjustable gas-mixing device will dramatically improve the feasibility of in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in malaria endemic countries given its numerous advantages.

  19. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma.

    PubMed

    Yuana, Yuana; Koning, Roman I; Kuil, Maxim E; Rensen, Patrick C N; Koster, Abraham J; Bertina, Rogier M; Osanto, Susanne

    2013-12-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles). In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25-260 nm). The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  20. Bioactivity Guided Fractionation of Leaves Extract of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (Harshringar) against P falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Pinky; Sahal, Dinkar; Jain, S. K.; Chauhan, Virander S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Harshringar, Night Jasmine) has been traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani and other systems of medicine in India. The juice of its leaves has been used by various tribal populations of India in treatment of fevers resembling malaria. Aim of the study This work reports the antiplasmodial activity guided fractionation of Harshringar leaves extract. Methodology Crude ethanolic Harshringar leaves extract and its RPHPLC purified fractions were studied for antiplasmodial potency against 3D7 (CQ sensitive) and Dd2 (CQ resistant) strains of P.falciparum and subsequently subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using reverse phase chromatography to pursue the isolation of active fractions. Principal Findings Harshringar crude leaves extract and some of its RPHPLC purified fractions exhibited promising antiplasmodial potency against 3D7 and Dd2 strains of P.falciparum. Conclusions The present study has provided scientific validity to the traditional use of leaves extract of Harshringar against malaria leading to the conclusion that this plant holds promise with respect to antimalarial phytotherapy. This is the first scientific report of antiplasmodial activity of RPHPLC fractions of Harshringar leaves extract against P.falciparum strains. PMID:23300557

  1. Tracking origins and spread of sulfadoxine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum dhps alleles in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Tauqeer; Vinayak, Sumiti; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Satimai, Wichai; Slutsker, Laurence; Escalante, Ananias A; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum have been a major impediment for the control of malaria worldwide. Earlier studies have shown that similar to chloroquine (CQ) resistance, high levels of pyrimethamine resistance in P. falciparum originated independently 4 to 5 times globally, including one origin at the Thailand-Cambodia border. In this study we describe the origins and spread of sulfadoxine-resistance-conferring dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) alleles in Thailand. The dhps mutations and flanking microsatellite loci were genotyped for P. falciparum isolates collected from 11 Thai provinces along the Burma, Cambodia, and Malaysia borders. Results indicated that resistant dhps alleles were fixed in Thailand, predominantly being the SGEGA, AGEAA, and SGNGA triple mutants and the AGKAA double mutant (mutated codons are underlined). These alleles had different geographical distributions. The SGEGA alleles were found mostly at the Burma border, while the SGNGA alleles occurred mainly at the Cambodia border and nearby provinces. Microsatellite data suggested that there were two major genetic lineages of the triple mutants in Thailand, one common for SGEGA/SGNGA alleles and another one independent for AGEAA. Importantly, the newly reported SGNGA alleles possibly originated at the Thailand-Cambodia border. All parasites in the Yala province (Malaysia border) had AGKAA alleles with almost identical flanking microsatellites haplotypes. They were also identical at putatively neutral loci on chromosomes 2 and 3, suggesting a clonal nature of the parasite population in Yala. In summary, this study suggests multiple and independent origins of resistant dhps alleles in Thailand.

  2. A potent antimalarial benzoxaborole targets a Plasmodium falciparum cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor homologue

    PubMed Central

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Ng, Caroline L.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Guo, Denghui; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Yasheen; Alley, M. R. K.; Ahyong, Vida; Sanz, Laura M.; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria Jose; Dong, Chen; Schupp, Patrick G.; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jenny; Cooper, Roland A.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; DeRisi, Joseph; Freund, Yvonne R.; Fidock, David A.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Benzoxaboroles are effective against bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. We report potent activity of the benzoxaborole AN3661 against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory-adapted strains (mean IC50 32 nM), Ugandan field isolates (mean ex vivo IC50 64 nM), and murine P. berghei and P. falciparum infections (day 4 ED90 0.34 and 0.57 mg kg−1, respectively). Multiple P. falciparum lines selected in vitro for resistance to AN3661 harboured point mutations in pfcpsf3, which encodes a homologue of mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 (CPSF-73 or CPSF3). CRISPR-Cas9-mediated introduction of pfcpsf3 mutations into parental lines recapitulated AN3661 resistance. PfCPSF3 homology models placed these mutations in the active site, where AN3661 is predicted to bind. Transcripts for three trophozoite-expressed genes were lost in AN3661-treated trophozoites, which was not observed in parasites selected or engineered for AN3661 resistance. Our results identify the pre-mRNA processing factor PfCPSF3 as a promising antimalarial drug target. PMID:28262680

  3. Deformability based sorting of red blood cells improves diagnostic sensitivity for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan; Duffy, Simon P; Matthews, Kerryn; Deng, Xiaoyan; Santoso, Aline T; Islamzada, Emel; Ma, Hongshen

    2016-02-21

    The loss of red blood cell (RBC) deformability is part of the pathology of many diseases. In malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, metabolism of hemoglobin by the parasite results in progressive reduction in RBC deformability that is directly correlated with the growth and development of the parasite. The ability to sort RBCs based on deformability therefore provides a means to isolate pathological cells and to study biochemical events associated with disease progression. Existing methods have not been able to sort RBCs based on deformability or to effectively enrich for P. falciparum infected RBCs at clinically relevant concentrations. Here, we develop a method to sort RBCs based on deformability and demonstrate the ability to enrich the concentration of ring-stage P. falciparum infected RBCs (Pf-iRBCs) by >100× from clinically relevant parasitemia (<0.01%). Deformability based sorting of RBCs is accomplished using ratchet transport through asymmetrical constrictions using oscillatory flow. This mechanism provides dramatically improved selectivity over previous biophysical methods by preventing the accumulation of cells in the filter microstructure to ensure that consistent filtration forces are applied to each cell. We show that our approach dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis performed using both microscopy and rapid diagnostic test by converting samples with difficult-to-detect parasitemia (<0.01%) into samples with easily detectable parasitemia (>0.1%).

  4. Partner-Drug Resistance and Population Substructuring of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Parobek, Christian M.; Parr, Jonathan B.; Brazeau, Nicholas F.; Lon, Chanthap; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Barnett, Eric J.; Norris, Lauren D.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Spring, Michele D.; Lanteri, Charlotte A.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, David L.; Lin, Jessica T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia has developed resistance to artemisinin and its partner drugs, causing frequent treatment failure. Understanding this evolution can inform the deployment of new therapies. We investigated the genetic architecture of 78 falciparum isolates using whole-genome sequencing, correlating results to in vivo and ex vivo drug resistance and exploring the relationship between population structure, demographic history, and partner drug resistance. Principle component analysis, network analysis and demographic inference identified a diverse central population with three clusters of clonally expanding parasite populations, each associated with specific K13 artemisinin resistance alleles and partner drug resistance profiles which were consistent with the sequential deployment of artemisinin combination therapies in the region. One cluster displayed ex vivo piperaquine resistance and mefloquine sensitivity with a high rate of in vivo failure of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Another cluster displayed ex vivo mefloquine resistance and piperaquine sensitivity with high in vivo efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The final cluster was clonal and displayed intermediate sensitivity to both drugs. Variations in recently described piperaquine resistance markers did not explain the difference in mean IC90 or clinical failures between the high and intermediate piperaquine resistance groups, suggesting additional loci may be involved in resistance. The results highlight an important role for partner drug resistance in shaping the P. falciparum genetic landscape in Southeast Asia and suggest that further work is needed to evaluate for other mutations that drive piperaquine resistance. PMID:28854635

  5. A potent antimalarial benzoxaborole targets a Plasmodium falciparum cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor homologue.

    PubMed

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Ng, Caroline L; Lee, Marcus C S; Guo, Denghui; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Yasheen; Alley, M R K; Ahyong, Vida; Sanz, Laura M; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria Jose; Dong, Chen; Schupp, Patrick G; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jenny; Cooper, Roland A; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; DeRisi, Joseph; Freund, Yvonne R; Fidock, David A; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2017-03-06

    Benzoxaboroles are effective against bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. We report potent activity of the benzoxaborole AN3661 against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory-adapted strains (mean IC50 32 nM), Ugandan field isolates (mean ex vivo IC50 64 nM), and murine P. berghei and P. falciparum infections (day 4 ED90 0.34 and 0.57 mg kg(-1), respectively). Multiple P. falciparum lines selected in vitro for resistance to AN3661 harboured point mutations in pfcpsf3, which encodes a homologue of mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 (CPSF-73 or CPSF3). CRISPR-Cas9-mediated introduction of pfcpsf3 mutations into parental lines recapitulated AN3661 resistance. PfCPSF3 homology models placed these mutations in the active site, where AN3661 is predicted to bind. Transcripts for three trophozoite-expressed genes were lost in AN3661-treated trophozoites, which was not observed in parasites selected or engineered for AN3661 resistance. Our results identify the pre-mRNA processing factor PfCPSF3 as a promising antimalarial drug target.

  6. Initial characterization of Pf62, a novel protein of Plasmodium falciparum identified by immunoscreening.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Eva M; González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Cuevas, Laureano; Perez-Pastrana, Esperanza; Santa-Maria, Ysmael; Benito, Agustín

    2009-06-01

    In order to find new antigens from Plasmodium falciparum, a complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed and screened. The study of expression library of P. falciparum was performed in an attempt to identify new antigens that could have potential relevance for the falciparum-malaria diagnosis and/or protection. Between the positive clones detected (ring erythrocyte surface antigen, merozoite erythrocyte surface antigen, RHOP H3, CSP, LSA), a new gene that correspond to a new protein (Pf62) was isolated and characterized. This antigen was useful for the diagnosis of malaria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. The cDNA corresponding to this antigen and structure of the gene were characterized. Pf62 is a single copy gene that contains one exon. The Pf62 cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,599 nucleotides that code for a putative protein of 532 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 62 kDa. The polypeptide contains in the central section two regions of repeats of 21 and 19 amino acids, respectively. The localization of the Pf62 protein was performed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoelectron microscopy. Pf62 is localized in the cytoplasm of the parasite and also on the surface of the infected erythrocyte. Serologic assays by using synthetic peptides designed from different antigenic regions of the Pf62 protein resulted in acceptable data of sensitivity and specificity in symptomatic malaria patients.

  7. Calcium regulation in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Alleva, L M; Kirk, K

    2001-10-01

    The regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) in the intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, was investigated using parasites 'isolated' from their host cells by saponin-permeabilisation of the erythrocyte membrane. The isolated parasites maintained tight control over their resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration which ranged from approximately 100 nM in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) to approximately 700 nM in the presence of 1 mM extracellular Ca(2+). The parasite has two functionally discrete intracellular Ca(2+) stores. One is an 'endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like' store, the other an 'acidic store'. The ER-like store was discharged by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) of animal and plant cells, but not by thapsigargin (TG), a more specific inhibitor of SERCAs of animal cells. The acidic store was discharged by nigericin and by NH(4)(+). The amount of Ca(2+) in the ER-like store increased with increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas the amount of Ca(2+) in the acidic store did not. Ca(2+) released from the ER-like store by CPA was cleared from the parasite cytosol by uptake into the acidic store (over a range of extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations), consistent with the acidic store serving as a Ca(2+) reservoir within the intracellular parasite.

  8. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Smith, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Calls for the eradication of malaria require the development of global and regional strategies based on a strong and consistent evidence base. Evidence from the previous global malaria eradication program and more recent transborder control campaigns have shown the importance of accounting for human movement in introducing infections to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries linked by relatively high levels of infection movements. The likely principal sources and destinations of imported cases in each region were also mapped. Results indicate that certain groups of countries, such as those in West Africa and central Asia are much more strongly connected by relatively high levels of population and infection movement than others. In contrast, countries such as Ethiopia and Myanmar display significantly greater isolation in terms of likely infection movements in and out. The mapping here of both communities of countries linked by likely higher levels of infection movement, and “natural” migration boundaries that display reduced movement of people and infections between regions has practical utility. These maps can inform the design of malaria elimination strategies by identifying regional communities of countries afforded protection from recolonization by surrounding regions of reduced migration. For more isolated countries, a nationally focused control or elimination program is likely to stand a better chance of success than those receiving high levels of visitors and migrants from high-transmission regions. PMID:20566870

  9. Recombination Hotspots and Population Structure in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jianbing; Duan, Junhui; McGee, Kate M; Joy, Deirdre A; McVean, Gilean A. T

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the influences of population structure, selection, and recombination on polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is integral to mapping genes contributing to drug resistance or virulence in Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite's short generation time, coupled with a high cross-over rate, can cause rapid LD break-down. However, observations of low genetic variation have led to suggestions of effective clonality: selfing, population admixture, and selection may preserve LD in populations. Indeed, extensive LD surrounding drug-resistant genes has been observed, indicating that recombination and selection play important roles in shaping recent parasite genome evolution. These studies, however, provide only limited information about haplotype variation at local scales. Here we describe the first (to our knowledge) chromosome-wide SNP haplotype and population recombination maps for a global collection of malaria parasites, including the 3D7 isolate, whose genome has been sequenced previously. The parasites are clustered according to continental origin, but alternative groupings were obtained using SNPs at 37 putative transporter genes that are potentially under selection. Geographic isolation and highly variable multiple infection rates are the major factors affecting haplotype structure. Variation in effective recombination rates is high, both among populations and along the chromosome, with recombination hotspots conserved among populations at chromosome ends. This study supports the feasibility of genome-wide association studies in some parasite populations. PMID:16144426

  10. Frequencies distribution of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutant alleles associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum population from Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-12-22

    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen. Genomic DNA was extracted from dried blood spots of 137 P. falciparum isolates collected from a community-based study. DNA was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Sequences were analysed for mutations in Pfdhfr gene codons 51, 59, 108, and 164 and in Pfdhps gene codons 436, 437, and 540. A total of 128 and 114 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, respectively. Each Pfdhfr mutant allele (I51 and N108) in P. falciparum population had a frequency of 84%. Pfdhfr R59 mutant allele was detected in one isolate. Mutation at codon 437 (G437) in the Pfdhps gene was detected in 44.7% of falciparum malaria isolates. Frequencies of Pfdhfr double mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps triple mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164-S436G437K540) were 82.8 and 39.3%, respectively. One isolate harboured Pfdhfr triple mutant genotype (I51, R59, N108, I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple mutant genotype (I51R59N108I164-S436G437K540). High frequencies of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles and genotypes in P. falciparum population in Hadhramout, Yemen, highlight the risk of developing resistance for SP, the partner drug of AS, which subsequently will expose the parasite to AS monotherapy increasing then the

  11. Tracing the origins and signatures of selection of antifolate resistance in island populations of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Resistance of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has evolved worldwide. In the archipelago of São Tomé and Principe (STP), West Africa, although SP resistance is highly prevalent the drug is still in use in particular circumstances. To address the evolutionary origins of SP resistance in these islands, we genotyped point mutations at P. falciparum dhfr and dhps genes and analysed microsatellites flanking those genes. Methods Blood samples were collected in July and December 2004 in three localities of São Tomé Island and one in Principe Island. Species-specific nested-PCR was used to identify P. falciparum infected samples. Subsequently, SNPs at the dhfr and dhps genes were identified through PCR-RFLP. Isolates were also analysed for three microsatellite loci flanking the dhfr gene, three loci flanking dhps and four loci located at putative neutral genomic regions. Results An increase of resistance-associated mutations at dhfr and dhps was observed, in particular for the dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant, associated with clinical SP failure. Analysis of flanking microsatellites suggests multiple independent introductions for dhfr and dhps mutant haplotypes, possibly from West Africa. A reduced genetic diversity and increased differentiation at flanking microsatellites when compared to neutral loci is consistent with a selective sweep for resistant alleles at both loci. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence for the crucial role of gene flow and drug selective pressures in the rapid spread of SP resistance in P. falciparum populations, from only a few mutation events giving rise to resistance-associated mutants. It also highlights the importance of human migration in the spread of drug resistant malaria parasites, as the distance between the islands and mainland is not consistent with mosquito-mediated parasite dispersal. PMID:20534146

  12. Imputation-based population genetics analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Samad, Hanif; Coll, Francesc; Preston, Mark D; Ocholla, Harold; Fairhurst, Rick M; Clark, Taane G

    2015-04-01

    Whole-genome sequencing technologies are being increasingly applied to Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to identify genetic determinants of malaria pathogenesis. However, genome-wide discovery methods, such as haplotype scans for signatures of natural selection, are hindered by missing genotypes in sequence data. Poor correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum genome complicates efforts to apply established missing-genotype imputation methods that leverage off patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The accuracy of state-of-the-art, LD-based imputation methods (IMPUTE, Beagle) was assessed by measuring allelic r2 for 459 P. falciparum samples from malaria patients in 4 countries: Thailand, Cambodia, Gambia, and Malawi. In restricting our analysis to 86 k high-quality SNPs across the populations, we found that the complete-case analysis was restricted to 21k SNPs (24.5%), despite no single SNP having more than 10% missing genotypes. The accuracy of Beagle in filling in missing genotypes was consistently high across all populations (allelic r2, 0.87-0.96), but the performance of IMPUTE was mixed (allelic r2, 0.34-0.99) depending on reference haplotypes and population. Positive selection analysis using Beagle-imputed haplotypes identified loci involved in resistance to chloroquine (crt) in Thailand, Cambodia, and Gambia, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (dhfr, dhps) in Cambodia, and artemisinin (kelch13) in Cambodia. Tajima's D-based analysis identified genes under balancing selection that encode well-characterized vaccine candidates: apical merozoite antigen 1 (ama1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1). In contrast, the complete-case analysis failed to identify any well-validated drug resistance or candidate vaccine loci, except kelch13. In a setting of low LD and modest levels of missing genotypes, using Beagle to impute P. falciparum genotypes is a viable strategy for conducting accurate large-scale population genetics and

  13. Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Late Stage-infected Erythrocytes by Magnetic Means

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Lorena Michelle; Tayler, Nicole Michelle; Correa, Ricardo; Giovani, Rita Marissa; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other Plasmodium species, P. falciparum can be cultured in the lab, which facilitates its study 1. While the parasitemia achieved can reach the ≈40% limit, the investigator usually keeps the percentage at around 10%. In many cases it is necessary to isolate the parasite-containing red blood cells (RBCs) from the uninfected ones, to enrich the culture and proceed with a given experiment. When P. falciparum infects the erythrocyte, the parasite degrades and feeds from haemoglobin 2, 3. However, the parasite must deal with a very toxic iron-containing haem moiety 4, 5. The parasite eludes its toxicity by transforming the haem into an inert crystal polymer called haemozoin 6, 7. This iron-containing molecule is stored in its food vacuole and the metal in it has an oxidative state which differs from the one in haem 8. The ferric state of iron in the haemozoin confers on it a paramagnetic property absent in uninfected erythrocytes. As the invading parasite reaches maturity, the content of haemozoin also increases 9, which bestows even more paramagnetism on the latest stages of P. falciparum inside the erythrocyte. Based on this paramagnetic property, the latest stages of P. falciparum infected-red blood cells can be separated by passing the culture through a column containing magnetic beads. These beads become magnetic when the columns containing them are placed on a magnet holder. Infected RBCs, due to their paramagnetism, will then be trapped inside the column, while the flow-through will contain, for the most part, uninfected erythrocytes and those containing early stages of the parasite. Here, we describe the methodology to enrich the population of late stage parasites with magnetic columns, which maintains good parasite viability 10. After performing this procedure, the unattached culture can be returned to an incubator to allow the remaining parasites to continue growing. PMID:23486405

  14. Sterile Protective Immunity to Malaria is Associated with a Panel of Novel P. falciparum Antigens*

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Angela; Kayala, Matthew A.; Burk, Chad; Molina, Douglas M.; Freilich, Daniel A.; Richie, Thomas L.; Baldi, Pierre; Felgner, Philip L.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an effective malaria vaccine remains a global public health priority. Less than 0.5% of the Plasmodium falciparum genome has been assessed as potential vaccine targets and candidate vaccines have been based almost exclusively on single antigens. It is possible that the failure to develop a malaria vaccine despite decades of effort might be attributed to this historic focus. To advance malaria vaccine development, we have fabricated protein microarrays representing 23% of the entire P. falciparum proteome and have probed these arrays with plasma from subjects with sterile protection or no protection after experimental immunization with radiation attenuated P. falciparum sporozoites. A panel of 19 pre-erythrocytic stage antigens was identified as strongly associated with sporozoite-induced protective immunity; 16 of these antigens were novel and 85% have been independently identified in sporozoite and/or liver stage proteomic or transcriptomic data sets. Reactivity to any individual antigen did not correlate with protection but there was a highly significant difference in the cumulative signal intensity between protected and not protected individuals. Functional annotation indicates that most of these signature proteins are involved in cell cycle/DNA processing and protein synthesis. In addition, 21 novel blood-stage specific antigens were identified. Our data provide the first evidence that sterile protective immunity against malaria is directed against a panel of novel P. falciparum antigens rather than one antigen in isolation. These results have important implications for vaccine development, suggesting that an efficacious malaria vaccine should be multivalent and targeted at a select panel of key antigens, many of which have not been previously characterized. PMID:21628511

  15. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man: detection of parasite antigens by ELISA*

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, L. J.; McGregor, I. A.; Paounova, N.; Lambert, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    An ELISA method has been developed for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. Parasites from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum were used as source of antigen for the solid phase and the source of specific antibody was immune Gambian sera; binding of antibody in antigen-coated wells was registered by means of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG. Parasites were detected on the basis of inhibition of antibody-binding. The test was applied to the detection of parasites in human red blood cells (RBC) from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum and in RBC from infected Gambians; RBC from 100 Geneva blood donors served as normal, uninfected controls. In titration experiments, the degree of antibody-binding inhibition correlated with the number of parasites in the test RBC. Parasites were detected at a level of 8 parasites/106 RBC. Samples of RBC were tested from 126 Gambians with microscopically proven infection; significant antibody-binding inhibition was found in 86% of these cases, where parasitaemia ranged from 10 to 125 000/μl of blood. The presence of high-titre antibody in the test preparations was found to reduce the sensitivity of parasite detection in infected RBC from in vitro cultures mixed with equal volumes of different antibody-containing sera. The sensitivity was restored in most cases by recovering the RBC by centrifugation before testing. In a preliminary experiment, there was no significant difference in antibody-binding inhibition using fresh infected RBC and RBC dried on filter-paper and recovered by elution, although there was greater variation in the latter samples. PMID:7044589

  16. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man: detection of parasite antigens by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L J; McGregor, I A; Paounova, N; Lambert, P H

    1982-01-01

    An ELISA method has been developed for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in man. Parasites from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum were used as source of antigen for the solid phase and the source of specific antibody was immune Gambian sera; binding of antibody in antigen-coated wells was registered by means of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG. Parasites were detected on the basis of inhibition of antibody-binding. The test was applied to the detection of parasites in human red blood cells (RBC) from in vitro cultures of P. falciparum and in RBC from infected Gambians; RBC from 100 Geneva blood donors served as normal, uninfected controls. In titration experiments, the degree of antibody-binding inhibition correlated with the number of parasites in the test RBC. Parasites were detected at a level of 8 parasites/10(6) RBC. Samples of RBC were tested from 126 Gambians with microscopically proven infection; significant antibody-binding inhibition was found in 86% of these cases, where parasitaemia ranged from 10 to 125 000/mul of blood. The presence of high-titre antibody in the test preparations was found to reduce the sensitivity of parasite detection in infected RBC from in vitro cultures mixed with equal volumes of different antibody-containing sera. The sensitivity was restored in most cases by recovering the RBC by centrifugation before testing. In a preliminary experiment, there was no significant difference in antibody-binding inhibition using fresh infected RBC and RBC dried on filter-paper and recovered by elution, although there was greater variation in the latter samples.

  17. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  18. K13-propeller Alleles, Mdr1 Polymorphism, and Drug Effectiveness at Day 3 after Artemether-lumefantrine Treatment for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Colombia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Madeline; Neal, Aaron T; Posada, Maritza; De Las Salas, Briegel; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Fairhurst, Rick M; Tobon-Castaño, Alberto

    2017-09-25

    High treatment failure rates for Plasmodium falciparum malaria have been reported in Colombia for chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Artemisinin combination therapies were introduced in 2006 in Colombia, where artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is currently used to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Artemisinin (ART) resistance was initially observed in Southeast Asia as a delayed parasite clearance time, manifesting as a positive thick-blood smear on Day 3 after treatment (D3 positivity). Recently, mutations in the propeller domain of the P. falciparum kelch13 gene (K13-propeller) have been associated with ART resistance. In this study, we surveyed AL effectiveness at D3 and molecular markers of drug resistance among 187 uncomplicated P. falciparum cases in 4 regions of Colombia from June 2014 to July 2015. We found that 3.2% (4/125) of parasite isolates showed D3 positivity, 100% (163/163) of isolates carried wild-type K13-propeller alleles, 12.9% (23/178) of isolates had multiple copies of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (mdr1), and 75.8% (113/149) of isolates harbored the double-mutant NFSDD mdr1 haplotype. These data suggest that ART resistance is not currently suspected in Colombia, but that monitoring for lumefantrine resistance and AL failures should continue. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Lack of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in northwest Benin after 10 years of use of artemisinin-based combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, Aurore; Damien, Georgia; Deme, Awa Bineta; Ndam, Nicaise T.; Assohou, Constance; Tchonlin, Didier; Mama, Atika; Hounkpe, Virgile Olivier; Moutouama, Jules Doumitou; Remoué, Franck; Ndiaye, Daouda; Gazard, Dorothée Kinde

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In Benin, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria since 2004. The emergence in Southeast Asia of parasites that are resistant to artemisinins poses a serious threat to global control of this disease. The presence of artemisinin resistance genotypes in parasite populations in Benin is currently unknown. The present study investigated the prevalence of relevant K13-propeller gene polymorphisms in parasite isolates from the north-western region of Benin. Method: Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from children with a confirmed diagnosis of malaria aged 6 months to 5 years in two towns, Cobly and Djougou, in the north-western part of Benin. The study was conducted during the rainy season from July to November 2014 in local health facilities. The K13-propeller gene was amplified in parasite isolates using nested PCR and subsequently sequenced. Results: A total of 108 children were recruited into the study. The efficiency of amplification reactions was 72% (78/108). The propeller domain of the K13 gene was successfully sequenced in 78 P. falciparum isolates; all of them were wild type with no polymorphisms detectable. Conclusion: The absence of mutations in the K13 gene indicates that P. falciparum parasite populations in the study area are still fully susceptible to artemisinins. PMID:27443837

  20. Evaluation of the 4-pyridinemethanol WR 180,409 (enpiroline) in the treatment of induced Plasmodium falciparum infections in healthy, non-immune subjects.

    PubMed

    Cosgriff, T M; Boudreau, E F; Pamplin, C L; Berman, J D; Shmuklarsky, M J; Canfield, C J

    1984-09-01

    WR 180,409 (enpiroline) was administered to 22 non-immune subjects infected with the multi-drug resistant Vietnam Smith isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. It was curative in single day treatment regimens with a minimum curative dose of approximately 10 mg/kg body weight. At this dose level it was well tolerated and produced rapid clearance of parasitemia in every case.

  1. New Strategies for Drug Discovery and Development for Plasmodium Falciparum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    research working in concert with one another. The goal of this work is to use a molecular genetic approach both in the identification of new drug targets...analysis of critical genes in the Plasmodium falciparum for their role in drug resistance and as potential new drug targets using both the homologous P. falciparum system and the heterologous yeast system.

  2. Extensive genetic diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger 1 transporter protein implicated in quinine resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Upadhyay, Mala; Das, Manoj K; Dev, Vas; Singh, Neeru; Dash, Aditya P; Sharma, Yagya D

    2007-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (Pfnhe-1) locus at chromosome 13 and another locus at chromosome 9 have recently been proposed to influence quinine resistance. Here, we sequenced the ms4760 locus of the Pfnhe-1 gene from 244 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different regions of India. A total of 16 different ms4760 alleles (with one to five DNNND repeats) were observed among these isolates. Interestingly, areas with a high prevalence of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance showed more Pfnhe-1 DNNND repeats compared to low drug resistance areas. The extent of genetic diversity at the ms4760 locus also varied from one region to another, with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.47 to 0.88.

  3. Antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms.

  4. Antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. PMID:25099336

  5. Malaria parasite sequences from chimpanzee support the co-speciation hypothesis for the origin of virulent human malaria (Plasmodium falciparum).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Verra, Federica

    2010-10-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb), apicoplast caseinolytic protease C (clpC), and 18S rRNA sequences of Plasmodium isolates from chimpanzees along with those of the virulent human malaria parasite P. falciparum showed that the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) malaria parasites, assigned by Rich et al. (2009) to P. reichenowi, constitute a paraphyletic assemblage. The assumption that P. falciparum diverged from P. reichenowi as recently as 5000-50,000 years ago would require a rate of synonymous substitution/site/year in cytb and clpC on the order of 10(-5)-10(-6), several orders of magnitude higher than any known from eukaryotic organelle genomes, and would imply an unrealistically recent timing of the most recent common ancestor of P. falciparum mitochondrial genomes. The available data are thus most consistent with the hypothesis that P. reichenowi (in the strict sense) and P. falciparum co-speciated with their hosts about 5-7 million years ago.

  6. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum at the crossroads of exchange among islands in Vanuatu: implications for malaria elimination strategies.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chim W; Sakihama, Naoko; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Lum, J Koji; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Kaneko, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the transmission and movement of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for malaria elimination and prevention of resurgence. Located at the limit of malaria transmission in the Pacific, Vanuatu is an ideal candidate for elimination programs due to low endemicity and the isolated nature of its island setting. We analyzed the variation in the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) and the circumsporozoite protein (csp) of P. falciparum and P. vivax populations to examine the patterns of gene flow and population structures among seven sites on five islands in Vanuatu. Genetic diversity was in general higher in P. vivax than P. falciparum from the same site. In P. vivax, high genetic diversity was likely maintained by greater extent of gene flow among sites and among islands. Consistent with the different patterns of gene flow, the proportion of genetic variance found among islands was substantially higher in P. falciparum (28.81-31.23%) than in P. vivax (-0.53-3.99%). Our data suggest that the current island-by-island malaria elimination strategy in Vanuatu, while adequate for P. falciparum elimination, might need to be complemented with more centrally integrated measures to control P. vivax movement across islands.

  7. A Locally Acquired Falciparum Malaria via Nosocomial Transmission in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Su; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kang, Young-A; Kwon, Jun-Wook; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    A 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. He had not traveled outside of Korea for over 30 years. Through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to Africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. We confirmed through molecular genotyping of the MSP-1 gene that Plasmodium falciparum genotypes of the 2 patients were identical. It is suggested that a breach of standard infection control precautions resulted in this P. falciparum transmission between 2 patients in a hospital environment. This is the first report of a nosocomial transmission of falciparum malaria in Korea. PMID:19724701

  8. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in a Residual Malaria Focus Area in Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Imwong, Mallika; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Saat, Muhammad Nor Farhan; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Jelip, Jenarun; Tikuson, Moizin; Yusof, Norsalleh; Rundi, Christina; Mudin, Rose Nani; Syed Mohamed, Ami Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP) were widely used for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum for several decades in Malaysia prior to the introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2008. Our previous study in Kalabakan, located in south-east coast of Sabah showed a high prevalence of resistance to CQ and SP, suggesting the use of the treatment may no longer be effective in the area. This study aimed to provide a baseline data of antimalarial drug resistant markers on P. falciparum isolates in Kota Marudu located in the north-east coast of Sabah. Mutations on genes associated with CQ (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP (pfdhps and pfdhfr) were assessed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations on the kelch13 marker (K13) associated with artemisinin resistance were determined by DNA sequencing technique. The assessment of pfmdr1 copy number variation associated with mefloquine resistant was done by real-time PCR technique. A low prevalence (6.9%) was indicated for both pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y mutations. All P. falciparum isolates harboured the pfdhps A437G mutation. Prevalence of pfdhfr gene mutations, S108N and I164L, were 100% and 10.3%, respectively. Combining the different resistant markers, only two isolates were conferred to have CQ and SP treatment failure markers as they contained mutant alleles of pfcrt and pfmdr1 together with quintuple pfdhps/pfdhfr mutation (combination of pfdhps A437G+A581G and pfdhfr C59R+S108N+I164L). All P. falciparum isolates carried single copy number of pfmdr1 and wild type K13 marker. This study has demonstrated a low prevalence of CQ and SP resistance alleles in the study area. Continuous monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy is warranted and the findings provide information for policy makers in ensuring a proper malaria control. PMID:27788228

  9. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in a Residual Malaria Focus Area in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Imwong, Mallika; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Saat, Muhammad Nor Farhan; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Jelip, Jenarun; Tikuson, Moizin; Yusof, Norsalleh; Rundi, Christina; Mudin, Rose Nani; Syed Mohamed, Ami Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP) were widely used for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum for several decades in Malaysia prior to the introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2008. Our previous study in Kalabakan, located in south-east coast of Sabah showed a high prevalence of resistance to CQ and SP, suggesting the use of the treatment may no longer be effective in the area. This study aimed to provide a baseline data of antimalarial drug resistant markers on P. falciparum isolates in Kota Marudu located in the north-east coast of Sabah. Mutations on genes associated with CQ (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP (pfdhps and pfdhfr) were assessed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations on the kelch13 marker (K13) associated with artemisinin resistance were determined by DNA sequencing technique. The assessment of pfmdr1 copy number variation associated with mefloquine resistant was done by real-time PCR technique. A low prevalence (6.9%) was indicated for both pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y mutations. All P. falciparum isolates harboured the pfdhps A437G mutation. Prevalence of pfdhfr gene mutations, S108N and I164L, were 100% and 10.3%, respectively. Combining the different resistant markers, only two isolates were conferred to have CQ and SP treatment failure markers as they contained mutant alleles of pfcrt and pfmdr1 together with quintuple pfdhps/pfdhfr mutation (combination of pfdhps A437G+A581G and pfdhfr C59R+S108N+I164L). All P. falciparum isolates carried single copy number of pfmdr1 and wild type K13 marker. This study has demonstrated a low prevalence of CQ and SP resistance alleles in the study area. Continuous monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy is warranted and the findings provide information for policy makers in ensuring a proper malaria control.

  10. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut processing plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...

  11. pfk13-Independent Treatment Failure in Four Imported Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Artemether-Lumefantrine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Colin J; Lansdell, Paul; Sanders, Mandy; Muwanguzi, Julian; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Kaur, Harparkash; Nolder, Debbie; Tucker, Julie; Bennett, Hayley M; Otto, Thomas D; Berriman, Matthew; Patel, Trupti A; Lynn, Roderick; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chiodini, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Sutherland et al.

  12. pfk13-Independent Treatment Failure in Four Imported Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Treated with Artemether-Lumefantrine in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Lansdell, Paul; Sanders, Mandy; Muwanguzi, Julian; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Tucker, Julie; Bennett, Hayley M.; Otto, Thomas D.; Berriman, Matthew; Patel, Trupti A.; Lynn, Roderick; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chiodini, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended. PMID:28137810

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase represents CYP1B1, and not CYP1A1, in human freshly isolated white cells: trimodal distribution of Japanese population according to induction of CYP1B1 mRNA by environmental dioxins.

    PubMed

    Toide, Kenji; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Rikako; Itoh, Keisuke; Iwano, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Shaw; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2003-03-01

    The expression level of mRNAs for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 in freshly prepared white cells from 72 subjects exposed to dioxins at waste incinerators was investigated. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA ranged from 0.16 to 671 molecules/10(7) molecules of 18S rRNA, whereas the amounts of CYP1A1 mRNA were <6 molecules/10 ng total RNA, indicating that CYP1A1 was not induced to a detectable level by environmentally exposed dioxins. The inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes, defined as the ratio of CYP1B1 mRNA to the plasma concentration of dioxins, varied among the subjects. It was found that the subjects showed trimodal distribution according to inducibility: 39 (54.2%), 25 (34.7%), and 8 (11.1%) of 72 subjects were judged as poor, intermediate, and high responders to environmental dioxins, respectively. The amounts of CYP1B1 mRNA in leukocytes of the intermediate and high responders were highly correlated with the plasma concentrations of dioxins (P < 0.05 and <0.01). These results suggest that CYP1B1 with polymorphic inducibility by dioxins is involved in aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities in human lymphocytes.

  14. Preparation of pure and intact Plasmodium falciparum plasma membrane vesicles and partial characterisation of the plasma membrane ATPase.

    PubMed

    Elandalloussi, Laurence M; Smith, Pete J

    2002-04-26

    In host erythrocytes, the malaria parasite must contend with ion and drug transport across three membranes; its own plasma membrane, the parasitophorous membrane and the host plasma membrane. Isolation of pure and intact Plasmodium falciparum plasma membrane would provide a suitable model to elucidate the possible role played by the parasite plasma membrane in ion balance and drug transport. This study describes a procedure for isolating parasite plasma membrane from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. With this method, the trophozoites released by saponin treatment were cleansed of erythrocyte membranes using anti-erythrocyte antibodies fixed to polystyrene beads. These trophozoites were then biotinylated and the parasite plasma membrane was disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. This process allows the membranes to reform into vesicles. The magnetic streptavidin beads bind specifically to the biotinylated parasite plasma membrane vesicles facilitating their recovery with a magnet. These vesicles can then be easily released from the magnetic beads by treatment with dithiotreithol. The parasite plasma membrane showed optimal ATPase activity at 2 mM ATP and 2 mM Mg2+. It was also found that Ca2+ could not substitute for Mg2+ ATPase activity in parasite plasma membranes whereas activity was completely preserved when Mn2+ was used instead of Mg2+. Other nucleoside triphosphates tested were hydrolysed as efficiently as ATP, while the nucleoside monophosphate AMP was not. We have described the successful isolation of intact P. falciparum plasma membrane vesicles free of contaminating organelles and determined the experimental conditions for optimum ATPase activity.

  15. K13 Propeller Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Regions of Malaria Endemicity in Vietnam from 2009 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Thuy-Nhien, Nguyen; Tuyen, Nguyen Kim; Tong, Nguyen Thanh; Vy, Nguyen Tuong; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Van, Huynh Thuy; Huong-Thu, Pham; Quang, Huynh Hong; Boni, Maciej F; Dolecek, Christiane; Farrar, Jeremy; Thwaites, Guy E; Miotto, Olivo; White, Nicholas J; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2017-04-01

    The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum compromises the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and is considered the greatest threat to current global initiatives to control and eliminate malaria. This is particularly relevant in Vietnam, where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is the recommended ACT for P. falciparum infection. The propeller domain gene of K13, a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance, was successfully sequenced in 1,060 P. falciparum isolates collected at 3 malaria hot spots in Vietnam between 2009 and 2016. Eight K13 propeller mutations (Thr474Ile, Tyr493His, Arg539Thr, Ile543Thr, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu, and Cys580Tyr), including several that have been validated to be artemisinin resistance markers, were found. The prevalences of K13 mutations were 29% (222/767), 6% (11/188), and 43% (45/105) in the Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan, and Gia Lai Provinces of Vietnam, respectively. Cys580Tyr became the dominant genotype in recent years, with 79.1% (34/43) of isolates in Binh Phuoc Province and 63% (17/27) of isolates in Gia Lai Province carrying this mutation. K13 mutations were associated with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in vitro and prolonged parasite clearance in vivo An analysis of haplotypes flanking K13 suggested the presence of multiple strains with the Cys580Tyr mutation rather than a single strain expanding across the three sites.

  16. K13 Propeller Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Regions of Malaria Endemicity in Vietnam from 2009 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Tuyen, Nguyen Kim; Tong, Nguyen Thanh; Vy, Nguyen Tuong; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Van, Huynh Thuy; Huong-Thu, Pham; Quang, Huynh Hong; Boni, Maciej F.; Dolecek, Christiane; Farrar, Jeremy; Thwaites, Guy E.; Miotto, Olivo; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum compromises the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and is considered the greatest threat to current global initiatives to control and eliminate malaria. This is particularly relevant in Vietnam, where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is the recommended ACT for P. falciparum infection. The propeller domain gene of K13, a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance, was successfully sequenced in 1,060 P. falciparum isolates collected at 3 malaria hot spots in Vietnam between 2009 and 2016. Eight K13 propeller mutations (Thr474Ile, Tyr493His, Arg539Thr, Ile543Thr, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu, and Cys580Tyr), including several that have been validated to be artemisinin resistance markers, were found. The prevalences of K13 mutations were 29% (222/767), 6% (11/188), and 43% (45/105) in the Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan, and Gia Lai Provinces of Vietnam, respectively. Cys580Tyr became the dominant genotype in recent years, with 79.1% (34/43) of isolates in Binh Phuoc Province and 63% (17/27) of isolates in Gia Lai Province carrying this mutation. K13 mutations were associated with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in vitro and prolonged parasite clearance in vivo. An analysis of haplotypes flanking K13 suggested the presence of multiple strains with the Cys580Tyr mutation rather than a single strain expanding across the three sites. PMID:28137815

  17. Changes in repeat number, sequence, and reading frame in S-antigen genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Saint, R B; Coppel, R L; Cowman, A F; Brown, G V; Shi, P T; Barzaga, N; Kemp, D J; Anders, R F

    1987-01-01

    The S antigens from different isolates of Plasmodium falciparum exhibit extensive size, charge, and serological diversity. We show here that the S-antigen genes behave as multiple alleles of a single locus. The size heterogeneity results from different numbers, lengths, and/or sequences of tandem repeat units encoded within the S-antigen genes. Two genes studied here encode antigenically different S antigens but nevertheless have closely related tandem repeat sequences. We show that antigenic differences can arise because repeats are translated in different reading frames. Images PMID:3313007

  18. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  19. Auxotrophs of Plasmodium falciparum dependent on p-aminobenzoic acid for growth.

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, G A; Ittarat, I; Meshnick, S R; McCutchan, T F

    1994-01-01

    The isolation of auxotrophic strains of a parasite offers new opportunities for studying parasitology. We have isolated cloned lines of Plasmodium falciparum that, unlike the parent line from which they were derived, rely on exogenous p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for growth. Isolation involved random mutagenesis of a cloned line of P. falciparum and subsequent selection of PABA-dependent parasites. Both parent and PABA-dependent clones were analyzed for PABA uptake and synthesis. Each clone takes up comparable amounts of PABA from the medium. The parent line, clone 3D7, can synthesize PABA de novo, whereas the PABA-dependent clones cannot. The requirement of exogenous PABA for growth by the auxotrophic strains coupled with their inability to synthesize PABA indicates that normal parasite growth can be completely supported by either synthesis or salvage. This work further clarifies the relationship between the availability of PABA and success of the parasite, an issue of debate from classic studies showing reduced parasite load in individuals on milk-fed diets. PMID:8183896

  20. Hypervariability within the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lavazec, Catherine; Sanyal, Sohini; Templeton, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, possesses a broad repertoire of proteins that are proposed to be trafficked to the erythrocyte cytoplasm or surface, based upon the presence within these proteins of a Pexel/VTS erythrocyte-trafficking motif. This catalog includes large families of predicted 2 transmembrane (2TM) proteins, including the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies, of which each possesses a region of extensive sequence diversity across paralogs and between isolates that is confined to a proposed surface-exposed loop on the infected erythrocyte. Here we express epitope-tagged versions of the 2TM proteins in transgenic NF54 parasites and present evidence that the Stevor and Pfmc-2TM families are exported to the erythrocyte membrane, thus supporting the hypothesis that host immune pressure drives antigenic diversity within the loop. An examination of multiple P.falciparum isolates demonstrates that the hypervariable loop within Stevor and Pfmc-2TM proteins possesses sequence diversity across isolate boundaries. The Pfmc-2TM genes are encoded within large amplified loci that share profound nucleotide identity, which in turn highlight the divergences observed within the hypervariable loop. The majority of Pexel/VTS proteins are organized together within sub-telomeric genome neighborhoods, and a mechanism must therefore exist to differentially generate sequence diversity within select genes, as well as within highly defined regions within these genes.

  1. Macrophage-derived foam cells freshly isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions degrade modified lipoproteins, promote oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and contain oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M E; Khoo, J C; Miller, E; Parthasarathy, S; Palinski, W; Witztum, J L

    1991-01-01

    Pure macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of rabbits made atherosclerotic by balloon deendothelialization followed by diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The MFC were isolated under sterile conditions using an enzymatic digestion procedure and discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The purity of the MFC preparations was verified immunocytochemically with the macrophage specific monoclonal antibody RAM-11. MFC plated in medium containing 0.5% FCS for 24 h contained approximately 600 micrograms cholesterol per mg cell protein, 80% of which was esterified cholesterol. The MFC specifically degraded low density lipoprotein (LDL), acetyl-LDL, copper oxidized LDL, and beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) at rates comparable to mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in 5-h assays. MFC within sections of the atherosclerotic lesions from the ballooned rabbits as well as the MFC isolated from the same lesions in the presence of antioxidants, exhibited positive immunoreactivity with polyclonal guinea pig antisera and mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against malondialdehyde-LDL, and 4-hydroxynonal-LDL. The MFC also exhibited the capacity to induce the oxidation of LDL at rates comparable to those exhibited by MPM and rabbit aortic endothelial cells. These data provide direct evidence that arterial wall macrophages express modified LDL receptors in vivo, contain epitopes found in oxidized-LDL and are capable of oxidizing LDL even when maximally loaded with cholesterol. Images PMID:1985115

  2. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  3. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments.

  4. Establishment and application of a novel isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of chloroquine resistance (K76T) in Plasmodium falciparum