Science.gov

Sample records for falciparum m17 aminopeptidase

  1. Fingerprinting the Substrate Specificity of M1 and M17 Aminopeptidases of Human Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Poreba, Marcin; McGowan, Sheena; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; To, Joyce; Salvesen, Guy S.; Dalton, John P.; Drag, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, expresses two aminopeptidases, PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP, critical to generating a free amino acid pool used by the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite for proteins synthesis, growth and development. These exopeptidases are potential targets for the development of a new class of anti-malaria drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings To define the substrate specificity of recombinant forms of these two malaria aminopeptidases we used a new library consisting of 61 fluorogenic substrates derived both from natural and unnatural amino acids. We obtained a detailed substrate fingerprint for recombinant forms of the enzymes revealing that PfM1AAP exhibits a very broad substrate tolerance, capable of efficiently hydrolyzing neutral and basic amino acids, while PfM17LAP has narrower substrate specificity and preferentially cleaves bulky, hydrophobic amino acids. The substrate library was also exploited to profile the activity of the native aminopeptidases in soluble cell lysates of P. falciparum malaria. Conclusions/Significance This data showed that PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP are responsible for majority of the aminopeptidase activity in these extracts. These studies provide specific substrate and mechanistic information important for understanding the function of these aminopeptidases and could be exploited in the design of new inhibitors to specifically target these for anti-malaria treatment. PMID:22359643

  2. Modelling of human leucyl aminopeptidases for in silico off target binding analysis of potential Plasmodium falciparum leucine aminopeptidase (PfA-M17) specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sahi, Shakti; Raj, Utkarsh; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Nain, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in the world. Emergence of multi-drug resistant Plasmodium strains makes it crucial to identify new classes of compounds for anti-malarial therapy. Novel anti-malarial compounds from natural sources (Gomphostema niveum) as well as synthetic chemicals (5-aminolevulinic acid) have been reported in recent patents. Plasmodium falciparum leucyl aminopeptidase (PfA-M17) is a validated target for antimalarial drug development. However, known aminopeptidase inhibitors beset with the problem of non-specificity. Therefore, 3D structural models of PfA-M17 human homologs, Leucine aminopeptidase3 (hLAP3) and probable leucine aminopeptidase (hNPEPL1) were predicted for molecular docking based screening of potential inhibitors for their off target activity. Comparison of IC50 and docking scores of highly active hLAP3 inhibitors shows good correlation (r(2)≈ 0.8). Further, docking analysis with potential PfA-M17 inhibitor Compound-X (identified through virtual screening) shows much higher binding affinity towards PfA-M17 (docking score -11.44) than hLAP3 (docking score -4.26) and hNPEPL1 (docking score -5.08). This lead compound, Compound-X can act as a scaffold for further increasing PfA-M17 binding affinity and hLAP3 and hNPEPL1 3D structure models will be useful for screening of PfA-M17 specific inhibitors.

  3. Identification of phosphinate dipeptide analog inhibitors directed against the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucine aminopeptidase as lead antimalarial compounds.

    PubMed

    Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Lowther, Jonathan; Teuscher, Franka; Stack, Colin M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Trenholme, Katharine R; Dalton, John P; Gardiner, Donald L

    2007-11-29

    Previous studies have pinpointed the M17 leucyl aminopeptidase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfLAP) as a target for the development of new antimalarials. This metallo-exopeptidase functions in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and is inhibited by bestatin, a natural analog of Phe-Leu. By screening novel phosphinate dipeptide analogues for inhibitory activity against recombinant PfLAP, we have discovered two compounds, 4 (hPheP[CH2]Phe) and 5 (hPheP[CH2]Tyr), with inhibitory constants better than bestatin. These compounds are fast, tight-binding inhibitors that make improved contacts within the active site of PfLAP. Both compounds inhibit the growth of P. falciparum in vitro, exhibiting IC50 values against the chloroquine-resistant clone Dd2 of 20-40 and 12-23 muM, respectively. While bestatin exhibited some in vivo activity against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, compound 4 reduced parasite burden by 92%. These studies establish the PfLAP as a prime target for the development of antimalarial drugs and provide important new lead compounds.

  4. The M17 leucine aminopeptidase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: importance of active site metal ions in the binding of substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maric, Selma; Donnelly, Sheila M; Robinson, Mark W; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Trenholme, Katharine R; Gardiner, Donald L; Dalton, John P; Stack, Colin M; Lowther, Jonathan

    2009-06-16

    The M17 leucine aminopeptidase of the intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfLAP) plays a role in releasing amino acids from host hemoglobin that are used for parasite protein synthesis, growth, and development. This enzyme represents a target at which new antimalarials could be designed since metalloaminopeptidase inhibitors prevent the growth of the parasites in vitro and in vivo. A study on the metal ion binding characteristics of recombinant P. falciparum M17 leucine aminopeptidase (rPfLAP) shows that the active site of this exopeptidase contains two metal-binding sites, a readily exchangeable site (site 1) and a tight binding site (site 2). The enzyme retains activity when the metal ion is removed from site 1, while removal of metal ions from both sites results in an inactive apoenzyme that cannot be reactivated by the addition of divalent metal cations. The metal ion at site 1 is readily exchangeable with several divalent metal ions and displays a preference in the order of preference Zn(2+) > Mn(2+) > Co(2+) > Mg(2+). While it is likely that native PfLAP contains a Zn(2+) in site 2, the metal ion located in site 1 may be dependent on the type and concentration of metal ions in the cytosolic compartment of the parasite. Importantly, the type of metal ion present at site 1 influences not only the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme for peptide substrates but also the mode of binding by bestatin, a metal-chelating inhibitor of M17 aminopeptidases with antimalarial activity.

  5. M17 leucine aminopeptidase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yub; Song, Su-Min; Seok, Ji-Woong; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Han, Eun-Taek; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Yu, Hak-Sun; Hong, Yeonchul; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2010-03-01

    Amino acids derived from hemoglobin are essential to protein synthesis required for growth and development of the Plasmodium vivax malaria parasite. M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is a cytosolic metallo-exopeptidase that catalyzes the removal of amino acids from the peptide generated in the process of hemoglobin degradation. Inhibitors of the enzyme have shown promise as drugs against Plasmodium infections, implicating aminopeptidases as a novel potential anti-malarial chemotherapy target. In this study, we isolated a cDNA encoding a 68kDa P. vivax LAP (PvLAP). Deduced amino acid sequence of PvLAP exhibited significant sequence homology with LAP from Plasmodium falciparum. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant PvLAP protein produced in Escherichia coli demonstrated preferential substrate specificity for the fluorogenic peptide Leu-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin hydroxide and inhibition by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and bestatin, which are conserved characteristics of the M17 family of LAP. PvLAP was optimally active at slightly alkaline pH and its activity was dependent on divalent metal ions. Based on the biochemical properties and immunofluorescence localization, PvLAP is concluded to represent a LAP in P. vivax. The enzyme is most likely responsible for the catabolism of host hemoglobin and, hence, represents a potential target of both P. falciparum and P. vivax chemotherapy.

  6. Structural basis for substrate specificity of Helicobacter pylori M17 aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Modak, Joyanta K; Rut, Wioletta; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Pike, Robert N; Drag, Marcin; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The M17 aminopeptidase from the carcinogenic gastric bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HpM17AP) is an important housekeeping enzyme involved in catabolism of endogenous and exogenous peptides. It is implicated in H. pylori defence against the human innate immune response and in the mechanism of metronidazole resistance. Bestatin inhibits HpM17AP and suppresses H. pylori growth. To address the structural basis of catalysis and inhibition of this enzyme, we have established its specificity towards the N-terminal amino acid of peptide substrates and determined the crystal structures of HpM17AP and its complex with bestatin. The position of the D-phenylalanine moiety of the inhibitor with respect to the active-site metal ions, bicarbonate ion and with respect to other M17 aminopeptidases suggested that this residue binds to the S1 subsite of HpM17AP. In contrast to most characterized M17 aminopeptidases, HpM17AP displays preference for L-Arg over L-Leu residues in peptide substrates. Compared to very similar homologues from other bacteria, a distinguishing feature of HpM17AP is a hydrophilic pocket at the end of the S1 subsite that is likely to accommodate the charged head group of the L-Arg residue of the substrate. The pocket is flanked by a sodium ion (not present in M17 aminopeptidases that show preference for L-Leu) and its coordinating water molecules. In addition, the structure suggests that variable loops at the entrance to, and in the middle of, the substrate-binding channel are important determinants of substrate specificity of M17 aminopeptidases.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Babesia bovis M17 Leucine Aminopeptidase and Inhibition of Babesia Growth by Bestatin.

    PubMed

    Aboge, Gabriel Oluga; Cao, Shinuo; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Goo, Younkyoung; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-10-01

    The M17 leucine aminopeptidase (M17LAP) enzymes of the other apicomplexan parasites have been characterized and shown to be inhibited by bestatin. Though Babesia bovis also belongs to the apicomplexan group, it is not known whether its M17LAP could display similar biochemical properties as well as inhibition profile. To unravel this uncertainty, a B. bovis M17LAP (BbM17LAP) gene was expressed in Escherichia coli , and activity of the recombinant enzyme as well as its inhibition by bestatin were evaluated. The inhibitory effect of the compound on growths of B. bovis and Babesia gibsoni in vitro was also determined. The expression of the gene fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST) yielded approximately 81-kDa recombinant BbM17LAP (rBbM17LAP). On probing with mouse anti-rBbM17LAP serum, a green fluorescence was observed on the parasite cytosol on confocal laser microscopy, and a specific band greater than the predicted molecular mass was seen on Western blotting. The Km and Vmax values of the recombinant enzyme were 139.3 ± 30.25 and 64.83 ± 4.6 μM, respectively, while the Ki was 2210 ± 358 μM after the inhibition. Bestatin was a more potent inhibitor of the growth of B. bovis [IC50 (50% inhibition concentration) = 131.7 ± 51.43 μM] than B. gibsoni [IC50 = 460.8 ± 114.45 μM] in vitro. The modest inhibition of both the rBbM17LAP activity and Babesia parasites' growth in vitro suggests that this inhibition may involve the endogenous enzyme in live parasites. Therefore, BbM17LAP may be a target of bestatin, though more studies with other aminopeptidase inhibitors are required to confirm this.

  8. Essential Role for an M17 Leucine Aminopeptidase in Encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Ran; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Moon, Eun-Kyung; Song, Su-Min; Joo, So-Young; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2015-01-01

    Encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the formation of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for parasite survival under unfavorable conditions such as starvation, low temperatures, and exposure to biocides. During encystation, a massive turnover of intracellular components occurs, and a large number of organelles and proteins are degraded by proteases. Previous studies with specific protease inhibitors have shown that cysteine and serine proteases are involved in encystation of Acanthamoeba, but little is known about the role of metalloproteases in this process. Here, we have biochemically characterized an M17 leucine aminopeptidase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcLAP) and analyzed its functional involvement in encystation of the parasite. Recombinant AcLAP shared biochemical properties such as optimal pH, requirement of divalent metal ions for activity, substrate specificity for Leu, and inhibition profile by aminopeptidase inhibitors and metal chelators with other characterized M17 family LAPs. AcLAP was highly expressed at a late stage of encystation and mainly localized in the cytoplasm of A. castellanii. Knockdown of AcLAP using small interfering RNA induced a decrease of LAP activity during encystation, a reduction of mature cyst formation, and the formation of abnormal cyst walls. In summary, these results indicate that AcLAP is a typical M17 family enzyme that plays an essential role during encystation of Acanthamoeba. PMID:26075721

  9. Essential Role for an M17 Leucine Aminopeptidase in Encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ran; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Moon, Eun-Kyung; Song, Su-Min; Joo, So-Young; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2015-01-01

    Encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the formation of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for parasite survival under unfavorable conditions such as starvation, low temperatures, and exposure to biocides. During encystation, a massive turnover of intracellular components occurs, and a large number of organelles and proteins are degraded by proteases. Previous studies with specific protease inhibitors have shown that cysteine and serine proteases are involved in encystation of Acanthamoeba, but little is known about the role of metalloproteases in this process. Here, we have biochemically characterized an M17 leucine aminopeptidase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcLAP) and analyzed its functional involvement in encystation of the parasite. Recombinant AcLAP shared biochemical properties such as optimal pH, requirement of divalent metal ions for activity, substrate specificity for Leu, and inhibition profile by aminopeptidase inhibitors and metal chelators with other characterized M17 family LAPs. AcLAP was highly expressed at a late stage of encystation and mainly localized in the cytoplasm of A. castellanii. Knockdown of AcLAP using small interfering RNA induced a decrease of LAP activity during encystation, a reduction of mature cyst formation, and the formation of abnormal cyst walls. In summary, these results indicate that AcLAP is a typical M17 family enzyme that plays an essential role during encystation of Acanthamoeba.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a M17 leucine aminopeptidase of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-M; Ju, H-L; Sohn, W-M; Na, B-K

    2011-05-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are a group of metalloexopeptidases that catalyse the sequential removal of amino acids from the N-termini of polypeptides or proteins. They play an important role in regulating the balance between catabolism and anabolism in living cells. LAPs of apicomplexa parasitic protozoa have been intensively investigated due to their crucial roles in parasite biology as well as their potentials as drug targets. In this study, we identified an M17 leucine aminopeptidase of Cryptosporidium parvum (CpLAP) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant protein. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of CpLAP with those of other organisms revealed that typical amino acid residues essential for metal binding and active-site formation in M17 LAPs were well conserved in CpLAP. Recombinant CpLAP shared similar biochemical properties such as optimal pH, stability at neutral pHs, and metal-binding characteristics with other characterized LAPs. The enzyme showed a marked preference for Leu and its activity was effectively inhibited by bestatin. These results collectively suggest that CpLAP is a typical member of the M17 LAP family and may play an important role in free amino acid regulation in the parasite.

  11. The Activity of a Hexameric M17 Metallo-Aminopeptidase Is Associated With Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Andre F.; Bastos, Izabela M. D.; Neves, David; Kipnis, Andre; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana P.; de Santana, Jaime M.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent human pathogens causing millions of deaths in the last years. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) treatment has become increasingly challenging owing to the emergence of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Thus, there is an immediate need for the development of new anti-TB drugs. Proteases appear to be a promising approach and may lead to shortened and effective treatments for drug-resistant TB. Although the M. tuberculosis genome predicts more than 100 genes encoding proteases, only a few of them have been studied. Aminopeptidases constitute a set of proteases that selectively remove amino acids from the N-terminus of proteins and peptides and may act as virulence factors, essential for survival and maintenance of many microbial pathogens. Here, we characterized a leucine aminopeptidase of M. tuberculosis (MtLAP) as a cytosolic oligomeric metallo-aminopeptidase. Molecular and enzymatic properties lead us to classify MtLAP as a typical member of the peptidase family M17. Furthermore, the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin strongly inhibited MtLAP activity, in vitro M. tuberculosis growth and macrophage infection. In murine model of TB, bestatin treatment reduced bacterial burden and lesion in the lungs of infected mice. Thus, our data suggest that MtLAP participates in important metabolic pathways of M. tuberculosis necessary for its survival and virulence and consequently may be a promising target for new anti-TB drugs. PMID:28396657

  12. Biochemical characterization and structural prediction of a novel cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase of the M17 family from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Millán, Lourdes; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Santos-López, Gerardo; Suárez-Rendueles, Paz

    2007-12-01

    A new leucyl aminopeptidase activity has been identified in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The enzyme, which has been purified and named leucyl aminopeptidase yspII (LAP yspII), had a molecular mass of 320 and 54 kDa by gel filtration and SDS/PAGE, respectively, suggesting a homohexameric structure. The enzyme cleaved synthetic aminoacyl-4-nitroanilides at an optimum of pH 8.5, and preferred leucine and methionine as N-terminal amino acids. A clear dependence on Mn2+ concentration for activity was found, and an apparent association constant of 0.33 mM was calculated for the metal ion. Bestatin behaved as a competitive inhibitor of LAP yspII (K(i) = 0.14 microM), while chelating agents such as chloroquine, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline also reduced enzyme activity. A MALDI-MS analysis, followed by sequencing of two of the resulting peptides, showed that LAP yspII undoubtedly corresponds to the putative aminopeptidase C13A11.05 identified in the S. pombe genome project. The protein exhibited nearly 40% sequence identity to fungal and mammalian aminopeptidases belonging to the M17 family of metallopeptidases. Catalytic residues (Lys292 and Arg366), as well as those involved in coordination with the cocatalytic metal ions (Lys280, Asp285, Asp303, Asp362 and Glu364) and those forming the hydrophobic pocket for substrate binding (Met300, Asn360, Ala363, Thr390, Leu391, Ala483 and Met486), were perfectly conserved among all known aminopeptidases. The S. pombe enzyme is predicted to be formed two clearly distinguished domains with a well conserved C-terminal catalytic domain showing a characteristic topology of eight beta-sheets surrounded by alpha-helical segments in the form of a saddle.

  13. Bestatin-based chemical biology strategy reveals distinct roles for malaria M1- and M17-family aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Harbut, Michael B; Velmourougane, Geetha; Dalal, Seema; Reiss, Gilana; Whisstock, James C; Onder, Ozlem; Brisson, Dustin; McGowan, Sheena; Klemba, Michael; Greenbaum, Doron C

    2011-08-23

    Malaria causes worldwide morbidity and mortality, and while chemotherapy remains an excellent means of malaria control, drug-resistant parasites necessitate the discovery of new antimalarials. Peptidases are a promising class of drug targets and perform several important roles during the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic life cycle. Herein, we report a multidisciplinary effort combining activity-based protein profiling, biochemical, and peptidomic approaches to functionally analyze two genetically essential P. falciparum metallo-aminopeptidases (MAPs), PfA-M1 and Pf-LAP. Through the synthesis of a suite of activity-based probes (ABPs) based on the general MAP inhibitor scaffold, bestatin, we generated specific ABPs for these two enzymes. Specific inhibition of PfA-M1 caused swelling of the parasite digestive vacuole and prevented proteolysis of hemoglobin (Hb)-derived oligopeptides, likely starving the parasite resulting in death. In contrast, inhibition of Pf-LAP was lethal to parasites early in the life cycle, prior to the onset of Hb degradation suggesting that Pf-LAP has an essential role outside of Hb digestion.

  14. Roles for two aminopeptidases in vacuolar hemoglobin catabolism in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Seema; Klemba, Michael

    2007-12-07

    During the erythrocytic stage of its life cycle, the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum catabolizes large quantities of host-cell hemoglobin in an acidic organelle, the food vacuole. A current model for the catabolism of globin-derived oligopeptides invokes peptide transport out of the food vacuole followed by hydrolysis to amino acids by cytosolic aminopeptidases. To test this model, we have examined the roles of four parasite aminopeptidases during the erythrocytic cycle. Localization of tagged aminopeptidases, coupled with biochemical analysis of enriched food vacuoles, revealed the presence of amino acid-generating pathways in the food vacuole as well as the cytosol. Based on the localization data and in vitro assays, we propose a specific role for one of the plasmodial enzymes, aminopeptidase P, in the catabolism of proline-containing peptides in both the vacuole and the cytosol. We establish an apparent requirement for three of the four aminopeptidases (including the two food vacuole enzymes) for efficient parasite proliferation. To gain insight into the impact of aminopeptidase inhibition on parasite development, we examined the effect of the presence of amino acids in the culture medium of the parasite on the toxicity of the aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin. The ability of bestatin to block parasite replication was only slightly affected when 19 of 20 amino acids were withdrawn from the medium, indicating that exogenous amino acids cannot compensate for the loss of aminopeptidase activity. Together, these results support the development of aminopeptidase inhibitors as novel chemotherapeutics directed against malaria.

  15. Identification of an intracellular M17 family leucine aminopeptidase that is required for virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ronan K; Robison, Tiffany M; Rivera, Frances E; Davenport, Jessica E; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Florczyk, Danuta; Tarkowski, Andrej; Potempa, Jan; Koziel, Joanna; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2012-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen capable of causing a variety of ailments throughout the human body. It is a major public health concern due to the continued emergence of highly pathogenic methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) both within hospitals and in the community. Virulence in S. aureus is mediated by an array of secreted and cell wall associated virulence factors, including toxins, hemolysins and proteases. In this work we identify a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, pepZ) that strongly impacts the pathogenic abilities of S. aureus. Disruption of the pepZ gene in either Newman or USA300 resulted in a dramatic attenuation of virulence in both localized and systemic models of infection. LAP is required for survival inside human macrophages and gene expression analysis shows that pepZ expression is highest in the intracellular environment. We examine the cellular location of LAP and demonstrate that it is localized to the bacterial cytosol. These results identify for the first time an intracellular leucine aminopeptidase that influences disease causation in a Gram-positive bacterium.

  16. Identification of an intracellular M17 family leucine aminopeptidase that is required for virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ronan K.; Robison, Tiffany M.; Rivera, Frances E.; Davenport, Jessica E.; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Florczyk, Danuta; Tarkowski, Andrej; Potempa, Jan; Koziel, Joanna; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen capable of causing a variety of ailments throughout the human body. It is a major public health concern due to the continued emergence of highly pathogenic methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) both within hospitals and in the community. Virulence in S. aureus is mediated by an array of secreted and cell wall associated virulence factors, including toxins, hemolysins and proteases. In this work we identify a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, pepZ) that strongly impacts the pathogenic abilities of S. aureus. Disruption of the pepZ gene in either Newman or USA300 resulted in a dramatic attenuation of virulence in both localized and systemic models of infection. LAP is required for survival inside human macrophages and gene expression analysis shows that pepZ expression is highest in the intracellular environment. We examine the cellular location of LAP and demonstrate that it is localized to the bacterial cytosol. These results identify for the first time an intracellular leucine aminopeptidase that influences disease causation in a Gram-positive bacterium. PMID:22613209

  17. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M; Golding, Sarah J; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Trenholme, Katharine R; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; Degori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M; Gardiner, Donald L; Whisstock, James C; Dalton, John P

    2009-02-24

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite.

  18. Structural basis for the inhibition of the essential Plasmodium falciparum M1 neutral aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Sheena; Porter, Corrine J.; Lowther, Jonathan; Stack, Colin M.; Golding, Sarah J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Teuscher, Franka; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Kafarski, Pawel; DeGori, Ross; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites are responsible for the major global disease malaria, which results in >2 million deaths each year. With the rise of drug-resistant malarial parasites, novel drug targets and lead compounds are urgently required for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we address this important problem by targeting the malarial neutral aminopeptidases that are involved in the terminal stages of hemoglobin digestion and essential for the provision of amino acids used for parasite growth and development within the erythrocyte. We characterize the structure and substrate specificity of one such aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, a validated drug target. The X-ray crystal structure of PfA-M1 alone and in complex with the generic inhibitor, bestatin, and a phosphinate dipeptide analogue with potent in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity, hPheP[CH2]Phe, reveals features within the protease active site that are critical to its function as an aminopeptidase and can be exploited for drug development. These results set the groundwork for the development of antimalarial therapeutics that target the neutral aminopeptidases of the parasite. PMID:19196988

  19. Structural Characterization of Acidic M17 Leucine Aminopeptidases from the TriTryps and Evaluation of Their Role in Nutrient Starvation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jennifer; Valente, Maria; García-Caballero, Daniel; Wilson, Keith S; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is found in all kingdoms of life and catalyzes the metal-dependent hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptide or amino acyl substrates. LAPs have been shown to participate in the N-terminal processing of certain proteins in mammalian cells and in homologous recombination and transcription regulation in bacteria, while in parasites, they are involved in host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids for growth. The enzyme is essential for survival in Plasmodium falciparum, where its drug target potential has been suggested. We report here the X-ray structures of three kinetoplastid acidic LAPs (LAP-As from Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major) which were solved in the metal-free and unliganded forms, as well as in a number of ligand complexes, providing insight into ligand binding, metal ion requirements, and oligomeric state. In addition, we analyzed mutant cells defective in LAP-A in Trypanosoma brucei, strongly suggesting that the enzyme is not required for the growth of this parasite either in vitro or in vivo. In procyclic cells, LAP-A was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm, yet upon starvation, it relocalizes in particles that concentrate in the perinuclear region. Overexpression of the enzyme conferred a growth advantage when parasites were grown in leucine-deficient medium. Overall, the results suggest that in T. brucei, LAP-A may participate in protein degradation associated with nutrient depletion. IMPORTANCE Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid of peptides and are considered potential drug targets. They are involved in multiple functions ranging from host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids to site-specific homologous recombination and transcription regulation. In kinetoplastid parasites, there are at least three distinct LAPs. The availability of the crystal structures provides important information for

  20. Structural Characterization of Acidic M17 Leucine Aminopeptidases from the TriTryps and Evaluation of Their Role in Nutrient Starvation in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Jennifer; Valente, Maria; García-Caballero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is found in all kingdoms of life and catalyzes the metal-dependent hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptide or amino acyl substrates. LAPs have been shown to participate in the N-terminal processing of certain proteins in mammalian cells and in homologous recombination and transcription regulation in bacteria, while in parasites, they are involved in host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids for growth. The enzyme is essential for survival in Plasmodium falciparum, where its drug target potential has been suggested. We report here the X-ray structures of three kinetoplastid acidic LAPs (LAP-As from Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major) which were solved in the metal-free and unliganded forms, as well as in a number of ligand complexes, providing insight into ligand binding, metal ion requirements, and oligomeric state. In addition, we analyzed mutant cells defective in LAP-A in Trypanosoma brucei, strongly suggesting that the enzyme is not required for the growth of this parasite either in vitro or in vivo. In procyclic cells, LAP-A was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm, yet upon starvation, it relocalizes in particles that concentrate in the perinuclear region. Overexpression of the enzyme conferred a growth advantage when parasites were grown in leucine-deficient medium. Overall, the results suggest that in T. brucei, LAP-A may participate in protein degradation associated with nutrient depletion. IMPORTANCE Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid of peptides and are considered potential drug targets. They are involved in multiple functions ranging from host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids to site-specific homologous recombination and transcription regulation. In kinetoplastid parasites, there are at least three distinct LAPs. The availability of the crystal structures provides important

  1. KBE009: An antimalarial bestatin-like inhibitor of the Plasmodium falciparum M1 aminopeptidase discovered in an Ugi multicomponent reaction-derived peptidomimetic library.

    PubMed

    González-Bacerio, Jorge; Maluf, Sarah El Chamy; Méndez, Yanira; Pascual, Isel; Florent, Isabelle; Melo, Pollyana M S; Budu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Juliana C; Moreno, Ernesto; Carmona, Adriana K; Rivera, Daniel G; Alonso Del Rivero, Maday; Gazarini, Marcos L

    2017-09-01

    Malaria is a global human parasitic disease mainly caused by the protozoon Plasmodium falciparum. Increased parasite resistance to current drugs determines the relevance of finding new treatments against new targets. A novel target is the M1 alanyl-aminopeptidase from P. falciparum (PfA-M1), which is essential for parasite development in human erythrocytes and is inhibited by the pseudo-peptide bestatin. In this work, we used a combinatorial multicomponent approach to produce a library of peptidomimetics and screened it for the inhibition of recombinant PfA-M1 (rPfA-M1) and the in vitro growth of P. falciparum erythrocytic stages (3D7 and FcB1 strains). Dose-response studies with selected compounds allowed identifying the bestatin-based peptidomimetic KBE009 as a submicromolar rPfA-M1 inhibitor (Ki=0.4μM) and an in vitro antimalarial compound as potent as bestatin (IC50=18μM; without promoting erythrocyte lysis). At therapeutic-relevant concentrations, KBE009 is selective for rPfA-M1 over porcine APN (a model of these enzymes from mammals), and is not cytotoxic against HUVEC cells. Docking simulations indicate that this compound binds PfA-M1 without Zn(2+) coordination, establishing mainly hydrophobic interactions and showing a remarkable shape complementarity with the active site of the enzyme. Moreover, KBE009 inhibits the M1-type aminopeptidase activity (Ala-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate) in isolated live parasites with a potency similar to that of the antimalarial activity (IC50=82μM), strongly suggesting that the antimalarial effect is directly related to the inhibition of the endogenous PfA-M1. These results support the value of this multicomponent strategy to identify PfA-M1 inhibitors, and make KBE009 a promising hit for drug development against malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP) of Human Malaria via High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Scampavia, Louis; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P; Da Silva, Fabio L; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Gardiner, Donald L; Trenholme, Katharine R; Brown, Christopher L; Ghosh, Partha; Porubsky, Patrick; Wang, Jenna L; Whipple, David A; Schoenen, Frank J; Hodder, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The target of this study, the PfM18 aspartyl aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP), is the only AAP present in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfM18AAP is a metallo-exopeptidase that exclusively cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate. It is expressed in parasite cytoplasm and may function in concert with other aminopeptidases in protein degradation, of, for example, hemoglobin. Previous antisense knockdown experiments identified a lethal phenotype associated with PfM18AAP, suggesting that it is a valid target for new antimalaria therapies. To identify inhibitors of PfM18AAP function, a fluorescence enzymatic assay was developed using recombinant PfM18AAP enzyme and a fluorogenic peptide substrate (H-Glu-NHMec). This was screened against the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network collection of ~292,000 compounds (the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository). A cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) enzyme-based assay was developed and used as a counter screen to identify compounds with nonspecific activity. Enzymology and phenotypic assays were used to determine mechanism of action and efficacy of selective and potent compounds identified from high-throughput screening. Two structurally related compounds, CID 6852389 and CID 23724194, yielded micromolar potency and were inactive in CTSL1 titration experiments (IC50>59.6 µM). As measured by the K(i) assay, both compounds demonstrated micromolar noncompetitive inhibition in the PfM18AAP enzyme assay. Both CID 6852389 and CID 23724194 demonstrated potency in malaria growth assays (IC504 µM and 1.3 µM, respectively). © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP) of Human Malaria via High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Timothy; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Chase, Peter; Scampavia, Louis; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P; Da Silva, Fabio L; Skinner-Adams, Tina S; Gardiner, Donald L; Trenholme, Katharine R; Brown, Christopher L; Ghosh, Partha; Porubsky, Patrick; Wang, Jenna L; Whipple, David A; Schoenen, Frank J; Hodder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The target of this study, the PfM18 aspartyl aminopeptidase (PfM18AAP), is the only AAP present in the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfM18AAP is a metallo-exopeptidase that exclusively cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate. It is expressed in parasite cytoplasm and may function in concert with other aminopeptidases in protein degradation, of, for example, hemoglobin. Previous antisense knockdown experiments identified a lethal phenotype associated with PfM18AAP suggesting that it is a valid target for new anti-malaria therapies. To identify inhibitors of PfM18AAP function, a fluorescence enzymatic assay was developed using recombinant PfM18AAP enzyme and a fluorogenic peptide substrate (H-Glu-NHMec). This was screened against the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN) collection of ~292,000 compounds (the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR)). A Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) enzyme-based assay was developed and used as a counterscreen to identify compounds with nonspecific activity. Enzymology and phenotypic assays were used to determine mechanism of action and efficacy of selective and potent compounds identified from HTS. Two structurally related compounds, CID 6852389 and CID 23724194, yield micromolar potency and are inactive in CTSL1 titration experiments (IC50 >59.6 μM). As measured by Ki assay, both compounds demonstrate micromolar non-competitive inhibition in the PfM18AAP enzyme assay. Both CID 6852389 and CID 23724194 demonstrate potency in malaria growth assays (IC50 4 μM and 1.3 μM, respectively). PMID:24619116

  4. The Aminopeptidase Inhibitor CHR-2863 Is an Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Murine Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Peatey, Christopher L.; Anderson, Karen; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Krige, David; Brown, Christopher L.; Stack, Colin; Nsangou, Desire M. M.; Mathews, Rency T.; Thivierge, Karine; Dalton, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a significant risk in many areas of the world, with resistance to the current antimalarial pharmacopeia an ever-increasing problem. The M1 alanine aminopeptidase (PfM1AAP) and M17 leucine aminopeptidase (PfM17LAP) are believed to play a role in the terminal stages of digestion of host hemoglobin and thereby generate a pool of free amino acids that are essential for parasite growth and development. Here, we show that an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor, CHR-2863, is efficacious against murine malaria. PMID:22450967

  5. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Leucine aminopeptidase - urine URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  6. Knockout of leucine aminopeptidase in Toxoplasma gondii using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Jia, Honglin; Zheng, Yonghui

    2015-02-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases of the M17 peptidase family represent ideal drug targets for therapies directed against the pathogens Plasmodium, Babesia and Trypanosoma. Previously, we characterised Toxoplasma gondii leucine aminopeptidase and demonstrated its role in regulating the levels of free amino acids. In this study, we evaluated the potential of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase as a drug target in T. gondii by a knockout method. Existing knockout methods for T. gondii have many drawbacks; therefore, we developed a new technique that takes advantage of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We first chose a Cas9 target site in the gene encoding T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase and then constructed a knockout vector containing Cas9 and the single guide RNA. After transfection, single tachyzoites were cloned in 96-well plates by limiting dilution. Two transfected strains derived from a single clone were cultured in Vero cells, and then subjected to expression analysis by western blotting. The phenotypic analysis revealed that knockout of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase resulted in inhibition of attachment/invasion and replication; both the growth and attachment/invasion capacity of knockout parasites were restored by complementation with a synonymously substituted allele of T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase. Mouse experiments demonstrated that T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout somewhat reduced the pathogenicity of T. gondii. An enzymatic activity assay showed that T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout reduced the processing of a leucine aminopeptidase-specific substrate in T. gondii. The absence of leucine aminopeptidase activity could be slightly compensated for in T. gondii. Overall, T. gondii leucine aminopeptidase knockout influenced the growth of T. gondii, but did not completely block parasite development, virulence or enzymatic activity. Therefore, we conclude that leucine aminopeptidase would be useful only as an adjunctive drug target in T. gondii. Copyright

  7. Identification and characterization of Paragonimus westermani leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Song, Su-Min; Park, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jin; Kim, Suk-Il; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il

    2008-09-01

    Paragonimus westermani is a tissue-invading trematode parasite that causes inflammatory lung disease as well as systemic infections including cerebral invasion in carnivorous mammals. While aminopeptidases play important roles in trematodes in the catabolism of host hemoglobin, an essential source of nutrient for the parasite, little is known about aminopeptidase in Paragonimus. Presently, we isolated a cDNA encoding a 58 kDa P. westermani leucine aminopeptidase (PwLAP). Deduced amino acid sequence of PwLAP exhibited significant sequence homology with LAP from Schistosoma spp. and Fasciola hepatica. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant PwLAP protein demonstrated preferential substrate specificity for Leu-NHMec and inhibition by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and bestatin, which are conserved characteristics of the M17 family of leucine aminopeptidase. PwLAP exhibited relatively higher enzyme activity in the presence of Mn2+ compared to Schistosoma mansoni LAP. Based on the biochemical properties and immunohistochemical analysis, PwLAP is concluded to represent a leucine aminopeptidase. The enzyme is most likely responsible for the catabolism of host hemoglobin, and, hence, represents a potential target of Paragonimus chemotherapy.

  8. Characterization of a leucine aminopeptidase of Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Jia, H; Terkawi, M A; Aboge, G O; Goo, Y-K; Luo, Y; Li, Y; Yamagishi, J; Nishikawa, Y; Igarashi, I; Sugimoto, C; Fujisaki, K; Xuan, X

    2009-08-01

    Peptidases of parasitic protozoa are currently under intense investigation in order to identify novel virulence factors, drug targets, and vaccine candidates, except in Babesia. Leucine aminopeptidases in protozoa, such as Plasmodium and Leishmania, have been identified to be involved in free amino acid regulation. We report here the molecular and enzymatic characterization, as well as the localization of a leucine aminopeptidase, a member of the M17 cytosolic aminopeptidase family, from B. gibsoni (BgLAP). A functional recombinant BgLAP (rBgLAP) expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently hydrolysed synthetic substrates for aminopeptidase, a leucine substrate. Enzyme activity of the rBgLAP was found to be optimum at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C. The substrate profile was slightly different from its homologue in P. falciprum. The activity was also strongly dependent on metal divalent cations, and was inhibited by bestatin, which is a specific inhibitor for metalloprotease. These results indicated that BgLAP played an important role in free amino acid regulation.

  9. Leucine aminopeptidase urine test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is a proteolytic enzyme that breaks chemical bonds in proteins at specific sites next to leucine amino acids. Serum (blood) LAP is measured to diagnose liver (hepatic) dysfunction.

  10. THE SUBMILLIMETER POLARIZATION SPECTRUM OF M17

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Lingzhen; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Bennett, Charles L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Chuss, David T.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2013-08-10

    We present 450 {mu}m polarimetric observations of the M17 molecular cloud obtained with the SHARP polarimeter at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Across the observed region, the magnetic field orientation is consistent with previous submillimeter and far-infrared polarization measurements. Our observations are centered on a region of the molecular cloud that has been compressed by stellar winds from a cluster of OB stars. We have compared these new data with previous 350 {mu}m polarimetry and find an anti-correlation between the 450 and 350 {mu}m polarization magnitude ratio and the ratio of 21 cm to 450 {mu}m intensity. The polarization ratio is lower near the east end of the studied region where the cloud is exposed to stellar winds and radiation. At the west end of the region, the polarization ratio is higher. We interpret the varying polarization spectrum as evidence supporting the radiative alignment torque model for grain alignment, implying higher alignment efficiency in the region that is exposed to a higher anisotropic radiation field.

  11. Gingipain aminopeptidase activities in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Veillard, Florian; Potempa, Barbara; Poreba, Marcin; Drag, Marcin; Potempa, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Bestatin, a specific inhibitor of metalloaminopeptidases,inhibits the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. To identify its target enzyme, a library of fluorescent substrates was used but no metalloaminopeptidase activity was found. The aminopeptidase activity of P. gingivalis was bestatin-insensitive and directed exclusively toward N-terminal arginine and lysine substrates. Class-specific inhibitors and gingipain-null mutants showed that gingipains were the only enzymes responsible for this activity.The kinetic constants obtained for Rgps were comparable to those of human aminopeptidases but Kgp aminopeptidase activity was weaker. This finding reveals a new role for gingipains as aminopeptidases in the degradation of proteins and peptides in P. gingivalis.

  12. Identification and characterisation of a leucine aminopeptidase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kazama, Kouji; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Umemiya, Rika; Liao, Min; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2006-09-01

    Aminopeptidases responsible for blood digestion have yet to be identified in haematophagous ticks. We report here the cloning and molecular characterisation of a cDNA encoding leucine aminopeptidase, a member of the M17 cytosolic aminopeptidase family, from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlLAP). Endogenous HlLAP was detected in the soluble fraction of adult tick extracts by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that endogenous HlLAP expression mainly took place in the cytosol of midgut epithelial cells. Furthermore, expression of HlLAP was induced by a blood-feeding process. A functional recombinant HlLAP expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently hydrolyses synthetic substrates for aminopeptidase, a leucyl (with the Km value 0.19 +/- 0.011 mM and Vmax value 157.2 +/- 3.17 nmol/min/mgprotein) and a methionyl substrate (with the Km value 0.12+/-0.0052 mM and Vmax value 171.9 +/- 2.31 nmol/min/mgprotein). Enzyme activity was found to be optimum at pH 8 and 35 degrees C. The recombinant HlLAP enzyme activity was strongly dependent on metal divalent cations, Mn2+, and was inhibited by bestatin. These results indicate that HlLAP play an important role for host's blood digestion process.

  13. The peculiar radio source M17 JVLA 35

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Montes, G.; Tapia, M.

    2014-07-01

    M17 JVLA 35 is a radio source detected in projection against the M17 H II region. In recent observations, its spectrum between 4.96 and 8.46 GHz was found to be positive and very steep, with α ≥ 2.9 ± 0.6 (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup α}). Here we present Very Large Array observations made in the 18.5 to 36.5 GHz region that indicate a spectral turnover at ∼13 GHz and a negative spectral index (α ≅ –2.0) at higher frequencies. The spectrum is consistent with that of an extragalactic high frequency peaker (HFP). However, M17 JVLA 35 has an angular size of ∼0.''5 at 8.46 GHz, while HFPs have extremely compact, milliarcsecond dimensions. We discuss other possible models for the spectrum of the source and do not find them feasible. Finally, we propose that M17 JVLA 35 is indeed an HFP but that its angular size becomes broadened by plasma scattering as its radiation travels across M17. If our interpretation is correct, accurate measurements of the angular size of M17 JVLA 35 across the centimeter range should reveal the expected ν{sup –2} dependence.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2013-09-01

    The human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 and 2 proteins were initially identified as homologues of human placental leucine aminopeptidase/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. They are categorized as a unique class of proteases based on their subcellular localization on the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. ERAPs play an important role in the N-terminal processing of the antigenic precursors that are presented on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. ERAPs are also implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological phenomena and pathogenic conditions. In this review, the current knowledge on ERAPs is summarized.

  15. Star formation in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The first high-sensitivity, high-resolution far-IR survey of an entire molecular cloud complex is presented. The 20 km/s M17 SW complex, in addition to the three luminous M17 sources, contains 10 sources spread over 110 pc. The 10 lower luminosity sources divide into two groups: small blister sources powered by late O stars and compact sources powered by clusters of early B stars. No compact far-IR sources with luminosities between the detection limit and 10,000 solar luminosities were detected. Three possible formation mechanisms for the stars that power the far-IR sources in the M17 SW complex are examined. Sequential formation cannot explain the sources seen throughout the complex. Some type of stochastic formation mechanism or collapse induced by a spiral density wave could explain the observations.

  16. Star formation in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The first high-sensitivity, high-resolution far-IR survey of an entire molecular cloud complex is presented. The 20 km/s M17 SW complex, in addition to the three luminous M17 sources, contains 10 sources spread over 110 pc. The 10 lower luminosity sources divide into two groups: small blister sources powered by late O stars and compact sources powered by clusters of early B stars. No compact far-IR sources with luminosities between the detection limit and 10,000 solar luminosities were detected. Three possible formation mechanisms for the stars that power the far-IR sources in the M17 SW complex are examined. Sequential formation cannot explain the sources seen throughout the complex. Some type of stochastic formation mechanism or collapse induced by a spiral density wave could explain the observations.

  17. Laeverin/aminopeptidase Q, a novel bestatin-sensitive leucine aminopeptidase belonging to the M1 family of aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Masato; Hattori, Akira; Goto, Yoshikuni; Ueda, Masamichi; Maeda, Michiyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2007-07-13

    Laeverin/aminopeptidase Q (APQ) is a cell surface protein specifically expressed on human embryo-derived extravillous trophoblasts that invades the uterus during placentation. The cDNA cloning of Laeverin/APQ revealed that the sequence encodes a protein with 990 amino acid residues, and Laeverin/APQ contains the HEXXHX(18)E gluzincin motif, which is characteristic of the M1 family of aminopeptidases, although the exopeptidase motif of the family, GAMEN, is uniquely substituted for the HAMEN sequence. In this study, we expressed a recombinant human Laeverin/APQ using a baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and characterized its enzymatic properties. It was found that Laeverin/APQ had a broad substrate specificity toward synthetic substrate, although it showed a preference for Leu-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide. Searching natural substrates, we found that Laeverin/APQ was able to cleave the N-terminal amino acid of several peptides such as angiotensin III, kisspeptin-10, and endokinin C, which are abundantly expressed in the placenta. In contrast to the case with other M1 aminopeptidases, bestatin inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of Laeverin/APQ much more effectively than other known aminopeptidase inhibitors. These results indicate that Laeverin/APQ is a novel bestatin-sensitive leucine aminopeptidase and suggest that the enzyme plays important roles in human placentation by regulating biological activity of key peptides at the embryo-maternal interface.

  18. Human leukocyte-derived arginine aminopeptidase. The third member of the oxytocinase subfamily of aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Toshihiro; Hattori, Akira; Masuda, Shinako; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Shigehiko; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2003-08-22

    In this study we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human aminopeptidase, which we designate leukocyte-derived arginine aminopeptidase (L-RAP). The sequence encodes a 960-amino acid protein with significant homology to placental leucine aminopeptidase and adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase. The predicted L-RAP contains the HEXXH(X)18E zinc-binding motif, which is characteristic of the M1 family of zinc metallopeptidases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that L-RAP forms a distinct subfamily with placental leucine aminopeptidase and adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase in the M1 family. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that L-RAP is located in the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Among various synthetic substrates tested, L-RAP revealed a preference for arginine, establishing that the enzyme is a novel arginine aminopeptidase with restricted substrate specificity. In addition to natural hormones such as angiotensin III and kallidin, L-RAP cleaved various N-terminal extended precursors to major histocompatibility complex class I-presented antigenic peptides. Like other proteins involved in antigen presentation, L-RAP is induced by interferon-gamma. These results indicate that L-RAP is a novel aminopeptidase that can trim the N-terminal extended precursors to antigenic peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  19. Positioning of aminopeptidase inhibitors in next generation cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hitzerd, Sarina M; Verbrugge, Sue Ellen; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Jansen, Gerrit; Peters, Godefridus J

    2014-04-01

    Aminopeptidases represent a class of (zinc) metalloenzymes that catalyze the cleavage of amino acids nearby the N-terminus of polypeptides, resulting in hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Aminopeptidases operate downstream of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and are implicated in the final step of intracellular protein degradation either by trimming proteasome-generated peptides for antigen presentation or full hydrolysis into free amino acids for recycling in renewed protein synthesis. This review focuses on the function and subcellular location of five key aminopeptidases (aminopeptidase N, leucine aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1/2) and their association with different diseases, in particular cancer and their current position as target for therapeutic intervention by aminopeptidase inhibitors. Historically, bestatin was the first prototypical aminopeptidase inhibitor that entered the clinic 35 years ago and is still used for the treatment of lung cancer. More recently, new generation aminopeptidase inhibitors became available, including the aminopeptidase inhibitor prodrug tosedostat, which is currently tested in phase II clinical trials for acute myeloid leukemia. Beyond bestatin and tosedostat, medicinal chemistry has emerged with additional series of potential aminopeptidases inhibitors which are still in an early phase of (pre)clinical investigations. The expanded knowledge of the unique mechanism of action of aminopeptidases has revived interest in aminopeptidase inhibitors for drug combination regimens in anti-cancer treatment. In this context, this review will discuss relevant features and mechanisms of action of aminopeptidases and will also elaborate on factors contributing to aminopeptidase inhibitor efficacy and/or loss of efficacy due to drug resistance-related phenomena. Together, a growing body of data point to aminopeptidase inhibitors as attractive tools for

  20. The Young Stellar Population in M17 Revealed by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Wang, Junfeng; Garmire, Gordon P.; Jiang, Zhibo; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2007-04-01

    We report here results from a Chandra ACIS observation of the stellar populations in and around the M17 H II region. The field reveals 886 sources with observed X-ray luminosities (uncorrected for absorption) between ˜29.3 ergs s-1< log LX<32.8 ergs s-1, 771 of which have stellar counterparts in infrared images. In addition to comprehensive tables of X-ray source properties, several results are presented: 1. The X-ray luminosity function is calibrated to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster population to infer a total population of roughly 8000-10,000 stars in M17, one-third lying in the central NGC 6618 cluster. 2. About 40% of the ACIS sources are heavily obscured with AV>10 mag. Some are concentrated around well-studied star-forming regions -- IRS 5/UC1, the Kleinmann-Wright Object, and M17-North -- but most are distributed across the field. As previously shown, star formation appears to be widely distributed in the molecular clouds. X-ray emission is detected from 64 of the hundreds of Class I protostar candidates that can be identified by near- and mid-infrared colors. These constitute the most likely protostar candidates known in M17. 3. The spatial distribution of X-ray stars is complex: in addition to the central NGC 6618 cluster and well-known embedded groups, we find a new embedded cluster (designated M17-X), a 2 pc long arc of young stars along the southwest edge of the M17 H II region, and 0.1 pc substructure within various populations. These structures may indicate that the populations are dynamically young. 4. All (14/14) of the known O stars but only about half (19/34) of the known B0-B3 stars in the M17 field are detected. These stars exhibit the long-reported correlation between X-ray and bolometric luminosities of LX˜10-7Lbol. While many O and early-B stars show the soft X-ray emission expected from microshocks in their winds or moderately hard emission that could be caused by magnetically channeled wind shocks, six of these stars exhibit very hard

  1. A secreted aminopeptidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Identification, primary structure, and relationship to other aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Cahan, R; Axelrad, I; Safrin, M; Ohman, D E; Kessler, E

    2001-11-23

    Using leucine-p-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA) as a substrate, we demonstrated aminopeptidase activity in the culture filtrates of several Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The aminopeptidase was partially purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and found to be heat stable. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 56 kDa; hence, it was designated AP(56). Heating (70 degrees C) of the partially purified aminopeptidase preparations led to the conversion of AP(56) to a approximately 28-kDa protein (AP(28)) that retained enzyme activity, a reaction that depended on elastase (LasB). The pH optimum for Leu-pNA hydrolysis by AP(28) was 8.5. This activity was inhibited by Zn chelators but not by inhibitors of serine- or thiol-proteases, suggesting that AP(28) is a Zn-dependent enzyme. Of several amino acid p-nitroanilide derivatives examined, Leu-pNA was the preferred substrate. The sequences of the first 20 residues of AP(56) and AP(28) were determined. A search of the P. aeruginosa genomic data base revealed a perfect match of these sequences with positions 39-58 and 273-291, respectively, in a 536-amino acid residue open reading frame predicted to encode an aminopeptidase. A search for sequence similarities with other proteins revealed 52% identity with Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase, approximately 35% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae aminopeptidase Y and a hypothetical aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis, and 29-32% with Aeromonas caviae, Vibrio proteolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae aminopeptidases. The residues potentially involved in zinc coordination were conserved in all these proteins. Thus, P. aeruginosa aminopeptidase may belong to the same family (M28) of metalloproteases.

  2. Massive pre-main sequence stars in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Tannus, Maria C.; Kaper, Lex; Ochsendorf, Bram B.; Ellerbroek, Lucas E.

    We have obtained optical to near-infrared (300-2500 nm) VLT/X-shooter spectra of six candidate mYSOs, deeply embedded in the massive star forming region M17. These mYSO candidates have been identified based on their infrared excess and spectral features (double-peaked emission lines, CO band-head emission) indicating the presence of a disk (Hanson et al. 1997). In most cases, we detect a photospheric spectrum allowing us to measure the physical properties of the mYSOs and to confirm their PMS nature.

  3. Aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Foissy, H

    1978-04-18

    Activation and inhibition of a purified aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens was investigated using L-alpha-leucyl-4-nitroanilide and L-leucyl-L-leucine as substrates. The enzyme was activated by cobalt, provided that the enzyme was preincubated with the metal. Strong inhibitory effects were derived from heavy metals, metal-complexing compounds, reducing agents, the modification of aromatic amino acids, and the presence of hydrophobic substances or certain amino acids in the test mixtures. Supposing that this B. linens aminopeptidase plays a part during surface-ripening of cheeses, possible consequences of specific technological conditions for its activity are discussed.

  4. Molecular cloning of adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase highly related to placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase.

    PubMed

    Hattori, A; Matsumoto, H; Mizutani, S; Tsujimoto, M

    1999-05-01

    In the current study, we report the cloning and initial characterization of a novel human cytosolic aminopeptidase named adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP). The sequence encodes a 941-amino acid protein with significant homology (43%) to placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP)/oxytocinase. The predicted A-LAP contains the HEXXH(X)18E consensus sequence, which is characteristic of the M1 family of zinc-metallopeptidases. Although the deduced sequence contains a hydrophobic region near the N-terminus, the enzyme localized mainly in cytoplasm when expressed in COS-7 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that A-LAP was expressed in all the tissues tested, some of which expressed at least three forms of mRNA, suggesting that the regulation of the gene expression is complex. When aminopeptidase activity of A-LAP was measured with various synthetic substrates, the enzyme revealed a preference for leucine, establishing that A-LAP is a novel leucine aminopeptidase with restricted substrate specificity. The identification of A-LAP, which reveals strong homology to P-LAP, might lead to the definition of a new subfamily of zinc-containing aminopeptidases belonging to the M1 family of metallopeptidases.

  5. A Naturally Variable Residue in the S1 Subsite of M1 Family Aminopeptidases Modulates Catalytic Properties and Promotes Functional Specialization*

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Seema; Ragheb, Daniel R. T.; Schubot, Florian D.; Klemba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    M1 family metallo-aminopeptidases fulfill a wide range of critical and in some cases medically relevant roles in humans and human pathogens. The specificity of M1-aminopeptidases is dominated by the interaction of the well defined S1 subsite with the side chain of the first (P1) residue of the substrate and can vary widely. Extensive natural variation occurs at one of the residues that contributes to formation of the cylindrical S1 subsite. We investigated whether this natural variation contributes to diversity in S1 subsite specificity. Effects of 11 substitutions of the S1 subsite residue valine 459 in the Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidase PfA-M1 and of three substitutions of the homologous residue methionine 260 in Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N were characterized. Many of these substitutions altered steady-state kinetic parameters for dipeptide hydrolysis and remodeled S1 subsite specificity. The most dramatic change in specificity resulted from substitution with proline, which collapsed S1 subsite specificity such that only substrates with P1-Arg, -Lys, or -Met were appreciably hydrolyzed. The structure of PfA-M1 V459P revealed that the proline substitution induced a local conformational change in the polypeptide backbone that resulted in a narrowed S1 subsite. The restricted specificity and active site backbone conformation of PfA-M1 V459P mirrored those of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2, a human enzyme with proline in the variable S1 subsite position. Our results provide compelling evidence that changes in the variable residue in the S1 subsite of M1-aminopeptidases have facilitated the evolution of new specificities and ultimately novel functions for this important class of enzymes. PMID:23897806

  6. A naturally variable residue in the S1 subsite of M1 family aminopeptidases modulates catalytic properties and promotes functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Seema; Ragheb, Daniel R T; Schubot, Florian D; Klemba, Michael

    2013-09-06

    M1 family metallo-aminopeptidases fulfill a wide range of critical and in some cases medically relevant roles in humans and human pathogens. The specificity of M1-aminopeptidases is dominated by the interaction of the well defined S1 subsite with the side chain of the first (P1) residue of the substrate and can vary widely. Extensive natural variation occurs at one of the residues that contributes to formation of the cylindrical S1 subsite. We investigated whether this natural variation contributes to diversity in S1 subsite specificity. Effects of 11 substitutions of the S1 subsite residue valine 459 in the Plasmodium falciparum aminopeptidase PfA-M1 and of three substitutions of the homologous residue methionine 260 in Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N were characterized. Many of these substitutions altered steady-state kinetic parameters for dipeptide hydrolysis and remodeled S1 subsite specificity. The most dramatic change in specificity resulted from substitution with proline, which collapsed S1 subsite specificity such that only substrates with P1-Arg, -Lys, or -Met were appreciably hydrolyzed. The structure of PfA-M1 V459P revealed that the proline substitution induced a local conformational change in the polypeptide backbone that resulted in a narrowed S1 subsite. The restricted specificity and active site backbone conformation of PfA-M1 V459P mirrored those of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2, a human enzyme with proline in the variable S1 subsite position. Our results provide compelling evidence that changes in the variable residue in the S1 subsite of M1-aminopeptidases have facilitated the evolution of new specificities and ultimately novel functions for this important class of enzymes.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., plasma, and urine. Leucine aminopeptidase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., plasma, and urine. Leucine aminopeptidase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., plasma, and urine. Leucine aminopeptidase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., plasma, and urine. Leucine aminopeptidase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. Massive pre-main-sequence stars in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; Kaper, L.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.; Ellerbroek, L. E.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.

    2017-08-01

    The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Massive young stellar objects (mYSOs) are deeply embedded in their parental clouds; these objects are rare, and thus typically distant, and their reddened spectra usually preclude the determination of their photospheric parameters. M17 is one of the best-studied H ii regions in the sky, is relatively nearby, and hosts a young stellar population. We have obtained optical to near-infrared spectra of previously identified candidate mYSOs and a few OB stars in this region with X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage enables a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the photospheres and circumstellar disks of these candidate mYSOs. We confirm the pre-main-sequence (PMS) nature of six of the stars and characterise the O stars. The PMS stars have radii that are consistent with being contracting towards the main sequence and are surrounded by a remnant accretion disk. The observed infrared excess and the double-peaked emission lines provide an opportunity to measure structured velocity profiles in the disks. We compare the observed properties of this unique sample of young massive stars with evolutionary tracks of massive protostars and propose that these mYSOs near the western edge of the H ii region are on their way to become main-sequence stars ( 6-20 M⊙) after having undergone high mass accretion rates (Ṁacc 10-4-10-3M⊙yr-1). Their spin distribution upon arrival at the zero age main-sequence is consistent with that observed for young B stars, assuming conservation of angular momentum and homologous contraction. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 60.A-9404(A), 085.D-0741, 089.C-0874(A), and 091.C-0934(B)).The full normalised X-shooter spectra are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A78

  12. Aminopeptidase N1 (EtAPN1), an M1 metalloprotease of the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella, participates in parasite development.

    PubMed

    Gras, Simon; Byzia, Anna; Gilbert, Florence B; McGowan, Sheena; Drag, Marcin; Silvestre, Anne; Niepceron, Alisson; Lecaille, Fabien; Lalmanach, Gilles; Brossier, Fabien

    2014-07-01

    Aminopeptidases N are metalloproteases of the M1 family that have been reported in numerous apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Eimeria. While investigating the potency of aminopeptidases as therapeutic targets against coccidiosis, one of the most important avian diseases caused by the genus Eimeria, we identified and characterized Eimeria tenella aminopeptidase N1 (EtAPN1). Its inhibition by bestatin and amastatin, as well as its reactivation by divalent ions, is typical of zinc-dependent metalloproteases. EtAPN1 shared a similar sequence, three-dimensional structure, and substrate specificity and similar kinetic parameters with A-M1 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfA-M1), a validated target in the treatment of malaria. EtAPN1 is synthesized as a 120-kDa precursor and cleaved into 96-, 68-, and 38-kDa forms during sporulation. Further, immunolocalization assays revealed that, similar to PfA-M1, EtAPN1 is present during the intracellular life cycle stages in both the parasite cytoplasm and the parasite nucleus. The present results support the hypothesis of a conserved role between the two aminopeptidases, and we suggest that EtAPN1 might be a valuable target for anticoccidiosis drugs.

  13. Deletion of an architectural unit, leucyl aminopeptidase (SCO2179), in Streptomyces coelicolor increases actinorhodin production and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Eunjung; Rajesh, Thangamani; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-jung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yun-Gon; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2013-08-01

    Several reports state that three architectural units, including integration host factor, leucyl aminopeptidase (PepA), and purine regulator, are involved in transcriptional process with RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. Similarly, Streptomyces species possess the same structural units. We previously identified a protein, Streptomyces integration host factor (sIHF), involved in antibiotic production and sporulation. Subsequently, the function of PepA (SCO2179) was examined in detail. PepA is highly conserved among various Streptomyces spp., but it has not yet been characterized in Streptomyces coelicolor. While it is annotated as a putative leucyl aminopeptidase because it contains a peptidase M17 superfamily domain, this protein did not exhibit leucyl aminopeptidase activity. SCO2179 deletion mutant showed increased actinorhodin production and sporulation, as well as more distinct physiological differences, particularly when cultured on N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) minimal media. The results of two-dimensional gel analysis and reverse transcription PCR showed that the SCO2179 deletion increased protein and mRNA levels of ftsZ, ssgA, and actinorhodin (ACT)-related genes such as actII-ORF4, resulting in increased actinorhodin production and spore formation in minimal media containing GlcNAc.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Meemon, Krai; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2012-07-01

    M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the N-terminals. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding Fasciola gigantica LAP (FgLAP) was cloned from adult parasites. The amino acid sequences of FgLAP showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from Fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FgLAP was closely related and grouped with F. hepatica LAP (FhLAP). Northern analysis showed that FgLAP transcriptional products have 1800 base pairs. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization indicated that LAP gene was expressed in the cecal epithelial cells of adult parasites. A polyclonal antibody to a recombinant FgLAP (rFgLAP) detected the native LAP protein in various developmental stages of the parasite. In a functional test, this rFgLAP displayed aminolytic activity using a fluorogenic Leu-MCA substrate, and was significantly inhibited by bestatin. Its maximum activity was at pH 8.0 and enhanced by Mn(2+) ions. Localization of LAP proteins by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques indicated that the enzyme was distributed in the apical cytoplasm of cecal epithelial cells. Because of its important metabolic role and fairly exposed position, FgLAP is a potential drug target and a possible vaccine candidate against fasciolosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unexpected Diversity of pepA Genes Encoding Leucine Aminopeptidases in Sediments from a Freshwater Lake.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Imai, Akio; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We herein designed novel PCR primers for universal detection of the pepA gene, which encodes the representative leucine aminopeptidase gene, and investigated the genetic characteristics and diversity of pepA genes in sediments of hypereutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Most of the amino acid sequences deduced from the obtained clones (369 out of 370) were related to PepA-like protein sequences in the M17 family of proteins. The developed primers broadly detected pepA-like clones associated with diverse bacterial phyla-Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Aquificae, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, and Spirochetes as well as the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota, indicating that prokaryotes in aquatic environments possessing leucine aminopeptidase are more diverse than previously reported. Moreover, prokaryotes related to the obtained pepA-like clones appeared to be r- and K-strategists, which was in contrast to our previous findings showing that the neutral metalloprotease gene clones obtained were related to the r-strategist genus Bacillus. Our results suggest that an unprecedented diversity of prokaryotes with a combination of different proteases participate in sedimentary proteolysis.

  16. Unexpected Diversity of pepA Genes Encoding Leucine Aminopeptidases in Sediments from a Freshwater Lake

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Imai, Akio; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We herein designed novel PCR primers for universal detection of the pepA gene, which encodes the representative leucine aminopeptidase gene, and investigated the genetic characteristics and diversity of pepA genes in sediments of hypereutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Most of the amino acid sequences deduced from the obtained clones (369 out of 370) were related to PepA-like protein sequences in the M17 family of proteins. The developed primers broadly detected pepA-like clones associated with diverse bacterial phyla—Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Aquificae, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, and Spirochetes as well as the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota, indicating that prokaryotes in aquatic environments possessing leucine aminopeptidase are more diverse than previously reported. Moreover, prokaryotes related to the obtained pepA-like clones appeared to be r- and K-strategists, which was in contrast to our previous findings showing that the neutral metalloprotease gene clones obtained were related to the r-strategist genus Bacillus. Our results suggest that an unprecedented diversity of prokaryotes with a combination of different proteases participate in sedimentary proteolysis. PMID:26936797

  17. The behaviour of leucine aminopeptidase towards thionopeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, R E; Elmore, D T; Williams, C H; Guthrie, D J

    1987-01-01

    Thionoleucine S-anilide (Leut-anilide), Leut-Gly-OEt and Leut-Phe-OMe were synthesized and shown to be competitive inhibitors of leucine aminopeptidase from pig kidney. The kinetics of inhibition were determined in the presence of leucine 4-methylcoumarin-7-amide as substrate. Although the compounds showed only moderate inhibitory potency, it was found that all were resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme, in contrast with the reported behaviour of some thionopeptide analogues of substrates for other Zn2+-peptidases such as carboxypeptidase A and angiotensin-converting enzyme. PMID:3663153

  18. Purification and Characterization of an Immunogenic Aminopeptidase of Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Rodriguez, Araceli; Ramirez-Zavala, Bernardo; Contreras, Andrea; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lopez-Merino, Ahide

    2003-01-01

    An immunogenic aminopeptidase was purified from Brucella melitensis strain VTRM1. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation and three chromatographic steps. This procedure resulted in a yield of 29% and a 144-fold increase in specific activity. The aminopeptidase appeared to be a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 96 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.8. Its activity was optimal at pH 7.0 at 40°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, 1,10-phenathroline, and divalent cations (Zn2+ and Hg2+), suggesting that this protein was a metalloaminopeptidase. The enzyme showed preference for alanine at the N termini of aminoacyl derivatives. The Km values for l-alanine-p-nitroanilide (Ala-pNA) and Lys-pNA were 0.35 and 0.18 mM, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of aminopeptidase was used for a homologous search in the genomes of B. melitensis 16M and Brucella suis 1330. The analysis revealed an exact match of the probe sequence (36 bp) with an open reading frame of 2,652 bp encoding a protein predicted to be alanyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase N). Collectively, these data suggest designation of the B. melitensis enzyme as an aminopeptidase N. The aminopeptidase was recognized by sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis, suggesting that the enzyme may have important diagnostic implications. PMID:12933870

  19. Characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Cheng, Ziying; Jia, Honglin; Zheng, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidases have emerged as new promising drug targets for the development of novel anti-parasitic drugs. An aspartyl aminopeptidase-like gene has been identified in the Toxoplasma gondii genome (TgAAP), although its function remains unknown. In this study, we characterized TgAAP and performed functional analysis of the gene product. Firstly, we expressed a functional recombinant TgAAP (rTgAAP) protein in Escherichia coli, and found that it required metal ions for activity and showed a substrate preference for N-terminal acidic amino acids Glu and Asp. Then, we evaluated the function and drug target potential of TgAAP using the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system. Western blotting demonstrated the deletion of TgAAP in the knockout strain. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that TgAAP was localized in the cytoplasm of the wild-type parasite, but was not expressed in the knockout strain. Phenotype analysis revealed that TgAAP knockout inhibited the attachment/invasion, replication, and substrate-specific activity in T. gondii. Finally, the activity of drug CID 23724194, previously described as targeting Plasmodium and malarial parasite AAP, was tested against rTgAAP and the parasite. Overall, TgAAP knockout affected the growth of T. gondii but did not completely abolish parasite replication and growth. Therefore, TgAAP may comprise a useful adjunct drug target of T. gondii. PMID:27678060

  20. A comparative study on the rectal aminopeptidase enzymatic activities of different species.

    PubMed

    Acartürk, F; Parlatan, Z I

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the enzymatic activity of four different aminopeptidases (aminopeptidase N, leucine aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B) in rectal homogenates from different species: rabbit, rat, guinea-pig, sheep and human. Different substrates were used as the relative specific substrates for the determination of aminopeptidase enzymatic activity. For this purpose, 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide of L-alanine for aminopeptidase N, 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide of L-leucine for leucine aminopeptidase, 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide of L-glutamic acid for aminopeptidase A and 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide of L-arginine for aminopeptidase B were employed. The rectal aminopeptidase enzymatic activity was determined spectrofluorometrically. The inhibition of activity of aminopeptidase in the presence of bestatin and puromycin inhibitors was also investigated. The results showed the presence of aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in all rectal homogenates. Sheep and guinea-pig had the greatest aminopeptidase activity. The four aminopeptidase activities of rat and rabbit were not significantly different from each other. Human data was not evaluated statistically, due to insufficient sample. But the values of human data was close to those of the rabbit and rat values except for aminopeptidase A. Based on the data of the hydrolysis and inhibition of the 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide substrates, it was rather difficult to determine the aminopeptidase type in the rectal homogenates of the species studied. It has been found that the aminopeptidase activities of rat and rabbit were not statistically different from each other and the human data were close to them.

  1. New aminopeptidase from "microbial dark matter" archaeon.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Karolina; Steen, Andrew D; Chhor, Gekleng; Endres, Michael; Webber, Austen T; Bird, Jordan; Lloyd, Karen G; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Marine sediments host a large population of diverse, heterotrophic, uncultured microorganisms with unknown physiologies that control carbon flow through organic matter decomposition. Recently, single-cell genomics uncovered new key players in these processes, such as the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group. These widespread archaea encode putative intra- and extracellular proteases for the degradation of detrital proteins present in sediments. Here, we show that one of these enzymes is a self-compartmentalizing tetrameric aminopeptidase with a preference for cysteine and hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the hydrolyzed peptide. The ability to perform detailed characterizations of enzymes from native subsurface microorganisms, without requiring that those organisms first be grown in pure culture, holds great promise for understanding key carbon transformations in the environment as well as identifying new enzymes for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  2. Progress in the development of bestatin analogues as aminopeptidases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Teng, Y; Xu, W

    2011-01-01

    Aminopeptidases play essential roles in protein maturation, activation, and stability as well as in the degradation and regulation of hormonal and nonhormonal peptides that can serve as important enzyme targets for drug design. This review will focus on an effective inhibitor of aminopeptidases, bestatin, including work to find better inhibitors in the past three decades that has sought to optimize bestatin and prospective developments in bestatin optimization in the future.

  3. Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase, a promising candidate for vaccination against ruminant fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daniel; Cancela, Martín; Piacenza, Lucia; Roche, Leda; Carmona, Carlos; Tort, José F

    2008-03-01

    Leucyl aminopeptidases (LAP) from different parasitic organisms are attracting attention as relevant players in parasite biology, and consequently being considered as candidates for drug and vaccine design. In fact, the highest protection level achieved in ruminant immunization by a native antigen was previously reported by us, using a purified LAP as immunogen in a sheep trial against fasciolosis. Here, we report the cloning of a full-length cDNA from adult F. hepatica encoding a member of the M17 family of LAP (FhLAP) and functional expression and characterization of the corresponding enzyme. FhLAP was closely related to Schistosoma LAPs, but interestingly distant from their mammalian host's homologues, and was expressed in all stages of the parasite life cycle. The recombinant enzyme, functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, showed a marked amidolytic preference against the synthetic aminopeptidase substrate l-leucine-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (Leu-AMC) and was also active against Cys-AMC and Met-AMC. Both native and recombinant enzyme were stimulated by the addition of divalent cations predominantly Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by bestatin and cysteine. Physico-chemical properties, localization by immunoelectron microscopy, MALDI-TOF analysis, and cross-reactivity of anti-rFhLAP immune serum demonstrated that the recombinant enzyme was identical to the previously purified gut-associated LAP from adult F. hepatica. Vaccination trials using rFhLAP for rabbit immunization showed a strong IgG response and a highly significant level of protection after experimental infection with F. hepatica metacercariae, confirming that FhLAP is a relevant candidate for vaccine development.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of rat liver aminopeptidase B.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, K M; Fukasawa, K; Kanai, M; Fujii, S; Harada, M

    1996-11-29

    We isolated, by immunological screening of a Uni-ZAP XR cDNA library constructed from rat liver mRNAs, a cDNA clone with 2212 base pairs encoding aminopeptidase B (EC 3.4.11.6). The open reading frame encodes a 649-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 72,545 Da and bears the consensus sequence of the zinc metalloexopeptidases, indicating that the enzyme belongs to this family, which includes aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N, and leukotriene-A4 hydrolase. Escherichia coli SOLR cells infected with the pBluescript phagemid excised from the Uni-ZAP XR vector containing the aminopeptidase B cDNA had a high L-arginyl-beta-naphthylamidase activity. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity from the recombinant E. coli extracts. The enzyme had Cl--dependent aminopeptidase activity specifically restricted to the Arg and Lys derivatives and contained 1 mol of zinc per mol of the enzyme.

  5. Photoinactivation and carbethoxylation of leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Ludewig, M; Frohne, M; Marquardt, I; Hanson, H

    1975-05-01

    In the present paper the reactivity of histidyl residues of leucine aminopeptidase from bovine eye lens was studied by dye-sensitized photooxidation and by carbethoxylation of the enzyme protein using diethylpyrocarbonate. Of all the different amino acids modified by photooxidation only histidine is connected with the enzymic acticity, whereas tyrosine seems to be involved in structure stabilization. By changing the pH and varying the effectors (Mg2+ and/or dodecylsulfate) of the reaction mixture a different number of histidyl residues of the enzyme protein is caused to react with diethylpyrocarbonate. No secondary reactions with tyrosyl or tryptophyl residues could be observed by spectrophotometric investigations. The enzyme modified by one of the above-mentioned methods shows changes in the capacity of Mn2+ binding measured by autoradiography as well as in the degree of enhancement of enzymic activity by Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions. Of the 48 histidyl residues of the enzyme (Mr = 326000) up to 2 histidyl residues per subunit (Mr = 54000) may be involved in Mn2+ or Mg2+ binding and up to 4 histidyl residues have a strong influence on Zn2+ binding.

  6. Adipocyte aminopeptidases in obesity and fasting.

    PubMed

    Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2015-11-05

    This study checked the existence of a diverse array of aminopeptidase (AP) enzymes in high (HDM) and low (LDM) density microsomal and plasma membrane (MF) fractions from adipocytes of control, monosodium glutamate obese and food deprived rats. Gene expression was detected for ArgAP, AspAP, MetAP, and two AlaAP (APM and PSA). APM and PSA had the highest catalytic efficiency, whereas AspAP the highest affinity. Subcellular distribution of AP activities depended on metabolic status. Comparing catalytic levels, AspAP in HDM, LDM and MF was absent in obese and control under food deprivation; PSA in LDM was 3.5-times higher in obese than in normally fed control and control and obese under food deprivation; MetAP in MF was 4.5-times higher in obese than in food deprived obese. Data show new AP enzymes genetically expressed in subcellular compartments of adipocytes, three of them with altered catalytic levels that respond to whole-body energetic demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP)/ER-aminopeptidase (ERAP)-1 in human uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Daijiro; Ando, Hisao; Iwase, Akira; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Mizutani, Shigehiko

    2004-09-01

    Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1) is specialized to produce peptides presented on the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) by trimming epitopes to eight or nine residues, in addition to its enzymatic activity to degrade angiotensin II. Previously we identified placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), another member of the oxytocinase subfamily of aminopeptidases, in human uterine endometrial epithelial cells. Here we analyzed the distribution of A-LAP in human cyclic endometrium. Western blotting analysis showed that A-LAP was present in the endometrial tissue throughout the menstrual cycle. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of A-LAP showed a similar distribution to that of P-LAP. A-LAP was localized predominantly in the endometrial glands and the luminal surface epithelium. However, the intracellular localization change that accompanied apocrine secretion, which was observed in P-LAP, was not shown in A-LAP. Subcellular localization of A-LAP, demonstrated by immunofluorescence, was ER in the cultured glandular epithelial cells. Our results indicate that A-LAP may fit the endometrial localization as an antigen-presenting ER aminopeptidase. Further understanding of the function(s) of A-LAP in the endometrium appear likely to yield insights into the cyclic changes during the normal endometrial cycle.

  8. Novel leucine ureido derivatives as inhibitors of aminopeptidase N (APN).

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Jin, Kang; Cao, Jiangying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiaoguang; Xu, Wenfang

    2013-04-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) over expressed on tumor cells, plays a critical role in tumor invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Here we described the design, synthesis and preliminary activity studies of novel leucine ureido derivatives as aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) inhibitors. The results showed that compound 8c had the most potent inhibitory activity against APN with the IC50 value to 0.06 ± 0.041 μM, which could be used for further anticancer agent research.

  9. Genetic Control and Linkage Relationships among Aminopeptidases in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Lila; Scandalios, John G.

    1978-01-01

    Maize aminopeptidase is coded by four genes. Amp1 and Amp2 have been localized to chromosome 1. A three-point cross shows the gene order to be Amp2—15%—Amp1—33%—Adh2 (alcohol dehydrogenase). Amp3 and Amp4 assort independently of each other and of chromosome 1 aminopeptidases. Another linkage relationship among the maize genes Amy2 (amylase), Cat1 (catalase), and Amp3 exists, but the chromosome location has yet to be established unequivocally. PMID:17248824

  10. A structural insight into the P1S1 binding mode of diaminoethylphosphonic and phosphinic acids, selective inhibitors of alanine aminopeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2016-07-01

    N0 -substituted 1,2-diaminoethylphosphonic acids and 1,2-diaminoethylphosphinic dipeptides were explored to unveil the structural context of the unexpected selectivity of these inhibitors of M1 alanine aminopeptidases (APNs) versus M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The diaminophosphonic acids were obtained via aziridines in an improved synthetic procedure that was further expanded for the phosphinic pseudodipeptide system. The inhibitory activity, measured for three M1 and one M17 metalloaminopeptidases of different sources (bacterial, human and porcine), revealed several potent compounds (e.g., Ki ¼ 65 nM of 1u for HsAPN). Two structures of an M1 representative (APN from Neisseria meningitidis) in complex with N-benzyl-1,2-diaminoethylphosphonic acid and N-cyclohexyl-1,2- diaminoethylphosphonic acid were determined by the X-ray crystallography. The analysis of these structures and the models of the phosphonic acid complexes of the human ortholog provided an insight into the role of the additional amino group and the hydrophobic substituents of the ligands within the S1 active site region.

  11. Spatial Variations of PAH Properties in M17SW Revealed by Spitzer/IRS Spectral Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Onaka, T.; Nagayama, T.; Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Nishimura, A.; Matsuo, M.; Fujita, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Kohno, M.; Ohashi, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Brγ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST 13CO (J = 1-0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 μm. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Brγ and the molecular cloud traced by 13CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer/IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 μm/PAH 11.3 μm varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0 μm, 12.7 μm, 13.5 μm, and 14.2 μm features to the PAH 11.3 μm feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leucine aminopeptidase test system. 862.1460 Section 862.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  13. Effect of cryogenic treatment on tensile behavior of case carburized steel-815M17

    SciTech Connect

    Bensely, A. . E-mail: benzlee@annauniv.edu; Senthilkumar, D.; Mohan Lal, D.; Nagarajan, G.; Rajadurai, A.

    2007-05-15

    The crown wheel and pinion represent the most highly stressed parts of a heavy vehicle; these are typically made of 815M17 steel. The reasons for the frequent failure of these components are due to tooth bending impact, wear and fatigue. The modern processes employed to produce these as high, durable components include cryogenic treatment as well as conventional heat treatment. It helps to convert retained austenite into martensite as well as promote carbide precipitation. This paper deals with the influence of cryogenic treatment on the tensile behavior of case carburized steel 815M17. The impetus for studying the tensile properties of gear steels is to ensure that steels used in gears have sufficient tensile strength to prevent failure when gears are subjected to tensile or fatigue loads, and to provide basic design information on the strength of 815M17 steel. A comparative study on the effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT), shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) and conventional heat treatment (CHT) was made by means of tension testing. This test was conducted as per ASTM standard designation E 8M. The present results confirm that the tensile behavior is marginally reduced after cryogenic treatment (i.e. both shallow and deep cryogenic treatment) for 815M17 when compared with conventional heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the fracture surface indicates the presence of dimples and flat fracture regions are more common in SCT specimens than for CHT and DCT-processed material.

  14. Detection of the (OIII)88.16Mu line in M17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. B.; Gull, G.; Harwit, M. O.

    1975-01-01

    The detection of a predicted transition, the fine structure line of O3 at 88.16 microns in the H 2 region M17, was reported. Line intensity was measured at 2.2 sub + 7 sub -0.7 times 10 to the 15th power.

  15. PAHs as Probes of Photodissociation Regions in M17 and the Orion Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Schultz, A.; Temi, P.; Rank, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained narrow-band images of M17 SW and the Orion Bar in the PAH emission bands and pedestal (3.29, 3. 36, 3. 42 microns) The emission bands at 3.3 and 3.4 microns arise from the photodissociation regions (PDRs) between ionized gas and molecular clouds. In both M17 SW and the Orion Bar, the PDRs are nearly edge-on, providing excellent opportunities for comparing models of PDRs with observations. We observe an exponential drop in the strength of the 3.3 micron emission with a 1/e distance of 9 arcsec in Orion and 5 arcsec in M17 SW, in good agreement with previous observations. These results show that the two regions are very similar, and they imply that the mean density is 2.4 times higher in the Orion Bar than in the M17 SW PDR. However, we also find that in the Orion Bar, the ratio of the 3.4 micron emission to the 3.3 micron emission is consistent with the 1/e distance of 3 arcsec determined from PDR models fit to the molecular H and CO in the Orion Bar. We are presently investigating how the main band can imply that the UV field is dropping with a 1/e distance of 9 arcsec while the model PDR predicts a 1/e distance of 3 arcsec.

  16. Placental Leucine Aminopeptidase- and Aminopeptidase A- Deficient Mice Offer Insight concerning the Mechanisms Underlying Preterm Labor and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Shigehiko; Wright, John W.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are important potential complications in pregnancy and represent the leading causes for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying both diseases remain unknown, thus available treatments (beta2-stimulants and magnesium sulfate) are essentially symptomatic. Both molecules have molecular weights less than 5–8 kDa, cross the placental barrier, and thus exert their effects on the fetus. The fetus produces peptides that are highly vasoactive and uterotonic and increase in response to maternal stress and with continued development. Fetal peptides are also small molecules that inevitably leak across into the maternal circulation. Aminopeptidases such as placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and aminopeptidase A (APA) are large molecules that do not cross the placental barrier. We have shown that APA acts as an antihypertensive agent in the pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rat by degrading vasoactive peptides and as a result returns the animal to a normotensive state. P-LAP also acts as an antiuterotonic agent by degrading uterotonic peptides and thus prolongs gestation in the pregnant mouse. Given the ever increasing worldwide incidences of preeclampsia and preterm labor, it is imperative that new agents be developed to safely prolong gestation. We believe that the use of aminopeptidases hold promise in this regard. PMID:21188170

  17. Placental leucine aminopeptidase efficiently generates mature antigenic peptides in vitro but in patterns distinct from endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Dimitra; Hearn, Arron; Evnouchidou, Irini; Chroni, Angeliki; Leondiadis, Leondios; York, Ian A; Rock, Kenneth L; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2010-08-01

    All three members of the oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidases, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), ERAP2, and placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), also known as insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, have been implicated in the generation of MHC class I-presented peptides. ERAP1 and 2 trim peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum for direct presentation, whereas PLAP has been recently implicated in cross-presentation. The best characterized member of the family, ERAP1, has unique enzymatic properties that fit well with its role in Ag processing. ERAP1 can trim a large variety of long peptide sequences and efficiently accumulate mature antigenic epitopes of 8-9 aa long. In this study, we evaluate the ability of PLAP to process antigenic peptide precursors in vitro and compare it with ERAP1. We find that, similar to ERAP1, PLAP can trim a variety of long peptide sequences efficiently and, in most cases, accumulates appreciable amounts of correct length mature antigenic epitope. Again, similar to ERAP1, PLAP continued trimming some of the epitopes tested and accumulated smaller products effectively destroying the epitope. However, the intermediate accumulation properties of ERAP1 and PLAP are distinct and epitope dependent, suggesting that these two enzymes may impose different selective pressures on epitope generation. Overall, although PLAP has the necessary enzymatic properties to participate in generating or destroying MHC class I-presented peptides, its trimming behavior is distinct from that of ERAP1, something that supports a separate role for these two enzymes in Ag processing.

  18. Placental leucine aminopeptidase- and aminopeptidase A- deficient mice offer insight concerning the mechanisms underlying preterm labor and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Shigehiko; Wright, John W; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are important potential complications in pregnancy and represent the leading causes for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying both diseases remain unknown, thus available treatments (beta2-stimulants and magnesium sulfate) are essentially symptomatic. Both molecules have molecular weights less than 5-8  kDa, cross the placental barrier, and thus exert their effects on the fetus. The fetus produces peptides that are highly vasoactive and uterotonic and increase in response to maternal stress and with continued development. Fetal peptides are also small molecules that inevitably leak across into the maternal circulation. Aminopeptidases such as placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and aminopeptidase A (APA) are large molecules that do not cross the placental barrier. We have shown that APA acts as an antihypertensive agent in the pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rat by degrading vasoactive peptides and as a result returns the animal to a normotensive state. P-LAP also acts as an antiuterotonic agent by degrading uterotonic peptides and thus prolongs gestation in the pregnant mouse. Given the ever increasing worldwide incidences of preeclampsia and preterm labor, it is imperative that new agents be developed to safely prolong gestation. We believe that the use of aminopeptidases hold promise in this regard.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Steele, R W

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old adolescent daughter of a missionary presented with fever and jaundice 1 week after returning from Africa. Examination of peripheral blood film revealed the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Therapy with oral quinine and doxycycline was curative. Diagnosis requires a travel history and a high index of suspicion. Because of the frequency of international travel, United States physicians need to be familiar with the presentation and management of imported P falciparum. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of chemoprophylaxis.

  20. Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function. PMID:21466698

  1. Activity of soluble aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV and membrane-bound aminopeptidase B and pyroglutamyl peptidase I in adenoid hyperplasia, tonsillar hyperplasia and chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Larrinaga, Gorka; Perez, Itxaro; Sanz, Begoña; Irazusta, Amaya; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Sanchez, Clara Elena; Sanchez, Carmen Elena; Rey, Ana Sanchez Del; Zabala, Aitor; Santaolalla, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    To analyze soluble and membrane-bound peptidase activities in the tonsils and adenoids removed from patients with adenoid hyperplasia, tonsillar hyperplasia and chronic tonsillitis. A total of 48 tissue samples from patients undergoing adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy for adenoid hyperplasia, tonsillar hyperplasia or chronic tonsillitis were analyzed. The catalytic activity of a pool of peptidases in the soluble (dipeptidyl peptidase IV, aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase N and cystinyl aminopeptidase) and membrane-bound (prolyl endopeptidase, aspartyl aminopeptidase, aminopeptidase B and pyroglutamyl peptidase I) fractions was measured fluorometrically. The activity of membrane-bound aminopeptidase B was higher in cases of chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hyperplasia than in tonsillar hyperplasia, p=0.004. Soluble dipeptidyl peptidase IV and membrane-bound pyroglutamyl peptidase I were found to be more active in tissues from male chronic tonsillitis tissues, p<0.05, while membrane-bound aminopeptidase B activity was higher in tissues of females with tonsillar hyperplasia, p<0.001. In the case of chronic tonsillitis, soluble aminopeptidase A was found to have a higher level of activity in tissues from children than those from adults, p=0.005. Our results suggest a potential role of soluble aminopeptidase A, soluble dipeptidyl peptidase IV, membrane-bound aminopeptidase B and membrane-bound pyroglutamyl peptidase I in the pathobiology of adenoid hyperplasia, tonsillar hyperplasia and chronic tonsillitis that is differently regulated as a function of gender. These finfings may modify in the future the clinical approach to these diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, J.; Blake, G. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.; Beichman, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The 492 GHz ground-state line of atomic carbon in the edge-on ionization fronts in M17 and S140 were observed. It was found that, contrary to expectation, the C I emission peaks farther into the molecular cloud from the ionization front than does the CO. In fact the peak C I abundance in M17 occurs more than 60 mag of visual extinction into the cloud from the ionization front. Calculations of the ratio of C I to CO column densities yield values of 0.1-0.2. These observations do not support chemical models which predict that neutral atomic carbon should be found only near the edges of molelcular clouds. Other models are discussed which may explain the observations.

  3. Development of bestatin-based activity-based probes for metallo-aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Harbut, Michael B; Velmourougane, Geetha; Reiss, Gilana; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Greenbaum, Doron C

    2008-11-15

    A novel set of activity-based probes (ABPs) for functionally profiling metallo-aminopeptidases was synthesized based on the bestatin inhibitor scaffold, the first synthesis of bestatin analogues using solid-phase techniques. These ABPs were shown to label metallo-aminopeptidases, using both a biotin and a fluorophore reporter, in an activity-dependent manner. This probe class was also shown to be amenable to 'click' chemistry labeling for possible use in live cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the ABPs are able to label an aminopeptidase in a complex proteome. Thus, these bestatin-based probes should have wide utility to functionally profile aminopeptidases in many biological systems.

  4. "Leucine aminopeptidase" (neutral arylamidase) in sheep sera: improved resolution with gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Manwell, C; Baker, C M

    1986-01-01

    Electrophoretic resolution of the heterogeneity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase" is greatly improved by the use of gradients of acrylamide polymer, together with enzyme localisation involving L-alanyl beta-naphthylamide and cobaltous ion. The improved resolution contradicts an earlier claim of the existence of only two patterns of individual variation in the heterogeneity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase", with one pattern completely dominant to the other. While the sheep enzyme is unusual among mammalian serum "leucine aminopeptidases" in its complex heterogeneity, it does conform to the typical mammalian pattern of codominant individual variation. The complexity of sheep serum "leucine aminopeptidase" is useful in the study of sheep evolution.

  5. [Influence of alcohol on brain aminopeptidases. An in vitro study].

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    It is well known the depressor effect of alcohol on several inhibitory nervous centres. This can be due to the inhibition that induces in the release of different type of neurotransmitters, and because alcohol can increase the membrane fluidity and changes the function of proteins inserted in the membrane. Several aminopeptidases (AP) have been described as enzymes that regulate the activity of peptide neurotransmitters. In the present work, the influence of alcohol (25, 50 and 100 mM) on several aminopeptidase activities (alanyl AP, arginyl AP, cystinyl AP, leucyl AP and tyrosyl AP) has been determined in synaptosomes obtained from the cortex of mouse, under basal and K+ stimulated conditions and their calcium dependence, in a non toxic in vitro model. AP activities were determined using aminoacyl ? naphthylamides as substrates. Non toxic in vitro model were demonstrated analyzing free radical generation, lipid peroxidation and oxidation of synaptosomal proteins. In addition, the bioenergetic behavior of synaptosomes was determined under different experimental protocols. In basal conditions, alcohol produces a dose related inhibition of alanyl AP activity. The rest of activities show a biphasic behavior. In this way, depending on the concentration of alcohol used, aminopeptidases are inhibited or stimulated. Depolarization with K+ 25 mM leads to a decrease of alanyl AP and tyrosyl AP activities but does not change the rest of activities. The presence of alcohol under stimulated conditions produces the inhibition of all the enzymatic activities, specially with the highest concentrations used. Alcohol modifies several aminopeptidase activities from synaptosomes of the cortex of mouse, acting in different ways under basal or stimulated conditions. These effects seem not to be related with degenerative events induced by alcohol. Therefore, a specific effect of this substance on the neurotransmisory/neuromodulatory systems mediated by neuropeptides must exist

  6. Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Tanaka, Hisaki; Akagawa, Takumi; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo

    2007-10-01

    To characterize aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae, the recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids. About 30% activity was retained in 20% NaCl. Digestion of defatted soybean by the enzyme resulted in an increase in the glutamic acid content, suggesting that the enzyme is potentially responsible for the release of glutamic acid in soy sauce mash.

  7. Maintenance of an aminopeptidase allele frequency cline by natural selection.

    PubMed Central

    Koehn, R K; Newell, R I; Immermann, F

    1980-01-01

    The product of the Lap locus in the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis is a neutral, membrane-associated aminopeptidase that is primarily localized on intestinal microvilli and in digestive cell lysosomes. Natural populations are genetically differentiated at the Lap locus between areas of differing salinity. A steep (0.55-0.15) allele frequency cline connects differentiated populations between the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. We demonstrate an annual gene flow/mortality cycle in cline populations whereby gene frequencies after mortality are correlated with salinity and enzyme activity. The cline is spatially and temporally unstable in immigrants, but stable in residents after mortality. Mortality is nonrandom with regard to the Lap locus; genotype-dependent properties of the aminopeptidase enzyme apparently led to a differential rate of the utilizaiton of nutrient reserves because selected genotypes exhibited an increased rate of tissue weight loss. Aminopeptidase genotypes are differentially adapted to different temperatures and salinities, which provides a mechanism for the relationship among biochemical, physiological, and population phenotypes. PMID:6933563

  8. Structural basis for multifunctional roles of mammalian aminopeptidase N

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lang; Lin, Yi-Lun; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian aminopeptidase N (APN) plays multifunctional roles in many physiological processes, including peptide metabolism, cell motility and adhesion, and coronavirus entry. Here we determined crystal structures of porcine APN at 1.85 Å resolution and its complexes with a peptide substrate and a variety of inhibitors. APN is a cell surface-anchored and seahorse-shaped zinc-aminopeptidase that forms head-to-head dimers. Captured in a catalytically active state, these structures of APN illustrate a detailed catalytic mechanism for its aminopeptidase activity. The active site and peptide-binding channel of APN reside in cavities with wide openings, allowing easy access to peptides. The cavities can potentially open up further to bind the exposed N terminus of proteins. The active site anchors the N-terminal neutral residue of peptides/proteins, and the peptide-binding channel binds the remainder of the peptides/proteins in a sequence-independent fashion. APN also provides an exposed outer surface for coronavirus binding, without its physiological functions being affected. These structural features enable APN to function ubiquitously in peptide metabolism, interact with other proteins to mediate cell motility and adhesion, and serve as a coronavirus receptor. This study elucidates multifunctional roles of APN and can guide therapeutic efforts to treat APN-related diseases. PMID:23071329

  9. Structural basis for the inhibition of M1 family aminopeptidases by the natural product actinonin: Crystal structure in complex with E. coli aminopeptidase N

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Roopa Jones; Reddi, Ravikumar; Gumpena, Rajesh; Marapaka, Anil Kumar; Arya, Tarun; Sankoju, Priyanka; Bhukya, Supriya; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Actinonin is a pseudotripeptide that displays a high affinity towards metalloproteases including peptide deformylases (PDFs) and M1 family aminopeptidases. PDF and M1 family aminopeptidases belong to thermolysin-metzincin superfamily. One of the major differences in terms of substrate binding pockets between these families is presence (in M1 aminopeptidases) or absence (in PDFs) of an S1 substrate pocket. The binding mode of actinonin to PDFs has been established previously; however, it is not clear how the actinonin, without a P1 residue, would bind to the M1 aminopeptidases. Here we describe the crystal structure of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N (ePepN), a model protein of the M1 family aminopeptidases in complex with actinonin. For comparison we have also determined the structure of ePepN in complex with a well-known tetrapeptide inhibitor, amastatin. From the comparison of the actinonin and amastatin ePepN complexes, it is clear that the P1 residue is not critical as long as strong metal chelating head groups, like hydroxamic acid or α-hydroxy ketone, are present. Results from this study will be useful for the design of selective and efficient hydroxamate inhibitors against M1 family aminopeptidases. PMID:25644575

  10. Structural basis for the inhibition of M1 family aminopeptidases by the natural product actinonin: Crystal structure in complex with E. coli aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Roopa Jones; Reddi, Ravikumar; Gumpena, Rajesh; Marapaka, Anil Kumar; Arya, Tarun; Sankoju, Priyanka; Bhukya, Supriya; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Actinonin is a pseudotripeptide that displays a high affinity towards metalloproteases including peptide deformylases (PDFs) and M1 family aminopeptidases. PDF and M1 family aminopeptidases belong to thermolysin-metzincin superfamily. One of the major differences in terms of substrate binding pockets between these families is presence (in M1 aminopeptidases) or absence (in PDFs) of an S1 substrate pocket. The binding mode of actinonin to PDFs has been established previously; however, it is not clear how the actinonin, without a P1 residue, would bind to the M1 aminopeptidases. Here we describe the crystal structure of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N (ePepN), a model protein of the M1 family aminopeptidases in complex with actinonin. For comparison we have also determined the structure of ePepN in complex with a well-known tetrapeptide inhibitor, amastatin. From the comparison of the actinonin and amastatin ePepN complexes, it is clear that the P1 residue is not critical as long as strong metal chelating head groups, like hydroxamic acid or α-hydroxy ketone, are present. Results from this study will be useful for the design of selective and efficient hydroxamate inhibitors against M1 family aminopeptidases.

  11. The M1 family of vertebrate aminopeptidases: role of evolutionarily conserved tyrosines in the enzymatic mechanism of aminopeptidase B.

    PubMed

    Cadel, Sandrine; Darmon, Cécile; Pernier, Julien; Hervé, Guy; Foulon, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    Aminopeptidase B (Ap-B), a member of the M1 family of Zn(2+)-aminopeptidases, removes basic residues at the NH2-terminus of peptides and is involved in the in vivo proteolytic processing of miniglucagon and cholecystokinin-8. M1 enzymes hydrolyze numerous different peptides and are implicated in many physiological functions. As these enzymes have similar catalytic mechanisms, their respective substrate specificity and/or catalytic efficiency must be based on subtle structural differences at or near the catalytic site. This leads to the hypothesis that each primary structure contains a consensus structural template, strictly necessary for aminopeptidase activity, and a specific amino acid environment localized in or outside the catalytic pocket that finely tunes the substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of each enzyme. A multiple sequence alignment of M1 peptidases from vertebrates allowed to identify conserved tyrosine amino acids, which are members of this catalytic backbone. In the present work, site-directed mutagenesis and 3D molecular modeling of Ap-B were used to specify the role of four fully (Y281, Y229, Y414, and Y441) and one partially (Y409) conserved residues. Tyrosine to phenylalanine mutations allowed confirming the influence of the hydroxyl groups on the enzyme activity. These groups are implicated in the reaction mechanism (Y414), in substrate specificity and/or catalytic efficiency (Y409), in stabilization of essential amino acids of the active site (Y229, Y409) and potentially in the maintenance of its structural integrity (Y281, Y441). The importance of hydrogen bonds is verified by the Y229H substitution, which preserves the enzyme activity. These data provide new insights into the catalytic mechanism of Ap-B in the M1 family of aminopeptidases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. M17SW [OI] 63 um self-absorption and optical depth effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Cristian

    M17SW is a giant molecular cloud located at 1.98 kpc, and it is iluminated by a cluster of OB stars at 1 pc to the east. It is one of the best galactic regions to study PDR structure from the exciting source to ionization source. The structure is highly clumpy from several studies of molecular emission. Our recent observations with SOFIA/upGREAT at very high velocity resolution and S/N have shown for M17SW that the [CII] line has a really high opacity and is heavily affected by self-absorption. Under these conditions, line ratios of fine structure lines derived from line-integrated, spectrally unresolved observations, when blindly used to derive physical source properties such as UV-intensity and density, give questionable results. The self-absorption in [CII] shows up as several narrow absorption notches across the broader [CII] emission profile. Of particular interest is the question: what is the nature of the absorbing forground clouds. On relevant observation with SOFIA is to study the profile of the second brightest cooling line, [OI] 63 um, observable with the GREAT H-channel. If the foreground gas is subthermally excited and has low density, as is indicated by the [CII] profiles, [OI] should show similar self-absorption notches, as is in fact indicated in the relatively low S/N-ratio spectra that we already obtained when mapping the M17SW interface. We thus propose to use the high sensitivity and resolving power of SOFIA/GREAT for a systematic study of the [OI] with deep integrations of the fine structure line, by observing the seven positions previously studied in [CII] and [13CII].

  13. A survey of the chemical properties of the M17 and Cepheus A cloud cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergin, E. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Snell, R. L.; Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic survey of the chemical properties of two giant molecular cloud (GMC) cores in M17 and Cepheus A. In all, we have mapped the emission from 32 molecular transitions of 13 molecules and seven isotopic variants over a 4' x 5' region in each core. Each map includes known sites of massive star formation, as well as the more extended quiescent material. In M17 most molecules have emission peaks away from the H II region/molecular cloud interface, while two species, HC3N and CH3C2H, deviate from this structure with sharp maxima closer to this interface. In Cepheus A the core is influenced by a compact high-velocity molecular outflow and a more extended low-velocity flow. The molecular emission distributions in this source are generally quite similar, with most molecules peaking near the center of the core to the east of the compact H II region HW 2. A few molecules, SO, CH3OH, H13CN, and C18O, have more extended emission. Only two molecules, CO and HCO+, appear to trace the high- and low-velocity outflows; all other species are tracing the quiescent core. We have used the results of previous studies of the density and temperature of the dense gas in the same cloud cores to derive accurate abundances relative to CO for several positions in each core. The principal result is that the chemical composition of all the cores we have surveyed (which include OMC-1 as well as M17 and Cepheus A) show remarkable similarity, both within a given core and among the cores. This suggests that the chemical processes are similar in quiescent GMC core material. In M17 the lack of variation of molecular abundances is remarkable because the radiation field and the gas temperature are known to vary appreciably throughout the surveyed region, suggesting that the bulk of the emission arises from gas that is well shielded from radiation.

  14. A survey of the chemical properties of the M17 and Cepheus A cloud cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergin, E. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Snell, R. L.; Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic survey of the chemical properties of two giant molecular cloud (GMC) cores in M17 and Cepheus A. In all, we have mapped the emission from 32 molecular transitions of 13 molecules and seven isotopic variants over a 4' x 5' region in each core. Each map includes known sites of massive star formation, as well as the more extended quiescent material. In M17 most molecules have emission peaks away from the H II region/molecular cloud interface, while two species, HC3N and CH3C2H, deviate from this structure with sharp maxima closer to this interface. In Cepheus A the core is influenced by a compact high-velocity molecular outflow and a more extended low-velocity flow. The molecular emission distributions in this source are generally quite similar, with most molecules peaking near the center of the core to the east of the compact H II region HW 2. A few molecules, SO, CH3OH, H13CN, and C18O, have more extended emission. Only two molecules, CO and HCO+, appear to trace the high- and low-velocity outflows; all other species are tracing the quiescent core. We have used the results of previous studies of the density and temperature of the dense gas in the same cloud cores to derive accurate abundances relative to CO for several positions in each core. The principal result is that the chemical composition of all the cores we have surveyed (which include OMC-1 as well as M17 and Cepheus A) show remarkable similarity, both within a given core and among the cores. This suggests that the chemical processes are similar in quiescent GMC core material. In M17 the lack of variation of molecular abundances is remarkable because the radiation field and the gas temperature are known to vary appreciably throughout the surveyed region, suggesting that the bulk of the emission arises from gas that is well shielded from radiation.

  15. Identification of Aminopeptidase N as a Cellular Receptor for Human Coronavirus-229E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-12

    feline enteric coronav irus feline infectious peritonitis virus hUman adult intestine hUman aminopeptidase N human aminopeptidase with 39 amino...virions (Almeida and Tyrrell, 1967). The eventual isolation of several other morphologically similar appearing animal viruses including feline ...coronavirus (TCV), rat coronavirus (RCV), cat feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and the hUman coronaviruses. These include the slow, patchy

  16. Structure of tomato wound-induced leucine aminopeptidase sheds light on substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Kevin; Scranton, Melissa A; Walling, Linda L; Fan, Li

    2014-06-01

    The acidic leucine aminopeptidase (LAP-A) from tomato is induced in response to wounding and insect feeding. Although LAP-A shows in vitro peptidase activity towards peptides and peptide analogs, it is not clear what kind of substrates LAP-A hydrolyzes in vivo. In the current study, the crystal structure of LAP-A was determined to 2.20 Å resolution. Like other LAPs in the M17 peptidase family, LAP-A is a dimer of trimers containing six monomers of bilobal structure. Each monomer contains two metal ions bridged by a water or a hydroxyl ion at the active site. Modeling of different peptides or peptide analogs in the active site of LAP-A reveals a spacious substrate-binding channel that can bind peptides of five or fewer residues with few geometric restrictions. The sequence specificity of the bound peptide is likely to be selected by the structural and chemical restrictions on the amino acid at the P1 and P1' positions because these two amino acids have to bind perfectly at the active site for hydrolysis of the first peptide bond to occur. The hexameric assembly results in the merger of the open ends of the six substrate-binding channels from the LAP-A monomers to form a spacious central cavity allowing the hexameric LAP-A enzyme to simultaneously hydrolyze six peptides containing up to six amino acids each. The hexameric LAP-A enzyme may also hydrolyze long peptides or proteins if only one such substrate is bound to the hexamer because the substrate can extend through the central cavity and the two major solvent channels between the two LAP-A trimers.

  17. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Guggisberg, Ann M.; Amthor, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria kills nearly 1 million people each year, and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum has become increasingly resistant to current therapies. Isoprenoid synthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway represents an attractive target for the development of new antimalarials. The phosphonic acid antibiotic fosmidomycin is a specific inhibitor of isoprenoid synthesis and has been a helpful tool to outline the essential functions of isoprenoid biosynthesis in P. falciparum. Isoprenoids are a large, diverse class of hydrocarbons that function in a variety of essential cellular processes in eukaryotes. In P. falciparum, isoprenoids are used for tRNA isopentenylation and protein prenylation, as well as the synthesis of vitamin E, carotenoids, ubiquinone, and dolichols. Recently, isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum has been shown to be regulated by a sugar phosphatase. We outline what is known about isoprenoid function and the regulation of isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum, in order to identify valuable directions for future research. PMID:25217461

  18. Kinetics and conformational stability studies of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Ana V; Villaseñor, Francisco; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase from Vibrio proteolyticus is a broad specificity N-terminal aminopeptidase that is widely used in pharmaceutical processes where the removal of N-terminal residues in recombinant proteins is required. We previously reported the expression of a heterologous construction of the mature protein fused to a 6-histidine tag that presents a reasonable refolding rate for its use at industrial level. Here, we investigate this recombinant leucine aminopeptidase (rLAP) to explain the gain of activity observed when incubated at 37 °C after its production. Unfolding transitions of rLAP as a function of urea concentration were monitored by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy exhibiting single transitions by both techniques. Free energy change for unfolding measured by CD and FL spectroscopy are 2.8 ± 0.4 and 3.7 ± 0.4 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Thermal stability conformation of rLAP is 2.6 ± 0.1 and 6.1 kcal mol(-1) for CD and Nano-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Nano-DSC), respectively. Enzyme activity was assessed with L-leucine-p-nitroanilide (L-pNA) as substrate. The catalytic efficiency was 3.87 ± 0.10 min(-1) μM(-1) at 37 °C and pH 8.0. Kinetic and conformation studies show differences between the enzyme native and rLAP; however rLAP is selective and specific to remove N-terminal groups from amino acids.

  19. No high-mass protostars in the silhouette young stellar object M17-SO1.

    PubMed

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Kataza, Hirokazu; Miyata, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Terada, Hiroshi; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Jiang, Zhibo; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2005-04-21

    The birth of very massive stars is not well understood, in contrast to the formation process of low-mass stars like our Sun. It is not even clear that massive stars can form as single entities; rather, they might form through the mergers of smaller ones born in tight groups. The recent claim of the discovery of a massive protostar in M17 (a nearby giant ionized region) forming through the same mechanism as low-mass stars has therefore generated considerable interest. Here we show that this protostar has an intermediate mass of only 2.5 to 8 solar masses (M(o), contrary to the earlier claim of 20M(o) (ref. 8). The surrounding circumstellar envelope contains only 0.09M(o) and a much more extended local molecular cloud has 4-9M(o).

  20. Disentangling the excitation conditions of the dense gas in M17 SW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Spaans, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Menten, K. M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Stutzki, J.; Guevara, C.; Simon, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Stars are formed in dense molecular clouds. These dense clouds experience radiative feedback from UV photons, and X-ray from stars, embedded prestellar cores, young stellar objects (YSOs), and ultra compact H II regions. This radiative feedback affects the chemistry and thermodynamics of the gas. Aims: We aim to probe the chemical and energetic conditions created by radiative feedback through observations of multiple CO, HCN, and HCO+ transitions. We measure the spatial distribution and excitation of the dense gas (n(H2) > 104 cm-3) in the core region of M17 SW and aim to investigate the influence of UV radiation fields. Methods: We used the dual band receiver GREAT on board the SOFIA airborne telescope to obtain a 5.7 arcmin × 3.7 arcmin map of the J = 16 → 15, J = 12 → 11, and J = 11 → 10 transitions of 12CO in M17 SW. We compare these maps with corresponding APEX and IRAM 30 m telescope data for low- and mid-J CO, HCN, and HCO+ emission lines, including maps of the HCN J = 8 → 7 and HCO+J = 9 → 8 transitions. The excitation conditions of 12CO, HCO+, and HCN are estimated with a two-phase non-LTE radiative transfer model of the line spectral energy distributions (LSEDs) at four selected positions. The energy balance at these positions is also studied. Results: We obtained extensive LSEDs for the CO, HCN, and HCO+ molecules toward M17 SW. These LSEDs can be fit simultaneously using the same density and temperature in the two-phase models and to the spectra of all three molecules over a ~12 square arc minute size region of M17 SW. Temperatures of up to 240 K are found toward the position of the peak emission of the 12CO J = 16 → 15 line. High densities of 106 cm-3 were found at the position of the peak HCN J = 8 → 7 emission. Conclusions: We found HCO+/HCN line ratios larger than unity, which can be explained by a lower excitation temperature of the higher-J HCN lines. The LSED shape, particularly the high-J tail of the CO lines observed

  1. Excitation conditions and energetics of the dense gas in M17 SW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Spaans, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Menten, K. M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Guevara, C.

    2015-05-01

    The chemical and energetic conditions created by radiative feedback are probed with observations of multiple molecular transitions toward M17 SW. Extensive maps, including the 12CO J = 16 → 15, J = 12 → 11, and J = 11 → 10 lines, as well as the HCN J = 8 → 7 and HCO+ J = 9 → 8 transitions, were obtained with the dual band receiver GREAT on board the SOFIA airborne telescope, and with the ground based APEX and IRAM 30 m telescopes. These data provide extensive line spectral energy distributions (LSEDs) of the CO, HCN and HCO+ molecules (and their isotopologues). The excitation conditions of the three species are estimated simultaneously using the same density and temperature in a two-phase non-LTE radiative transfer model of the LSEDs.

  2. Astrometry and expanding bubble of a deeply embedded young stellar object in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibueze, James O.; Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Baba, Tatsuya; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Shizugami, Makoto; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki; Ubachukwu, Augustine A.; Chukwude, Augustine E.; Alhassan, Jibrin A.

    2016-08-01

    We measured the trigonometric parallax of the H2O maser source in the M17 cluster-forming region to be 0.491 ± 0.041 mas, corresponding to a distance of 2.04^{+0.16}_{-0.17} kpc with 8 per cent accuracy. This result is consistent with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) previous parallax measurement of 12.2 GHz CH3OH masers in M17-UC1. We performed the first measurement of the relative proper motions of the H2O maser feature 2, and its morphology traces an expanding arcuate shell with a mean motion of ˜ 19.4 km s-1. The redshifted maser component also shows expanding motion. Fitting a uniformly expanding spherical flow model, we estimate the most probable position and motion of the driving source and we propose that the motion of the masers traces an expanding bubble from a central source, with a dynamical time-scale of ˜ 12.5 yr. This is the first evidence that the maser 2 cluster is driven internally. There is no known counterpart Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) or radio source around this H2O maser. However, the Spitzer point source catalogue has a source that is spatially coincident with the position of the H2O masers. This was detected only in the Spitzer 4.5- and 5.8-μm bands (with magnitudes 9.97 ± 0.12 and 7.82 ± 0.10 mag, respectively). The non-detection at other wavelengths could indicate that the source is still at a very early formative stage, and/or very deeply embedded and obscured in its formative environment.

  3. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445-6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ.

  4. Probing the centre of the large circumstellar disc in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielbock, M.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Scheyda, C. M.; Steinacker, J.

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the nature of the hitherto unresolved elliptical infrared emission in the centre of the ~20000au disc silhouette in M17. We combined high-resolution JHKsL' M'-band imaging carried out with Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System/Coudé Near Infrared Camera (NAOS/CONICA) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with [FeII] narrow-band imaging using SOFI [Son of ISAAC (Infrared Spectrograph and Array Camera)] at the New Technology Telescope (NTT). The analysis is supported by Spitzer/GLIMPSE archival data and by already published Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI)/VLT Integral Field Spectroscopy data. For the first time, we resolve the elongated central infrared emission into a point source and a jet-like feature that extends to the northeast in the opposite direction of the recently discovered collimated H2 jet. They are both orientated almost perpendicular to the disc plane. In addition, our images reveal a curved southwestern emission nebula whose morphology resembles that of the previously detected northeastern one. Both nebulae are located at a distance of 1500au from the disc centre. We describe the infrared point source in terms of a protostar that is embedded in circumstellar material producing a visual extinction of 60 <= AV <= 82. The observed Ks-band magnitude is equivalent to a stellar mass range of 2.8Msolar <= M* <= 8Msolar adopting conversions for a main-sequence star. Altogether, we suggest that the large M17 accretion disc is forming an intermediate to high-mass protostar. Part of the accreted material is expelled through a symmetric bipolar jet/outflow. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile., project nos. 73.C-0170, 73.C-0183 and 75.C-0852. E-mail: nielbock@mpia.de

  5. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445–6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ. PMID:27548710

  6. Ethanol modulates neuropeptide-degrading aminopeptidases at synapse level in calcium-dependent conditions.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Carrera, Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the role of aminopeptidases in the pathways to peptides neurotransmission/neuromodulation ending in the actions of ethanol (EtOH) on the brain. The effects of EtOH on alanyl-, arginyl-, cystyl-, leucyl- and tyrosyl-aminopeptidase activities were studied under basal/resting and K+-stimulated conditions at the synapse level, using mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their incubation supernatant in a Ca2+-containing or Ca2+-free medium. Under basal conditions, synaptosome aminopeptidase activities showed an inhibitory or biphasic response depending on the concentration of EtOH used and the aminopeptidase assayed, whereas supernatant activities showed a more complex response. Under K+-stimulated conditions, EtOH inhibited all synaptosome aminopeptidases assayed in presence of Ca2+. However, in absence of Ca2+, different responses were obtained depending on the concentration of EtOH used. In the supernatant, the highest concentration of EtOH inhibited the K+-stimulated increase on aminopeptidase activities, although the lowest concentration enhanced the release in presence of Ca2+. In absence of it, EtOH blocked the K+-stimulated decrease or increased the activity depending on the concentration of EtOH used. The changes on aminopeptidase activities induced by EtOH may reflect the functional status of their corresponding endogenous substrates. EtOH may influence opioid peptides, oxytocin, vasopressin and the brain renin-angiotensin system through their degrading enzymes.

  7. Purification and identification of a novel leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Rivka; Hetzroni, Efrat; Nisnevitch, Marina; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2007-11-01

    A novel leucine aminopeptidase was purified from a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) culture. The purification stages included heating the concentrated supernatant to 65 degrees C for 90 min, anion-exchange chromatography by DEAE cellulose, and hydrophobic chromatography by phenyl Sepharose. The specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase after the hydrophobic chromatography increased by 215.5-fold and the yield was 16%. The molecular weight of the active enzyme was 59 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 59-kDa leucine aminopeptidase revealed that this protein has at least 41% homology with the cytosol leucine aminopeptidase produced by Bacillus cereus. Maximal leucine aminopeptidase activity occurred at 65 degrees C, pH 10 toward leucine as the amino acid terminus. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by bestatin, dithiothreitol, and 1,10-phenanthroline, indicating that the enzyme might be considered as a metallo-aminopeptidase that has disulfide bonds at the catalytic site or at a region that influences its configuration. Examination of the purified leucine aminopeptidase's effect on the activation of the protoxin Cyt1Aa from Bti revealed that when it acts synergistically with Bti endogenous proteases, it has only a minor role in the processing of Cyt1Aa into an active toxin.

  8. Lack of protective efficacy in buffaloes vaccinated with Fasciola gigantica leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Raina, O K; Nagar, Gaurav; Varghese, Anju; Prajitha, G; Alex, Asha; Maharana, B R; Joshi, P

    2011-06-01

    Gene coding for leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), a metalloprotease, was identified in the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica; that on sequence analysis showed a close homology (98.6%) with leucine aminopeptidase of the temperate liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. The recombinant leucine aminopeptidase protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. F. gigantica peroxiredoxin, a hydrogen peroxide scavenger and an immunomodulating protein, was also cloned and expressed in E. coli. A vaccination trial in buffaloes was conducted with these two recombinant proteins, with 150 and 300 μg of leucine aminopeptidase and a cocktail of 150 μg each of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin in three groups, respectively. Both Th1- and Th2-associated humoral immune responses were elicited to immunization with these antigens. A challenge study with 400 metacercariae did not show a significant protection in terms of reduction in the worm burden (8.4%) or anti-fecundity/embryonation effect in the immunized groups, as to the non-immunized control animals. Our observations in this buffalo vaccination trial are contrary to the earlier promise shown by leucine aminopeptidase of F. hepatica as a leading candidate vaccine molecule. Identification of leucine aminopeptidase gene and evaluation of the protein for its protective efficacy in buffaloes is the first scientific report on this protein in F. gigantica.

  9. New aminopeptidase from “microbial dark matter” archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Karolina; Steen, Andrew D.; Chhor, Gekleng; Endres, Michael; Webber, Austen T.; Bird, Jordan; Lloyd, Karen G.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments host a large population of diverse, heterotrophic, uncultured microorganisms with unknown physiologies that control carbon flow through organic matter decomposition. Recently, single-cell genomics uncovered new key players in these processes, such as the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group. These widespread archaea encode putative intra- and extracellular proteases for the degradation of detrital proteins present in sediments. Here, we show that one of these enzymes is a self-compartmentalizing tetrameric aminopeptidase with a preference for cysteine and hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the hydrolyzed peptide. The ability to perform detailed characterizations of enzymes from native subsurface microorganisms, without requiring that those organisms first be grown in pure culture, holds great promise for understanding key carbon transformations in the environment as well as identifying new enzymes for biomedical and biotechnological applications.—Michalska, K., Steen, A. D., Chhor, G., Endres, M., Webber, A. T., Bird, J., Lloyd, K. G., Joachimiak, A. New aminopeptidase from “microbial dark matter” archaeon. PMID:26062601

  10. Purification and Characterization of a Prolyl Aminopeptidase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    PubMed Central

    Bolumar, Tomás; Sanz, Yolanda; Aristoy, M.-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2003-01-01

    A prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) (EC 3.4.11.5) was isolated from the cell extract of Debaryomyces hansenii CECT12487. The enzyme was purified by selective fractionation with protamine and ammonium sulfate, followed by two chromatography steps, which included gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The PAP was purified 248-fold, with a recovery yield of 1.4%. The enzyme was active in a broad pH range (from 5 to 9.5), with pH and temperature optima at 7.5 and 45°C. The molecular mass was estimated to be around 370 kDa. The presence of inhibitors of serine and aspartic proteases, bestatin, puromycin, reducing agents, chelating agents, and different cations did not have any effect on the enzyme activity. Only iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and Hg2+, which are inhibitors of cysteine proteases, markedly reduced the enzyme activity. The Km for proline-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin was 40 μM. The enzyme exclusively hydrolyzed N-terminal-proline-containing substrates. This is the first report on the identification and purification of this type of aminopeptidase in yeast, which may contribute to the scarce knowledge about D. hansenii proteases and their possible roles in meat fermentation. PMID:12513999

  11. Short-term effect of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on aminopeptidase in adult rat jejunoileum. Site of aminopeptidase response.

    PubMed

    Raul, F; Goda, T; Gossé, F; Koldovský, O

    1987-10-15

    The short-term effects of high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on aminopeptidase N activity were studied in the brush-border membranes of proximal jejunum and proximal ileum of adult rats. The animals were starved overnight and re-fed for 15 h either with a standard diet (20% protein, 55% carbohydrate, in terms of energy content) or with a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet of equal energy content (70% protein, 5% carbohydrate). All rats consumed similar amounts of diet, and measurements were made 15 h after initiation of re-feeding. In the proximal jejunum a slight increase in aminopeptidase activity was observed after the high-protein intake. In contrast, considerable stimulation (52%) of the enzyme specific activity was obtained in the proximal ileum. This increase in ileal aminopeptidase activity was more prominent in the mature cells of the upper villus. To determine if the increase of aminopeptidase activity was due to an increased amount of enzyme protein, rocket immunoelectrophoresis was performed with detergent-solubilized brush-border protein from ileum on agarose gels containing anti-(rat brush-border) antiserum. When the same amount of enzyme activity was loaded on the gels, the peaks of immunoprecipitate for aminopeptidase were similar for animals fed on a standard or a high-protein diet. When the same amount of protein was loaded, the peak of immunoprecipitate for aminopeptidase was higher (81%) after a high-protein diet. These results showed that the high protein intake evoked an increase in aminopeptidase activity, with a concomitant increase in the amount of immunoreactive protein.

  12. CEN 34 - high-mass YSO in M 17 or background post-AGB star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Liu, Yao; Fang, Min; Jiang, Zhibo

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the proposed high-mass young stellar object (YSO) candidate CEN 34, thought to be associated with the star-forming region M 17. Its optical to near-infrared (550-2500 nm) spectrum reveals several photospheric absorption features, such as Hα, the Ca ii triplet, and the CO bandhead, but lacks emission lines. The spectral features in the range 8375-8770 Å are used to constrain an effective temperature Teff = 5250 ± 250 K (early-/mid-G) and a log g = 2.0 ± 0.3 (supergiant). The spectral energy distribution (SED) displays a faint infrared excess that resembles that of a high-mass YSO or an evolved star of intermediate mass. Moreover, the observed temperature and surface gravity are identical for high-mass YSOs and evolved stars. The radial velocity of CEN 34 relative to the local standard of rest (VLSR) as obtained from various photospheric lines is of the order of -60 km s-1 and thus distinct from the +25 km s-1 found for several OB stars in the cluster and for the associated molecular cloud. The SED modeling yields 10-4 M⊙ of circumstellar material, which contributes only a tiny fraction to the total visual extinction (11 mag). The distance of CEN 34 is between 2.0 kpc and 4.5 kpc. In the case of a YSO, a dynamical ejection process is proposed to explain the VLSR difference between CEN 34 and M 17. Additionally, to match the temperature and luminosity, we speculate that CEN 34 had accumulated the bulk of its mass with an accretion rate >4 × 10-3M⊙/yr over a very short time span (~103 yrs), and it is currently undergoing a phase of gravitational contraction without any further mass gain. However, all the aforementioned characteristics of CEN 34 are compatible with an evolved star of 5-7 M⊙ and an age of 50-100 Myr, so it is most likely a background post-AGB star with a distance between 2.0 kpc and 4.5 kpc. We consider the latter classification as the more likely interpretation. Further discrimination of the two possible scenarios should come

  13. A model to assess lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidase activities in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M; De Dea Lindner, J; Gardini, F; Mucchetti, G; Bevacqua, D; Fornasari, M E; Neviani, E

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate in which phases of ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidases present in cheese extract could be involved in release of free amino acids and to better understand the behavior of these enzymes in physical-chemical conditions that are far from their optimum. In particular, we evaluated 6 different substrates to reproduce broad-specificity aminopeptidase N, broad-specificity aminopeptidase C, glutamyl aminopeptidase A, peptidase with high specificity for leucine and alanine, proline iminopeptidase, and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activities releasing different N-terminal amino acids. The effects of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on the enzyme activities of amino acid beta-naphthylamide (betaNA)-substrates were determined by modulating the variables in 19 different runs of an experimental design, which allowed the building of mathematical models able to assess the effect on aminopeptidases activities over a range of values, obtained with bibliographic data, covering different environmental conditions in different zones of the cheese wheel at different aging times. The aminopeptidases tested in this work were present in cell-free Parmigiano Reggiano cheese extract after a 17-mo ripening and were active when tested in model system. The modeling approach shows that to highlight the individual and interactive effects of chemical-physical variables on enzyme activities, it is helpful to determine the true potential of an amino-peptidase in cheese. Our results evidenced that the 6 different lactic acid bacteria peptidases participate in cheese proteolysis and are induced or inhibited by the cheese production parameters that, in turn, depend on the cheese dimension. Generally, temperature and pH exerted the more relevant effects on the enzymatic activities, and in many cases, a relevant interactive effect of these variables was observed. Increasing salt concentration slowed down broad

  14. Influence of chronic ethanol intake on mouse synaptosomal aspartyl aminopeptidase and aminopeptidase A: relationship with oxidative stress indicators.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) and aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP) not only act as neuromodulators in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system, but also release N-terminal acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate). The hyperexcitability of amino acid neurotransmitters is responsible for several neurodegenerative processes affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of chronic ethanol intake, a well known neurotoxic compound, on APA and ASAP activity under resting and K(+)-stimulated conditions at the synapse level. APA and ASAP activity were determined against glutamate- and aspartate-β-naphthylamide respectively in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and in their incubation supernatant in a Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The neurotoxic effects were analyzed by determining free radical generation, peroxidation of membrane lipids and the oxidation of synaptosomal proteins. In addition, the bioenergetic behavior of synaptosomes was analyzed under different experimental protocols. We obtained several modifications in oxidative stress parameters and a preferential inhibitor effect of chronic ethanol intake on APA and ASAP activities. Although previous in vitro studies failed to show signs of neurodegeneration, these in vivo modifications in oxidative stress parameters do not seem to be related to changes in APA and ASAP, invalidating the idea that an excess of free acidic amino acids released by APA and ASAP induces neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroxamate-induced spectral perturbations of cobalt Aeromonas aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, S H; Prescott, J M

    1987-06-25

    The absorption spectrum of cobalt(II)-substituted Aeromonas aminopeptidase is markedly perturbed by the presence of equimolar concentrations of D-amino acid hydroxamates and acyl hydroxamates that have previously been shown to be powerful inhibitors of this enzyme (Wilkes, S. H., and Prescott, J. M. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 13517-13521). D-Valine hydroxamate produces the most distinctive perturbation, splitting the characteristic 527 nm absorption peak of the cobalt enzyme to form peaks at 564, 520, and 487 nm with molar extinction values of 126, 98, and 67 M-1 cm-1, respectively. A qualitatively similar perturbation, albeit with lower extinction values, results from the addition of D-leucine hydroxamate, whereas D-alanine hydroxamate perturbs the spectrum, but does not evoke the peak at 564 nm. In contrast, hydroxamates of L-valine and L-leucine in concentrations equi-molar to that of the enzyme produce only faint indications of change in the spectrum, but the hydroxamates of several other L-amino acids perturb the spectrum essentially independently of the identity of the side chain and in a qualitatively different manner from that of D-valine hydroxamate and D-leucine hydroxamate. At the high enzyme:substrate ratios used in the spectral experiments, L-leucine hydroxamate and L-valine hydroxamate proved to be rapidly hydrolyzed, hence their inability to perturb the spectrum of the cobalt-substituted enzyme during the time course of a spectral experiment. Values of kcat for L-amino acid hydroxamates, all of which are good reversible inhibitors of the hydrolysis of L-leucine-p-nitroanilide by Aeromonas aminopeptidase, were found to range from 0.01 min-1 to 5.6 min-1 for the native enzyme and from 0.27 min-1 to 108 min-1 for the cobalt-substituted enzyme; their km values toward the cobalt aminopeptidase range from 1.2 X 10(-7) M to 1.9 X 10(-5) M. The mutual exclusivity of binding for hydroxamate inhibitors and 1-butaneboronic acid, previously shown by kinetics

  16. Crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucine aminopeptidase, from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Natarajan, Sampath; Park, Hanseul; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Aminopeptidases are metalloproteinases that degrade N-terminal residues from protein and play important roles in cell growth and development by controlling cell homeostasis and protein maturation. We determined the crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucyl aminopeptidase, at 2.6 Å resolution from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing the destructive rice disease of bacterial blight. It is the first crystal structure of aminopeptidase from phytopathogens as a drug target. XoLAP existed as a hexamer and the monomer structure consisted of an N-terminal cap domain and a C-terminal peptidase domain with two divalent zinc ions. XoLAP structure was compared with BlLAP and EcLAP (EcPepA) structures. Based on the structural comparison, the molecular model of XoLAP in complex with the natural aminopeptidase inhibitor of microginin FR1 was proposed. The model structure will be useful to develop a novel antibacterial drug against Xoo.

  17. Superoxol and aminopeptidase tests for identification of pathogenic Neisseria species and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J L; Pulido, A; Gómez, E; Sauca, G; Martín, R

    1990-06-01

    The superoxol test, and prolyl aminopeptidase and gammaglutamyl aminopeptidase tests were evaluated for the detection of pathogenic Neisseria spp. using 317 strains of Neisseria-ceae. The superoxol test was positive for all 116 gonococci and 62 Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains, but also for three strains of Neisseria meningitidis, one strain of Neisseria lactamica and eight saprophytic neisseriae. When using strains grown on Thayer-Martin medium, the positive and negative predictive values of the superoxol test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were 96.7% and 100% respectively. Meningococci were the only neisseriae growing on Thayer-Martin medium that showed gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase activity. The prolyl aminopeptidase test showed low specificity.

  18. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of massive pre-main-sequence stars in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Tannus, Maria Claudia; Kaper, Lex

    2015-08-01

    The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Formation timescales are short, the corresponding accretion rates very high, and the forming stars are hidden from view due to vast amounts of interstellar extinction. On top of that, massive stars are rare, are located at relatively large distances, and play a major role in shaping the interstellar medium due to their strong UV radiation fields and stellar winds. Although massive stars show most spectral features in the UV and optical range, so far only for a handful of massive Young Stellar Objects (mYSOs) optical and near-infrared spectra have been obtained. For some of these their pre-main-sequence (PMS) nature has now been firmly established (e.g. Ochsendorf et al. 2011, Ellerbroek et al. 2013). The objective of our project is to determine the physical properties of mYSOs, to search for signatures remnant of their formation process and to better understand the feedback on their environment.To this aim the optical to near-infrared (300-2500 nm) spectra of six candidate mYSOs (Hanson et al. 1997), deeply embedded in the massive star forming region M17, have been obtained with X-Shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. These mYSO candidates have been identified based on their infrared excess and spectral features (double-peaked emission lines, CO band-head emission) indicating the presence of a disk. In most cases, we detect a photospheric spectrum allowing us to measure the physical properties of the mYSO and to confirm its PMS nature. We also uncover many emission features, including forbidden lines, providing information on the (active) formation process of these young (massive) stars.

  19. Serendipitous discovery of novel bacterial methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew; Walter, Richard L; Mekel, Marlene; Barnett, Bobby L; Amburgey, Jack; Seibel, William L; Soper, Shari J; Djung, Jane F; Fairweather, Neil; Diven, Conrad; Rastogi, Vinit; Grinius, Leo; Klanke, Charles; Siehnel, Richard; Twinem, Tracy; Andrews, Ryan; Curnow, Alan

    2007-02-15

    In this article we describe the application of structural biology methods to the discovery of novel potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidases. These enzymes are employed by the cells to cleave the N-terminal methionine from nascent peptides and proteins. As this is one of the critical steps in protein maturation, it is very likely that inhibitors of these enzymes may prove useful as novel antibacterial agents. Involvement of crystallography at the very early stages of the inhibitor design process resulted in serendipitous discovery of a new inhibitor class, the pyrazole-diamines. Atomic-resolution structures of several inhibitors bound to the enzyme illuminate a new mode of inhibitor binding. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Novel leucine ureido derivatives as aminopeptidase N inhibitors. Design, synthesis and activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Cao, Jiangying; Liang, Xuewu; Huang, Yongxue; Wu, Ping; Li, Yingxia; Xu, Wenfang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-01-27

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) over-expressed on tumor cells and tumor microenvironment, plays critical roles in tumor invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Here we described the design, synthesis and preliminary activity studies of novel leucine ureido derivatives as aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) inhibitors. The results showed that compound 7a had the most potent inhibitory activity against APN with the IC50 value of 20 nM, which could be used for further anticancer agent research.

  1. Role of leukotriene A4 hydrolase aminopeptidase in the pathogenesis of emphysema1

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Mikell; Wang, Kan; Burdick, Marie; Park, Sunhye; Cha, Josiah; Jeffrey, Erin; Sherman, Nicholas; Shim, Y. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) is a bi-functional enzyme with an epoxy hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities. We hypothesize that the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity alleviates neutrophilic inflammation, which contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema by clearing Proline-Glycine-Proline (PGP), a tri-amino acid chemokine known to induce chemotaxis of neutrophils. To investigate the biological contributions made by the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity in CS-induced emphysema, we exposed wild type mice to CS over five months while treating them with a vehicle or a pharmaceutical agent (4MDM) that selectively augments the LTA4H aminopeptidase without affecting the bio-production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Emphysematous phenotypes were assessed by pre mortem lung physiology with a small animal ventilator and by postmortem histologic morphometry. CS exposure acidified the airspaces and induced localization of the LTA4H protein into the nuclei of the epithelial cells. This resulted in accumulation of PGP in the airspaces by suppressing the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity. When the LTA4H aminopeptidase activity was selectively augmented by 4MDM, the levels of PGP in the BALF and infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs were significant reduced without affecting the levels of LTB4. This protected murine lungs from CS-induced emphysematous alveolar remodeling. In conclusion, CS exposure promotes the development of CS-induced emphysema by suppressing the enzymatic activities of the LTA4H aminopeptidase in lung tissues and accumulating PGP and neutrophils in the airspaces. However, restoring the LTA4 aminopeptidase activity with a pharmaceutical agent protected murine lungs from developing CS-induced emphysema. PMID:24771855

  2. Amino-benzosuberone: a novel warhead for selective inhibition of human aminopeptidase-N/CD13.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Sébastien; Al-Lakkis-Wehbe, Mira; Orsini, Alban; Defoin, Albert; Pale, Patrick; Salomon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Céline; Weibel, Jean-Marc

    2011-02-15

    This paper describes the design and synthesis of compounds belonging to a novel class of highly selective mammalian CD13 inhibitors. Racemic homologues of 3-amino-2-tetralone 1 were synthesised and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit the membrane-bound, zinc-dependent aminopeptidase-N/CD13 (EC 3.4.11.2). Some of these novel non-peptidic compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of the mammalian enzyme, with K(i) values in the low micromolar range in spite of their minimal size (MW <200 Da). Moreover, they show an interesting selectivity profile against representative members of the aminopeptidase family, that is leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1), Aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.10) and the aminopeptidase activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (EC 3.3.2.6). The amino-benzosuberone derivative 4 is the most promising compound in terms of potency, stability and selectivity. A hypothetical binding mode of 4 to the catalytic zinc and several conserved active site residues is proposed, based on the observed structure-activity relationships, structural insights from aminopeptidase-N homologues of known three-dimensional structure.

  3. Identification of the structural gene for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscV (DAP2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Suárez Rendueles, P; Wolf, D H

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscV were isolated from a strain already defective in dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscIV, an enzyme with overlapping substrate specificity. The mutants were identified by a staining technique with the chromogenic substrate Ala-Pro-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide to screen colonies for the absence of the enzyme. One of the mutants had a thermolabile activity, indicating that it contained a structural gene mutation. The 53 mutants analyzed fell into one complementation group that corresponded to the yscV structural gene, DAP2. The defect segregated 2:2 in meiotic tetrads, indicating a single chromosomal gene mutation, which was shown to be recessive. Diploids heterozygous for DAP2 displayed gene dosage effects with respect to yscV enzyme activity. The absence of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscV or the combined loss of both dipeptidyl aminopeptidases yscIV and yscV did not affect mitotic growth under rich or poor growth conditions. In contrast to the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscIV lesion (ste13), which leads to alpha sterility because strains secrete incompletely processed forms of the alpha-factor pheromone, the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase yscV lesion did not affect mating, and strains produced fully active alpha-factor pheromone. dap2 mutants did not show any obvious phenotype under a variety of conditions tested. PMID:3305478

  4. New insights into the role of aminopeptidases in the treatment for both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Shigehiko; Tsunemi, Taihei; Mizutani, Eita; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Evidence elucidating the pathophysiology and pharmacology of conventional drugs, β-2 stimulants and magnesium sulfate, on safety and effectiveness for preeclampsia and preterm labor are rarely found. Both compounds pass through the placental barrier and could exert their adverse effects on the fetus. Exposure to these agents could be problematic long after the birth, and possibly result in diseases such as autism and cardiomyopathy. Since 1970 the possible roles of placental aminopeptidases, which degrade peptide hormones, in preeclampsia and preterm labor have been studied. Many studies reveal that the fetus secretes peptide hormones, such as angiotensin II, vasopressin, and oxytocin, under hypoxia (stress) during the course of its growth, suggesting the critical effects these hormones have during pregnancy. The roles of placental aminopeptidases, the enzymes which degrade fetal hormones without passing through the placental barrier, were clarified. A first-step production system for recombinant aminopeptidases was established, by which engineered recombinant aminopeptidases were used for further experiments testing expected efficacy on controlling the level of hormones. The authors conclude that both aminopeptidase A and placental leucine aminopeptidase could be potentially safe and effective drugs for patients and their babies in the treatment of preeclampsia and preterm labor.

  5. Synergistic action of an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase and a non-specific aminopeptidase in protein hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Byun, T; Kofod, L; Blinkovsky, A

    2001-04-01

    Non-specific monoaminopeptidase (AP; E.C. 3.4.11) and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; E.C. 3.4.14.5), both from Aspergillus oryzae, demonstrate strong synergism in hydrolyzing proline-containing peptides. Incubation of AP alone with the peptide Ala-Pro-Gly-Asp-Arg-Ile-Tyr-Val-His-Pro-Phe does not generate free amino acids. However, when AP and X-PDAP are added in combination, complete and immediate hydrolysis of all peptide bonds, other than X-Pro bonds, is observed. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of casein, soy, and gluten, degree of hydrolysis (DH) values of 54, 54, and 47% were achieved, respectively, when subtilisin (E.C. 3.4.21.62) was supplemented with AP. Addition of a third enzyme, X-PDAP, resulted in significantly higher DH values of 69, 72, and 64%, respectively, establishing the utility of this synergism in protein hydrolysis.

  6. [Comparative study of effects of Escherichia coli M-17 exometabolites and fructooligosaccharides on the growth and antagonistic activity of Lactobacilli].

    PubMed

    Vakkhitov, T Ia; Dobrolezh, O V; Petrov, L N; Verbitskaia, N B; Zadaura, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    Facts concerning the evaluation of the influence of E. coli M17 exometabolites and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the growth and antagonistic activity of lactobacilli are presented. As revealed by these facts, preparation "Aktoflor" accelerates the growth of lactobacillary cultures, increases the final yield of biomass and antagonistic activity. E. coli M17 exometabolites contained in "Aktoflor" have been shown to be more active in comparison with FOS. The character of their influence on lactobacilli is discussed and the conclusion is made that the restoration and maintenance of eubiosis is greatly determined by the pool of metabolites excreted by the bacteria.

  7. Biochemical and enzymatic properties of the M1 family of aminopeptidases involved in the regulation of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Goto, Yoshikuni; Maruyama, Masato; Hattori, Akira

    2008-09-01

    It is becoming evident that several aminopeptidases belonging to the M1 family such as aminopeptidase A (APA), placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), and adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP) play important roles in the regulation of blood pressure under both the physiological and pathological conditions. They share HEXXH(X)(18)E zinc-binding and GAMEN motifs essential for enzymatic activities. In this review, the current situation regarding the biochemical characteristics of these enzymes including enzymatic properties and modes of action is summarized.

  8. Modeling the NIR-silhouette massive disk candidate in M 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Chini, R.; Nielbock, M.; Nürnberger, D.; Hoffmeister, V.; Huré, J.-M.; Semenov, D.

    2006-09-01

    Aims.The physical properties of the massive disk candidate in the star-forming region M 17 are analyzed. Methods: .Making use of the rare configuration in which the gas and dust structure is seen in silhouette against the background radiation at λ=2.2~μm, we determine the column density distribution from a high-resolution NAOS/CONICA image. The influence of scattered light on the mass determination is analyzed using 3D radiative transfer calculations. Further upper flux limits derived from observations with the Spitzer telescope at MIR wavelengths are used together with the NACO image to estimate the flux from the central object. For a range of stellar radii, stellar surface temperatures, and dust grain sizes, we apply three different models to account for the observed fluxes. The stability of the disk against self-gravitational forces is analyzed calculating the ratio of the gravitational acceleration by the central object and the disk, and the deviations from a Keplerian profile. Results: .We find that the column density is consistent with a central source surrounded by a rotationally symmetric distribution of gas and dust. The extent of the symmetric disk part is about 3000 AU, with a warped point-symmetrical extension beyond that radius, and therefore larger than any circumstellar disk yet detected. The modeling yields a radial density powerlaw exponent of -1.1 indicating a flat radial density distribution, and a large e-folding scale height ratio H/R of about 0.5. The mass of the entire disk estimated from the column density is discussed depending on the assumed distance and the dust model and ranges between 0.02 and 5 M⊙. We conclude that unless a star is located close to the disk in the foreground, scattered light will have little influence on the mass determination. We present a Spitzer image taken at λ=7.8~μm with the disk seen in emission and identify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission on the disk surface excited by the nearby massive

  9. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  10. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  11. Characterization of an N-glycosylated Bacillus subtilis leucine aminopeptidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongxing; Tian, Yaping; Zhou, Nandi; Zhou, Zhemin; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Aminopeptidase is an important flavorsome especially in protein hydrolysate debittering by removing hydrophobic amino acid residue at the N-terminal end. Besides, it is also applied to preparation of active peptides and analysis of protein sequence. In this study, leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris, a widely used heterologous protein expression host. Then it was purified and characterized. After methanol induction for 96 h, the aminopeptidase activity in culture supernatant reached 28.4 U ml(À1) , which was 7.1 times that of wild strain B. subtilis Zj016. The optimal temperature and pH of the purified recombinant enzyme were 60 °C and 8.5, respectively. The purified aminopeptidase was stable within 30-60 °C and pH 8.0-9.0. It was intensively inhibited by Ni(2β) , Ca(2β) , DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), but activated by Co(2β) . The Km toward leucine-p-nitroanilines (Leu-pNA) of the enzyme was 0.97 mM. The sequence analysis of aminopeptidase indicated three potential N-glycosylation sites and it was further verified via MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Consequently, the N-glycosylated aminopeptidase exhibited higher thermostability and catalytic efficiency. The purified enzyme exhibited two bands through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while a single band can be identified when the enzyme was deglycosylated. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of recombinant aminopeptidase was similar to the wild-type.

  12. Cytosolic aminopeptidases influence MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation in an allele-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Kwak, Heechun; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2009-12-01

    Antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are generated mainly by the proteasome in the cytosol. Several cytosolic aminopeptidases further trim proteasomal products to form mature epitopes or individual amino acids. However, the distinct function of cytosolic aminopeptidases in MHC class I Ag processing remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that cytosolic aminopeptidases differentially affect the cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules in an allele-dependent manner in human cells. In HeLa cells, knockdown of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) by RNA interference inhibited optimal peptide loading of MHC class I molecules, and their cell surface expression was correspondingly reduced. In contrast, depletion of bleomycin hydrolase (BH) enhanced optimal peptide loading and cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules. We did not find evidence on the effect of leucine aminopeptidase knockdown on the MHC class I Ag presentation. Moreover, we demonstrated that PSA and BH influence the peptide loading and surface expression of MHC class I in an allele-specific manner. In the absence of either PSA or BH, the surface expression and peptide-dependent stability of HLA-A68 were reduced, whereas those of HLA-B15 were enhanced. The surface expression and peptide-dependent stability of HLA-A3 were enhanced by BH knockdown, although those of HLA-B8 were increased in PSA-depleted conditions.

  13. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera midgut digestive physiology after ingestion of pigeon pea inducible leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Jadhav, Bhakti R; Giri, Ashok P; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory.

  14. Functional characterization of two M42 aminopeptidases erroneously annotated as cellulases.

    PubMed

    Dutoit, Raphaël; Brandt, Nathalie; Legrain, Christianne; Bauvois, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Several aminopeptidases of the M42 family have been described as tetrahedral-shaped dodecameric (TET) aminopeptidases. A current hypothesis suggests that these enzymes are involved, along with the tricorn peptidase, in degrading peptides produced by the proteasome. Yet the M42 family remains ill defined, as some members have been annotated as cellulases because of their homology with CelM, formerly described as an endoglucanase of Clostridium thermocellum. Here we describe the catalytic functions and substrate profiles CelM and of TmPep1050, the latter having been annotated as an endoglucanase of Thermotoga maritima. Both enzymes were shown to catalyze hydrolysis of nonpolar aliphatic L-amino acid-pNA substrates, the L-leucine derivative appearing as the best substrate. No significant endoglucanase activity was measured, either for TmPep1050 or CelM. Addition of cobalt ions enhanced the activity of both enzymes significantly, while both the chelating agent EDTA and bestatin, a specific inhibitor of metalloaminopeptidases, proved inhibitory. Our results strongly suggest that one should avoid annotating members of the M42 aminopeptidase family as cellulases. In an updated assessment of the distribution of M42 aminopeptidases, we found TET aminopeptidases to be distributed widely amongst archaea and bacteria. We additionally observed that several phyla lack both TET and tricorn. This suggests that other complexes may act downstream from the proteasome.

  15. Alterations in the Helicoverpa armigera Midgut Digestive Physiology after Ingestion of Pigeon Pea Inducible Leucine Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Lomate, Purushottam R.; Jadhav, Bhakti R.; Giri, Ashok P.; Hivrale, Vandana K.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonate inducible plant leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is proposed to serve as direct defense in the insect midgut. However, exact functions of inducible plant LAPs in the insect midgut remain to be estimated. In the present investigation, we report the direct defensive role of pigeon pea inducible LAP in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and responses of midgut soluble aminopeptidases and serine proteinases upon LAP ingestion. Larval growth and survival was significantly reduced on the diets supplemented with pigeon pea LAP. Aminopeptidase activities in larvae remain unaltered in presence or absence of inducible LAP in the diet. On the contrary, serine proteinase activities were significantly decreased in the larvae reared on pigeon pea LAP containing diet as compared to larvae fed on diet without LAP. Our data suggest that pigeon pea inducible LAP is responsible for the degradation of midgut serine proteinases upon ingestion. Reduction in the aminopeptidase activity with LpNA in the H. armigera larvae was compensated with an induction of aminopeptidase activity with ApNA. Our findings could be helpful to further dissect the roles of plant inducible LAPs in the direct plant defense against herbivory. PMID:24098675

  16. Pyridinylquinazolines Selectively Inhibit Human Methionine Aminopeptidase-1 in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feiran; Bhat, Shridhar; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Chen, Xiaochun; Miller, Michelle S.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Cheng, Yim Ling; Meyers, David J.; Tenney, Karen; Shim, Joong Sup; Crews, Phillip; Amzel, L. Mario; Ma, Dawei; Liu, Jun O.

    2013-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) which remove the initiator methionine from nascent peptides are essential in all organisms. While MetAP2 has been demonstrated to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting angiogenesis in mammals, MetAP1 seems to be vital for cell proliferation. Our earlier efforts identified two structural classes of human MetAP1 (HsMetAP1)-selective inhibitors (1–4). But all of them failed to inhibit cellular HsMetAP1. Using Mn(II) or Zn(II) to activate HsMetAP1, we found that 1–4 could only effectively inhibit purified HsMetAP1 in the presence of physiologically unachievable concentrations of Co(II). In an effort to seek Co(II)-independent inhibitors, a novel structural class containing a 2-(pyridin-2-yl)quinazoline core has been discovered. Many compounds in this class potently and selectively inhibited HsMetAP1 without Co(II). Subsequently, we demonstrated that 11j, an auxiliary metal-dependent inhibitor, effectively inhibited HsMetAP1 in primary cells. This is the first report that an HsMetAP1-selective inhibitor is effective against its target in cells. PMID:23634668

  17. Inhibition of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) by Arylsulfonamides

    PubMed Central

    Borhade, Sanjay R; Rosenström, Ulrika; Sävmarker, Jonas; Lundbäck, Thomas; Jenmalm-Jensen, Annika; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Axelsson, Hanna; Svensson, Fredrik; Konda, Vivek; Sköld, Christian; Larhed, Mats; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP, EC 3.4.11.3) by angiotenesin IV is known to improve memory and learning in rats. Screening 10 500 low-molecular-weight compounds in an enzyme inhibition assay with IRAP from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells provided an arylsulfonamide (N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-4-bromo-5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonamide), comprising a tetrazole in the meta position of the aromatic ring, as a hit. Analogues of this hit were synthesized, and their inhibitory capacities were determined. A small structure–activity relationship study revealed that the sulfonamide function and the tetrazole ring are crucial for IRAP inhibition. The inhibitors exhibited a moderate inhibitory potency with an IC50=1.1±0.5 μm for the best inhibitor in the series. Further optimization of this new class of IRAP inhibitors is required to make them attractive as research tools and as potential cognitive enhancers. PMID:25558444

  18. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Methionine Aminopeptidases by Bengamide Derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jing-Ping; Yuan, Xiu-Hua; Yuan, Hai; Wang, Wen-Long; Wan, Baojie; Franzblau, Scott G.; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2012-05-29

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an essential function of protein N-terminal processing in many bacteria and is a promising target for the development of novel antitubercular agents. Natural bengamides potently inhibit the proliferation of mammalian cells by targeting MetAP enzymes, and the X-ray crystal structure of human type 2 MetAP in complex with a bengamide derivative reveals the key interactions at the active site. By preserving the interactions with the conserved residues inside the binding pocket while exploring the differences between bacterial and human MetAPs around the binding pocket, seven bengamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c in different metalloforms, inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in replicating and non-replicating states, and inhibition of human K562 cell growth. Potent inhibition of MtMetAP1a and MtMetAP1c and modest growth inhibition of M. tuberculosis were observed for some of these derivatives. Crystal structures of MtMetAP1c in complex with two of the derivatives provided valuable structural information for improvement of these inhibitors for potency and selectivity.

  19. Structural Insights into Central Hypertension Regulation by Human Aminopeptidase A*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Lin, Yi-Lun; Li, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is regulated through both the central and systemic renin-angiotensin systems. In the central renin-angiotensin system, zinc-dependent aminopeptidase A (APA) up-regulates blood pressure by specifically cleaving the N-terminal aspartate, but not the adjacent arginine, from angiotensin II, a process facilitated by calcium. Here, we determined the crystal structures of human APA and its complexes with different ligands and identified a calcium-binding site in the S1 pocket of APA. Without calcium, the S1 pocket can bind both acidic and basic residues through formation of salt bridges with the charged side chains. In the presence of calcium, the binding of acidic residues is enhanced as they ligate the cation, whereas the binding of basic residues is no longer favorable due to charge repulsion. Of the peptidomimetic inhibitors of APA, amastatin has higher potency than bestatin by fitting better in the S1 pocket and interacting additionally with the S3′ subsite. These results explain the calcium-modulated substrate specificity of APA in central hypertension regulation and can guide the design and development of brain-targeting antihypertensive APA inhibitors. PMID:23888046

  20. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lorena; Sanz, Begoña; Perez, Itxaro; Sánchez, Clara E; Cándenas, M Luz; Pinto, Francisco M; Gil, Javier; Casis, Luis; López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka

    2014-05-30

    Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms.

  1. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. Methods In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. Results GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. Conclusions This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms. PMID:24885240

  2. Partial purification and characterization of an aminopeptidase from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Miska, K B; Barfield, R C

    2005-12-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated the expression in Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts of an aminopeptidase (AP) with strong homology to AP N. To further understand the role of proteases during development, we investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of E. tenella AP. Greater than 95% AP activity was present in a soluble extract during sporulation of oocysts with highest activity in fully sporulated oocysts. The AP activity was inhibited by the AP inhibitors bestatin and 1,6-phenanthroline, but not by serine protease inhibitors. The AP had specificity for synthetic endopeptidase substrates that contain arginine, alanine, or glycine at the N terminus. Partial purification of the enzyme yielded a major protein band with an Mr of about 106 kDa and an isoelectric point (Ip) of 5.1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the gene for AP is expressed during sporulation, but expression is absent or greatly reduced in the sporozoites and merozoites. On the basis of the deduced gene structure, the predicted Mr is 110 kDa with a pI of 5.59. Database search indicates that the E. tenella AP shares significant homology with the AP from Apicomplexan taxa: Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis. Together, these results confirm the presence of a cytosolic AP related to AP N, which is expressed and active during sporulation of E. tenella oocysts.

  3. Pyridinylquinazolines selectively inhibit human methionine aminopeptidase-1 in cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feiran; Bhat, Shridhar; Gabelli, Sandra B; Chen, Xiaochun; Miller, Michelle S; Nacev, Benjamin A; Cheng, Yim Ling; Meyers, David J; Tenney, Karen; Shim, Joong Sup; Crews, Phillip; Amzel, L Mario; Ma, Dawei; Liu, Jun O

    2013-05-23

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs), which remove the initiator methionine from nascent peptides, are essential in all organisms. While MetAP2 has been demonstrated to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting angiogenesis in mammals, MetAP1 seems to be vital for cell proliferation. Our earlier efforts identified two structural classes of human MetAP1 (HsMetAP1)-selective inhibitors (1-4), but all of them failed to inhibit cellular HsMetAP1. Using Mn(II) or Zn(II) to activate HsMetAP1, we found that 1-4 could only effectively inhibit purified HsMetAP1 in the presence of physiologically unachievable concentrations of Co(II). In an effort to seek Co(II)-independent inhibitors, a novel structural class containing a 2-(pyridin-2-yl)quinazoline core has been discovered. Many compounds in this class potently and selectively inhibited HsMetAP1 without Co(II). Subsequently, we demonstrated that 11j, an auxiliary metal-dependent inhibitor, effectively inhibited HsMetAP1 in primary cells. This is the first report that an HsMetAP1-selective inhibitor is effective against its target in cells.

  4. Characterization and subcellular localization of aminopeptidases in senescing barley leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, S. S.; Choe, H. T.; Rausser, S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Four aminopeptidases (APs) were separated using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell-free extracts and the stromal fractions of isolated chloroplasts prepared from primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var Numar) leaves. Activities were identified using a series of aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamide derivatives as substrates. AP1, 2, and 3 were found in the stromal fraction of isolated chloroplasts with respective molecular masses of 66.7, 56.5, and 54.6 kilodaltons. AP4 was found only in the cytoplasmic fraction. No AP activity was found in vacuoles of these leaves. It was found that 50% of the L-Leu-beta-naphthylamide and 25% of the L-Arg-beta-naphthylamide activities were localized in the chloroplasts. Several AP activities were associated with the membranes of the thylakoid fraction of isolated chloroplasts. AP1, 2, and 4 reacted against a broad range of substrates, whereas AP3 hydrolyzed only L-Arg-beta-naphthylamide. Only AP2 hydrolyzed L-Val-beta-naphthylamide. Since AP2 and AP3 were the only ones reacting against Val-beta-naphthylamide and Arg-beta-naphthylamide, respectively, several protease inhibitors were tested against these substrates using a stromal fraction from isolated chloroplasts as the source of the two APs. Both APs were sensitive to both metallo and sulfhydryl type inhibitors. Although AP activity decreased as leaves senesced, no new APs appeared on gels during senescence and none disappeared.

  5. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Tchorbanov, Bozhidar; Marinova, Margarita; Grozeva, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45°C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%). Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40%) obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value) demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value) after both treatments were free of bitterness. PMID:21876793

  6. A role for aminopeptidase N in Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport in bovine renal brush-border membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Plakidou-Dymock, S; Tanner, M J; McGivan, J D

    1993-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody FD19 which removes reconstitutable Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity from solubilized bovine renal brush-border membrane vesicles was found to react specifically with the enzyme aminopeptidase N. Cleavage of aminopeptidase N from the membranes with papain inhibited Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport activity without affecting that of alpha-methyl D-glucoside. Removal of aminopeptidase substantially increased the Km values for the Na(+)-dependent transport of alanine, glutamine, leucine and phenylalanine without affecting the Vmax. Both Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport and aminopeptidase activity in intact vesicles were competitively inhibited by amino acids with very similar specificity. These results suggest that the amino acid-binding sites of aminopeptidase N and the transporter interact in some way to increase the Km of the transport process for its substrates. However, independent direct inactivation of the transport system by papain cannot be ruled out. Images Figure 1 PMID:8094953

  7. Alteration of leucine aminopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2 to phenylalanine aminopeptidase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Arima, Jiro; Uesugi, Yoshiko; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hatanaka, Tadashi

    2005-11-01

    To tailor leucine aminopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2 (SSAP) to become a convenient biocatalyst, we are interested in Phe221 of SSAP, which is thought to interact with the side chain of the N-terminal residue of the substrate. By using saturation mutagenesis, the feasibility of altering the performance of SSAP was evaluated. The hydrolytic activities of 19 mutants were investigated using aminoacyl p-nitroanilide (pNA) derivatives as substrates. Replacement of Phe221 resulted in changes in the activities of all the mutants. Three of these mutants, F221G, F221A, and F221S, specifically hydrolyzed L-Phe-pNA, and F221I SSAP exhibited hydrolytic activity with L-Leu-pNA exceeding that of the wild type. Although the hydrolytic activities with peptide substrates decreased, the hydrolytic activities with amide and methyl ester substrates were proportional to the changes in the hydrolytic activities with pNA derivatives. Furthermore, based on a comparative kinetic study, the mechanism underlying the alteration in the preference of SSAP from leucine to phenylalanine is discussed.

  8. Enumeration of starter cultures during yogurt production using Petrifilm AC plates associated with acidified MRS and M17 broths.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marília M; Freitas, Rosangela; Nero, Luís A; Carvalho, Antônio F

    2009-05-01

    The efficiency of Petrifilm AC (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, MN, USA) associated with the broths M17 and de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) at pH 5.4 was evaluated to enumerate Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the yogurt production. Commercial and reference strains of these microorganisms were experimentally inoculated in nonfat milk and incubated at 42 degrees C for 4 h for yogurt production. At the moment of inoculation and after incubation, aliquots were collected, submitted to dilution using the broths M17 and MRS at pH 5.4, and plated for Strep. salivarius and Lb. bulgaricus enumeration according ISO 9232 and at Petrifilm AC plates, respectively. M17 plates were incubated at 42 degrees C, and MRS plates were incubated at 35 degrees C under anaerobiosis. After 48 h, the formed colonies were enumerated and the counts were compared by correlation and analysis of variance (P<0.05). In addition, colonies were randomly selected from all plates and characterized according to Gram staining and morphology. The obtained results indicated that Petrifilm AC plates associated to M17 and MRS at pH 5.4 can be considered as a suitable alternative for Strep. salivarius and Lb. bulgaricus enumeration during yogurt production, with slight interferences due to the acidity of MRS at the moment of inoculation, and due to the acidity of yogurt at the end of fermentation process. It was also observed that the MRS at pH 5.4 was not sufficiently selective for Lb. delbrueckii enumeration, despite it is indicated by the official protocol from ISO 9232.

  9. Morphological and functional differentiation in BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells by treatment with Trans-retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions and neurotoxicity. The clonal human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cell line is known to differentiate into a more prominent neuronal cell type by treatment with trans-retinoic acid. However, there is a lack of information on the morphological and functional aspects of these differentiated cells. Results We studied the effects of trans-retinoic acid treatment on (a) some differentiation marker proteins, (b) types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels and (c) Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter ([3H] glycine) release in cultured BE(2)-M17 cells. Cells treated with 10 μM trans-retinoic acid (RA) for 72 hrs exhibited marked changes in morphology to include neurite extensions; presence of P/Q, N and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels; and expression of neuron specific enolase (NSE), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (nAChR-α7) and other neuronal markers. Moreover, retinoic acid treated cells had a significant increase in evoked Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release capacity. In toxicity studies of the toxic gas, phosgene (CG), that differentiation of M17 cells with RA was required to see the changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations following exposure to CG. Conclusion Taken together, retinoic acid treated cells had improved morphological features as well as neuronal characteristics and functions; thus, these retinoic acid differentiated BE(2)-M17 cells may serve as a better neuronal model to study neurobiology and/or neurotoxicity. PMID:23597229

  10. Leucine aminopeptidase: an inducible component of the defense response in Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato).

    PubMed

    Pautot, V; Holzer, F M; Reisch, B; Walling, L L

    1993-11-01

    A leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) cDNA clone (DR57) that was induced in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. tomato) infection was isolated using a subtractive hybridization-enriched cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blot analysis showed that the tomato genome had two leucine aminopeptidase genes. The levels of DR57 mRNAs after P.s. tomato infection and mechanical wounding were determined in two inbred tomato lines that exhibit susceptibility and resistance to P.s. tomato. DR57 mRNAs were detected 12 hours after infection and 4 hours after wounding. Furthermore, DR57 mRNAs were systemically induced in response to wounding. DR57 mRNAs were induced in leaves after Spodoptera littoralis feeding but were not detected in detached leaf controls. Possible roles for the DR57 leucine aminopeptidase in the defense reactions are discussed.

  11. An Aminopeptidase in the Drosophila Testicular Niche Acts in Germline Stem Cell Maintenance and Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cindy; Gandhi, Shiv; Biniossek, Martin L; Feng, Lijuan; Schilling, Oliver; Urban, Siniša; Chen, Xin

    2015-10-13

    Extrinsic cues from the niche are known to regulate adult stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation. Here, we report that an aminopeptidase Slamdance (Sda) acts in the Drosophila testicular niche to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) and regulate progenitor germ cell dedifferentiation. Mutations in sda lead to dramatic testicular niche deterioration and stem cell loss. Recombinant Sda has specific aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and the in vivo function of Sda requires an intact aminopeptidase domain. Sda is required for accumulation of mature DE-cadherin, and overexpression of DE-cadherin rescues most sda mutant phenotypes, suggesting that DE-cadherin is an important target of Sda. Finally, Sda is both necessary and sufficient to promote dedifferentiation during aging and recovery from genetically manipulated depletion of GSCs. Together, our results suggest that a niche factor promotes both stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell dedifferentiation.

  12. Computer-aided design and activity prediction of leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grembecka, J.; Sokalski, W. A.; Kafarski, P.

    2000-08-01

    The Ligand Design (LUDI) approach has been used in order to design leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors, predict their activity and analyze their interactions with the enzyme. The investigation was based on the crystal structure of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) complexed with its inhibitor - the phosphonic acid analogue of leucine (LeuP). More than 50 potential leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors have been obtained, including the most potent aminophosphonic LAP inhibitors with experimentally known activity, which have been the subject of more detailed studies. A reasonable agreement between theoretical and experimental activities has been obtained for most of the studied inhibitors. Our results confirm that LUDI is a powerful tool for the design of enzyme inhibitors as well as in the prediction of their activity. In addition, for inhibitor-active site interactions dominated by the electrostatic effects it is possible to improve binding energy estimates by using a more accurate description of inhibitor charge distribution.

  13. Thiolation of polycarbophil enhances its inhibition of intestinal brush border membrane bound aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Zarti, H; Walker, G F

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of polycarbophil-cysteine conjugates (PCP-Cys) as an oral excipient to protect leucine enkephalin (leu-enkp) from enzymatic degradation by the intestinal mucosa. Cysteine was covalently linked to polycarbophil by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC). Inhibitory activity was tested towards isolated aminopeptidase N and excised intact pig intestinal mucosa, with native mucus. Aminopeptidase N activity was assayed spectrophotometrically using L-leucine p-nitroanilide (leu-pNA) as a synthetic substrate and against the model peptide drug leu-enkp, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Free cysteine at 6.3 and 63 microM (pH 6) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited aminopeptidase N activity, and PCP-Cys (0.25% w/v, pH 6) had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater inhibitory effect than PCP on the aminopeptidase N activity towards both substrates. PCP-Cys completely protected leu-enkp against aminopeptidase N activity over a 2-h incubation period, whereas 83 +/- 4 and 60 +/- 7% remained stable in the presence of PCP and buffer only, respectively. Leu-enkp in the absence and presence of PCP (0.25% w/v) at pH 6 was completely digested by the intact intestinal mucosa at the 60- and 90-min incubation time points, respectively, whereas in the presence of PCP-Cys (0.25% w/v, pH 6) 11 +/- 3.5% of leu-enkp remained at the 120-min time point. Thiolation of PCP increased the stability of leu-enkp against the enzymatic degradation by aminopeptidase N and the intact intestinal mucosa, identifying a promising new excipient for peroral delivery of peptides.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a leucyl aminopeptidase from three pathogenic Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Morty, Rory E; Morehead, Jennifer

    2002-07-19

    Aminopeptidases are emerging as exciting novel drug targets and vaccine candidates in parasitic infections. In this study, we describe for the first time an aminopeptidase from three highly pathogenic Leishmania species. Intronless genes encoding a leucyl aminopeptidase (lap) were cloned from Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania major, which encoded 60-kDa proteins that displayed homology to leucyl aminopeptidases from Gram-negative bacteria, plants, and mammals. The lap genes were present as a single copy in each genome, and lap mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-PCR in all life-cycle stages of L. amazonensis. Lap assembled into catalytically competent 360-kDa hexamers and demonstrated potent amidolytic activity against synthetic aminopeptidase substrates containing leucine, methionine, and cysteine residues, representing the most restricted substrate specificity of any leucyl aminopeptidase described to date. Optimal activity was observed against L-leucyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (k(cat)/K(m) approximately 63 s(-1) x mm(-1)) with a pH optimum of 8.5. Leishmania Lap activity was inhibited by metal ion chelators and enhanced by divalent manganese, cobalt, and nickel cations, although only zinc was detected in the purified Lap by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, indicating that zinc is the natural Lap cofactor. Activity was potently inhibited by bestatin and apstatin in a slow binding competitive fashion, with K(i)* values of 3 and 44 nm, respectively. Actinonin was a tight binding competitive inhibitor (K(i) approximately 1 nm), whereas arphamenine A (K(i) approximately 70 microm) and L-leucinol (K(i) approximately 100 microm) were non-tight binding competitive inhibitors. Lap was not secreted by Leishmania in vitro and was localized to the parasite cytosol.

  15. Aminopeptidase P Mediated Targeting for Breast Tissue Specific Conjugate Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Antoinette; Woodrick, Jordan; Grindrod, Scott; Zhang, Li; Saygideger-Kont, Yasemin; Wang, Kan; DeVito, Stephen; Daniele, Stefano G; Paige, Mikell; Brown, Milton L

    2016-09-21

    Cytotoxic chemotherapies are used to treat breast cancer, but are limited by systemic toxicity. The key to addressing this important issue is the development of a nontoxic, tissue selective, and molecular specific delivery system. In order to potentially increase the therapeutic index of clinical reagents, we designed an Aminopeptidase P (APaseP) targeting tissue-specific construct conjugated to a homing peptide for selective binding to human breast-derived cancer cells. Homing peptides are short amino acid sequences derived from phage display libraries that have the unique property of localizing to specific organs. Our molecular construct allows for tissue-specific drug delivery, by binding to APaseP in the vascular endothelium. The breast homing peptide evaluated in our studies is a cyclic nine-amino-acid peptide with the sequence CPGPEGAGC, referred to as PEGA. We show by confocal microscopy that the PEGA peptide and similar peptide conjugates distribute to human breast tissue xenograft specifically and evaluate the interaction with the membrane-bound proline-specific APaseP (KD = 723 ± 3 nM) by binding studies. To achieve intracellular breast cancer cell delivery, the incorporation of the Tat sequence, a cell-penetrating motif derived from HIV, was conjugated with the fluorescently labeled PEGA peptide sequence. Ultimately, tissue specific peptides and their conjugates can enhance drug delivery and treatment by their ability to discriminate between tissue types. Tissue specific conjugates as we have designed may be valuable tools for drug delivery and visualization, including the potential to treat breast cancer, while simultaneously minimizing systemic toxicity.

  16. Enhanced lysosomal activity by overexpressed aminopeptidase Y in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jihee; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains vacuoles corresponding to lysosomes in higher eukaryotes. Lysosomes are dynamic (not silent) organelles in which enzymes can be easily integrated or released when exposed to stressful conditions. Changes in lysosomal enzymes have been observed due to oxidative stress, resulting in an increased function of lysosomes. The protein profiles from H2O2- and NH4Cl-treated lysosomes showed different expression patterns, observed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The aminopeptidase Y protein (APE3) that conspicuously enhanced antimicrobial activity than other proteins was selected for further studies. The S. cerevisiae APE3 gene was isolated and inserted into pYES2.0 expression vector. The GFP gene was inserted downstream to the APE3 gene for confirmation of APE3 targeting to lysosomes, and S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP. The APE3 did not enter in lysosomes and formed an inclusion body at 30 °C, but it inserted to lysosomes as shown by the merger of GFP with lysosomes at 28 °C. Antimicrobial activity of the cloned S. cerevisiae increased about 5 to 10 % against eight strains, compared to normal cells, and galactose induction is increased more two folds than that of normal cells. Therefore, S. cerevisiae was transformed to pYES2::APE3::GFP, accumulating a large amount of APE3, resulting in increased lysosomal activity. Increase in endogenous levels of lysosomes and their activity following genetic modification can lead to its use in applications such as antimicrobial agents and apoptosis-inducing materials for cancer cells, and consequently, it may also be possible to use the organelles for improving in vitro functions.

  17. Regulation of auxin transport by aminopeptidases and endogenous flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A; Peer, W A; Taiz, L

    2000-08-01

    The 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-binding protein is a putative negative regulator of polar auxin transport that has been shown to block auxin efflux from both whole plant tissues and microsomal membrane vesicles. We previously showed that NPA is hydrolyzed by plasma-membrane amidohydrolases that co-localize with tyrosine, proline, and tryptophan-specific aminopeptidases (APs) in the cotyledonary node, hypocotyl-root transition zone and root distal elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seedlings. Moreover, amino acyl-beta-naphthylamide (aa-NA) conjugates resembling NPA in structure have NPA-like inhibitory activity on growth, suggesting a possible role of APs in NPA action. Here we report that the same aa-NA conjugates and the AP inhibitor bestatin also block auxin efflux from seedling tissue. Bestatin and, to a lesser extent, some aa-NA conjugates were more effective inhibitors of low-affinity specific [3H]NPA-binding than were the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol but had no effect on high-affinity binding. Since the APs are inhibited by flavonoids, we compared the localization of endogenous flavonoids and APs in seedling tissue. A correlation between AP and flavonoid localization was found in 5- to 6-d-old seedlings. Evidence that these flavonoids regulate auxin accumulation in vivo was obtained using the flavonoid-deficient mutant, tt4. In whole-seedling [14C]indole-3-acetic acid transport studies, the pattern of auxin distribution in the tt4 mutant was shown to be altered. The defect appeared to be in auxin accumulation, as a considerable amount of auxin escaped from the roots. Treatment of the tt4 mutant with the missing intermediate naringenin restored normal auxin distribution and accumulation by the root. These results implicate APs and endogenous flavonoids in the regulation of auxin efflux.

  18. Catalysis and Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Methionine Aminopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jing-Ping; Chai, Sergio C.; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2010-09-07

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an important cotranslational N-terminal methionine excision of nascent proteins and represents a potential target to develop antibacterial and antitubercular drugs. We cloned one of the two MetAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c from the mapB gene) and purified it to homogeneity as an apoenzyme. Its activity required a divalent metal ion, and Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) were among activators of the enzyme. Co(II) and Fe(II) had the tightest binding, while Ni(II) was the most efficient cofactor for the catalysis. MtMetAP1c was also functional in E. coli cells because a plasmid-expressed MtMetAP1c complemented the essential function of MetAP in E. coli and supported the cell growth. A set of potent MtMetAP1c inhibitors were identified, and they showed high selectivity toward the Fe(II)-form, the Mn(II)-form, or the Co(II) and Ni(II) forms of the enzyme, respectively. These metalloform selective inhibitors were used to assign the metalloform of the cellular MtMetAP1c. The fact that only the Fe(II)-form selective inhibitors inhibited the cellular MtMetAP1c activity and inhibited the MtMetAP1c-complemented cell growth suggests that Fe(II) is the native metal used by MtMetAP1c in an E. coli cellular environment. Finally, X-ray structures of MtMetAP1c in complex with three metalloform-selective inhibitors were analyzed, which showed different binding modes and different interactions with metal ions and active site residues.

  19. Catalysis and inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methionine aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing-Ping; Chai, Sergio C.; Ye, Qi-Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) carries out an important cotranslational N-terminal methionine excision of nascent proteins and represents a potential target to develop antibacterial and antitubercular drugs. We cloned one of the two MetAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c from the mapB gene) and purified it to homogeneity as an apoenzyme. Its activity required a divalent metal ion, and Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II) were among activators of the enzyme. Co(II) and Fe(II) had the tightest binding, while Ni(II) was the most efficient cofactor for the catalysis. MtMetAP1c was also functional in E. coli cells, because a plasmid-expressed MtMetAP1c complemented the essential function of MetAP in E. coli and supported the cell growth. A set of potent MtMetAP1c inhibitors were identified, and they showed high selectivity towards the Fe(II)-form, the Mn(II)-form, or the Co(II)- and Ni(II)-forms of the enzyme, respectively. These metalloform selective inhibitors were used to assign the metalloform of the cellular MtMetAP1c. The fact that only the Fe(II)-form selective inhibitors inhibited the cellular MtMetAP1c activity and inhibited the MtMetAP1c-complemented cell growth suggests that Fe(II) is the native metal used by MtMetAP1c in an E. coli cellular environment. Finally, X-ray structures of MtMetAP1c in complex with three metalloform-selective inhibitors were analyzed, which showed different binding modes and different interactions with metal ions and active site residues. PMID:20038112

  20. Structure/function implications for the aminopeptidase specificity of aleurain.

    PubMed

    Rothe, M; Zichner, A; Auerswald, E A; Dodt, J

    1994-09-01

    The cysteine protease aleurain, a member of the papain superfamily, was characterized by its specificity constants, kcat/Km, for the hydrolysis of different substrates of the type H-P1-NH-Mec (NH-Mec, 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide). The determined constants for the different substrates decrease in the order citrulline > Arg = Phe > Ala. A 75-fold loss of specificity was observed when the substrate Bz-Arg-NH-Mec (Bz, benzoyl), with a blocked N-terminus, was used instead of H-Arg-NH-Mec. The pH dependence of kcat/Km for H-Arg-NH-Mec was bell-shaped with pKa1 and pKa2 values of 5.81 and 7.27, respectively, at 25 degrees C. The residue corresponding to a pKa1 value of 5.81 could be identified by its ionisation enthalpy, delta Hion, of 15 kJ/mol as a carboxylate group of the enzyme interacting electrostatically with the residue with pKa2 7.27, attributed to the alpha-amino group of the substrate by its delta Hion value of 48 kJ/mol. Aleurain can be titrated at the active site with L-trans-epoxy-succinylleucylamido(4-guanidino)butane, and the reaction was characterized by its association rate constant of 19,000 M-1.s-1. Native chicken cystatin inhibited aleurain competitively with Ki 133 nM. Recombinant chicken cystatin variants Ala-Glu-Phe-[Met1, Ile29, Leu89] chicken egg-white cystatin, (variant 1) and the N-terminally truncated form des-(S1-P11)-[Ala12, Glu12, Phe14, Met15, Leu89]-chicken egg-white cystatin, (variant 2), inhibited aleurain competitively with Ki values of 125 nM and 5 microM, respectively. Implications for the aminopeptidase activity of aleurain are discussed using cathepsin H for comparison.

  1. Chemical genetics of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Guiguemde, W. Armand; Shelat, Anang A.; Bouck, David; Duffy, Sandra; Crowther, Gregory J.; Davis, Paul H.; Smithson, David C.; Connelly, Michele; Clark, Julie; Zhu, Fangyi; Jiménez-Díaz, María B; Martinez, María S; Wilson, Emily B.; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Gut, Jiri; Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Bathurst, Ian; El Mazouni, Farah; Fowble, Joseph W; Forquer, Isaac; McGinley, Paula L; Castro, Steve; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer, Santiago; Rosenthal, Philip J.; DeRisi, Joseph L; Sullivan, David J.; Lazo, John S.; Roos, David S.; Riscoe, Michael K.; Phillips, Margaret A.; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Avery, Vicky M; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2010-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a catastrophic disease worldwide (880,000 deaths yearly). Vaccine development has proved difficult and resistance has emerged for most antimalarials. In order to discover new antimalarial chemotypes, we have employed a phenotypic forward chemical genetic approach to assay 309,474 chemicals. Here we disclose structures and biological activity of the entire library, many of which exhibited potent in vitro activity against drug resistant strains, and detailed profiling of 172 representative candidates. A reverse chemical genetic study identified 19 new inhibitors of 4 validated drug targets and 15 novel binders among 61 malarial proteins. Phylochemogenetic profiling in multiple organisms revealed similarities between Toxoplasma gondii and mammalian cell lines and dissimilarities between P. falciparum and related protozoans. One exemplar compound displayed efficacy in a murine model. Overall, our findings provide the scientific community with new starting points for malaria drug discovery. PMID:20485428

  2. Tetany with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, P S; Singh, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a malarial infection with high morbidity and wide spectrum of atypical presentation. Here we report an unusual presentation of malaria as tetany with alteration in calcium,phosphate and magnesium metabolism Hypocalcaemia in malaria can cause prolonged Q-Tc interval which could be arisk factor for quinine cardiotoxicity and sudden death Hence monitoring of serum calcium in severe malarial infection and cautious use of quinine in such patients is very important in management

  3. Phage displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by po...

  4. Small-molecule probe using dual signals to monitor leucine aminopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hey Young; Shim, So Hee; Baek, Luck Ju; Hong, Jong-In

    2011-04-15

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are widely distributed in organisms from bacteria to humans, and play crucial roles in cell maintenance and cell growth. Thus, assays for LAP are necessary for measuring its activity and inhibitor potency. In this Letter, we report a small-molecule probe which exhibits colorimetric and fluorogenic changes according to LAP activity.

  5. A new aminopeptidase from the keratin-degrading strain Streptomyces fradiae var. k11.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Shi, Pengjun; Li, Jiang; Wang, Yaru; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Zhou, Zhigang; Yao, Bin

    2010-03-01

    An aminopeptidase gene fragment was isolated from a keratin-degrading strain, Streptomyces fradiae var. k11, by PCR amplification using a degenerate primer set designed based on the partial amino acid sequence of the native enzyme. The gene, designated sfap, encoded a polypeptide of 461 amino acids comprised of three domains: a signal peptide, a mature region, and a C-terminal propeptide. The aminopeptidase, SFAP, had highest amino acid sequence identity (79%) with a putative aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus NBRC 13350. The gene with and without C-terminal propeptide was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the gene without C-terminal propeptide encoded a functional enzyme. Purified recombinant SFAP exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, and retained >60% peak activity over a broad range of temperature. The enzyme was thermal and pH stable, and showed metalloprotease characteristics, which was inhibited by EDTA but activated by Ca(2+) and Co(2+). This is the first study to report the gene cloning and expression of a leucine aminopeptidase from S. fradiae.

  6. Purification and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oszywa, Bartosz; Makowski, Maciej; Pawełczak, Małgorzata

    2013-04-01

    Aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11) are proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze one amino acid from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. Inhibitors of plant aminopeptidases can find an application in agriculture as herbicides. Isolation and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds has been described. The enzyme was purified to molecular homogeneity using a six-step purification procedure (precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-25, DEAE-Sepharose, Sephacryl HR 300, Macro-Prep Q and Phenyl-Sepharose HP columns). The enzyme was purified 365-fold with recovery above 18%. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration as 58 kDa, and was found to be a monomer. Its pH and temperature optima were 7.5 and 52 °C, respectively. The enzyme behaves as standard leucine aminopeptidase by preferring bulky amino acids at the N-terminus, with phenylalanine being of choice.

  7. Fluorogenic substrates for bacterial aminopeptidase P and its analogs detected in human serum and calf lung.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, G; Carmel, A; Goldenberg, D; Yaron, A

    1982-07-01

    A sensitive fluorimetric assay was developed for bacterial aminopeptidase P, based on intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic substrates. Two substrates were synthesized. Phe(NO2)-Pro-HN-CH2-CH2-NH-ABz (substrate I) and Phe(NO2)-Pro-Pro-HN-CH2-CH2-NH-ABz (substrate II), in which the Phe(NO2) group (rho-nitro-L-phenylalanyl) quenches the fluorescence of the ABz group (omicron-aminobenzoyl). Both substrates were readily cleaved by aminopeptidase P from Escherichia coli, releasing rho-nitro-L-phenylalanine and causing a proportional increase in fluorescence. Complete hydrolysis of the two substrates resulted in a 7.5-fold and 3.4-fold fluorescence increase, respectively. Applying this fluorogenic assay, we were able to detect and measure quantitatively amino-peptidase P-like activity in the human serum and calf-lung extracts. Substrate II was shown to be specifically cleaved by aminopeptidase P in these preparations, while substrate I was apparently cleaved by other enzymes as well. In both preparations, the enzyme activity was independent of Co2+ ions, and Pro-HN-CH2-CH2-NH-ABz (Cbz) was inhibitory. The kinetic constant Km was determined as 0.35 mM and 0.28 mM for the human serum and the calf-lung enzymes respectively. The enzyme activity was only slightly dependent on pH in the range 7.0-8.4.

  8. Characterization of excretory/secretory endopeptidase and metallo-aminopeptidases from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes.

    PubMed

    Baig, Salman; Damian, Raymond T; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Olecki, Paula; Talhouk, Jamil; Hashmey, Rayhan; White, A Clinton

    2005-10-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia spp. metacestodes, which must survive in the host tissues to complete their life cycle. Their survival depends on their control of host immune responses. Because many parasites use proteases to modulate host responses, we examined culture media from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes for protease activity using peptide substrates. We identified prominent aminopeptidase activity at neutral pH, which was inhibited by chelating agents and partially inhibited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor, bestatin. Endopeptidase substrates were optimally cleaved at slightly acidic pH and endopeptidase activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors. Gel filtration FPLC and subsequent visualization by silver staining revealed a metallo-aminopeptidase of molecular weight 21 kDa and cysteine proteases of Mr 70 and 64 kDA. Recombinant IL-2 was digested when incubated with parasite culture supernatants, but not with control media. IL-2 degradation was completely inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline and partially inhibited by bestatin, suggesting that a metallo-aminopeptidase was responsible. Incubation of human IgG with culture supernatants resulted in complete degradation of IgG, which was blocked by cysteine protease inhibitors. These observations demonstrate that Taenia spp. metacestodes secrete a number of proteolytic enzymes, which may target molecules from the host immune system and assist in evasion of the host immune response.

  9. Mammary renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Carrera, Maria; Ramírez-Expósito, Maria Jesus; Mayas, Maria Dolores; García, Maria Jesus; Martínez-Martos, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Angiotensin II in particular and/or the local renin-angiotensin system in general could have an important role in epithelial tissue growth and modelling; therefore, it is possible that it may be involved in breast cancer. In this sense, previous works of our group showed a predominating role of angiotensin II in tumoral tissue obtained from women with breast cancer. However, although classically angiotensin II has been considered the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed through the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes of the aminopeptidase type, also called angiotensinases. The aim of this work was to analyse several specific angiotensinase activities involved in the renin-angiotensin system cascade in mammary tissue from control rats and from rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU), which may reflect the functional status of their target peptides under the specific conditions brought about by the tumoural process. The results show that soluble and membrane-bound specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activities and membrane-bound glutamyl aminopeptidase activity increased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated animals and soluble aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B activities significantly decreased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated rats. These changes support the existence of a local mammary renin-angiotensin system and that this system and its putative functions in breast tissue could be altered by the tumour process, in which we suggest a predominant role of angiotensin III. All described data about the renin-angiotensin system in mammary tissue support the idea that it must be involved in normal breast tissue functions, and its disruption could be involved in one or more steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  10. CHR-2797: an antiproliferative aminopeptidase inhibitor that leads to amino acid deprivation in human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Krige, David; Needham, Lindsey A; Bawden, Lindsay J; Flores, Nicolas; Farmer, Hannah; Miles, Lauren E C; Stone, Erica; Callaghan, Juliana; Chandler, Stephen; Clark, Vanessa L; Kirwin-Jones, Patricia; Legris, Valérie; Owen, Jo; Patel, Thakor; Wood, Steve; Box, Gary; Laber, David; Odedra, Rajesh; Wright, Annette; Wood, L Michael; Eccles, Suzanne A; Bone, Elisabeth A; Ayscough, Andrew; Drummond, Alan H

    2008-08-15

    CHR-2797 is a novel metalloenzyme inhibitor that is converted into a pharmacologically active acid product (CHR-79888) inside cells. CHR-79888 is a potent inhibitor of a number of intracellular aminopeptidases, including leucine aminopeptidase. CHR-2797 exerts antiproliferative effects against a range of tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo and shows selectivity for transformed over nontransformed cells. Its antiproliferative effects are at least 300 times more potent than the prototypical aminopeptidase inhibitor, bestatin. However, the mechanism by which inhibition of these enzymes leads to proliferative changes is not understood. Gene expression microarrays were used to profile changes in mRNA expression levels in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 treated with CHR-2797. This analysis showed that CHR-2797 treatment induced a transcriptional response indicative of amino acid depletion, the amino acid deprivation response, which involves up-regulation of amino acid synthetic genes, transporters, and tRNA synthetases. These changes were confirmed in other leukemic cell lines sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of CHR-2797. Furthermore, CHR-2797 treatment inhibited phosphorylation of mTOR substrates and reduced protein synthesis in HL-60 cells, both also indicative of amino acid depletion. Treatment with CHR-2797 led to an increase in the concentration of intracellular small peptides, the substrates of aminopeptidases. It is suggested that aminopeptidase inhibitors, such as CHR-2797 and bestatin, deplete sensitive tumor cells of amino acids by blocking protein recycling, and this generates an antiproliferative effect. CHR-2797 is orally bioavailable and currently undergoing phase II clinical investigation in the treatment of myeloid leukemia.

  11. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M 17 UC1 - IRS5 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nürnberger, Dieter E. A.; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact H ii region M 17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Methods: We use diffraction-limited near-IR (VLT/NACO) and mid-IR (VLT/VISIR) images to reveal the different morphologies at various wavelengths. Likewise, we investigate the stellar and nebular content of the region with VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy with a resolution R ˜ 1500 at H + K bands. Results: Five of the seven point sources in this region show L-band excess emission. A geometric match is found between the H2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H2 emission is typical for dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), which are initially far-ultraviolet pumped and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity LIR in the range 1-20 μm is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0 × 103 L⊙ for IRS5A, 13 L⊙ for IRS5C, and 10 L⊙ for B273A. Conclusions: IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (˜9 M⊙, ˜1 × 105 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedback from stellar activities (radiation pressure, outflow) and the expanding H ii region of M 17. The object UC1 might also have terminated accretion because of the expanding hypercompact H ii region, which it ionizes. The disk clearing process of the low-mass young stellar objects in this region might be accelerated by the expanding H ii region. The outflows driven by UC1 are running south-north with its northeastern side suppressed by the expanding ionization front of M 17; the blue-shifted outflow lobe of IRS5A is seen in two types of tracers along the same line of sight in the form of H2 emission

  12. Plasmodium falciparum picks (on) EPCR

    PubMed Central

    Mosnier, Laurent O.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2014-01-01

    Of all the outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum infection, the coma of cerebral malaria (CM) is particularly deadly. Malariologists have long wondered how some patients develop this organ-specific syndrome. Data from two recent publications support a novel mechanism of CM pathogenesis in which infected erythrocytes (IEs) express specific virulence proteins that mediate IE binding to the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). Malaria-associated depletion of EPCR, with subsequent impairment of the protein C system promotes a proinflammatory, procoagulant state in brain microvessels. PMID:24246501

  13. Aminopeptidase-B in the rat testes: isolation, functional properties and cellular localization in the seminiferous tubules.

    PubMed

    Cadel, S; Pierotti, A R; Foulon, T; Créminon, C; Barré, N; Segrétain, D; Cohen, P

    1995-04-28

    An aminopeptidase of the B-type, with an apparent M(r) 72,000 and pI = 4.9, was isolated from rat testes and characterized. The enzyme was able to remove only Arg and/or Lys residues from L-amino acid beta-naphthylamide derivatives and from the N-terminus of several peptides. No cleavage occurred in the case of Arg-Pro bonds as found in bradykinin and substance P. The enzyme was sensitive to cysteinyl reagents and to aminopeptidase inhibitors, such as bestatin, amastatin and arphamenines A and B. The aminopeptidase activity, tested with L-Arg beta-naphthylamide and with Arg0-Met-enkephalin as substrates, was inhibited by o-phenanthroline, and restored by Zn2+ suggesting its metallopeptidase character. The partial characterization of an aminopeptidase-B activity in rat brain cortex identified a protein which is biochemically and immunologically related to the testis enzyme. By immunohistochemistry, the aminopeptidase-B was found to be particularly abundant in the seminiferous tubules at late stages of spermatogenesis and was clearly detected in a restricted area of elongated spermatids. Remarkably, the enzyme was observed to concentrate massively in the residual bodies. Since this aminopeptidase-B was able in vitro to trim out N-terminal Arg and/or Lys residues from peptides mimicking processing intermediates, it is proposed that this enzyme may be involved in propeptide and proprotein processing mechanisms in the course of spermatid differentiation.

  14. An enkephalin degrading aminopeptidase of human brain preserved during the vertebrate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A N; Bruno, J A; Carvalho, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. A soluble human brain aminopeptidase which hydrolyses the Tyr-Gly bond of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin was identified in the brains of the following vertebrates: mammals (Callithrix jacchus and Rattus norvegicus), bird (Gallus domesticus), reptile (Tupinambis teguixin), amphibia (Bufo paracnemis), fish (Sarotherdon niloticus) and elasmobranchy (Galeocerdo cuvieri). 2. The properties of this enzyme are: molecular weight near 100,000 Da, isoelectric point near 4.9, optimum pH near 7.5, activation by dithiothreitol, strong inhibition by Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, puromycin and bacitracin, hydrolysis of enkephalins and basic and neutral aminoacid-beta-naphythylamide substrates. 3. The results indicate the preservation of this human brain aminopeptidase during the course of vertebrate phylogeny.

  15. [Aminopeptidases activity in the amniotic fluid in women in labor with EPH-gestosis].

    PubMed

    Karmowski, A; Sobiech, K A; Malinowski, J; Nowacka, I; Pałczyński, B; Kertyńska, I

    2000-01-01

    The thesis of this work was to compare the aminopeptidases activity in the amniotic fluid obtained during the physiological labor and during the labor of pregnant with EPH-gestosis, in presence of the beta-naphtlamidic L-amino-acids (alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine, cysteine) chromogenic substrates. It was assumed the 3-7 times increase in the aminopeptidases activity counted to the proteins from the labored with EPH-gestosis comparing to the labored in physiological labor. Among the used substrates the highest activity in both groups of labored women was measured in presence of substrates with exact amino-acids in this order: L-Ala > L-Leu > L-Phe > L-Tyr > L-His > L-Cys.

  16. Crystal structure of human insulin-regulated aminopeptidase with specificity for cyclic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Stefan J; Ascher, David B; Hancock, Nancy C; Holien, Jessica K; Michell, Belinda J; Yeen Chai, Siew; Morton, Craig J; Parker, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP or oxytocinase) is a membrane-bound zinc-metallopeptidase that cleaves neuroactive peptides in the brain and produces memory enhancing effects when inhibited. We have determined the crystal structure of human IRAP revealing a closed, four domain arrangement with a large, mostly buried cavity abutting the active site. The structure reveals that the GAMEN exopeptidase loop adopts a very different conformation from other aminopeptidases, thus explaining IRAP's unique specificity for cyclic peptides such as oxytocin and vasopressin. Computational docking of a series of IRAP-specific cognitive enhancers into the crystal structure provides a molecular basis for their structure–activity relationships and demonstrates that the structure will be a powerful tool in the development of new classes of cognitive enhancers for treating a variety of memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25408552

  17. Highly functionalized tetrahydropyridines are cytotoxic and selective inhibitors of human puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Aeluri, Raghunath; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Marapaka, Anil Kumar; Pillalamarri, Vijaykumar; Alla, Manjula; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Efficient one-pot five-component synthetic protocols for highly functionalized tetrahydropyridines (THPs) and their biological evaluation have been illustrated. Synthesis of novel functionalized tetrahydropyridines containing differential substitutions at 2,6-positions has been achieved via a modified MCR. Cytotoxic studies of 23 synthesized compounds have been carried out against three different cell lines, namely A-549, HeLa and HepG2, wherein some compounds have displayed appreciable cytotoxicity. Further, investigation of enzyme inhibition by the synthesized THPs has been carried out against four members of M1 family aminopeptidases. Several compounds have selectively inhibited only one member of this enzyme family i.e., human puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase (hPSA). Among the compounds; 4b, 9b, 9e and 10a demonstrated best inhibition against hPSA.

  18. The complement of family M1 aminopeptidases of Haemonchus contortus--Biotechnological implications.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Namitha; Young, Neil D; Jabbar, Abdul; Korhonen, Pasi K; Koehler, Anson V; Hall, Ross S; Hu, Min; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial research has been focused on the 'hidden antigen' H11 of Haemonchus contortus as a vaccine against haemonchosis in small ruminants, little is know about this and related aminopeptidases. In the present article, we reviewed genomic and transcriptomic data sets to define, for the first time, the complement of aminopeptidases (designated Hc-AP-1 to Hc-AP-13) of the family M1 with homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, characterised by zinc-binding (HEXXH) and exo-peptidase (GAMEN) motifs. The three previously published H11 isoforms (accession nos. X94187, FJ481146 and AJ249941) had most sequence similarity to Hc-AP-2 and Hc-AP-8, whereas unpublished isoforms (accession nos. AJ249942 and AJ311316) were both most similar to Hc-AP-3. The aminopeptidases characterised here had homologues in C. elegans. Hc-AP-1 to Hc-AP-8 were most similar in amino acid sequence (28-41%) to C. elegans T07F10.1; Hc-AP-9 and Hc-AP-10 to C. elegans PAM-1 (isoform b) (53-54% similar); Hc-AP-11 and Hc-AP-12 to C. elegans AC3.5 and Y67D8C.9 (26% and 50% similar, respectively); and Hc-AP-13 to C. elegans C42C1.11 and ZC416.6 (50-58% similar). Comparative analysis suggested that Hc-AP-1 to Hc-AP-8 play roles in digestion, metabolite excretion, neuropeptide processing and/or osmotic regulation, with Hc-AP-4 and Hc-AP-7 having male-specific functional roles. The analysis also indicated that Hc-AP-9 and Hc-AP-10 might be involved in the degradation of cyclin (B3) and required to complete meiosis. Hc-AP-11 represents a leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase, predicted to have metallopeptidase and zinc ion binding activity, whereas Hc-AP-12 likely encodes an aminopeptidase Q homologue also with these activities and a possible role in gonad function. Finally, Hc-AP-13 is predicted to encode an aminopeptidase AP-1 homologue of C. elegans with hydrolase activity, suggested to operate, possibly synergistically with a PEPT-1 ortholog, as an oligopeptide transporter in the gut for protein uptake

  19. Type-1 interferons contribute to oxygen glucose deprivation induced neuro-inflammation in BE(2)M17 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Minter, Myles Robert; Zhang, Moses; Ates, Robert Charles; Taylor, Juliet Marie; Crack, Peter John

    2014-03-06

    Hypoxic-ischaemic injuries such as stroke and traumatic brain injury exhibit features of a distinct neuro-inflammatory response in the hours and days post-injury. Microglial activation, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration contribute to core tissue damage and contribute to secondary injury within a region termed the penumbra. Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are a super-family of pleiotropic cytokines that regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription via the classical Jak/Stat pathway; however their role in hypoxia-ischaemia and central nervous system neuro-inflammation remains unknown. Using an in vitro approach, this study investigated the role of type-1 IFN signalling in an inflammatory setting induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Human BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cells or cells expressing a type-1 interferon-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) shRNA or negative control shRNA knockdown construct were subjected to 4.5 h OGD and a time-course reperfusion period (0 to 24 h). Q-PCR was used to evaluate IFNα, IFNβ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine expression levels. Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-3 and cleavage of caspase-3 was detected by western blot analysis. Post-OGD cellular viability was measured using a MTT assay. Elevated IFNα and IFNβ expression was detected during reperfusion post-OGD in parental M17 cells. This correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of STAT-1, a downstream type-1 IFN signalling mediator. Significantly, ablation of type-1 IFN signalling, through IFNAR1 knockdown, reduced IFNα, IFNβ, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in response to OGD. In addition, MTT assay confirmed the IFNAR1 knockdown cells were protected against OGD compared to negative control cells with reduced pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 levels. This study confirms a role for type-1 IFN signalling in the neuro-inflammatory response following OGD in vitro and suggests its modulation through therapeutic blockade of

  20. Type-1 interferons contribute to oxygen glucose deprivation induced neuro-inflammation in BE(2)M17 human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoxic-ischaemic injuries such as stroke and traumatic brain injury exhibit features of a distinct neuro-inflammatory response in the hours and days post-injury. Microglial activation, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration contribute to core tissue damage and contribute to secondary injury within a region termed the penumbra. Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are a super-family of pleiotropic cytokines that regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription via the classical Jak/Stat pathway; however their role in hypoxia-ischaemia and central nervous system neuro-inflammation remains unknown. Using an in vitro approach, this study investigated the role of type-1 IFN signalling in an inflammatory setting induced by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Methods Human BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cells or cells expressing a type-1 interferon-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1) shRNA or negative control shRNA knockdown construct were subjected to 4.5 h OGD and a time-course reperfusion period (0 to 24 h). Q-PCR was used to evaluate IFNα, IFNβ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine expression levels. Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-3 and cleavage of caspase-3 was detected by western blot analysis. Post-OGD cellular viability was measured using a MTT assay. Results Elevated IFNα and IFNβ expression was detected during reperfusion post-OGD in parental M17 cells. This correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of STAT-1, a downstream type-1 IFN signalling mediator. Significantly, ablation of type-1 IFN signalling, through IFNAR1 knockdown, reduced IFNα, IFNβ, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in response to OGD. In addition, MTT assay confirmed the IFNAR1 knockdown cells were protected against OGD compared to negative control cells with reduced pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 levels. Conclusions This study confirms a role for type-1 IFN signalling in the neuro-inflammatory response following OGD in vitro and suggests its

  1. Urinary Aminopeptidase Activities as Early and Predictive Biomarkers of Renal Dysfunction in Cisplatin-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r2>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:22792302

  2. Collagen production in cardiac fibroblasts during inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme and aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Lijnen, Paul J; Petrov, Victor V; Fagard, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether lisinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, and bestatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor with broad specificity, could affect collagen production in control and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-treated cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiac fibroblasts from passage 2 from normal male adult rats were cultured to confluency, incubated with or without 600 pmol/l TGF-beta1 for 2 days in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and then incubated with the test products (lisinopril or bestatin) for 1 day in this medium with added ascorbic acid, beta-aminoproprionitrile and tritiated proline. Soluble collagen was measured in the conditioned medium and non-soluble collagen in the cell layer. ACE activity was measured fluorimetrically with hippuryl-histidyl-leucine as substrate, and DNA with the bisbenzimide dye, Hoechst 33,258. Aminopeptidase activity was estimated by spectrophotometric determination of the liberation of p-nitroaniline from alanine-p-nitroanilide. Lisinopril dose-dependently reduced ACE activity in control and TGF-beta1-treated cardiac fibroblasts. Bestatin inhibited the basal and TGF-beta1-stimulated aminopeptidase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Lisinopril (10 micromol/l) decreased (P < 0.05) the production of soluble and non-soluble collagen in control cardiac fibroblasts. TGF-beta1 (600 pmol/l) increased (P < 0.05) the production of soluble and non-soluble collagen, and this effect was decreased (P < 0.05) by lisinopril. Bestatin (100 micromol/l) reduced (P < 0.01) the production of soluble collagen in control and TGF-beta1-treated cardiac fibroblasts, but did not affect the production of non-soluble collagen in these cells. Our data suggest that ACE and aminopeptidases are involved in the basal and TGF-beta1-stimulated production of collagen in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts in culture.

  3. A novel dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in rat brain membranes. Its isolation, purification, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hui, K S

    1988-05-15

    A new type of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, which releases basic aminoacyl dipeptides from the NH2-terminal end of oligopeptides, was purified about 2100-fold with 6.8% recovery from rat brain membranes by column chromatography on Cellex D, Arg-Tyr-AH-Sepharose 4B, hydroxylapatite, and Sephadex G-75, after the membranes were solubilized with Nonidet P-40. Activity was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using Arg0-Met5-enkephalin (Arg0-enk)* as substrate in the presence of bestatin, thiorphan, and captopril. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme is apparently homogeneous with a mass of 64,000 daltons. This thiol enzyme is optimally active at pH 7 and is selectively activated by Mn(II). It loses 94% of its activity after EDTA treatment and can be reactivated by Mn(II), Co(II), and Zn(II). It splits Arg0-enk into equimolar amounts of Arg-Tyr and Gly-Gly-Phe-Met with a Km of 100 microM, and Vmax of 3.8 mumol/mg of protein/min. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase does not hydrolyze model substrates for dipeptidyl aminopeptidases I, II, III, and IV, aminoacyl beta-naphthylamides, actin, desmin, tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins. The enzyme is insensitive to puromycin, but is inhibited by several neuropeptides. Angiotensin III is the most potent with a Ki of 0.3 microM. Substrate specificity, pH optimum, molecular weight, activators, and catalytic site demonstrate that this enzyme is distinct from dipeptidyl aminopeptidases previously described.

  4. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r(2)>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  5. MHJ_0461 is a multifunctional leucine aminopeptidase on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jarocki, Veronica M.; Santos, Jerran; Tacchi, Jessica L.; Raymond, Benjamin B. A.; Deutscher, Ania T.; Jenkins, Cheryl; Padula, Matthew P.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Aminopeptidases are part of the arsenal of virulence factors produced by bacterial pathogens that inactivate host immune peptides. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced pathogen of swine that lacks the genetic repertoire to synthesize amino acids and relies on the host for availability of amino acids for growth. M. hyopneumoniae recruits plasmin(ogen) onto its cell surface via the P97 and P102 adhesins and the glutamyl aminopeptidase MHJ_0125. Plasmin plays an important role in regulating the inflammatory response in the lungs of pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae. We show that recombinant MHJ_0461 (rMHJ_0461) functions as a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) with broad substrate specificity for leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, methionine and arginine and that MHJ_0461 resides on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae. rMHJ_0461 also binds heparin, plasminogen and foreign DNA. Plasminogen bound to rMHJ_0461 was readily converted to plasmin in the presence of tPA. Computational modelling identified putative DNA and heparin-binding motifs on solvent-exposed sites around a large pore on the LAP hexamer. We conclude that MHJ_0461 is a LAP that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:25589579

  6. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Danielsen, E.M. )

    1990-01-09

    The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase are present in the microvilla membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this enzyme could be cross-linked, formation of tightly associated dimers only takes place after transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Dimerization of the two brush border enzymes therefore seems to occur in different organelles of the enterocyte.

  7. Inactivation of Caenorhabditis elegans aminopeptidase DNPP-1 restores endocytic sorting and recycling in tat-1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Chen, Baohui; Yoshina, Sawako; Cai, Tanxi; Yang, Fuquan; Mitani, Shohei; Wang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the P4-ATPase TAT-1 and its chaperone, the Cdc50 family protein CHAT-1, maintain membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry, which is required for membrane tubulation during endocytic sorting and recycling. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 disrupts endocytic sorting, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. In this study, we identified the C. elegans aspartyl aminopeptidase DNPP-1, loss of which suppresses the sorting and recycling defects in tat-1 mutants without reversing the PS asymmetry defect. We found that tubular membrane structures containing recycling cargoes were restored in dnpp-1 tat-1 double mutants and that these tubules overlap with RME-1–positive recycling endosomes. The restoration of the tubular structures in dnpp-1 tat-1 mutants requires normal functions of RAB-5, RAB-10, and RME-1. In tat-1 mutants, we observed alterations in membrane surface charge and targeting of positively charged proteins that were reversed by loss of dnpp-1. DNPP-1 displays a specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and its enzymatic activity is required for its function in vivo. Our data reveal the involvement of an aminopeptidase in regulating endocytic sorting and recycling and suggest possible roles of peptide signaling and/or protein metabolism in these processes. PMID:23427264

  8. MHJ_0461 is a multifunctional leucine aminopeptidase on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jarocki, Veronica M; Santos, Jerran; Tacchi, Jessica L; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Deutscher, Ania T; Jenkins, Cheryl; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Aminopeptidases are part of the arsenal of virulence factors produced by bacterial pathogens that inactivate host immune peptides. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a genome-reduced pathogen of swine that lacks the genetic repertoire to synthesize amino acids and relies on the host for availability of amino acids for growth. M. hyopneumoniae recruits plasmin(ogen) onto its cell surface via the P97 and P102 adhesins and the glutamyl aminopeptidase MHJ_0125. Plasmin plays an important role in regulating the inflammatory response in the lungs of pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae. We show that recombinant MHJ_0461 (rMHJ_0461) functions as a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) with broad substrate specificity for leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, methionine and arginine and that MHJ_0461 resides on the surface of M. hyopneumoniae. rMHJ_0461 also binds heparin, plasminogen and foreign DNA. Plasminogen bound to rMHJ_0461 was readily converted to plasmin in the presence of tPA. Computational modelling identified putative DNA and heparin-binding motifs on solvent-exposed sites around a large pore on the LAP hexamer. We conclude that MHJ_0461 is a LAP that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the cell surface of M. hyopneumoniae.

  9. Inactivation of Caenorhabditis elegans aminopeptidase DNPP-1 restores endocytic sorting and recycling in tat-1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Chen, Baohui; Yoshina, Sawako; Cai, Tanxi; Yang, Fuquan; Mitani, Shohei; Wang, Xiaochen

    2013-04-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the P4-ATPase TAT-1 and its chaperone, the Cdc50 family protein CHAT-1, maintain membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry, which is required for membrane tubulation during endocytic sorting and recycling. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 disrupts endocytic sorting, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. In this study, we identified the C. elegans aspartyl aminopeptidase DNPP-1, loss of which suppresses the sorting and recycling defects in tat-1 mutants without reversing the PS asymmetry defect. We found that tubular membrane structures containing recycling cargoes were restored in dnpp-1 tat-1 double mutants and that these tubules overlap with RME-1-positive recycling endosomes. The restoration of the tubular structures in dnpp-1 tat-1 mutants requires normal functions of RAB-5, RAB-10, and RME-1. In tat-1 mutants, we observed alterations in membrane surface charge and targeting of positively charged proteins that were reversed by loss of dnpp-1. DNPP-1 displays a specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and its enzymatic activity is required for its function in vivo. Our data reveal the involvement of an aminopeptidase in regulating endocytic sorting and recycling and suggest possible roles of peptide signaling and/or protein metabolism in these processes.

  10. Insights into Substrate Specificity and Metal Activation of Mammalian Tetrahedral Aspartyl Aminopeptidase*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Farquhar, Erik R.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    Aminopeptidases are key enzymes involved in the regulation of signaling peptide activity. Here, we present a detailed biochemical and structural analysis of an evolutionary highly conserved aspartyl aminopeptidase called DNPEP. We show that this peptidase can cleave multiple physiologically relevant substrates, including angiotensins, and thus may play a key role in regulating neuron function. Using a combination of x-ray crystallography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and single particle electron microscopy analysis, we provide the first detailed structural analysis of DNPEP. We show that this enzyme possesses a binuclear zinc-active site in which one of the zinc ions is readily exchangeable with other divalent cations such as manganese, which strongly stimulates the enzymatic activity of the protein. The plasticity of this metal-binding site suggests a mechanism for regulation of DNPEP activity. We also demonstrate that DNPEP assembles into a functionally relevant tetrahedral complex that restricts access of peptide substrates to the active site. These structural data allow rationalization of the enzyme's preference for short peptide substrates with N-terminal acidic residues. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the physiology and bioinorganic chemistry of DNPEP and other M18 family aminopeptidases. PMID:22356908

  11. Insights into Substrate Specificity and Metal Activation of Mammalian Tetrahedral Aspartyl Aminopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Farquhar, Erik R.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D.

    2012-07-11

    Aminopeptidases are key enzymes involved in the regulation of signaling peptide activity. Here, we present a detailed biochemical and structural analysis of an evolutionary highly conserved aspartyl aminopeptidase called DNPEP. We show that this peptidase can cleave multiple physiologically relevant substrates, including angiotensins, and thus may play a key role in regulating neuron function. Using a combination of x-ray crystallography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and single particle electron microscopy analysis, we provide the first detailed structural analysis of DNPEP. We show that this enzyme possesses a binuclear zinc-active site in which one of the zinc ions is readily exchangeable with other divalent cations such as manganese, which strongly stimulates the enzymatic activity of the protein. The plasticity of this metal-binding site suggests a mechanism for regulation of DNPEP activity. We also demonstrate that DNPEP assembles into a functionally relevant tetrahedral complex that restricts access of peptide substrates to the active site. These structural data allow rationalization of the enzyme's preference for short peptide substrates with N-terminal acidic residues. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the physiology and bioinorganic chemistry of DNPEP and other M18 family aminopeptidases.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1 : 2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26 μg/μL ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35 μg/μL and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8 μg/μL. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29 μM ± 3 and 47.82 μM ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  13. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M17 massive pms stars X-shooter spectra (Ramirez-Tannus+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Tannus, M. C.; Kaper, L.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.; Ellerbroek, L. E.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Ramirez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.

    2017-05-01

    Normalized X-shooter spectra of the PMS and OB stars in M17 studied. The X-shooter spectra were obtained under good weather conditions with seeing ranging from 0.5" and 1" and clear sky. With the exception of the 2012 B289 spectrum and the 2009 B275 science verification spectrum, the spectrograph slit widths used were 1" (UVB, 300-590nm), 0.9" (VIS, 550-1020nm), and 0.4" (NIR, 1000-2480nm), resulting in a spectral resolving power of 5100, 8800, and 11300, respectively. The slit widths for the 2010 B275 observations were 1.6", 0.9", and 0.9" resulting in a resolving power of 3300, 8800, and 5600, respectively. For the 2012 B289 observations we used the 0.8", 0.7", and 0.4" slits corresponding to a resolving power of 6200, 11000, and 11300 for the UVB, VIS, and NIR arms, respectively. The spectra were taken in nodding mode and reduced using the X-shooter pipeline version 2.7.1 running under the ESO Reflex environment version 2.8.4. (2 data files).

  15. Optical effects of the operation of the onboard engine of the Progress M-17M spacecraft at thermospheric heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Khakhinov, V. V.; Beletskii, A. B.; Lebedev, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of optical observations in the active space experiment "Radar-Progress" on April 17, 2013, after switching on the approach-correction engine of the Progress M-17M cargo spacecraft at thermospheric heights (412 km), are presented in this paper. During engine operation, a region of enhanced emission intensity has been recorded. It was presumably related to the scatter of twilight solar emission at the engine exhausts in the cargo spacecraft orbit and, probably to the occurrence of an additional emission in the atomic oxygen line [OI] 630 nm. The maximum observed dimensions of the emission region were ~350 and ~250 km along the orbit and across it, respectively. The velocity of the expansion of the emission region at the first moments after the initiation of engine operation was ~7 and ~3.5 km/s along the orbit and across it, respectively. The maximum intensity of the disturbed region is estimated to be a value equivalent to ~40-60 R within the spectral band of 2 nm. No optical manifestation, which would exceed the natural variations in brightness of the night airglow and which would be related to possible large-scale modification of the ionosphere, was detected in the natural emission lines [O] 557.7 and 630.0 nm in a zone remote from the place of injection of engine exhausts.

  16. The response of aminopeptidases of Phaseolus vulgaris to drought depends on the developmental stage of the leaves.

    PubMed

    Budič, Maruška; Cigić, Blaž; Šoštarič, Maja; Sabotič, Jerica; Meglič, Vladimir; Kos, Janko; Kidrič, Marjetka

    2016-12-01

    Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts. Three, named PvAP1, PvAP2 and PvAP4, are metallo aminopeptidases with broad substrate specificity, active against substrates conjugated to alanine and lysine. Two others, PvAP3 and PvAP5, are apparently serine aminopeptidases, the former active against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine and leucine, and the latter characterised by narrow specificity against substrates conjugated to phenylalanine. Their apparent molecular weights range from ∼37 kDa to ∼80 kDa. Levels of activity of individual aminopeptidases in both watered and drought stressed plants are shown to depend on the age of leaves. In watered plants they were generally highest in young, and very low in older, trifoliate leaves, the latter with the exception of PvAP5. Drought initiated an almost general increase of their activities, although to different extents, with the exception of PvAP4 and PvAP5 in young trifoliate leaves. Thus, in such studies it is necessary to investigate the effects of drought separately in leaves of different ages in order to elucidate the different complex and probably specific roles of aminopeptidases in the response of common bean to drought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. First firm spectral classification of an early-B pre-main-sequence star: B275 in M 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsendorf, B. B.; Ellerbroek, L. E.; Chini, R.; Hartoog, O. E.; Hoffmeister, V.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Kaper, L.

    2011-12-01

    The optical to near-infrared (300 - 2500 nm) spectrum of the candidate massive young stellar object (YSO) B275, embedded in the star-forming region M 17, has been observed with X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. The spectrum includes both photospheric absorption lines and emission features (H and Ca ii triplet emission lines, 1st and 2nd overtone CO bandhead emission), as well as an infrared excess indicating the presence of a (flaring) circumstellar disk. The strongest emission lines are double-peaked with a peak separation ranging between 70 and 105 km s-1, and they provide information on the physical structure of the disk. The underlying photospheric spectrum is classified as B6-B7, which is significantly cooler than a previous estimate based on modeling of the spectral energy distribution. This discrepancy is solved by allowing for a larger stellar radius (i.e. a bloated star) and thus positioning the star above the main sequence. This constitutes the first firm spectral classification of an early-B pre-main-sequence (PMS) star. We discuss the position of B275 in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in terms of PMS evolution. Although the position is consistent with PMS tracks of heavily accreting protostars (Ṁacc ≳ 10-5 M⊙ yr-1), the fact that the photosphere of the object is detectable suggests that the current mass-accretion rate is not very high. Based on observations performed with the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal, Chile, as part of the X-shooter Science Verification program 60.A-9402(A).

  18. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin to Aminopeptidase in Susceptible and Resistant Diamondback Moths (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, K.; Tabashnik, B. E.; Adang, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 120-kDa protein isolated from the brush border membranes of both susceptible and resistant larvae of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. The 120-kDa protein was purified by Cry1Ac toxin affinity chromatography. Like Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) from other insects, this protein was eluted from the affinity column with 200 mM N-acetylgalactosamine. The purified protein had aminopeptidase activity and bound Cry1Ac toxin on ligand blots. Purified aminopeptidase was recognized by antibodies to the cross-reacting determinant found on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized proteins. The results show that the presence of Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase in the brush border membrane is not sufficient to confer susceptibility to Cry1Ac. Furthermore, the results do not support the hypothesis that resistance to Cry1Ac was caused by lack of a Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase. PMID:16535536

  19. Recombinantly expressed isoenzymic aminopeptidases from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) midgut display differential interaction with closely related Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, R; Agrawal, Neema; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Sivakumar, S; Ahmad, Suhail; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2003-01-01

    Several investigators have independently identified membrane-associated aminopeptidases in the midgut of insect larvae as the initial interacting ligand to the insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Though several isoenzymes of aminopeptidases have been identified from the midgut of an insect and their corresponding cDNA cloned, only one of the isoform has been expressed heterologously and studied for its binding to Cry toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression of two aminopeptidases N from Helicoverpa armigera (American cotton bollworm) (HaAPNs). The full-length cDNA of H. armigera APN1 (haapn1) is 3205 bp in size and encodes a 1000-amino-acid protein, while H. armigera APN2 (haapn2) is 3116 bp in size and corresponds to a 1012-amino-acid protein. Structurally these proteins show sequence similarity to other insect aminopeptidases and possess characteristic aminopeptidase motifs. Both the genes have been expressed in Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) cells using a baculovirus expression vector. The expressed aminopeptidases are membrane-associated, catalytically active and glycosylated. Ligand-blot analysis of both these aminopeptidases with bioactive Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins displayed differential interaction. All the three toxins bound to HaAPN1, whereas only Cry1Ac interacted with HaAPN2. This is the first report demonstrating differential Cry-toxin-binding abilities of two different aminopeptidases from a susceptible insect. PMID:12441000

  20. Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert C. Piper, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Flow, Incorporated Portland, Oregon 97201...Phase 11 (24 Mar 95 - 23 Mar 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Parasite Lactate Dehydrogenase for Diagnosis of Plasmodium Falciparum DAMD...that infected patients become ill. Four species of Plasmodium infect humans. P. falciparum accounts for -85 % of the world’s malaria. P. falciparum is

  1. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N receptor is not directly related to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J L; Lee, M K; Sangadala, S; Adang, M J; Dean, D H

    1999-12-03

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin specifically binds a 115-kDa aminopeptidase-N purified from Manduca sexta midgut. Cry1Ac domain III mutations were constructed around a putative sugar-binding pocket and binding to purified aminopeptidase-N and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was compared to toxicity. Q509A, R511A, Y513A, and 509-511 (QNR-AAA) eliminated aminopeptidase-N binding and reduced binding to BBMV. However, toxicity decreased no more than two-fold, indicating activity is not directly correlated with aminopeptidase-N binding. Analysis of toxin binding to aminopeptidase-N in M. sexta is therefore insufficient for predicting toxicity. Mutants retained binding, however, to another BBMV site, suggesting alternative receptors may compensate in vivo.

  2. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Denaturation of either Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins exposes binding epitopes hidden under nondenaturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H; Adang, Michael J

    2002-05-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant (509)QNR-AAA(511) (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both (125)I-Cry1Ac and (125)I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots (125)I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured (125)I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) (125)I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors.

  4. Denaturation of Either Manduca sexta Aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A Toxins Exposes Binding Epitopes Hidden under Nondenaturing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H.; Adang, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with 125I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant 509QNR-AAA511 (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both 125I-Cry1Ac and 125I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots 125I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured 125I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) 125I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors. PMID:11976078

  5. Changes and induction of aminopeptidase activities in response to pathogen infection during germination of pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2011-10-15

    Aminopeptidases play important role in the mobilization of storage proteins at the cotyledon during seed germination. It is often referred as inducible component of defense against herbivore attack. However the role of aminopeptidase in response to pathogen attack in germinating seeds is remained to be unknown. An attempt was made to analyze change in the aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) activity during germination of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) seeds by infecting the seeds with fungi. Two aminopeptidase activity bands (AP1 and AP2) were detected in control as well as infected pigeonpea seeds. During latter stages of germination in control seeds, AP1 activity was replaced by AP2 activity. However AP1 activity was significantly induced in germinating seeds infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri and Aspergillus niger var. niger. The estimated molecular weights of AP1 and AP2 were ∼97 and 42.8kDa respectively. The induced enzyme was purified up to 30 fold by gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme was preferentially cleaved leucine p-nitroanilide than alanine p-nitroanilide. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by bestatin and 1,10-phenanthroline. Almost 50% of enzyme activity was inhibited by ethylene diamine tetra acetate. The purified enzyme showed broad pH optima ranging from pH 6.0 to 9.0 and optimum at pH 8.5. The induction of aminopeptidase activity during pigeonpea seed germination and in response to pathogen attack indicates significant involvement of these enzymes in primary as well as secondary metabolism of the seeds. These findings could be helpful to further dissect defensive role of aminopeptidases in seed germination which is an important event in plant's life.

  6. Ethanol modifies differently aspartyl- and glutamyl-aminopeptidase activities in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Ramírez, Manuel; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2002-01-15

    Aminopeptidase A activity (aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP) and glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP) exerts angiotensinase activity due to its relation to the metabolism of angiotensins in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This activity may also modify the free amino acid pool through the release of N-terminal acidic amino acids. Ethanol (EtOH) exerts profound effects on the brain, inducing important neurological damages. Our purpose is to study the influence of EtOH on AspAP and GluAP activities on basal and K(+)-stimulated conditions, at the synapse level. We used mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their incubation supernatant in a Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. We evaluate the possible contribution of these enzymatic activities on brain blood pressure regulation through RAS and/or the free acidic amino acid pool. The results obtained are correlated with several parameters of oxidative stress, such as free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. Under basal conditions, in synaptosomes, EtOH inhibits AspAP and GluAP activities independently of Ca(2+). In the supernatant, however, EtOH differently modulates the two enzyme activities under the various concentrations. Under K(+)-stimulated conditions, EtOH inhibits the K(+)-stimulated increase on AspAP and GluAP differently depending on the presence or absence of Ca(2+) and the concentration of EtOH used. These results invalidate the idea that excess free acidic amino acids could be released by AspAP and GluAP to induce neurodegeneration. The changes in AspAP and GluAP activities as a consequence of EtOH administration and their role in the brain RAS are discussed.

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of an aminopeptidase (Xac2987) with broad specificity from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Santos, Kelly; Medrano, Francisco J

    2007-03-01

    We report here, the cloning, expression, and purification of a broad specificity aminopeptidase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri in fusion with a hexa-histidine tag at the N-terminal portion of the protein to facilitate purification. The protein was expressed in the soluble fraction and could be purified in one step by IMAC, yielding approximately 50mg pure protein per liter of cells. We show that the protein is folded and presents aminopeptidase activity against synthetic substrates. Also, we present the characterization of its specificity, showing that the protein was, indeed, able to catalyze the removal of N-terminal residues from synthetic substrates.

  8. Structural insights into the molecular ruler mechanism of the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Amit; Lakshminarasimhan, Damodharan; Sun, Yixin; Guo, Hwai-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an essential component of the immune system, because it trims peptide precursors and generates the N--restricted epitopes. To examine ERAP1's unique properties of length- and sequence-dependent processing of antigen precursors, we report a 2.3 Å resolution complex structure of the ERAP1 regulatory domain. Our study reveals a binding conformation of ERAP1 to the carboxyl terminus of a peptide, and thus provides direct evidence for the molecular ruler mechanism. PMID:22355701

  9. Induction of wound response genes in tomato leaves by bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, A; Bergey, D R; Ryan, C A

    1995-01-01

    Bestatin, an inhibitor of some aminopeptidases in plants and animals, is a powerful inducer of defense genes in tomato leaves; these genes are also induced by herbivore attacks, mechanical wounding, systemin, and methyl jasmonate. Unlike wounding and systemin, bestatin does not cause an increase in intracellular jasmonic acid concentrations, and inhibitors of the octadecanoid pathway do not inhibit induction by bestatin. Furthermore, defense genes were induced by bestatin in a mutant tomato line (JL-5) with a defect in the octadecanoid pathway. Bestatin therefore appears to be exerting its effects close to the level of transcriptional control of these genes, where it may be inhibiting a regulatory protease. PMID:8535142

  10. Histochemical method for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase II with a new anthraquinonyl hydrazide substrate.

    PubMed

    Dikov, A; Dimitrova, M; Pajpanova, T; Krieg, R; Halbhuber, K J

    2000-11-01

    A new method for the histochemical visualization of lysosomal aminopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase II activity (DPP II) is developed. The substrate L-Lys-L-Ala-5-chloro-1-anthraquinonylhydrazide-2HBr (Lys-Ala-CAH) is readily hydrolyzed by the enzyme to release 5-Cl-1-anthraquinonylhydrazine (CAH). The last compound is simultaneously coupled to an aromatic aldehyde, e.g. 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (p-NBA) or piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde; PPL), to form a highly insoluble deeply colored hydrazone, marking the enzyme locations. Using the new method, DPP II is successfully localyzed in tissue sections from different rat organs.

  11. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Talman, Arthur M; Domarle, Olivier; McKenzie, F Ellis; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum. PMID:15253774

  12. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masakazu; Hattori, Akira; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Ma, Xiuyang; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Sigehiko

    2009-09-01

    We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney. We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined. The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively. Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2.

    PubMed

    Ascher, David B; Polekhina, Galina; Parker, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) is a critical enzyme involved in the final processing of MHC class I antigens. Peptide trimming by ERAP2 and the other members of the oxytocinase subfamily is essential to customize longer precursor peptides in order to fit them to the correct length required for presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. While recent structures of ERAP1 have provided an understanding of the `molecular-ruler' mechanism of substrate selection, little is known about the complementary activities of its homologue ERAP2 despite their sharing 49% sequence identity. In order to gain insights into the structure-function relationship of the oxytocinase subfamily, and in particular ERAP2, the luminal region of human ERAP2 has been crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor bestatin. The crystals belonged to an orthorhombic space group and diffracted anisotropically to 3.3 Å resolution in the best direction on an in-house X-ray source. A molecular-replacement solution suggested that the enzyme has adopted the closed state as has been observed in other inhibitor-bound aminopeptidase structures.

  14. A thermo-stable lysine aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Isolation, purification, characterization, and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan Tao; Zhou, Nan Di; Zhou, Zhe Min; Gao, Xin Xing; Tian, Ya Ping

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa NJ-814, isolated from garden soil, produced an extracellular aminopeptidase that was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The purity was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the Mr value of the enzyme was estimated to be 55 kDa. The purified enzyme shows maximum activity at pH 9.0 and 80 °C. It exhibits high thermo-stability. Half of the activity can remain after incubation at 80 °C for 119 min. It is stable within pH range of 7.5-10.5. It is strongly activated by Co(2+) and inhibited by Fe(2+) , Cu(2+) , Ni(2+) , Zn(2+) , and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The specificity of the enzyme was investigated. Within several aminoacyl-p-nitroanilines (AA-pNA), Lys-pNA is proven to be the optimal substrate. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km ) of the enzyme for Lys-pNA and Leu-pNA were 2.32 and 9.41 mM, respectively. Peptide map fingerprinting shows that the sequence of the enzyme is highly similar to aminopeptidase Y from P. aeruginosa 18A. It can be speculated that this enzyme is a Zn(2+) -dependent enzyme and contains two zinc ions in its active site.

  15. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and cholesterol on aminopeptidase activities in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2002-12-01

    Several studies have addressed the interaction between fatty acids and lipids with central nervous system peptides. Because aminopeptidases (AP) are involved in the regulation of neuropeptides, this work studies several AP expressed in cultured astroglia, after exogenous addition of oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol to the culture medium. Alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities were analysed in whole cells using the corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides as substrates. Oleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, cystyl-AP and leucyl-AP activities, whereas linoleic acid inhibits alanyl-AP, arginyl-AP and tyrosyl-AP activities. Neither oleic acid nor linoleic acid modifies pyroglutamyl-AP activity. In contrast, cholesterol increases arginyl-AP, cystyl-AP, leucyl-AP, tyrosyl-AP and pyroglutamyl-AP activities, although it does not modify alanyl-AP activity. The changes reported here suggest that oleic and linoleic fatty acids and cholesterol can modulate peptide activities via their degradation route involving aminopeptidases; each of them being differentially regulated.

  16. Immunization with recombinant leucine aminopeptidase showed protection against Fasciola gigantica in mice.

    PubMed

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Preyavichyapugdee, Narin; Chantree, Pathanin; Sansri, Veerawat; Itagaki, Tadashi; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-10-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is expressed in all stages of Fasciola gigantica and, hence, is considered as a potential vaccine candidate. In this study, we have tested a vaccine potential of LAP and the types of immune responses it elicited in vaccinated mice. Recombinant F. gigantica leucine aminopeptidase (rFgLAP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3). The imprinting control region mice subcutaneously immunized with 50 μg of rFgLAP combined with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) exhibited a significant reduction in worm recoveries when compared with non-immunized and Freund's adjuvant controls at 60.8 and 64.3%, respectively, and both T helper (Th)1 and Th2 humoral immune responses were elicited in the hosts as reflected by the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, with Th2 predominating. The levels of IgG1- and IgG2a-specific antibodies to rFgLAP were inversely and significantly correlated with the numbers of worm recoveries. The rFgLAP-vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and liver damage. These indicated that rFgLAP has a potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat.

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sai Shyam; Ramanujan, Ajeena; Krishna, Shyam; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2008-12-01

    The methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) catalyzes the removal of amino terminal methionine from newly synthesized polypeptide. MetAP from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 was purified from the culture lysate in four sequential steps to obtain a final purification fold of 22. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Activity staining was performed to detect the methionine aminopeptidase activity on native polyacrylamide gel. The enzyme was characterized biochemically, using L-methionine p-nitroanilide as substrate. The enzyme was found to have a temperature and pH optimum of 50 degrees C and 8.5, respectively, and was found to be stable at 50 degrees C with half-life more than 8 h. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Co(2+) and was inhibited by Fe(2+) and Cu(2+). The enzyme activity inhibited by EDTA is restored in presence of Mg(2+) suggesting the possible role of Mg(2+) as metal cofactor of the enzyme in vitro.

  18. Expression and biochemical characterization of a type I methionine aminopeptidase of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Ju, Hye-Lim; Lee, Jinyoung; Lee, Kon Ho; Lee, Won-Ja; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-04-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs), ubiquitous enzymes that play an important role in nascent protein maturation, have been recognized as attractive targets for the development of drugs against pathogenic protozoa including Plasmodium spp. Here, we characterized partial biochemical properties of a type I MetAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvMetAP1). PvMetAP1 had the typical amino acid residues essential for metal binding and substrate binding sites, which are well conserved in the type I MetAP family enzymes. Recombinant PvMetAP1 showed activity in a broad range of neutral pHs, with optimum activity at pH 7.5. PvMetAP1 was stable under neutral and alkaline pHs, but was relatively unstable under acidic conditions. PvMetAP1 activity was highly increased in the presence of Mn(2+), and was effectively inhibited by a metal chelator, EDTA. Fumagillin and aminopeptidase inhibitors, amastatin and bestatin, also showed an inhibitory effect on PvMetAP1. The enzyme had a highly specific hydrolytic activity for N-terminal methionine. These results collectively suggest that PvMetAP1 belongs to the family of type I MetAPs and may play a pivotal role for the maintenance of P. vivax physiology by mediating protein maturation and processing of the parasite.

  19. Purpurin inhibits adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase and angiogenesis in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyomi; Shim, Joong Sup; Kim, Beom Seok; Jung, Hye Jin; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-07-18

    Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP) is a novel member of the M1 family of zinc metallopeptidases, which has been reported to play a crucial role in angiogenesis. In the present study, we conducted a target-based screening of natural products and synthetic chemical libraries using the purified enzyme to search novel inhibitors of A-LAP. Amongst several hits isolated, a natural product purpurin was identified as one of the most potent inhibitors of A-LAP from the screening. In vitro enzymatic analyses demonstrated that purpurin inhibited A-LAP activity in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 20 M. In addition, purpurin showed a strong selectivity toward A-LAP versus another member of M1 family of zinc metallopeptidase, aminopeptidase N (APN). In angiogenesis assays, purpurin inhibited the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, purpurin inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in zebrafish embryo without toxicity. These data demonstrate that purpurin is a novel specific inhibitor of A-LAP and could be developed as a new anti-angiogenic agent.

  20. Purification and Characterization of an Aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2

    PubMed Central

    Neviani, E.; Boquien, C. Y.; Monnet, V.; Thanh, L. Phan; Gripon, J.-C.

    1989-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was purified from cell extracts of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2 by ion-exchange chromatography. After electrophoresis of the purified enzyme in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, one protein band was detected. The enzyme was a 300-kilodalton hexamer composed of identical subunits not linked by disulfide bridges. Activity was optimal at 40°C and pH 7 and was inhibited by classical thiol group inhibitors. The aminopeptidase hydrolyzed naphthylamide-substituted amino acids, as well as dipeptides and tripeptides. Longer protein chains such as the B chain of insulin were hydrolyzed, but at a much slower rate. The Michaelis constant (Km) and the maximal rate of hydrolysis (Vmax) were, respectively, 4.5 mM and 3,600 pkat/mg for the substrate l-histidyl-β-naphthylamide. Amino acid analysis showed that the enzyme contained low levels of hydrophobic residues. The partial N-terminal sequence of the first 19 residues of the mature enzyme was determined. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained from the purified enzyme, and after immunoblotting, there was no cross-reaction between these antibodies and other proteins in the crude extract. Images PMID:16348010

  1. Evolutionary analysis of the mammalian M1 aminopeptidases reveals conserved exon structure and gene death.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Karen Beasley; Smith, Shannon A; Davis, Anthony C; Trivette, Andrew; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca L

    2014-11-15

    The members of the M1 aminopeptidase family share conserved domains, yet show functional divergence within the family as a whole. In order to better understand this family, this study analyzed the mammalian members in depth at exon, gene, and protein levels. The twelve human members, eleven rat members, and eleven mouse members were first analyzed in multiple alignments to visualize both reported and unreported conserved domains. Phylogenetic trees were then generated for humans, rats, mice, and all mammals to determine how closely related the homologs were and to gain insight to the divergence in the family members. This produced three groups with similarity within the family. Next, a synteny study was completed to determine the present locations of the genes and changes that had occurred. It became apparent that gene death likely resulted in the lack of one member in mouse and rat. Finally, an in-depth analysis of the exon structure revealed that nine members of the human family and eight in mouse, are highly conserved within the exon structure. Taken together, these results indicate that the M1 aminopeptidase family is a divergent family with three subgroups and that genetic evidence mirrors categorization of the family by enzymatic function.

  2. Purification and characterization of aminopeptidase (pumAPE) from Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Noriega-Reyes, Yamilet; Ramírez-Zavala, Bernardo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2004-05-15

    The aminopeptidase pumAPE was purified from the haploid fungus Ustilago maydis FB1 strain. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate fractionation and three chromatographic steps, which included anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography, resulting in a 23% recovery. The molecular mass of the dimeric enzyme was estimated to be 110 kDa and 58 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Enzymatic activity was optimal at pH 7.0 and at 35 degrees C toward Lys-pNA and the pI was determined to be 5.1. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA-Na2, 1,10- phenanthroline, bestantin, PMSF and several divalent cations (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+). The aminopeptidase showed a preference for lysine and arginine in the N-position. The K(m) value was 54.4 microM and the Vmax value was 408 micromolmin(-1)mg(-1) for Lys-pNA.

  3. Developmental retardation, microcephaly, and peptiduria in mice without aminopeptidase P1.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang Ho; Bae, Young-Soo; Mun, Mi-Sun; Park, Kyeong-Yeol; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eunjoon; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2012-12-14

    Cytosolic aminopeptidase P1 (APP1) is one of the three known mammalian aminopeptidase Ps (APPs) that cleave the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptides in which the penultimate amino acid is proline. In mammals, many biologically active peptides have a highly conserved N-terminal penultimate proline. However, little is known about the physiological role of APP1. In addition, there is no direct evidence to associate a deficiency in APP1 with metabolic diseases. Although two human subjects with reduced APP activity exhibited peptiduria, it is unclear which of the three APP isoforms is responsible for this disorder. In this study, we generated APP1-deficient mice by knocking out Xpnpep1. Mouse APP1 deficiency causes severe growth retardation, microcephaly, and modest lethality. In addition, imino-oligopeptide excretion was observed in urine samples from APP1-deficient mice. These results suggest an essential role for APP1-mediated peptide metabolism in body and brain development, and indicate a strong causal link between APP1 deficiency and peptiduria.

  4. Renin angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; del Pilar Carrera-González, María; Dueñas, Basilio; Mayas, María Dolores; García, María Jesús; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2011-10-01

    Angiotensin peptides regulate vascular tone and natriohydric balance through the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and are related with the angiogenesis which plays an important role in the metastatic pathway. Estrogen influences the aminopeptidases (APs) involved in the metabolism of bioactive peptides of RAS through several pathways. We analyze RAS-regulating AP activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer to evaluate the putative value of these activities as biological markers of the development of breast cancer. We observed an increase in aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) activities in women with breast cancer; however, a decrease in aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAP) activity in premenopausal women. These results suggest a slow metabolism of angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III (Ang III) in premenopausal women and a rapid metabolism of Ang III to angiotensin IV (Ang IV) in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. An imbalance in the signals activated by Ang II may produce abnormal vascular growth with different response between pre- and postmenopausal women depending on the hormonal profile and the development of the disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases in tumor growth of rat C6 gliomas implanted at the subcutaneous region.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Cobo, Manuela; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin peptides play roles in brain tumor infiltration and associated angiogenesis. We explored the roles of soluble and membrane-bound forms of renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase N (APN)-, aminopeptidase B (APB)-, glutamate aminopeptidase- and aspartate aminopeptidase (AspAP)-specific activities on tumor growth in the rat C6 glioma model with implantation into the subcutaneous abdomen of Wistar rats, evaluating these activities as biological markers. The tumor volume was assessed for three weeks and a sample of tumor was obtained every seven days to obtain the soluble and membrane-bound fraction, in order to assay enzyme activities fluorometrically using their corresponding aminoacyl-β-naphthylamide as substrates. We found a time-dependent decrease in soluble and membrane-bound APN and APB. Soluble AspAP increases with tumor growth in a time-dependent manner. Although gliomas are heterogeneous tissues, angiotensin peptides are involved in this model of tumor growth and their role could be analyzed through their corresponding regulatory proteolytic enzymes.

  6. Halotolerant aminopeptidase M29 from Mesorhizobium SEMIA 3007 with biotechnological potential and its impact on biofilm synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Elwi Machado; Pereira, Mariana Rangel; Maester, Thaís Carvalho; Gomes-Pepe, Elisangela Soares; Mendoza, Elkin Rodas; Lemos, Eliana G de Macedo

    2017-09-06

    The aminopeptidase gene from Mesorhizobium SEMIA3007 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme called MesoAmp exhibited optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 45 °C and was strongly activated by Co(2+) and Mn(2+). Under these reaction conditions, the enzyme displayed Km and kcat values of 0.2364 ± 0.018 mM and 712.1 ± 88.12 s(-1), respectively. Additionally, the enzyme showed remarkable stability in organic solvents and was active at high concentrations of NaCl, suggesting that the enzyme might be suitable for use in biotechnology. MesoAmp is responsible for 40% of the organism's aminopeptidase activity. However, the enzyme's absence does not affect bacterial growth in synthetic broth, although it interfered with biofilm synthesis and osmoregulation. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first detailed characterization of aminopeptidase from Mesorhizobium and suggests its importance in biofilm formation and osmotic stress tolerance. In summary, this work lays the foundation for potential biotechnological applications and/or the development of environmentally friendly technologies and describes the first solvent- and halo-tolerant aminopeptidases identified from the Mesorhizobium genus and its importance in bacterial metabolism.

  7. Molecular specialization of breast vasculature: A breast-homing phage-displayed peptide binds to aminopeptidase P in breast vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essler, Markus; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2002-02-01

    In vivo phage display identifies peptides that selectively home to the vasculature of individual organs, tissues, and tumors. Here we report the identification of a cyclic nonapeptide, CPGPEGAGC, which homes to normal breast tissue with a 100-fold selectivity over nontargeted phage. The homing of the phage is inhibited by its cognate synthetic peptide. Phage localization in tissue sections showed that the breast-homing phage binds to the blood vessels in the breast, but not in other tissues. The phage also bound to the vasculature of hyperplastic and malignant lesions in transgenic breast cancer mice. Expression cloning with a phage-displayed cDNA library yielded a phage that specifically bound to the breast-homing peptide. The cDNA insert was homologous to a fragment of aminopeptidase P. The homing peptide bound aminopeptidase P from malignant breast tissue in affinity chromatography. Antibodies against aminopeptidase P inhibited the in vitro binding of the phage-displayed cDNA to the peptide and the in vivo homing of phage carrying the peptide. These results indicate that aminopeptidase P is the receptor for the breast-homing peptide. This peptide may be useful in designing drugs for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  10. Impact of exposure to mosquito transmission-blocking antibodies on Plasmodium falciparum population genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Sandeu, Maurice M; Abate, Luc; Tchioffo, Majoline T; Bayibéki, Albert N; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H; Nsango, Sandrine E; Chesnais, Cédric B; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; de Meeûs, Thierry; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Progress in malaria control has led to a significant reduction of the malaria burden. Interventions that interrupt transmission are now needed to achieve the elimination goal. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) that aim to prevent mosquito infections represent promising tools and several vaccine candidates targeting different stages of the parasite's lifecycle are currently under development. A mosquito-midgut antigen, the anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase (AnAPN1) is one of the lead TBV candidates; antibodies against AnAPN1 prevent ookinete invasion. In this study, we explored the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes fed with anti-AnAPN1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) vs. untreated controls, and investigated whether the parasite genetic content affects or is affected by antibody treatment. Exposure to anti-AnAPN1 mAbs was efficient at blocking parasite transmission and the effect was dose-dependent. Genetic analysis revealed a significant sib-mating within P. falciparum infra-populations infecting one host, as measured by the strong correlation between Wright's FIS and multiplicity of infection. Treatments also resulted in significant decrease in FIS as a by-product of drop in infra-population genetic diversity and concomitant increase of apparent panmictic genotyping proportions. Genetic differentiation analyses indicated that mosquitoes fed on a same donor randomly sampled blood-circulating gametocytes. We did not detect trace of selection, as the genetic differentiation between different donors did not decrease with increasing mAb concentration and was not significant between treatments for each gametocyte donor. Thus, there is apparently no specific genotype associated with the loss of diversity under mAb treatment. Finally, the anti-AnAPN1 mAbs were effective at reducing mosquito infection and a vaccine aiming at eliciting anti-AnAPN1 mAbs has a strong potential to decrease the burden of malaria in transmission-blocking interventions

  11. Molecular identification and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase 2, an excretory-secretory product of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chuanhuan; Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Lexun; Hu, Xuchu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Lv, Xiaoli; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2012-10-01

    Aminopeptidases serve vital roles in metabolism of hormones, neurotransmission, turnover of proteins and immunological regulations. Leucine aminopeptidases catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-acid residues from the N-terminus of proteins and peptides. In the present study, leucine aminopeptidase 2 (LAP2) gene of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) was isolated and identified from an adult cDNA library of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsLAP2 was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of LAP2 contains 1,560 bp equivalent to 519 amino acids, a similarity analysis showed a relatively low homology with Homo sapiens (19.0 %), Trypanosoma cruzi (18.0 %), Mus musculus (19.3 %), and relatively high homology with Schistosoma mansoni (65.6 %). The optimum condition of rCsLAP2 enzyme activity was investigated using a fluorescent substrate of Leu-MCA at 37 °C and pH 7.5. The K (m) and V (max) values of rCsLAP2 were 18.2 μM and 10.7 μM/min, respectively. CsLAP2 gene expression can be detected at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis using real-time PCR, no difference was observed at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria and egg. However, CsLAP2 showed a higher expression level at the stage of excysted metacercaria than the adult worm (3.90-fold), metacercaria (4.60-fold) and egg (4.59-fold). Histochemistry analysis showed that CsLAP2 was located at the tegument and excretory vesicle of metacercaria, and the tegument and intestine of adult worm. The immune response specific to rCsLAP2 was characterized by a mixed response patterns of Th1 and Th2, indicating a compounded humoral and cellular immune response. The combined results from the present study indicate that CsLAP2 was an important antigen exposed to host immune system, and probably implicated as potential role in interaction with host cells in clonorchiasis.

  12. The most potent organophosphorus inhibitors of leucine aminopeptidase. Structure-based design, chemistry, and activity.

    PubMed

    Grembecka, Jolanta; Mucha, Artur; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Kafarski, Paweł

    2003-06-19

    A new class of very potent inhibitors of cytosol leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), a member of the metalloprotease family, is described. The X-ray structure of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase complexed with the phosphonic acid analogue of leucine (LeuP) was used for structure-based design of novel LAP inhibitors and for the analysis of their interactions with the enzyme binding site. The inhibitors were designed by modification of phosphonic group in the LeuP structure toward finding the substituents bound at the S' side of the enzyme. This resulted in two classes of compounds, the phosphonamidate and phosphinate dipeptide analogues, which were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the enzyme. The in vitro kinetic studies for the phosphinate dipeptide analogues revealed that these compounds belong to the group of the most effective LAP inhibitors found so far. Their further modification at the P1 position resulted in more active inhibitors, hPheP[CH(2)]Phe and hPheP[CH(2)]Tyr (K(i) values 66 nM and 67 nM, respectively, for the mixture of four diastereomers). The binding affinities of these inhibitors toward the enzyme are the highest, if considering all compounds containing a phosphorus atom that mimic the transition state of the reaction catalyzed by LAP. To evaluate selectivity of the designed LAP inhibitors, additional tests toward aminopeptidase N (APN) were performed. The key feature, which determines their selectivity, is structure at the P1' position. Aromatic and aliphatic substituents placed at this position strongly interact with the LAP S1' binding pocket, while a significant increase in binding affinity toward APN was observed for compounds containing aromatic versus leucine side chains at the P1' position. The most selective inhibitor, hPheP[CH(2)]Leu, binds to LAP with 15 times higher affinity than to APN. One of the studied compounds, hPheP[CH(2)]Tyr, appeared to be very potent inhibitor of APN (K(i) = 36 nM for the mixture of four diastereomers

  13. PDR MODEL MAPPING OF OBSCURED H{sub 2} EMISSION AND THE LINE-OF-SIGHT STRUCTURE OF M17-SW

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffer, Y.; Wolfire, M. G.

    2013-09-01

    We observed H{sub 2} line emission with Spitzer-IRS toward M17-SW and modeled the data with our photon-dominated region (PDR) code. Derived gas density values of up to few times 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} indicate that H{sub 2} emission originates in high-density clumps. We discover that the PDR code can be utilized to map the amount of intervening extinction obscuring the H{sub 2} emission layers, and thus we obtain the radial profile of A{sub V} relative to the central ionizing cluster NGC 6618. The extinction has a positive radial gradient, varying between 15-47 mag over the projected distance of 0.9-2.5 pc from the primary ionizer, CEN 1. These high extinction values are in good agreement with previous studies of A{sub V} toward stellar targets in M17-SW. The ratio of data to PDR model values is used to infer the global line-of-sight structure of the PDR surface, which is revealed to resemble a concave surface relative to NGC 6618. Such a configuration confirms that this PDR can be described as a bowl-shaped boundary of the central H II region in M17. The derived structure and physical conditions are important for interpreting the fine-structure and rotational line emission from the PDR.

  14. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  15. [Proteolysis of semax analogues with different N-terminal amino acids by aminopeptidases].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, K V; V'iunova, T V; Nagaev, I Iu; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Miasoedov, N F

    2011-01-01

    Proteolysis of semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro, Sem) and its analogues ([Ala1]Sem, [Gly1]Sem, [Thr1]Sem, [Trp1]Sem) that are differ from semax in substitution of N-terminal Met residue were studied. It is shown that such replacement changes the rate of peptides degradation by N-aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11.2, Sigma, Type VI, 9.2 units. Akt. / mg). [Ala1]Sem, [Gly1]Sem and [Thr1]Sem semax analogues proved to be more stable to proteolysis than semax (Sem), and their initial product of proteolysis is His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro (Sem-5). For triptophan analogue both Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro (Sem-6) and Sem-5 product are formed in similar quantities. It is found that all investigated analogues can be used as inhibitors in Sem proteolysis.

  16. Ionic immobilization, diversification, and release: application to the generation of a library of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, Punitha; Guerra, Jennifer M; Schoenen, Frank; Huang, Min; Gor, Parul J; Georg, Gunda I; Wang, Jenna L; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H; Mitscher, Lester A; Ye, Qi-Zhuang; Hanson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Development of an ionic immobilization, diversification, and release method for the generation of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors is reported. This method involves the immobilization of 5-bromofuran-2-carboxylic acid and 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxylic acid onto PS-BEMP, followed by Suzuki reaction on a resin-bound intermediate and subsequent release to provide products in moderate yields and excellent purities. Compound potencies were evaluated on the Co(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) forms of Escherichia coli MetAP1. The furoic-acid analogs were found to be Mn(II) selective with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range. Qualitative SAR analysis, supplemented by molecular modeling studies, provides valuable information on structural elements responsible for potency and selectivity.

  17. Structural basis for antigenic peptide precursor processing by the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAP1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tina T; Chang, Shih-Chung; Evnouchidou, Irini; York, Ian A; Zikos, Christos; Rock, Kenneth L; Goldberg, Alfred L; Stratikos, Efstratios; Stern, Lawrence J

    2011-05-01

    ERAP1 trims antigen precursors to fit into MHC class I proteins. To fulfill this function, ERAP1 has unique substrate preferences, trimming long peptides but sparing shorter ones. To identify the structural basis for ERAP1's unusual properties, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of human ERAP1 bound to bestatin. The structure reveals an open conformation with a large interior compartment. An extended groove originating from the enzyme's catalytic center can accommodate long peptides and has features that explain ERAP1's broad specificity for antigenic peptide precursors. Structural and biochemical analyses suggest a mechanism for ERAP1's length-dependent trimming activity, whereby binding of long rather than short substrates induces a conformational change with reorientation of a key catalytic residue toward the active site. ERAP1's unique structural elements suggest how a generic aminopeptidase structure has been adapted for the specialized function of trimming antigenic precursors.

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, K; Nakanishi, K; Kadotani, T; Imamura, M; Koizumi, N; Iwahana, H; Sato, R

    1999-12-17

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N (APN) was analyzed, to better understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to the toxin and the development of resistance in insects. APN was digested with lysylendopeptidase and the ability of the resulting fragments to bind to Cry1Aa and 1Ac toxins was examined. The binding abilities of the two toxins to these fragments were different. The Cry1Aa toxin bound to the fragment containing 40-Asp to 313-Lys, suggesting that the Cry1Aa toxin-binding site is located in the region between 40-Asp and 313-Lys, while Cry1Ac toxin bound exclusively to mature APN. Next, recombinant APN of various lengths was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and its ability to bind to Cry1Aa toxin was examined. The results localized the Cry1Aa toxin binding to the region between 135-Ile and 198-Pro.

  19. Renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; Dueñas, B; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2006-03-01

    Pineal function has been considered particularly as a neuroendocrine modulator in hormone responsive tumors, like the hormone-dependent mammary tumors. The complexity of the gland function, moreover, is denoted by the presence of a local renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) that regulates melatonin biosynthesis. Classically, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been considered as the effector peptide of the RAS, but Ang II is not the only active peptide. Several of its degradation products, including angiotensin III (Ang III) and angiotensin IV (Ang IV) also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed via the activity of several aminopeptidases. Our aim is to know their role in the regulation of pineal RAS and breast cancer. Aminopeptidase N (APN), aminopeptidase B (APB) and aminopeptidase A (aspartyl- and glutamyl-aminopeptidase, APA) activities are measured in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea (NMU). Aminopeptidase activities were measured fluorimetrically using their corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamides as substrates. Specific APN and APB activities in pineal gland of controls and NMU-treated rats were not modified. Aspartyl aminopeptidase activity significantly decreased in NMU-treated rats when compared with control group. On the contrary, glutamyl aminopeptidase activity did not show significant differences between groups. We propose that the local RAS in pineal gland is modified in rats with breast cancer induced by NMU through the inhibition of AspAP activity, which may lead to increased levels of Ang II. Ang II could be responsible of the overproduction of melatonin, supporting a mechanism to restrain the promotion and/or progression of breast cancer.

  20. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Aminopeptidase from Human Intestine

    DOE PAGES

    Tykvart, Jan; Bařinka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; ...

    2015-03-09

    N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. In this paper, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence thatmore » it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Finally, based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP).« less

  1. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Aminopeptidase from Human Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Tykvart, Jan; Bařinka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; Navrátil, Václav; Souček, Radko; Hubálek, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šácha, Pavel; Lubkowski, Jacek; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-03-09

    N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. In this paper, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence that it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Finally, based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP).

  2. Structural basis for the unusual specificity of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Addlagatta, Anthony; Gay, Leslie; Matthews, Brian W

    2008-05-13

    Aminopeptidase N from Escherichia coli is a M1 class aminopeptidase with the active-site region related to that of thermolysin. The enzyme has unusual specificity, cleaving adjacent to the large, nonpolar amino acids Phe and Tyr but also cleaving next to the polar residues Lys and Arg. To try to understand the structural basis for this pattern of hydrolysis, the structure of the enzyme was determined in complex with the amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, and L-tyrosine. These amino acids all bind with their backbone atoms close to the active-site zinc ion and their side chain occupying the S1 subsite. This subsite is in the form of a cylinder, about 10 A in cross-section and 12 A in length. The bottom of the cylinder includes the zinc ion and a number of polar side chains that make multiple hydrogen-bonding and other interactions with the alpha-amino group and the alpha-carboxylate of the bound amino acid. The walls of the S1 cylinder are hydrophobic and accommodate the nonpolar or largely nonpolar side chains of Phe and Tyr. The top of the cylinder is polar in character and includes bound water molecules. The epsilon-amino group of the bound lysine side chain and the guanidinium group of arginine both make multiple hydrogen bonds to this part of the S1 site. At the same time, the hydrocarbon part of the lysine and arginine side chains is accommodated within the nonpolar walls of the S1 cylinder. This combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic binding surfaces explains the ability of ePepN to cleave Lys, Arg, Phe, and Tyr. Another favored substrate has Ala at the P1 position. The short, nonpolar side chain of this residue can clearly be bound within the hydrophobic part of the S1 cylinder, but the reason for its facile hydrolysis remains uncertain.

  3. Overexpression and characterization of an extracellular leucine aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hattori, Ryota; Marui, Junichiro; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Yamagata, Youhei; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Michio; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2011-02-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), an enzyme used in the food industry, is an exopeptidase that removes an amino acid residue, primarily leucine (Leu), from the N-terminus of peptides and protein substrates. In this study, we focused on the leucine aminopeptidase A (lapA) gene from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40. To purify and characterize the LapA, lapA was overexpressed in A. oryzae RIB40 using the amyB promoter. LAP activity in the culture supernatant of one transformant harboring the lapA expression plasmid was 33 times that of the host strain. LapA was purified from the culture supernatant of this lapA-overexpressing strain by column chromatography. The purified recombinant LapA had a molecular mass of 33 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid was the tyrosine at position 80 of the deduced amino acid sequence. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 60°C and pH 8.5, and the enzyme was stable at temperatures up to 60°C and in the pH range 7.5-11. In transcriptional analysis, lapA was induced under alkaline conditions and expressed at a relatively low level under normal conditions. LapA showed maximum hydrolyzing activity for the substrate leucine para-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA), followed by substrates Phe-pNA (39% activity compared with Leu-pNA), Met-pNA, Lys-pNA, and Arg-pNA. In addition, LapA preferentially hydrolyzed peptides longer than tripeptides.

  4. RNA interference targeting leucine aminopeptidase blocks hatching of Schistosoma mansoni eggs.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Morales, Maria E; Alrefaei, Yousef N; Cancela, Martín; Castillo, Estela; Dalton, John P; Tort, José F; Brindley, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    Schistosoma mansoni leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is thought to play a central role in hatching of the miracidium from the schistosome egg. We identified two discrete LAPs genes in the S. mansoni genome, and their orthologs in S. japonicum. The similarities in sequence and exon/intron structure of the two genes, LAP1 and LAP2, suggest that they arose by gene duplication and that this occurred before separation of the mansoni and japonicum lineages. The SmLAP1 and SmLAP2 genes have different expression patterns in diverse stages of the cycle; whereas both are equally expressed in the blood dwelling stages (schistosomules and adult), SmLAP2 expression was higher in free living larval (miracidia) and in parasitic intra-snail (sporocysts) stages. We investigated the role of each enzyme in hatching of schistosome eggs and the early stages of schistosome development by RNA interference (RNAi). Using RNAi, we observed marked and specific reduction of mRNAs, along with a loss of exopeptidase activity in soluble parasite extracts against the diagnostic substrate l-leucine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin hydroxide. Strikingly, knockdown of either SmLAP1 or SmLAP2, or both together, was accompanied by >or=80% inhibition of hatching of schistosome eggs showing that both enzymes are important to the escape of miracidia from the egg. The methods employed here refine the utility of RNAi for functional genomics studies in helminth parasites and confirm these can be used to identify potential drug targets, in this case schistosome aminopeptidases.

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of methionine aminopeptidase of Babesia bovis as a potent drug target.

    PubMed

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Guswanto, Azirwan; Takemae, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-05-15

    Aminopeptidases are increasingly being investigated as therapeutic targets in various diseases. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and biochemically characterized a member of the methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) family from Babesia bovis (B. bovis) to develop a potential molecular drug target. Recombinant B. bovis MAP (rBvMAP) was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein, and we found that it was antigenic. An antiserum against the rBvMAP protein was generated in mice, and then a native B. bovis MAP was identified in B. bovis by Western blot assay. Further, an immunolocalization assay showed that MAP is present in the cytoplasm of the B. bovis merozoite. Analysis of the biochemical properties of rBvMAP revealed that it was enzymatically active, with optimum activity at pH 7.5. Enhanced enzymatic activity was observed in the presence of divalent manganese cations and was effectively inhibited by a metal chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the enzymatic activity of BvMAP was inhibited by amastatin and bestatin as inhibitors of MAP (MAPi) in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, MAPi was also found to significantly inhibit the growth of Babesia parasites both in vitro and in vivo; additionally, they induced high levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin (IgG) titers in the host. Therefore, our results suggest that BvMAP is a molecular target of amastatin and bestatin, and those inhibitors may be drug candidates for the treatment of babesiosis, though more studies are required to confirm this.

  6. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Aminopeptidase from Human Intestine*

    PubMed Central

    Tykvart, Jan; Bařinka, Cyril; Svoboda, Michal; Navrátil, Václav; Souček, Radko; Hubálek, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šácha, Pavel; Lubkowski, Jacek; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase-like protein (NAALADase L), encoded by the NAALADL1 gene, is a close homolog of glutamate carboxypeptidase II, a metallopeptidase that has been intensively studied as a target for imaging and therapy of solid malignancies and neuropathologies. However, neither the physiological functions nor structural features of NAALADase L are known at present. Here, we report a thorough characterization of the protein product of the human NAALADL1 gene, including heterologous overexpression and purification, structural and biochemical characterization, and analysis of its expression profile. By solving the NAALADase L x-ray structure, we provide the first experimental evidence that it is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase with a catalytic mechanism similar to that of glutamate carboxypeptidase II yet distinct substrate specificity. A proteome-based assay revealed that the NAALADL1 gene product possesses previously unrecognized aminopeptidase activity but no carboxy- or endopeptidase activity. These findings were corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis and identification of bestatin as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Analysis of NAALADL1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels revealed the small intestine as the major site of protein expression and points toward extensive alternative splicing of the NAALADL1 gene transcript. Taken together, our data imply that the NAALADL1 gene product's primary physiological function is associated with the final stages of protein/peptide digestion and absorption in the human digestive system. Based on these results, we suggest a new name for this enzyme: human ileal aminopeptidase (HILAP). PMID:25752612

  7. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  8. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum Choline Transporters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    interfere specifically with parasite membrane biogenesis inhibit the growth of the parasite in vitro, are non-toxic to human cell lines, impair the...phosphocholine. Collectively, our data supported by the USAMRMC provide a much better understanding of membrane biogenesis in P. falciparum and provide strong...characterize the role of the PJSCT1 (now renamed PfGAT) and PfCTL1 genes of the human malaria pathogen Plasmodiumfalciparum in membrane biogenesis

  9. Maurer's clefts, the enigma of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Mundwiler-Pachlatko, Esther; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, completely remodels the infected human erythrocyte to acquire nutrients and to evade the immune system. For this process, the parasite exports more than 10% of all its proteins into the host cell cytosol, including the major virulence factor PfEMP1 (P. falciparum erythrocyte surface protein 1). This unusual protein trafficking system involves long-known parasite-derived membranous structures in the host cell cytosol, called Maurer’s clefts. However, the genesis, role, and function of Maurer’s clefts remain elusive. Similarly unclear is how proteins are sorted and how they are transported to and from these structures. Recent years have seen a large increase of knowledge but, as yet, no functional model has been established. In this perspective we review the most important findings and conclude with potential possibilities to shed light into the enigma of Maurer’s clefts. Understanding the mechanism and function of these structures, as well as their involvement in protein export in P. falciparum, might lead to innovative control strategies and might give us a handle with which to help to eliminate this deadly parasite. PMID:24284172

  10. View of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide by means of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagitova, A.; Yaminsky, I.; Meshkov, G.

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of the structure of biological objects plays a key role in medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology and IT-technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a promising method of studying of objects’ morphology and structure. In this work, AFM was used to determine the size and shape of the bacterial strains of Escherichia coli M-17 and visualization its interaction with the nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The suspension of E.coli bacteria was applied to natural mica and studied by contact mode using the FemtoScan multifunctional scanning probe microscope.

  11. Bridging the gap between solution and solid state studies in polyoxometalate chemistry: Discovery of a familiy of [V1M17]-based cages encapsulating two {VO4} moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Miras, H.; Long, D. L.; Kogerler, P; Cronin, L.

    2007-11-02

    A family of polyoxometalates with the composition [H2V3M17O62](6-) features a Dawson-like architecture containing two tetrahedral {l_brace}VVO4{r_brace} templates rather than main group hetero-anions ({l_brace}PO4{r_brace} or {l_brace}SO4{r_brace} etc.) typically associated with classical heteropolyacids, situated within a mixed-metal {l_brace}MVI17VIVO54{r_brace} cage and these clusters were first discovered using mass spectrometry.

  12. Non-empirical analysis of the nature of the inhibitor active-site interactions in leucine aminopeptidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grembecka, J.; K ȩdzierski, P.; Sokalski, W. A.

    1999-11-01

    Non-empirical analysis of the physical nature of the intermolecular interactions between several leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors and various constituents of the enzyme active site has been performed using a direct version of the hybrid variation-perturbation decomposition of SCF and MP2 interaction energies. The interaction energy terms obtained at different theory levels have been correlated with experimentally measured activities of the inhibitors, indicating that the more advanced the quantum-chemical method and, the larger the active-site model, the better is the correlation between calculated and measured binding energies. The electrostatic multipole term constitutes the dominant contribution in the total interaction energy, whereas Zn 2+488 and Lys +262 enzyme residues play the crucial role in the binding of these inhibitors by leucine aminopeptidase.

  13. Purification and characterization of porcine skeletal muscle aminopeptidase T, a novel metallopeptidase homologous to leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Mohammed Alamgir; Matsuda, Shinji; Mizutani, Osamu; Rao, Shengbin; Migita, Koshiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2011-01-01

    A novel aminopeptidase, Aminopeptidase T (APase T), was purified from porcine skeletal muscle following successive column chromatography: twice on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and Sephacryl S-200 HR using Leu-β-naphthylamide (LeuNap) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 69 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH towards LeuNap of the enzyme was about 7. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by bestatin and was negatively affected by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Chlorine-activated APase T liberated Leu, Ala, Met, Pro, and Arg from Nap derivatives. The APase T gene consisted of an ORF of 1,836 bp encoding a protein of 611 amino acid residues. The APase T was highly homologous to bovine, human, and mouse Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H), a bifunctional enzyme which exhibits APase and epoxide hydrolase activity.

  14. Characterization of four midgut aminopeptidase N isozymes from Ostrinia furnacalis strains with different susceptibilities to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lina; Wang, Zhenying; Zhang, Jie; Ferry, Natalie; Edwards, Martin G; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; He, Kanglai

    2014-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of four Ofapn aminopeptidases were cloned and sequenced from susceptible and resistant Ostrinia furnacalis strains. Four sequences were identified as APN because they shared the common structural features with APN from Lepidoptera, including the signal peptide, GPI anchor signal, the zinc binding/gluzincin motif HEX2HX18E and the gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GAMEN. Compared with APN sequences from the susceptible strain, there were 9, 5, 10 and 12 amino acid variations in the deduced protein sequences from the resistant strain. There were also differences in mRNA expression of the four Ofapn genes between resistant and susceptible O. furnacalis strains. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba toxin-binding aminopeptidase from the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd Amir F; Valaitis, Algimantas P; Dean, Donald H

    2006-01-01

    Background Aminopeptidase N (APN) type proteins isolated from several species of lepidopteran insects have been implicated as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-binding proteins (receptors) for Cry toxins. We examined brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins from the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus to determine if APNs from this organism would bind mosquitocidal Cry toxins that are active to it. Results A 100-kDa protein with APN activity (APNAnq 100) was isolated from the brush border membrane of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Native state binding analysis by surface plasmon resonance shows that APNAnq 100 forms tight binding to a mosquitocidal Bt toxin, Cry11Ba, but not to Cry2Aa, Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa. Conclusion An aminopeptidase from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes is a specific binding protein for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba. PMID:16716213

  16. The proteolytic system of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1: purification and characterization of a proteinase, a dipeptidase, and an aminopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Gobbetti, M; Smacchi, E; Corsetti, A

    1996-01-01

    A cell envelope 57-kDa proteinase, a cytoplasmic 65-kDa dipeptidase, and a 75-kDa aminopeptidase were purified from Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1 sourdough lactic acid bacterium by sequential fast protein liquid chromatography steps. All of the enzymes are monomers. The proteinase was most active at pH 7.0 and 40 degrees C, while aminopeptidase and dipeptidase had optima at pH 7.5 and 30 to 35 degrees C. Relatively high activities were observed at the pH and temperature of the sourdough fermentation. The proteinase is a serine enzyme. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of digest of alpha s1- and beta-caseins showed differences in the pattern of peptides released by the purified proteinase and those produced by crude preparations of the cell envelope proteinases of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus B397 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis SK11. Reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography of gliadin digests showed a more-complex peptide pattern produced by the proteinase of Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. The dipeptidase is a metalloenzyme with high affinity for dipeptides containing hydrophobic amino acids but had no activity on tripeptides or larger peptides. The aminopeptidase was also inhibited by metal-chelating agents, and showed a broad N-terminal hydrolytic activity including di- and tripeptides. Km values of 0.70 and 0.44 mM were determined for the dipeptidase on Leu-Leu and the aminopeptidase on Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively. PMID:8795211

  17. New Strategies for Drug Discovery and Development for Plasmodium Falciparum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    research working in concert with one another. The goal of this work is to use a molecular genetic approach both in the identification of new drug targets...analysis of critical genes in the Plasmodium falciparum for their role in drug resistance and as potential new drug targets using both the homologous P. falciparum system and the heterologous yeast system.

  18. Aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase: an investigation of the mode of action using a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Schürer, Gudrun; Lanig, Harald; Clark, Timothy

    2004-05-11

    The aminopeptidase of Aeromonas proteolytica (AAP) belongs to the group of metallo-hydrolases that require two divalent cations for full activity. Such binuclear metal centers are found in several aminopeptidases, raising the question whether a common mechanism, at least partly, is likely. We have used a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach to investigate the reaction mechanism of AAP. Among several possibilities, one reaction path was found to be clearly the most favorable. Beside the chemical transformation steps, effects of the enzyme environment and the influence of the solvent on the catalytic reaction were included in the study. The results are in good agreement with experimental studies and correspond to a high degree to our previous QM/MM calculations on the reaction mechanism of the related binuclear bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase (blLAP), which, although related to the AAP, has different Zn(2+)-coordination spheres and a different catalytic residue. The mechanisms of the two enzymes as suggested in the literature differ on the mode of coordination of the nucleophile and the identity of the general base. However, the results of this and our previous work on blLAP allow us to identify a common mechanism for the two enzymes. This mechanism is probably quite general for binuclear zinc enzymes.

  19. Aminopeptidase T of M29 Family Acts as A Novel Intracellular Virulence Factor for Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Changyong; Wang, Xiaowen; Dong, Zhimei; Shao, Chunyan; Yang, Yongchun; Fang, Weihuan; Fang, Chun; Wang, Hang; Yang, Menghua; Jiang, Lingli; Zhou, Xiangyang; Song, Houhui

    2015-01-01

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes employs a number of virulence determinants including metalloproteases to infect hosts. Here for the first time, we identified an M29 family aminopeptidase T (encoded by lmo1603) from L. monocytogenes that possesses a typical feature to catalyze the cleavage of amino acids from peptide substrates, with a preference for arginine. The purified recombinant Lmo1603 was activated by Fe3+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, but strongly stimulated by Co2+, indicating that Lmo1603 is a cobalt-dependent aminopeptidase. Single mutation at any of the Glu216, Glu281, His308, Tyr315, His327, and Asp329 completely abolished the enzymatic activity of Lmo1603. More importantly, we showed that Lmo1603 was mainly involved in Listeria infection, but not required for growth in rich laboratory medium and minimal defined medium. Disruption of Lmo1603 resulted in almost complete attenuation of Listeria virulence in a mouse infection model. In addition, we demonstrated that Lmo1603 was mainly localized in the bacterial cytosol and required for invasion and survival inside human epithelial cells and murine macrophages. We conclude that Lmo1603 encodes a functional aminopeptidase T of M29 family, which acts as a novel intracellular virulence factor essential in the successful establishment of L. monocytogenes infections in a mouse model. PMID:26610705

  20. A Locally Acquired Falciparum Malaria via Nosocomial Transmission in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Su; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kang, Young-A; Kwon, Jun-Wook; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    A 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. He had not traveled outside of Korea for over 30 years. Through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to Africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. We confirmed through molecular genotyping of the MSP-1 gene that Plasmodium falciparum genotypes of the 2 patients were identical. It is suggested that a breach of standard infection control precautions resulted in this P. falciparum transmission between 2 patients in a hospital environment. This is the first report of a nosocomial transmission of falciparum malaria in Korea. PMID:19724701

  1. Postnatal ontogeny of kinetics of porcine jejunal brush border membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N and sucrase activities.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming Z; Adeola, Olayiwola; Asem, Elikplimi K; King, Dale

    2002-07-01

    Our objectives were to determine postnatal changes in the maximal enzyme activity (V(max)) and enzyme affinity (K(m)) of jejunal mucosal membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N and sucrase using a porcine model which may more closely resemble the human intestine. Jejunal brush border membrane was prepared by Mg(2+)-precipitation and differential centrifugation from pigs of suckling (8 days), weaning (28 days), post-weaning (35 days) and adult (70 days) stages. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate (0-8 mM), L-alanine-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride (0-28 mM) and sucrose (0-100 mM) were used in alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N and sucrase kinetic measurements. V(max) of alkaline phosphatase was the lowest in the adult (4.27 micromol.mg(-1) protein.min(-1)), intermediate in the suckling (9.75 micromol.mg(-l) protein.min(-l)) and the highest in the weaning and post-weaning stage (12.83 and 10.40 micromol.mg(-l) protein.min(-l)). K(m) of alkaline phosphatase was high in the suckling and weaning stages (5.14 and 9.93 mM) and low in the adult (0.66 mM). V(max) of aminopeptidase N was low in the suckling (7.04 micromol.mg protein(-1).min(-1)) and high in the post-weaning stage (13.36 micromol.mg(-l) protein.min(-l)). K(m) of aminopeptidase N was the highest in the two weaning stages (2.96 and 3.39 mM), intermediate in the adult (2.33 mM) and the lowest in the suckling stage (1.66 mM). V(max) of sucrase increased from the suckling to the adult (0.48-1.30 micromol.mg(-l) protein.min(-l)). K(m) of sucrase ranged from 11.19 to 16.57 mM. There are dramatic postnatal developmental changes in both the maximal enzyme activity and enzyme affinity of jejunal brush border membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N and sucrase in the pig.

  2. Plasma renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in early stage Alzheimer's disease and show gender differences but are not related to apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Puertas, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Cobo, Manuela; Lorite, Pedro; Sandalio, Rosa María; Palomeque, Teresa; Torres, María Isabel; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2013-06-01

    Alterations in blood pressure and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in changes that can lead or contribute to cognitive decline. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) catabolise circulating angiotensins, whereas insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been described as the AT4 receptor. We have found in AD patients a significant decrease of APA activity in men but not in women, and of APN, APB and IRAP in both genders, when compared with control subjects. No changes were found in ASAP activity. Also, APN, APB and IRAP but not APA correlated with the Mini-Mental test, but no relationship with APOE genotype was found. We conclude that several components of the RAS are modified in AD patients, with gender differences. Furthermore, ROC analysis indicates that APN, APB and IRAP activities could be useful non-invasive biomarkers of AD from the earliest stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterisation of two alanyl aminopeptidases of Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Davita; Boulangé, Alain F V; Coustou, Virginie; Baltz, Théo; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2013-12-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is a haemoprotozoan parasite that causes African animal trypanosomosis, a wasting disease of cattle and small ruminants. Current control methods are unsatisfactory and no conventional vaccine exists due to antigenic variation. An anti-disease vaccine approach to control T. congolense has been proposed requiring the identification of parasitic factors that cause disease. Immunoprecipitation of T. congolense antigens using sera from infected trypanotolerant cattle allowed the identification of several immunogenic antigens including two M1 type aminopeptidases (APs). The two APs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. As the APs were expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies it was necessary to develop a method for solubilisation and subsequent refolding to restore conformation and activity. The refolded APs both showed a distinct substrate preference for H-Ala-AMC, an optimum pH of 8.0, puromycin-sensitivity, inhibition by bestatin and amastatin, and cytoplasmic localisation. The two APs are expressed in procyclic metacyclic and bloodstream form parasites. Down-regulation of both APs by RNAi resulted in a slightly reduced growth rate in procyclic parasites in vitro.

  4. Immunological detection of glutamyl aminopeptidase in urine samples from cisplatin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; Quesada, Andrés; Zafra-Ruiz, Piedad V; O'Valle, Francisco; Vargas, Félix; de Gracia, María Del Carmen; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate if urinary excretion of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAp) can be quantified by immunological methods. Urine samples from control and cisplatin-treated rats (n = 10 each group) were obtained at 1, 8, and 15 days after cisplatin injection. GluAp was analyzed by kinetic fluorimetry, ELISA, and immunoblotting. Sensitivity and specificity was studied for fluorimetric activity and ELISA 24 h after cisplatin injection. We also analyzed the predictive value over renal dysfunction at the end of the experiment. GluAp was easily detected by immunoblotting and ELISA, and its urinary excretion was increased in cisplatin-treated rats (p < 0.01). Results obtained with ELISA were strongly correlated (r = 0.8186; p < 0.0001) with fluorimetric activity. Kinetic fluorimetry was the method with the highest AUC (AUC = 1) and the highest predictive value over serum creatinine (r = 0.7630; p = 0.0001) and body weight increase (r = -0.8721; p < 0.0001). GluAp can be detected in urine samples with immunological methods, making possible the development of an antibody-based kit for its determination. Its excretion correlates with the extent of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats, confirming its value as an early marker of renal damage that can be a diagnostic aid in renal diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Inhibition of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 enzyme for the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Joharapurkar, Amit A; Dhanesha, Nirav A; Jain, Mukul R

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. Obesity is the result of interactions among the environmental factors, genetic predisposition, and human behavior. Even modest weight reduction in obese patients provides beneficial health outcomes. For effective weight reduction, a drug should either increase energy expenditure or decrease energy intake without causing serious adverse effects. To overcome lack of efficacy and central nervous system related side effects, exploitation of the peripheral mechanism of anti-obesity action is needed. Inhibition of pathological angiogenesis in adipose tissue is one such peripheral mechanism that has attracted the attention of researchers in this area. Although originally developed as anti-cancer agents, methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) inhibitors induce significant and sustained weight reduction. Here, we review preclinical and clinical pharmacology of MetAP2 inhibitors. Beloranib is a prototype MetAP2 inhibitor, and currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. Clinical data of beloranib indicate that MetAP2 inhibitors could be a future treatment option for weight reduction without serious adverse effects. Further clinical data from Phase III trials will add to our growing knowledge of MetAP2 inhibitor potential for anti-obesity therapy. PMID:24611021

  6. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J.; Nemkal, A; Sauder, J; Russell, M; Akiyoshi, D; Shi, W; Almo, S; Weiss, L

    2009-01-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity in vitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  7. Radiation inactivation probe of membrane-bound enzymes: gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aminopeptidase N, and sucrase

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.R.; Kempner, E.S.; Wright, E.M.

    1986-11-01

    gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), aminopeptidase N (AP-N), and sucrase in purified rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles were irradiated in situ at -135 degrees C using high energy electrons. Surviving activities of the enzymes were measured as a function of radiation dose, and the functional unit target sizes (corresponding to carbohydrate-free polypeptides) were determined using target analysis. The in situ functional unit sizes were GGT 59 kDa, AP-N 59 kDa, and sucrase 63 kDa. Together with biochemical data determined previously, it is concluded that the noncovalently attached large (approximately 40 kDa) and small (approximately 25 kDa) subunits of GGT are both required for catalytic activity. Furthermore, these data suggest that (i) the membrane-bound form of AP-N consists of one or more noncovalently attached subunits of 59 kDa, each of which is enzymatically active; and (ii) in situ sucrase activity is associated with a subunit of 63 kDa which is noncovalently attached within the sucrase-isomaltase complex.

  8. Chronic ethanol intake modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Carrera, M P; Cobo, M; Camacho, B; Martínez Martos, J M

    2005-04-01

    In developing cerebellum, where critical periods of vulnerability have been established for several basic substances, it has been extensively studied the wide array of abnormalities induced by exposure to ethanol (EtOH). However, little is known about the effects of EtOH consumption on cerebellar functions in adult individuals. Several studies show participation in cognitive activities to be concentrated in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres), whereas basic motor functions such as balance and coordination are represented in the medial parts of the cerebellum (vermis and paravermis). In addition to the circulating renin angiotensin system (RAS), a local system has been postulated in brain. The effector peptides of the RAS are formed via the activity of several aminopeptidases (AP). The present work analyses the effect of chronic EtOH intake on the RAS-regulating AP activities in the soluble and membrane-bound fractions of two cerebellar locations: the hemispheres and the vermis. We hypothesize that cerebellar RAS is involved in basic motor functions rather than in cognitive activities.

  9. Purification and characterization of the Streptococcus salivarius methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP).

    PubMed

    Boufous, El Houssine; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Streptococcus salivarius methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) was purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain containing the S. salivarius map gene, which codes for MetAP. S. salivarius map coded for a protein of 286 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 31,723 Da and a pI of 4.6. The native enzyme eluted from a Superdex column as a protein with a molecular mass of 30.6 kDa and cleaved N-terminal Met of peptide only when the penultimate amino acid was Gly, Ala, Ser, Val, Pro, or Thr. The enzyme was more active against tetrapeptides than tripeptides and did not recognize dipeptides. It required the presence of a metal cation for activity, with a preference for Co(2+) over Mn(2+). S. salivarius MetAP has a pH optimum of 8.0 and an optimal temperature at 50 degrees C. The S. salivarius protein had an extra sequence of 24 amino acids between two conserved aspartate residues involved in the coordination of the metal ion. A similar extra sequence is present in MetAP from other streptococci and from Lactococcus lactis, but not from other bacteria or eukaryotes.

  10. Complexes of mutants of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase P and the tripeptide substrate ValProLeu

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Stephen C.; Guss, J. Mitchell

    2008-09-17

    Aminopeptidase P (APPro) is a manganese-containing enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of the N-terminal residue of a polypeptide if the second residue is proline. Structures of APPro mutants with reduced or negligible activity have been determined in complex with the tripeptide substrate ValProLeu. In the complex of Glu383Ala APPro with ValProLeu one of the two metal sites is only partly occupied, indicating an essential role for Glu383 in metal binding in the presence of substrate. His361Ala APPro clearly possesses residual activity as the ValProLeu substrate has been cleaved in the crystals; difference electron density consistent with bound ProLeu dipeptide and a disordered Val amino acid is present at the active site. Contrary to previous suggestions, the His243Ala mutant is capable of binding substrate. The structure of the His243Ala APPro complex with ValProLeu shows that the peptide interacts with one of the active-site metal atoms via its terminal amino group. The implications of these complexes for the roles of the respective residues in APPro catalysis are discussed.

  11. Aminopeptidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes - 2-mercaptoethanol stimulation and Arg-vasopressin degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.H.; Orawski, A.T.

    1986-03-05

    Rat brain synaptic plasma membranes contain an amastatin-inhibited aminopeptidase activity which degrades Arg-vaso-pressin (AVP). The pH optimum for AVP cleavage was found to be 6.8, similar to that reported for oxytocin. The ability of other peptides and arylamides such as oxytocin, Tyr-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/ and Arg-Arg-..beta..NA to inhibit cleavage of (/sup 3/H-Tyr/sup 2/)-AVP suggests that the enzyme may not be specific for AVP. The AVP-cleaving activity has been solubilized and partially characterized. Synaptosomes were lysed with hypotonic buffer, washed, and extracted with 1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. The solubilized protein was chromatographed by gel filtration HPLC on Superose 6. A single peak of activity was found with a M.W. = 117,000 which could hydrolyze 1mM Ala-..beta..NA, Arg-..beta..NA, Arg-Arg-..beta..NA, Phe-Met and Phe-Arg as well as slowly cleave AVP with the ultimate release of /sup 3/H-Tyr. 2-Mercaptoethanol (3.9mM) (ME) stimulated activity 3.6 to 6.6-fold for arylamide and dipeptide substrates, but 35-fold for labelled AVP, possibly owing to reduction of the AVP disulfide bond. All activities in the presence of ME were completely inhibited by 0.2mM amastatin.

  12. Effect of NSAIDs on the aminopeptidase activity of cultured human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lucena, G; Reyes-Botella, C; García-Martínez, O; Ramos-Torrecillas, J; De Luna Bertos, E; Ruiz, C

    2016-05-05

    Aminopeptidases (APs) are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. In tumor tissues the expression of APs, cyclooxygenase-2 and its metabolites are increased. The objective was to determine the effect of certain NSAIDs on the AP activity of osteoblasts. Primary cultures of osteoblast were treated with different concentrations of indomethacin, meloxicam, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam. The AP activity was fluorimetrically determined using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aa-βNAs) as substrates: Ala-βNA, Arg-βNA, Gly-βNA, Leu-βNA, Lys-βNA, Met-βNA, and Phe-βNA. The five NSAIDs showed an inhibitory effect of AP activity against the study substrates depending on the dose tested. Meloxicam and piroxicam had the highest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activity, with an IC50 of around 70 μM. Our results suggest that the physiological alteration of osteoblasts in the presence of NSAIDs may be a consequence of AP inhibition, suggesting a potential clinical role for these drugs against cancer in combination with chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. Aminopeptidase N (CD13) Is Involved in Phagocytic Processes in Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor-Cardoso, Mónica I.; Frausto-Del-Río, Dulce A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) is a membrane ectopeptidase expressed by many cell types, including myelomonocytic lineage cells: monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is known to regulate the biological activity of various peptides by proteolysis, and it has been proposed that CD13 also participates in several functions such as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, metastasis, and tumor invasion. We had previously reported that, in human monocytes and macrophages, CD13 modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (FcγRs). In this work, we analyzed the possible interaction of CD13 with other phagocytic receptors. We found out that the cross-linking of CD13 positively modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors of the innate immune system, since a significant increase in the phagocytosis of zymosan particles or heat-killed E. coli was observed when CD13 was cross-linked using anti-CD13 antibodies, in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Also, we observed that, during the phagocytosis of zymosan, CD13 redistributes and is internalized into the phagosome. These findings suggest that, besides its known functions, CD13 participates in phagocytic processes in dendritic cells and macrophages. PMID:24063007

  14. Localization, Shedding, Regulation and Function of Aminopeptidase N/CD13 on Fibroblast like Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rachel L.; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Endres, Judith; Amin, M. Asif; Lepore, Nick J.; Du, Yuxuan; Urquhart, Andrew; Chung, Kevin C.; Fox, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is highly expressed by fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) and may play a role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CD13 was previously detected in human synovial fluid where it was significantly increased in RA compared to osteoarthritis. In this study we found that CD13 in biological fluids (plasma, synovial fluid, FLS culture supernatant) is present as both a soluble molecule and on extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, as assessed by differential ultracentrifugation and density gradient separation. Having determined CD13 could be released as a soluble molecule from FLS, we examined potential mechanisms by which CD13 might be shed from the FLS membrane. The use of protease inhibitors revealed that CD13 is cleaved from the FLS surface by metalloproteinases. siRNA treatment of FLS revealed one of those proteases to be MMP14. We determined that pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-17) upregulated CD13 mRNA in FLS, which may contribute to the increased CD13 in RA synovium and synovial fluid. Inhibition of CD13 function by either inhibitors of enzymatic activity or anti-CD13 antibodies resulted in decreased growth and diminished migration of FLS. This suggests that CD13 may be involved in the pathogenic hyperplasia of RA FLS. This data expands potential roles for CD13 in the pathogenesis of RA. PMID:27658265

  15. Activity of leucine aminopeptidase of Telchin licus licus: an important insect pest of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Jorge W Arboleda; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Jiménez, Arnubio Valencia

    2014-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) from the intestinal tract of sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus) was assayed by using a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric assay that uses L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide as substrate. In this assay, L-leucyl-2-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to produce 2-naphthylamine and Lleucine. The product 2-naphthylamine reacts with Fast Black K and can be monitored using a continuous spectrophotometric measurement at 590 nm. The data on the kinetic parameters indicates that the Km for the L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide at pH 7.0 was found to be lower than those found for other LAP substrates. The Km and Vmax for the LAP were determined to be 84.03 µM and 357.14 enzymatic units mg(-1), respectively. A noticeable difference of LAP activity between the two insect orders tested was observed. This method could be used to screen for natural LAP inhibitors.

  16. Overexpression of leucine aminopeptidase 3 contributes to malignant development of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Yang, Xiaojing; Shi, Hui; Li, Mei; Xue, Qun; Ren, Hanru; Yao, Li; Chen, Xueyu; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Huijie

    2014-06-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) were associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and/or angiogenesis. We aimed to examine the biological function of LAP3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). LAP3 expressions were examined in human ESCC tissue and cell lines ECA109 and TE1 cells. Recombinant pSilencer4.1-LAP3-shRNA was transfected into ECA109 cells to silence LAP3 expression. The effects of LAP3 silencing on ECA109 cell proliferation in vitro were evaluated. Flow cytometry profiling was used to detect the differentiate cell cycle distribution in LAP3-silenced ECA109 cells. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to examine the activities of migration and invasion in LAP3-silenced ECA109 cells. We overexpressed LAP3 in TE1 cells to find out the corresponding results. LAP3 expression level was abundance in ESCC tissue. LAP3 silencing significantly reduced ECA109 cell proliferation and colony formation. The knockdown of LAP3 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1-phase. Moreover, over expression of LAP3 favors TE1 cell proliferation and invasiveness which also confirms its contribution in malignant development. We came to the conclusion that LAP3 contributed to ESCC progression by overcoming cell cycle arrest. The proliferative and migration effects of LAP3 might contribute to malignant development of human ESCC.

  17. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Helicobacter pylori leucyl aminopeptidase-bestatin complex.

    PubMed

    Modak, Joyanta K; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogenic bacterium associated with numerous severe gastroduodenal diseases, including ulcers and gastric cancer. Cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase (LAP) is an important housekeeping protein that is involved in peptide and protein turnover, catabolism of proteins and modulation of gene expression. LAP is upregulated in metronidazole-resistant H. pylori, which suggests that, in addition to having an important housekeeping role, LAP contributes to the mechanism of drug resistance. Crystals of H. pylori LAP have been grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to the primitive triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 97.5, b = 100.2, c = 100.4 Å, α = 75.4, β = 60.9, γ = 81.8°. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution from a single crystal. Molecular-replacement results using these data indicate that H. pylori LAP is a hexamer with 32 symmetry.

  18. Up-regulation of leucine aminopeptidase-A in cadmium-treated tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Boulila-Zoghlami, Latifa; Gallusci, Philippe; Holzer, Frances M; Basset, Gilles J; Djebali, Whabi; Chaïbi, Wided; Walling, Linda L; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2011-10-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) on aminopeptidase (AP) activities and Leucine-AP (LAP) expression were investigated in the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., var Ibiza) plants. Three-week-old plants were grown for 10 days in the presence of 0.3-300 μM Cd and compared to control plants grown in the absence of Cd. AP activities were measured using six different p-nitroanilide (p-NA) substrates. Leu, Met, Arg, Pro and Lys hydrolyzing activities increased in roots of Cd-treated plants, while Phe-pNA cleavage was not enhanced after Cd treatments. The use of peptidase inhibitors showed that most of the Leu-pNA hydrolyzing activity was related to one or several metallo-APs. Changes in Lap transcripts, protein and activities were measured in the roots of 0 and 30-μM Cd-treated plants. LapA transcript levels increased in Cd-treated roots, whereas LapN RNAs levels were not modified. To assess amount of Leu-pNA hydrolyzing activity associated with the hexameric LAPs, LAP activity was measured following immunoprecipitation with a LAP polyclonal antiserum. LAP activity increased in Cd-treated roots. There was a corresponding increase in LAP-A protein levels detected in 2D-immunoblots. The role of LAP-A in the proteolytic response to Cd stress is discussed.

  19. Rapid screening of aminopeptidase N inhibitors by capillary electrophoresis with electrophoretically mediated microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Xu, Wenfang; Cao, Jiangying; Wang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) method with a partial-filling technique was setup to evaluate the inhibitory potency of novel compounds toward aminopeptidase N (APN). It was necessary to optimize the electrophoretic conditions with respect to the kinetic constraints and for attaining high sensitivity. In our setup, a part of the capillary was filled with the incubation buffer for the enzyme reaction, whereas the rest was filled with a suitable BGE for the separation of substrates and products. To monitor the performance of the newly developed method, the kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the catalyzed dissociation of L-Leucine-p-nitroanilide in the presence of APN as well as the inhibition constant (IC50 ) of a known competitive inhibitor, that is bestatin, were determined and these results were compared with those obtained by a classical spectrophotometric assay. The developed EMMA method was subsequently applied to the screening of 30 APN inhibitors. Whereas the inhibition potency of these inhibitors (expressed in IC50 values) were significantly underestimated by the EMMA method, the order of the inhibitory potential of these various compounds was found in agreement with the literature.

  20. Plant leucine aminopeptidases moonlight as molecular chaperones to alleviate stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Melissa A; Yee, Ashley; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L

    2012-05-25

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are present in animals, plants, and microbes. In plants, there are two classes of LAPs. The neutral LAPs (LAP-N and its orthologs) are constitutively expressed and detected in all plants, whereas the stress-induced acidic LAPs (LAP-A) are expressed only in a subset of the Solanaceae. LAPs have a role in insect defense and act as a regulator of the late branch of wound signaling in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Although the mechanism of LAP-A action is unknown, it has been presumed that LAP peptidase activity is essential for regulating wound signaling. Here we show that plant LAPs are bifunctional. Using three assays to monitor protein protection from heat-induced damage, it was shown that the tomato LAP-A and LAP-N and the Arabidopsis thaliana LAP1 and LAP2 are molecular chaperones. Assays using LAP-A catalytic site mutants demonstrated that LAP-A chaperone activity was independent of its peptidase activity. Furthermore, disruption of the LAP-A hexameric structure increased chaperone activity. Together, these data identify a new class of molecular chaperones and a new function for the plant LAPs as well as suggesting new mechanisms for LAP action in the defense of solanaceous plants against stress.

  1. Suppression of Aβ toxicity by puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is independent of its proteolytic activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Kruppa, Antonina J.; Ott, Stanislav; Chandraratna, Dhia S.; Irving, James A.; Page, Richard M.; Speretta, Elena; Seto, Tiffany; Camargo, Luiz Miguel; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Lomas, David A.; Crowther, Damian C.

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and is thought to be of primary aetiological significance. In an unbiased genetic screen, we identified puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) as a potent suppressor of Aβ toxicity in a Drosophila model system. We established that coexpression of Drosophila PSA (dPSA) in the flies' brains improved their lifespan, protected against locomotor deficits, and reduced brain Aβ levels by clearing the Aβ plaque-like deposits. However, confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of amyloid-expressing 7PA2 cells demonstrated that PSA localizes to the cytoplasm. Therefore, PSA and Aβ are unlikely to be in the same cellular compartment; moreover, when we artificially placed them in the same compartment in flies, we could not detect a direct epistatic interaction. The consequent hypothesis that PSA's suppression of Aβ toxicity is indirect was supported by the finding that Aβ is not a proteolytic substrate for PSA in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that the enzymatic activity of PSA is not required for rescuing Aβ toxicity in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We investigated whether the stimulation of autophagy by PSA was responsible for these protective effects. However PSA's promotion of autophagosome fusion with lysosomes required proteolytic activity and so its effect on autophagy is not identical to its protection against Aβ toxicity. PMID:23911349

  2. Plant Leucine Aminopeptidases Moonlight as Molecular Chaperones to Alleviate Stress-induced Damage*

    PubMed Central

    Scranton, Melissa A.; Yee, Ashley; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are present in animals, plants, and microbes. In plants, there are two classes of LAPs. The neutral LAPs (LAP-N and its orthologs) are constitutively expressed and detected in all plants, whereas the stress-induced acidic LAPs (LAP-A) are expressed only in a subset of the Solanaceae. LAPs have a role in insect defense and act as a regulator of the late branch of wound signaling in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Although the mechanism of LAP-A action is unknown, it has been presumed that LAP peptidase activity is essential for regulating wound signaling. Here we show that plant LAPs are bifunctional. Using three assays to monitor protein protection from heat-induced damage, it was shown that the tomato LAP-A and LAP-N and the Arabidopsis thaliana LAP1 and LAP2 are molecular chaperones. Assays using LAP-A catalytic site mutants demonstrated that LAP-A chaperone activity was independent of its peptidase activity. Furthermore, disruption of the LAP-A hexameric structure increased chaperone activity. Together, these data identify a new class of molecular chaperones and a new function for the plant LAPs as well as suggesting new mechanisms for LAP action in the defense of solanaceous plants against stress. PMID:22493451

  3. Allosteric inhibition of aminopeptidase N functions related to tumor growth and virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, César; Mudgal, Gaurav; Reguera, Juan; Recacha, Rosario; Albrecht, Sébastien; Enjuanes, Luis; Casasnovas, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN) is a membrane-bound ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes proteins and peptides and regulates numerous cell functions. APN participates in tumor cell expansion and motility, and is a target for cancer therapies. Small drugs that bind to the APN active site inhibit catalysis and suppress tumor growth. APN is also a major cell entry receptor for coronavirus, which binds to a region distant from the active site. Three crystal structures that we determined of human and pig APN ectodomains defined the dynamic conformation of the protein. These structures offered snapshots of closed, intermediate and open APN, which represent distinct functional states. Coronavirus envelope proteins specifically recognized the open APN form, prevented ectodomain progression to the closed form and substrate hydrolysis. In addition, drugs that bind the active site inhibited both coronavirus binding to cell surface APN and infection; the drugs probably hindered APN transition to the virus-specific open form. We conclude that allosteric inhibition of APN functions occurs by ligand suppression of ectodomain motions necessary for catalysis and virus cell entry, as validated by locking APN with disulfides. Blocking APN dynamics can thus be a valuable approach to development of drugs that target this ectoenzyme. PMID:28393915

  4. Highly potent inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase-2 based on a 1,2,4-triazole pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph P; Fisher, Paul W; Hofmann, Glenn A; Kirkpatrick, Robert B; Janson, Cheryl A; Johnson, Randall K; Ma, Chun; Mattern, Michael; Meek, Thomas D; Ryan, M Dominic; Schulz, Christina; Smith, Ward W; Tew, David G; Tomazek, Thaddeus A; Veber, Daniel F; Xiong, Wenfang C; Yamamoto, Yuuichi; Yamashita, Keizo; Yang, Guang; Thompson, Scott K

    2007-08-09

    High-throughput screening for inhibitors of the human metalloprotease, methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2), identified a potent class of 3-anilino-5-benzylthio-1,2,4-triazole compounds. Efficient array and interative synthesis of triazoles led to rapid SAR development around the aniline, benzylthio, and triazole moeities. Evaluation of these analogs in a human MetAP2 enzyme assay led to the identification of several inhibitors with potencies in the 50-100 picomolar range. The deleterious effects on inhibitor potency by methylation of the anilino-triazole nitrogens, as well as the X-ray crystal structure of triazole 102 bound in the active site of MetAP2, confirm the key interactions between the triazole nitrogens, the active site cobalt atoms, and the His-231 side-chain. The structure has also provided a rationale for interpreting SAR within the triazole series. Key aniline (2-isopropylphenyl) and sulfur substituents (furanylmethyl) identified in the SAR studies led to the identification of potent inhibitors (103 and 104) of endothelial cell proliferation. Triazoles 103 and 104 also exhibited dose-dependent activity in an aortic ring tissue model of angiogenesis highlighting the potential utility of MetAP2 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  5. Proteolytic Activity at Alkaline pH in Oat Leaves, Isolation of an Aminopeptidase 1

    PubMed Central

    Casano, Leonardo M.; Desimone, Marcelo; Trippi, Victorio S.

    1989-01-01

    Proteolytic activity in oat leaf extracts was measured with both azocasein and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) as substrates over a wide range of pH (3.0-9.2). With either azocasein or Rubisco activity peaks appeared at pH 4.8, 6.6, and 8.4. An aminopeptidase (AP) which hydrolyzes leucine-nitroanilide was partially purified. Purification consisted of a series of six steps which included ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and two ionic exchange chromatographies. The enzyme was purified more than 100-fold. The apparent Km for leucine-nitroanilide is 0.08 millimolar at its pH optimum of 8.4. AP may be a cystein protease since it is inhibited by heavy metals and activated by 2-mercaptoethanol. Isolated chloroplasts were also able to hydrolyze leucine-nitroanilide at a pH optimum of 8.4, indicating that AP could be localized inside the photosynthetic organelles. PMID:16667194

  6. Identification and characterization of a new cognitive enhancer based on inhibition of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Albiston, Anthony L; Morton, Craig J; Ng, Hooi Ling; Pham, Vi; Yeatman, Holly R; Ye, Siying; Fernando, Ruani N; De Bundel, Dimitri; Ascher, David B; Mendelsohn, Frederick A O; Parker, Michael W; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2008-12-01

    Approximately one-quarter of people over the age of 65 are estimated to suffer some form of cognitive impairment, underscoring the need for effective cognitive-enhancing agents. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is potentially an innovative target for the development of cognitive enhancers, as its peptide inhibitors exhibit memory-enhancing effects in both normal and memory-impaired rodents. Using a homology model of the catalytic domain of IRAP and virtual screening, we have identified a class of nonpeptide, small-molecule inhibitors of IRAP. Structure-based computational development of an initial "hit" resulted in the identification of two divergent families of compounds. Subsequent medicinal chemistry performed on the highest affinity compound produced inhibitors with nanomolar affinities (K(i) 20-700 nM) for IRAP. In vivo efficacy of one of these inhibitors was demonstrated in rats with an acute dose (1 nmol in 1 microl) administered into the lateral ventricles, improving performance in both spatial working and recognition memory paradigms. We have identified a family of specific IRAP inhibitors that is biologically active which will be useful both in understanding the physiological role of IRAP and potentially in the development of clinically useful cognitive enhancers. Notably, this study also provides unequivocal proof of principal that inhibition of IRAP results in memory enhancement.

  7. [Purification and properties of dipeptidyl amino-peptidase I from chicken liver (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Barceló, F; Vives, N; Bozal, J

    1980-09-01

    Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I (E.S. 3.4.14.1) from chicken liver was purified by the following steps: homogenization at pH 5, thermic precipitation, acetone fractionation and Sephadex G-100, DEAE-cellulose and organomercurial-Sepharose column fractionations. The purified enzyme appears to be homogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at both pH 4.5 and 8.3 and has an isoelectric point of 5.7 +/- 0.05. The molecular weight of the enzyme reale 167,000 +/- 17,000 on the Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The optimum pH for hydrolysis of Gly-Phe-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) and Gly-Phe-B-naphthylamide was 5.8. The value of Km for the hydrolysis of GPNA was estimated at 3.3 mM. The enzyme required halide ions for activity and was activated by thiol reagents (dithiothreitol, cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol). Accordingly, DAP I was inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents (PCMB, IAA, Hg2+). The enzyme oxidation with oxygen current was fostered by chloride anion (50 nM); nevertheless the activity was recovered when cysteine was present in the incubation mixture; the latter, besides, seems to perform as enzyme protector.

  8. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase in adipocyte is Cys-specific and affected by obesity.

    PubMed

    Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Viana, Luciana Godoy; Yamanouye, Norma; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2015-08-01

    Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP, EC 3.4.11.3) in adipocytes is well known to traffic between high (HDM) and low (LDM) density microsomal fractions toward the plasma membrane (MF) under stimulation by insulin. However, its catalytic preference for aminoacyl substrates with N-terminal Leu or Cys is controversial. Furthermore, possible changes in its traffic under metabolic challenges are unknown. The present study investigated the catalytic activity attributable to EC 3.4.11.3 in HDM, LDM and MF from isolated adipocytes of healthy (C), food deprived (FD) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats on aminoacyl substrates with N-terminal Cys or Leu, in absence or presence of insulin. Efficacy and reproducibility of subcellular adipocyte fractionation procedure were demonstrated. Comparison among HDM vs LDM vs MF intragroup revealed that hydrolytic activity trafficking from LDM to MF under influence of insulin in C, MSG and FD is only on N-terminal Cys. In MSG the same pattern of anterograde traffic and aminoacyl preference occurred independently of insulin stimulation. The pathophysiological significance of IRAP in adipocytes seems to be linked to comprehensive energy metabolism related roles of endogenous substrates with N-terminal cysteine pair such as vasopressin and oxytocin. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. EpCAM associates with endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Salah-Eldin; Öjemalm, Karin; Vasquez, Patricia Lara; Nilsson, Ingmarie; Ericsson, Christer; Zhao, Jian; Nistér, Monica

    2013-09-20

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is an epithelial and cancer cell "marker" and there is a cumulative and growing evidence of its signaling role. Its importance has been recognized as part of the breast cancer stem cell phenotype, the tumorigenic breast cancer stem cell is EpCAM(+). In spite of its complex functions in normal cell development and cancer, relatively little is known about EpCAM-interacting proteins. We used breast cancer cell lines and performed EpCAM co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry in search for novel potentially interacting proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) was found to co-precipitate with EpCAM and to co-localize in the cytoplasm/ER and the plasma membrane. ERAP2 is a proteolytic enzyme set in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it plays a central role in the trimming of peptides for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Expression of EpCAM and ERAP2 in vitro in the presence of dog pancreas rough microsomes (ER vesicles) confirmed N-linked glycosylation, processing in ER and the size of EpCAM. The association between ERAP2 and EpCAM is a unique and novel finding that provides new ideas on EpCAM processing and on how antigen presentation may be regulated in cancer.

  10. Identification of the FTBL protein of Sumner and Dounce as a leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Dounce, A L; Allen, P Z

    1987-08-15

    The crystalline beef liver protein of Sumner and Dounce (A. L. Dounce, P. Z. Allen, and G. A. Mourtzikos (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 188, 251-265) termed FTBL (football) protein because of the shape of its crystals, has been identified as a crystalline leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), on the basis of its high specific LAP activity and coincidence of its N terminal amino acid sequence (30 amino acids) with that of beef eye lens LAP. Amino acid analyses of the two proteins are also in reasonable agreement when based on the exact monomer molecular weight of beef eye lens protein obtained by the van Loon group ((1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 7077-7081). Our previously published monomer molecular weight of the FTBL protein was 25% too high, leading to the erroneous conclusion that the beef liver FTBL-LAP protein was a tetramer rather than a hexamer, as found by the van Loon group for beef lens LAP. The present report, taken together with our first paper on the FTBL protein establishes that the FTBL-LAP protein has been isolated from beef kidney and beef spleen as well as from beef liver. We now find that the properties of FTBL-LAP protein indicate that it is the same protein as beef eye lens LAP. The cellular and intracellular distributions of the FTBL-LAP protein have been considered in our first publication on the FTBL protein.

  11. Structure of the dodecamer of the aminopeptidase APDkam598 from the archaeon Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, T. E.; Slutskaya, E. S.; Boyko, K. M.; Sokolova, O. S.; Rakitina, T. V.; Korzhenevskiy, D. A.; Gorbacheva, M. A.; Bezsudnova, E. Y.; Popov, V. O.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the aminopeptidase APDkam589 from the thermophilic crenarchaeon Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis was determined at a resolution of 3.0 Å. In the crystal, the monomer of APDkam589 and its symmetry-related monomers are densely packed to form a 12-subunit complex. Single-particle electron-microscopy analysis confirms that APDkam589 is present as a compact dodecamer in solution. The APDkam589 molecule is built similarly to the molecules of the PhTET peptidases, which have the highest sequence identity to APDkam589 among known structures and were isolated from the more thermostable archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. A comparison of the interactions of the subunits in APDkam589 with those in PhTET1, PhTET2 and PhTET3 reveals that APDkam589 has a much lower total number of salt bridges, which correlates with the lower thermostability of APDkam589. The monomer of APDkam589 has six Trp residues, five of which are on the external surface of the dodecamer. A superposition of the structure of APDkam589 with those having a high sequence similarity to APDkam589 reveals that, although the positions of Trp45, Trp252 and Trp358 are not conserved in the sequences, the spatial locations of the Trp residues in these models are similar. PMID:25760701

  12. Methionine aminopeptidase 2 is a key regulator of apoptotic like cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Tiwari, Kartikeya; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the role of methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP2) in miltefosine induced programmed cell death (PCD) in promastigote form of L. donovani. We report that TNP-470, an inhibitor of MAP2, inhibits programmed cell death in miltefosine treated promastigotes. It inhibits the biochemical features of metazoan apoptosis, including caspase3/7 protease like activity, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and increase in cytosolic pool of calcium ions but did not prevent the cell death and phosphatidyl serine externalization. The data suggests that the MAP2 is involved in the regulation of PCD in parasite. Moreover, TNP-470 shows the leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 15 µM) and in vitro inhibition of LdMAP2 activity (K i  = 13.5 nM). Further studies on MAP2 and identification of death signaling pathways provide valuable information that could be exploited to understand the role of non caspase proteases in PCD of L. donovani.

  13. Rickettsia prowazekii methionine aminopeptidase as a promising target for the development of antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Helgren, Travis R; Chen, Congling; Wangtrakuldee, Phumvadee; Edwards, Thomas E; Staker, Bart L; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Housley, Nicole A; Myler, Peter J; Audia, Jonathon P; Horn, James R; Hagen, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a class of ubiquitous enzymes essential for the survival of numerous bacterial species. These enzymes are responsible for the cleavage of N-terminal formyl-methionine initiators from nascent proteins to initiate post-translational modifications that are often essential to proper protein function. Thus, inhibition of MetAP activity has been implicated as a novel antibacterial target. We tested this idea in the present study by targeting the MetAP enzyme in the obligate intracellular pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii. We first identified potent RpMetAP inhibitory species by employing an in vitro enzymatic activity assay. The molecular docking program AutoDock was then utilized to compare published crystal structures of inhibited MetAP species to docked poses of RpMetAP. Based on these in silico and in vitro screens, a subset of 17 compounds was tested for inhibition of R. prowazekii growth in a pulmonary vascular endothelial cell (EC) culture infection model system. All compounds were tested over concentration ranges that were determined to be non-toxic to the ECs and 8 of the 17 compounds displayed substantial inhibition of R. prowazekii growth. These data highlight the therapeutic potential for inhibiting RpMetAP as a novel antimicrobial strategy and set the stage for future studies in pre-clinical animal models of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RNA interference of cytosolic leucine aminopeptidase reduces fecundity in the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Liao, Min; Gong, Haiyan; Harnnoi, Thasaneeya; Tanaka, Miho; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Battsetseg, Badgar; Zhou, Jinlin; Xuan, Xuenan; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Taylor, Demar; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-03-01

    Ticks are effective vectors of pathogens because of their blood feeding and high fecundity. This high fecundity is related to the size of the blood meal. Therefore, knowledge of how blood proteins are degraded and converted to proteins, including yolk protein, is important for the development of ways to inhibit the utilization of blood proteins by ticks. RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing technique that provides insight into gene function. We constructed a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) based on a previously cloned Haemaphysalis longicornis leucine aminopeptidase (HlLAP) gene to reevaluate the biological role in tick blood digestion. Gene specific transcriptional, translational, and functional disruptions were achieved by the introduction of dsRNA into the ticks. Significantly delayed onset of egg-laying and reduced egg oviposition resulted from the RNAi for the HlLAP gene. These results suggest that HlLAP actually works as a blood digestive enzyme and affects tick fecundity via unknown mechanisms. The reduction of egg oviposition may be caused by a decrease in nutrients, especially free amino acids generated by HlLAP, from the blood meal. This is the first report of an impact on tick reproduction caused by gene silencing of a blood digestion-related molecule.

  15. Allosteric inhibition of aminopeptidase N functions related to tumor growth and virus infection.

    PubMed

    Santiago, César; Mudgal, Gaurav; Reguera, Juan; Recacha, Rosario; Albrecht, Sébastien; Enjuanes, Luis; Casasnovas, José M

    2017-04-10

    Cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN) is a membrane-bound ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes proteins and peptides and regulates numerous cell functions. APN participates in tumor cell expansion and motility, and is a target for cancer therapies. Small drugs that bind to the APN active site inhibit catalysis and suppress tumor growth. APN is also a major cell entry receptor for coronavirus, which binds to a region distant from the active site. Three crystal structures that we determined of human and pig APN ectodomains defined the dynamic conformation of the protein. These structures offered snapshots of closed, intermediate and open APN, which represent distinct functional states. Coronavirus envelope proteins specifically recognized the open APN form, prevented ectodomain progression to the closed form and substrate hydrolysis. In addition, drugs that bind the active site inhibited both coronavirus binding to cell surface APN and infection; the drugs probably hindered APN transition to the virus-specific open form. We conclude that allosteric inhibition of APN functions occurs by ligand suppression of ectodomain motions necessary for catalysis and virus cell entry, as validated by locking APN with disulfides. Blocking APN dynamics can thus be a valuable approach to development of drugs that target this ectoenzyme.

  16. Identification of Aminopeptidase-N2 as a Cry2Ab binding protein in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Onofre, Janette; Gaytán, Meztlli O; Peña-Cardeña, Arlen; García-Gomez, Blanca I; Pacheco, Sabino; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-01-17

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab toxin has been used in combination with Cry1Ac for resistance management on the Bt-cotton that is widely planted worldwide. However, little is known regarding Cry2Ab mode of action. Particularly, there is a gap of knowledge on the identification of insect midgut proteins that bind Cry2Ab and mediate toxicity. In the case of Cry1Ab toxin, a transmembrane cadherin protein and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N1 (APN1) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) from Manduca sexta, have been shown to be important for oligomer formation and insertion into the membrane. Binding competition experiments showed that Cry2Ab toxin does not share binding sites with Cry1Ab toxin in M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Also, that Cry2Ab shows reduced binding to the Cry1Ab binding molecules cadherin, APN1 or ALP. Finally, ligand blot experiments and protein sequence by LC-MS/MS identified APN2 isoform as a Cry2Ab binding protein. Cloning and expression of APN2 confirmed that APN2 is a Cry2Ab binding protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovery of Inhibitors of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase as Cognitive Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) is a metabolite of angiotensin II (Ang II) and plays a central role in the brain. It was reported more than two decades ago that intracerebroventricular injection of Ang IV improved memory and learning in the rat. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the positive effects of Ang IV and related analogues on cognition. It has been proposed that the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is the main target of Ang IV. This paper discusses progress in the discovery of inhibitors of IRAP as potential enhancers of cognitive functions. Very potent inhibitors of the protease have been synthesised, but pharmacokinetic issues (including problems associated with crossing the blood-brain barrier) remain to be solved. The paper also briefly presents an overview of the status in the discovery of inhibitors of ACE and renin, and of AT1R antagonists and AT2R agonists, in order to enable other discovery processes within the RAS system to be compared. The paper focuses on the relationship between binding affinities/inhibition capacity and the structures of the ligands that interact with the target proteins. PMID:23304452

  18. Selective targeting of the conserved active site cysteine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis methionine aminopeptidase with electrophilic reagents.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Arya, Tarun; Kishor, Chandan; Gumpena, Rajesh; Ganji, Roopa J; Bhukya, Supriya; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) cleave initiator methionine from ~ 70% of the newly synthesized proteins in every living cell, and specific inhibition or knockdown of this function is detrimental. MetAPs are metalloenzymes, and are broadly classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Bacteria contain only type I MetAPs, and the active site of these enzymes contains a conserved cysteine. By contrast, in type II enzymes the analogous position is occupied by a conserved glycine. Here, we report the reactivity of the active site cysteine in a type I MetAP, MetAP1c, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtMetAP1c) towards highly selective cysteine-specific reagents. The authenticity of selective modification of Cys105 of MtMetAP1c was established by using site-directed mutagenesis and crystal structure determination of covalent and noncovalent complexes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that metal ions in the active site assist in the covalent modification of Cys105 by orienting the reagents appropriately for a successful reaction. These studies establish, for the first time, that the conserved cysteine of type I MetAPs can be targeted for selective inhibition, and we believe that this chemistry can be exploited for further drug discovery efforts regarding microbial MetAPs.

  19. Recombinant methionine aminopeptidase protein of Babesia microti: immunobiochemical characterization as a vaccine candidate against human babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2016-09-01

    Human babesiosis is the most important zoonotic protozoan infection in the world. This is the first report of the cloning, expression, purification, and immunobiochemical characterization of a methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) protein from Babesia microti (B. microti). The gene encodes a MetAP1 protein of B. microti (BmMetAP1) of approximately 66.8 kDa that includes glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and shows MetAP activity. BmMetAP1 was detected in a lysate of B. microti and further localized in cytoplasm of the B. microti merozoite. rBmMetAP1 was found to be immunogenic, eliciting a high antibody titer in mice. Moreover, rBmMetAP1 stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-12 but not IL-4. Finally, rBmMetAP1 was able to provide considerable protection to mice against a B. microti challenge infection based on a reduction in peak parasitemia levels and earlier clearance of the parasite as compared with control mice. Taken together, these results suggest that rBmMetAP1 confers significant protection against experimental B. microti infection and might be considered a potential vaccine target against human babesiosis.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated amino-peptidase 1 and rheumatic disease: genetics.

    PubMed

    Ombrello, Michael J; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F

    2015-07-01

    This article will review the genetic evidence implicating ERAP1, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-associated amino-peptidase 1, in susceptibility to rheumatic disease. Genetic variants and haplotypes of ERAP1 are associated with AS, psoriasis, and Behçet's disease in people of varying ancestries. In each of these diseases, disease-associated variants of ERAP1 have been shown to interact with disease-associated class I human leukocyte antigen alleles to influence disease risk. Functionally, disease-associated missense variants of ERAP1 concertedly alter ERAP1 enzymatic function, both quantitatively and qualitatively, whereas other disease-associated variants influence ERAP1 expression. Therefore, ERAP1 haplotypes (or allotypes) should be examined as functional units. Biologically, this amounts to an examination of the gene regulation and function of the protein encoded by each allotype. Genetically, the relationship between disease risk and ERAP1 allotypes should be examined to determine whether allotypes or individual variants produce the most parsimonious risk models. Future investigations of ERAP1 should focus on comprehensively characterizing naturally occurring ERAP1 allotypes, examining the enzymatic function and gene expression of each allotype, and identifying specific allotypes that influence disease susceptibility.

  1. Fungal Mimicry of a Mammalian Aminopeptidase Disables Innate Immunity and Promotes Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sterkel, Alana K; Lorenzini, Jenna L; Fites, J Scott; Subramanian Vignesh, Kavitha; Sullivan, Thomas D; Wuthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan; Hernandez-Santos, Nydiaris; Deepe, George S; Klein, Bruce S

    2016-03-09

    Systemic fungal infections trigger marked immune-regulatory disturbances, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We report that the pathogenic yeast of Blastomyces dermatitidis elaborates dipeptidyl-peptidase IVA (DppIVA), a close mimic of the mammalian ectopeptidase CD26, which modulates critical aspects of hematopoiesis. We show that, like the mammalian enzyme, fungal DppIVA cleaved C-C chemokines and GM-CSF. Yeast producing DppIVA crippled the recruitment and differentiation of monocytes and prevented phagocyte activation and ROS production. Silencing fungal DppIVA gene expression curtailed virulence and restored recruitment of CCR2(+) monocytes, generation of TipDC, and phagocyte killing of yeast. Pharmacological blockade of DppIVA restored leukocyte effector functions and stemmed infection, while addition of recombinant DppIVA to gene-silenced yeast enabled them to evade leukocyte defense. Thus, fungal DppIVA mediates immune-regulatory disturbances that underlie invasive fungal disease. These findings reveal a form of molecular piracy by a broadly conserved aminopeptidase during disease pathogenesis.

  2. Human cathepsin H: deletion of the mini-chain switches substrate specificity from aminopeptidase to endopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Dodt, Johannes; Reichwein, Jörg

    2003-09-01

    The mini-chain of human cathepsin H has been identified as the major structural element determining the protease's substrate specificity. A genetically engineered mutant of human cathepsin H lacking the mini-chain, des[Glu(-18)-Thr(-11)]-cathepsin H, exhibits endopeptidase activity towards the synthetic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NH-Mec (kcat = 0.4 s(-1), Km = 92 microM, kcat/Km = 4348 M(-1) s(-1)) which is not cleaved by r-wt cathepsin H. However, the mutant enzyme shows only minimal aminopeptidase activity for H-Arg-NH-Mec (kcat = 0.8 s(-1), Km = 3.6 mM, kcat/Km = 222 M(-1) s(-1)) which is one of the best known substrates for native human cathepsin H (kcat = 2.5 s(-1), Km = 150 microM, kcat/Km = 16666 M(-1) s(-1)). Inhibition studies with chicken egg white cystatin and E-64 suggest that the mini-chain normally restricts access of inhibitors to the active site. The kinetic data on substrates hydrolysis and enzyme inhibition point out the role of the mini-chain as a structural framework for transition state stabilization of free alpha-amino groups of substrates and as a structural barrier for endopeptidase-like substrate cleavage.

  3. The Motor Complex of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Green, Judith L.; Rees-Channer, Roxanne R.; Howell, Stephen A.; Martin, Stephen R.; Knuepfer, Ellen; Taylor, Helen M.; Grainger, Munira; Holder, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) of Apicomplexan parasites are crucial for the survival of the parasite throughout its life cycle. CDPK1 is expressed in the asexual blood stages of the parasite, particularly late stage schizonts. We have identified two substrates of Plasmodium falciparum CDPK1: myosin A tail domain-interacting protein (MTIP) and glideosome-associated protein 45 (GAP45), both of which are components of the motor complex that generates the force required by the parasite to actively invade host cells. Indirect immunofluorescence shows that CDPK1 localizes to the periphery of P. falciparum merozoites and is therefore suitably located to act on MTIP and GAP45 at the inner membrane complex. A proportion of both GAP45 and MTIP is phosphorylated in schizonts, and we demonstrate that both proteins can be efficiently phosphorylated by CDPK1 in vitro. A primary phosphorylation of MTIP occurs at serine 47, whereas GAP45 is phosphorylated at two sites, one of which could also be detected in phosphopeptides purified from parasite lysates. Both CDPK1 activity and host cell invasion can be inhibited by the kinase inhibitor K252a, suggesting that CDPK1 is a suitable target for antimalarial drug development. PMID:18768477

  4. Artemisinins target the SERCA of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Eckstein-Ludwig, U; Webb, R J; Van Goethem, I D A; East, J M; Lee, A G; Kimura, M; O'Neill, P M; Bray, P G; Ward, S A; Krishna, S

    2003-08-21

    Artemisinins are extracted from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are the most potent antimalarials available, rapidly killing all asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinins are sesquiterpene lactones widely used to treat multidrug-resistant malaria, a disease that annually claims 1 million lives. Despite extensive clinical and laboratory experience their molecular target is not yet identified. Activated artemisinins form adducts with a variety of biological macromolecules, including haem, translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) and other higher-molecular-weight proteins. Here we show that artemisinins, but not quinine or chloroquine, inhibit the SERCA orthologue (PfATP6) of Plasmodium falciparum in Xenopus oocytes with similar potency to thapsigargin (another sesquiterpene lactone and highly specific SERCA inhibitor). As predicted, thapsigargin also antagonizes the parasiticidal activity of artemisinin. Desoxyartemisinin lacks an endoperoxide bridge and is ineffective both as an inhibitor of PfATP6 and as an antimalarial. Chelation of iron by desferrioxamine abrogates the antiparasitic activity of artemisinins and correspondingly attenuates inhibition of PfATP6. Imaging of parasites with BODIPY-thapsigargin labels the cytosolic compartment and is competed by artemisinin. Fluorescent artemisinin labels parasites similarly and irreversibly in an Fe2+-dependent manner. These data provide compelling evidence that artemisinins act by inhibiting PfATP6 outside the food vacuole after activation by iron.

  5. An integrated model of Plasmodium falciparum dynamics.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, F Ellis; Bossert, William H

    2005-02-07

    The within-host and between-host dynamics of malaria are linked in myriad ways, but most obviously by gametocytes, the parasite blood forms transmissible from human to mosquito. Gametocyte dynamics depend on those of non-transmissible blood forms, which stimulate immune responses, impeding transmission as well as within-host parasite densities. These dynamics can, in turn, influence antigenic diversity and recombination between genetically distinct parasites. Here, we embed a differential-equation model of parasite-immune system interactions within each of the individual humans represented in a discrete-event model of Plasmodium falciparum transmission, and examine the effects of human population turnover, parasite antigenic diversity, recombination, and gametocyte production on the dynamics of malaria. Our results indicate that the local persistence of P. falciparum increases with turnover in the human population and antigenic diversity in the parasite, particularly in combination, and that antigenic diversity arising from meiotic recombination in the parasite has complex differential effects on the persistence of founder and progeny genotypes. We also find that reductions in the duration of individual human infectivity to mosquitoes, even if universal, produce population-level effects only if near-absolute, and that, in competition, the persistence and prevalence of parasite genotypes with gametocyte production concordant with data exceed those of genotypes with higher gametocyte production. This new, integrated approach provides a framework for investigating relationships between pathogen dynamics within an individual host and pathogen dynamics within interacting host and vector populations.

  6. Activity of selected phytochemicals against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Astelbauer, Florian; Gruber, Maria; Brem, Brigitte; Greger, Harald; Obwaller, Andreas; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-08-01

    According to the WHO, in 2008, there were 247 million reported cases of malaria and nearly one million deaths from the disease. Parasite resistance against first-line drugs, including artemisinin and mefloquine, is increasing. In this study the plant-derived compounds aglafolin, rocaglamid, kokusaginine, arborine, arborinine and tuberostemonine were investigated for their anti-plasmodial activity in vitro. Fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates were taken from patients in the area of Mae Sot, north-western Thailand in 2008 and the inhibition of schizont maturation was determined for the respective compounds. With inhibitory concentrations effecting 50%, 90% and 99% inhibition (IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99)) of 60.95 nM, 854.41 nM and 7351.49 nM, respectively, rocaglamid was the most active of the substances, closely followed by aglafoline with 53.49 nM, 864.55 nM and 8354.20 nM. The activity was significantly below that of artemisinin, but moderately higher than that of quinine. Arborine, arborinine, tuberostemonine and kokusaginine showed only marginal activity against P. falciparum characterized by IC(50) and IC(99) values higher than 350 nM and 180 μM, respectively, and regressions with relatively shallow slopes S>14.38. Analogues of rocaglamid and aglafoline merit further exploration of their anti-plasmodial activity.

  7. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic.

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:26894117

  10. Immune activation during cerebellar dysfunction following Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    de Silva, H J; Hoang, P; Dalton, H; de Silva, N R; Jewell, D P; Peiris, J B

    1992-01-01

    Evidence for immune activation was investigated in 12 patients with a rare syndrome of self-limiting, delayed onset cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria which occurred 18-26 d previously. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 2 were all significantly higher in serum samples of patients during cerebellar ataxia than in recovery sera and in the sera of 8 patients who did not develop delayed cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria. Cytokine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were also significantly higher in ataxic patients than in controls. These findings suggest that immunological mechanisms may play a role in delayed cerebellar dysfunction following falciparum malaria.

  11. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae; Park, Yoonseon; Chang, Tae Ik; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kim, Seung Jun; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2012-04-01

    Glomerulonephritis occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Herein, we report a case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy for the first time. A 49-yr old male who had been to East Africa was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Microhematuria and proteinuria along with acute kidney injury developed during the course of the disease. Kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and IgA deposits with tubulointerstitial inflammation. Laboratory tests after recovery from malaria showed disappearance of urinary abnormalities and normalization of kidney function. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy.

  12. Hormonal status modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases and vasopressin-degrading activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of female mice.

    PubMed

    García, María Jesús; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Mayas, María Dolores; Carrera, María Pilar; De la Chica, Susana; Cortés, Pedro; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2008-07-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in the maintenance of cardiovascular functions and in the control of blood pressure. By other hand, it is known that blood pressure regulation and HPA activity are affected by sex hormones. The aim of the present work is to analyze the influence of estradiol and progesterone on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-regulating aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B and aminopeptidase N activities and vasopressin-degrading activity in the HPA axis of ovariectomized mice and ovariectomized mice treated subscutaneously with different doses of estradiol and progesterone. Our data suggest that in female mice, estradiol and progesterone influence RAS-regulating and vasopressin-degrading activities at different levels of the HPA axis.

  13. Characterization of a Vibrio fischeri Aminopeptidase and Evidence for Its Influence on an Early Stage of Squid Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Bethany A.; Gerling, David G.; Gutierrez, Nestor A.; Watkins, Katherine H.; Frey, Michelle West; Nyholm, Spencer V.; Whistler, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri cells are the sole colonists of a specialized light organ in the mantle cavity of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. The process begins when the bacteria aggregate in mucus secretions outside the light organ. The cells eventually leave the aggregate, enter the light organ, and encounter a rich supply of peptides. The need to dissociate from mucus and presumably utilize peptides led us to hypothesize that protease activity is integral to the colonization process. Protease activity associated with whole cells of Vibrio fischeri strain ES114 was identified as the product of a putative cell membrane-associated aminopeptidase (PepN). To characterize this activity, the aminopeptidase was cloned, overexpressed, and purified. Initial steady-state kinetic studies revealed that the aminopeptidase has broad activity, with a preference for basic and hydrophobic side chains and kcat and Km values that are lower and smaller, respectively, than those of Escherichia coli PepN. A V. fischeri mutant unable to produce PepN is significantly delayed in its ability to colonize squid within the first 12 h, but eventually it establishes a wild-type colonization level. Likewise, in competition with the wild type for colonization, the mutant is outcompeted at 12 h postinoculation but then competes evenly by 24 h. Also, the PepN-deficient strain fails to achieve wild-type levels of cells in aggregates, suggesting an explanation for the initial colonization delay. This study provides a foundation for more studies on PepN expression, localization, and role in the early stages of squid colonization. PMID:22636772

  14. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  15. Minireview: Invasive fungal infection complicating acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Däbritz, Jan; Schneider, Markward; Just-Nuebling, Gudrun; Groll, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in people, affecting 5-10% of the world's population with more than two million deaths a year. Whereas invasive bacterial infections are not uncommon during severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, only a few cases of opportunistic fungal infections have been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of disseminated hyalohyphomycosis associated with acute P. falciparum malaria in a non-immune traveller, review the cases reported in the literature and discuss the theoretical foundations for the increased susceptibility of non-immune individuals with severe P. falciparum malaria to opportunistic fungal infections. Apart from the availability of free iron as sequelae of massive haemolysis, tissue damage, acidosis and measures of advanced life support, patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria also are profoundly immunosuppressed by the organism's interaction with innate and adaptive host immune mechanisms.

  16. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Lu, Liang; Tian, Linwei; Zhou, Shuisen; Wu, Haixia; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female) for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is characterized by the predominance

  18. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  19. [Maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase (C.A.P.) in normal and pathological pregnancies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thoumsin, H J; Loos, A B; Krausch, C; Lambotte, R

    1980-01-01

    The variations of the maternal serum levels of cystine-aminopeptidase or oxytocinase (C.A.P.) have been studied in 399 measurements from 326 pregnant patients, 226 normal pregnancies were used as control and allowed us to set up a range of normal values for the age of pregnancy; the mean levels increase exponentially. It has not been possible from this study to establish conclusively a direct relationship between the C.A.P. levels, or variations of these levels and the onset of a fetal and/or placental pathology. In twin pregnancies only, the levels were constantly elevated.

  20. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold

  1. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum - Aotus Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-23

    AOTUS MODEL PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard N. Rossan, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: PROMED TRADING, S.A. P.O. Box 025426, PTY-051 Miami, Florida...91 - 2/28/92) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS DRUG EVALUATION IN THE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM - Contract No. AOTUS MODEL DAMD17-91-C-1072 6C...words) Tne Panamanian Autus - PLasmodium falciparum model was used to evaluate potential antimalaria drugs. Neither protriptylene nor tetrandrine, each

  2. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  3. Hemoglobinopathies: Slicing the Gordian Knot of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits—including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia—are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a “natural experiment” to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the “Gordian knot” of host and parasite

  4. Renal pathology in owl monkeys in Plasmodium falciparum vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Iseki, M; Broderson, J R; Pirl, K G; Igarashi, I; Collins, W E; Aikawa, M

    1990-08-01

    Renal specimens of 16 owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry during a vaccine trial with recombinant proteins of the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) of Plasmodium falciparum. Deposition of IgG, C3, and P. falciparum antigens in the mesangium was demonstrated by the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) method. A relationship between the severity of parasitemia at the time of death and the presence of nephropathy was not apparent.

  5. Serum enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase activity in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced rat breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera, María Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Valenzuela, Maria Teresa; Dueñas, Basilio; García, María Jesús; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent spontaneous malignancy diagnosed in women in the western world, although no specific etiological agent(s) or the mechanism responsible for the initiation of the disease has been identified as yet. Enkephalins (Leu5-enkephalin and Met5-enkephalin) (ENK) act in the breast in different ways such as modulating esteroid receptors and proteases secretion. ENK are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes, leading to their inactivation, such as the enkephalin-degrading tyrosyl aminopeptidase (EDA). Breast tumours induced in rats by administration of N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU) constitute a useful tool for dissecting the multistep process of carcinogenesis, which involves initiation, promotion and progression. The aim of the present work was to analyse EDA activity (E.C: 3.4.11.-) in serum of rats with mammary tumours induced by NMU, to evaluate the potential value of this activity as a biological marker of the carcinogenesis process, and the putative role of ENK in the promotion and progression of the disease. Tumours were induced by intraperitoneal injection of three doses of NMU at 50, 80 and 110 days after birth. Serum EDA was measured fluorimetrically using tyrosyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. The increase found in EDA activity suggests the existence of decreased serum circulating levels of ENK in rat with mammary tumours induced by NMU. Although the exact role of ENK in breast cancer initiation, promotion and/or progression remains unknown, our results suggest that changes in EDA activity might play an important role in the origin and evolution of breast cancer.

  6. Targeting and localization of wound-inducible leucine aminopeptidase A in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Tu, Chao-Jung; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive and wound-inducible leucine aminopeptidases (LAP-N and LAP-A, respectively) of tomato encode 60-kDa proteins with 5-kDa presequences that resemble chloroplast-targeting peptides. Cell fractionation studies and immunoblot analyses of chloroplast and total proteins have suggested a dual location of the mature LAP-A proteins in the cytosol and the plastids. In this study, the subcellular localization of tomato LAPs was further investigated using in vitro chloroplast-targeting assays and immunocytochemical techniques at the light and TEM levels. In vitro-translated LAP-A1 and LAP-N preproteins were readily transported into pea chloroplasts and processed into mature proteins of 55 kDa indicating the presence of a functional chloroplast-targeting signal in the LAP-A1 and LAP-N protein precursors. In addition, a LAP polyclonal and a LAP-A-specific antisera were used to immunolocalize LAP proteins in leaves from healthy, wounded and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated plants. Low levels of LAPs and/or LAP-like proteins were detected in leaves from unwounded plants. The LAP polyclonal antiserum, which detected LAP-A, LAP-N and LAP-like proteins, and the LAP-A specific antibodies, which detected only LAP-A, showed that LAP levels increased in leaf sections after wounding and MeJA treatments. LAP-A proteins were primarily detected within the chloroplasts of spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. The localization of LAP-A was distinct from the location of early wound-response proteins that are important in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid or systemin and more similar to the late wound-response proteins with primary roles in defense. The importance of these findings relative to the potential roles of LAP-A in defense is discussed.

  7. Leucine aminopeptidase regulates defense and wound signaling in tomato downstream of jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Jonathan H; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Aromdee, Dale N; Pautot, Véronique; Holzer, Frances M; Walling, Linda L

    2009-04-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase A (LapA) is a late wound-response gene of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). To elucidate the role of LapA, transgenic plants that overexpressed or abolished LapA gene expression were used. The early wound-response gene RNA levels were similar in wild-type and Lap-silenced (LapA-SI), -antisense (LapA-AS), and -overexpressing (LapA-OX) plants. By contrast, late wound-response gene RNA levels and protection against Manduca sexta damage were influenced by LapA RNA and protein levels. While LapA-OX plants had elevated levels of LapA RNAs and protein, ectopic expression of LapA was not sufficient to induce Pin (Ser proteinase inhibitor) or PPO (polyphenol oxidase) transcripts in nonwounded leaves. M. sexta larvae damaged less foliage and displayed delays in growth and development when feeding on LapA-OX plants. By contrast, LapA-SI and LapA-AS lines had lower levels of Pin and PPO RNAs than wild-type controls. Furthermore, larvae consumed more foliage and attained larger masses when feeding on LapA-SI plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) did not complement the wound-signaling phenotype of LapA-SI plants. Based on root elongation in the presence of JA, JA perception appeared to be intact in LapA-SI lines. Collectively, these data suggested that LAP-A has a role in modulating essential defenses against herbivores by promoting late wound responses and acting downstream of JA biosynthesis and perception.

  8. A dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like protein remodels gating charge dynamics in Kv4.2 channels.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kevin; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2006-12-01

    Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-like proteins (DPLPs) interact with Kv4 channels and thereby induce a profound remodeling of activation and inactivation gating. DPLPs are constitutive components of the neuronal Kv4 channel complex, and recent observations have suggested the critical functional role of the single transmembrane segment of these proteins (Zagha, E., A. Ozaita, S.Y. Chang, M.S. Nadal, U. Lin, M.J. Saganich, T. McCormack, K.O. Akinsanya, S.Y. Qi, and B. Rudy. 2005. J. Biol. Chem. 280:18853-18861). However, the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. We hypothesized that a unique interaction between the Kv4.2 channel and a DPLP found in brain (DPPX-S) may remodel the channel's voltage-sensing domain. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a robust experimental system to measure Kv4.2 gating currents and study gating charge dynamics in the absence and presence of DPPX-S. The results demonstrated that coexpression of Kv4.2 and DPPX-S causes a -26 mV parallel shift in the gating charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship. This shift is associated with faster outward movements of the gating charge over a broad range of relevant membrane potentials and accelerated gating charge return upon repolarization. In sharp contrast, DPPX-S had no effect on gating charge movements of the Shaker B Kv channel. We propose that DPPX-S destabilizes resting and intermediate states in the voltage-dependent activation pathway, which promotes the outward gating charge movement. The remodeling of gating charge dynamics may involve specific protein-protein interactions of the DPPX-S's transmembrane segment with the voltage-sensing and pore domains of the Kv4.2 channel. This mechanism may determine the characteristic fast operation of neuronal Kv4 channels in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials.

  9. Aminopeptidase A initiates tumorigenesis and enhances tumor cell stemness via TWIST1 upregulation in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yu; Jiang, Jeng-Kae; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Li, Ming-Chun; Tsai, Chan-Yen; Jhang, Yau-Yun; Huang, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for the high mortality rate associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but metastasis regulators are not fully understood. To identify a novel gene involved in tumor metastasis, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, transcriptome distance analyses, and machine learning algorithms to determine links between primary and metastatic colorectal cancers. Aminopeptidase A (APA; also known as ENPEP) was selected as our focus because its relationship with colorectal cancer requires clarification. Higher APA mRNA levels were observed in patients in advanced stages of cancer, suggesting a correlation between ENPEP and degree of malignancy. Our data also indicate that APA overexpression in CRC cells induced cell migration, invasion, anchorage-independent capability, and mesenchyme-like characteristics (e.g., EMT markers). We also observed TWIST induction in APA-overexpressing SW480 cells and TWIST down-regulation in HT29 cells knocked down with APA. Both APA silencing and impaired APA activity were found to reduce migratory capacity, cancer anchorage, stemness properties, and drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. We therefore suggest that APA enzymatic activity affects tumor initiation and cancer malignancy in a TWIST-dependent manner. Results from RT-qPCR and the immunohistochemical staining of specimens taken from CRC patients indicate a significant correlation between APA and TWIST. According to data from SurvExpress analyses of TWIST1 and APA mRNA expression profiles, high APA and TWIST expression are positively correlated with poor CRC prognosis. APA may act as a prognostic factor and/or therapeutic target for CRC metastasis and recurrence. PMID:28177885

  10. Comparative biochemical and functional properties of two leucine aminopeptidases of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ju, Jung-Won; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Bahk, Young-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAP; EC 3.4.11.1) are a group of metalloexopeptidases, which catalyze the sequential removal of leucine amino acids from the N-termini of the polypeptides or proteins. In this study, we identified two novel genes that encode LAPs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsLAP1 and CsLAP2) and characterized their biochemical and functional properties. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 with those of other organisms revealed that typical metal-binding coordinating and active site residues for LAPs were well conserved in CsLAP1 and CsLAP2. Recombinant CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 showed similar biochemical properties such as pH optima at pH 8.0 and stability at neutral pHs. Both enzymes were specifically inhibited by bestatin and showed preferential substrate specificity for Leu-MCA. However, the enzymes differed in that they required different metal ions for maximum activity. Expressions of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 were detected throughout the various developmental stages of C. sinensis, and their transcription levels increased gradually in accordance with the maturation of the parasite. Both enzymes were identified in soluble worm extract of C. sinensis, but not in excretory and secretory products. Immunolocalization studies showed that both enzymes were co-localized to the intestinal epithelial cells and gastrodermis of the parasite. These results collectively suggest that CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 are synthesized in the intestinal epithelial and gastrodermal cells of C. sinensis and may be involved in the final digestion of peptides that hydrolyzed within intestinal lumen followed by absorbed into gastrodermal cells of the parasite.

  11. The catalytic role of glutamate 151 in the leucine aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica.

    PubMed

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Holz, Richard C

    2004-07-23

    Glutamate 151 has been proposed to act as the general acid/base during the peptide hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by the co-catalytic metallohydrolase from Aeromonas proteolytica (AAP). However, to date, no direct evidence has been reported for the role of Glu-151 during catalytic turnover by AAP. In order to elucidate the catalytic role of Glu-151, altered AAP enzymes have been prepared in which Glu-151 has been substituted with a glutamine, an alanine, and an aspartate. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) does not change upon substitution to aspartate or glutamine, but the rate of the reaction changes drastically in the following order: glutamate (100% activity), aspartate (0.05%), glutamine (0.004%), and alanine (0%). Examination of the pH dependence of the kinetic constants k(cat) and K(m) revealed a change in the pK(a) of a group that ionizes at pH 4.8 in recombinant leucine aminopeptidase (rAAP) to 4.2 for E151D-AAP. The remaining pK(a) values at 5.2, 7.5, and 9.9 do not change. Proton inventory studies indicate that one proton is transferred in the rate-limiting step of the reaction at pH 10.50 for both rAAP and E151D-AAP, but at pH 6.50 two protons and general solvation effects are responsible for the observed effects in the reaction catalyzed by rAAP and E151D-AAP, respectively. Based on these data, Glu-151 is intrinsically involved in the peptide hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by AAP and can be assigned the role of a general acid and base.

  12. A Novel Glutamyl (Aspartyl)-Specific Aminopeptidase A from Lactobacillus delbrueckii with Promising Properties for Application

    PubMed Central

    Stressler, Timo; Ewert, Jacob; Merz, Michael; Funk, Joshua; Claaßen, Wolfgang; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Schmidt, Herbert; Kuhn, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for a number of amino acids. Thus, LAB have one of the strongest proteolytic systems to acquit their amino acid requirements. One of the intracellular exopeptidases present in LAB is the glutamyl (aspartyl) specific aminopeptidase (PepA; EC 3.4.11.7). Most of the PepA enzymes characterized yet, belonged to Lactococcus lactis sp., but no PepA from a Lactobacillus sp. has been characterized so far. In this study, we cloned a putative pepA gene from Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis DSM 20072 and characterized it after purification. For comparison, we also cloned, purified and characterized PepA from Lc. lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481. Due to the low homology between both enzymes (30%), differences between the biochemical characteristics were very likely. This was confirmed, for example, by the more acidic optimum pH value of 6.0 for Lb-PepA compared to pH 8.0 for Lc-PepA. In addition, although the optimum temperature is quite similar for both enzymes (Lb-PepA: 60°C; Lc-PepA: 65°C), the temperature stability after three days, 20°C below the optimum temperature, was higher for Lb-PepA (60% residual activity) than for Lc-PepA (2% residual activity). EDTA inhibited both enzymes and the strongest activation was found for CoCl2, indicating that both enzymes are metallopeptidases. In contrast to Lc-PepA, disulfide bond-reducing agents such as dithiothreitol did not inhibit Lb-PepA. Finally, Lb-PepA was not product-inhibited by L-Glu, whereas Lc-PepA showed an inhibition. PMID:27003449

  13. Changes in monocytic expression of aminopeptidase N/CD13 after major trauma

    PubMed Central

    HUSCHAK, G; ZUR NIEDEN, K; STUTTMANN, R; RIEMANN, D

    2003-01-01

    HLA-DR expression on monocytes as marker for monocytic function is severely depressed after major trauma. The membrane enzyme aminopeptidase N/CD13 can trigger help in antigen processing by MHC class II molecules of antigen-presenting cells. We determined the simultaneous expression of HLA-DR and CD13 on peripheral blood monocytes of patients with major trauma (injury severity score of ≥16). 1 : 1 conjugates of phycoerythrin (PE)-to-monoclonal antibody were used in combination with QuantiBRITETM PE beads for a standardized quantification in terms of antibodies bound per cell (ABC). The very low expression of HLA-DR antigen on monocytes of patients at day 1 after major trauma confirmed previous results in the literature. Monocytic HLA-DR expression increased slowly to reach values in the lower range of healthy volunteers at day 14. Monocytic CD13 expression at day 1 showed values in the range of healthy volunteers, and a strong rise afterwards. Fourteen days after trauma, the monocytic expression of CD13 was still much higher than in the control group. Because lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 have been shown to be involved in the depressed HLA-DR expression on monocytes in trauma patients, we studied the in vitro effects of LPS and interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of CD13 on monocytes prepared from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Whereas a 3-day IL-10 treatment resulted in a down-regulation of both HLA-DR and CD13 expression on monocytes, LPS caused a down-regulation of HLA-DR but a rapid up-regulation of CD13 levels. Therefore we suggest that, with respect to monocytic CD13 expression, LPS rather than IL-10 could well be the explanation for monocytic surface molecules after severe injury, although other mediators with a CD13 regulating function have to be considered. PMID:14632756

  14. Deficiency of the Angiotensinase Aminopeptidase A Increases Susceptibility to Glomerular Injury.

    PubMed

    Velez, Juan Carlos Q; Arif, Ehtesham; Rodgers, Jessalyn; Hicks, Megan P; Arthur, John M; Nihalani, Deepak; Bruner, Evelyn T; Budisavljevic, Milos N; Atkinson, Carl; Fitzgibbon, Wayne R; Janech, Michael G

    2017-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is expressed in glomerular podocytes and tubular epithelia and metabolizes angiotensin II (AngII), a peptide known to promote glomerulosclerosis. In this study, we tested whether APA expression changes in response to progressive nephron loss or whether APA exerts a protective role against glomerular damage and during AngII-mediated hypertensive kidney injury. At advanced stages of FSGS, fawn-hooded hypertensive rat kidneys exhibited distinctly increased APA staining in areas of intact glomerular capillary loops. Moreover, BALB/c APA-knockout (KO) mice injected with a nephrotoxic serum showed persistent glomerular hyalinosis and albuminuria 96 hours after injection, whereas wild-type controls achieved virtually full recovery. We then tested the effect of 4-week infusion of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute) in APA-KO and wild-type mice. Although we observed no significant difference in achieved systolic BP, AngII-treated APA-KO mice developed a significant rise in albuminuria not observed in AngII-treated wild-type mice along with increased segmental and global sclerosis and/or collapse of juxtamedullary glomeruli, microcystic tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In parallel, AngII treatment significantly increased the kidney AngII content and attenuated the expression of podocyte nephrin in APA-KO mice but not in wild-type controls. These data show that deficiency of APA increases susceptibility to glomerular injury in BALB/c mice. The augmented AngII-mediated kidney injury observed in association with increased intrarenal AngII accumulation in the absence of APA suggests a protective metabolizing role of APA in AngII-mediated glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Leucine Aminopeptidase Regulates Defense and Wound Signaling in Tomato Downstream of Jasmonic Acid[W

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Jonathan H.; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Aromdee, Dale N.; Pautot, Véronique; Holzer, Frances M.; Walling, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase A (LapA) is a late wound-response gene of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). To elucidate the role of LapA, transgenic plants that overexpressed or abolished LapA gene expression were used. The early wound-response gene RNA levels were similar in wild-type and Lap-silenced (LapA-SI), -antisense (LapA-AS), and -overexpressing (LapA-OX) plants. By contrast, late wound-response gene RNA levels and protection against Manduca sexta damage were influenced by LapA RNA and protein levels. While LapA-OX plants had elevated levels of LapA RNAs and protein, ectopic expression of LapA was not sufficient to induce Pin (Ser proteinase inhibitor) or PPO (polyphenol oxidase) transcripts in nonwounded leaves. M. sexta larvae damaged less foliage and displayed delays in growth and development when feeding on LapA-OX plants. By contrast, LapA-SI and LapA-AS lines had lower levels of Pin and PPO RNAs than wild-type controls. Furthermore, larvae consumed more foliage and attained larger masses when feeding on LapA-SI plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) did not complement the wound-signaling phenotype of LapA-SI plants. Based on root elongation in the presence of JA, JA perception appeared to be intact in LapA-SI lines. Collectively, these data suggested that LAP-A has a role in modulating essential defenses against herbivores by promoting late wound responses and acting downstream of JA biosynthesis and perception. PMID:19376935

  16. Structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor ovalicin bound to its noncognate target, human Type 1 methionine aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Addlagatta, Anthony; Matthews, Brian W.

    2006-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) remove the initiator methionine during protein biosynthesis. They exist in two isoforms, MetAP1 and MetAP2. The anti-angiogenic compound fumagillin binds tightly to the Type 2 MetAPs but only weakly to Type 1. High-affinity complexes of fumagillin and its relative ovalicin with Type 2 human MetAP have been reported. Here we describe the crystallographic structure of the low-affinity complex between ovalicin and Type 1 human MetAP at 1.1 Å resolution. This provides the first opportunity to compare the structures of ovalicin or fumagillin bound to a Type 1 and a Type 2 MetAP. For both Type 1 and Type 2 human MetAPs the inhibitor makes a covalent adduct with a corresponding histidine. At the same time there are significant differences in the alignment of the inhibitors within the respective active sites. It has been argued that the lower affinity of ovalicin and fumagillin for the Type 1 MetAPs is due to the smaller size of their active sites relative to the Type 2 enzymes. Comparison with the uncomplexed structure of human Type 1 MetAP indicates that there is some truth to this. Several active site residues have to move “outward” by 0.5 Å or so to accommodate the inhibitor. Other residues move “inward.” There are, however, other factors that come into play. In particular, the side chain of His310 rotates by 134° into a different position where (together with Glu128 and Tyr195) it coordinates a metal ion not seen at this site in the native enzyme. PMID:16823043

  17. Chloride channel ClC-5 binds to aspartyl aminopeptidase to regulate renal albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aven; Slattery, Craig; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wilk, Sherwin; Wilk, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yuan; Valova, Valentina A; Robinson, Phillip J; Kelly, Darren J; Poronnik, Philip

    2015-04-01

    ClC-5 is a chloride/proton exchanger that plays an obligate role in albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. ClC-5 forms an endocytic complex with the albumin receptor megalin/cubilin. We have identified a novel ClC-5 binding partner, cytosolic aspartyl aminopeptidase (DNPEP; EC 3.4.11.21), that catalyzes the release of N-terminal aspartate/glutamate residues. The physiological role of DNPEP remains largely unresolved. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins binding to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-ClC-5 C terminus identified DNPEP as an interacting partner. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that DNPEP and ClC-5 also associated in cells. Further experiments using purified GST-ClC-5 and His-DNPEP proteins demonstrated that the two proteins bound directly to each other. In opossum kidney (OK) cells, confocal immunofluorescence studies revealed that DNPEP colocalized with albumin-containing endocytic vesicles. Overexpression of wild-type DNPEP increased cell-surface levels of ClC-5 and albumin uptake. Analysis of DNPEP-immunoprecipitated products from rat kidney lysate identified β-actin and tubulin, suggesting a role for DNPEP in cytoskeletal maintenance. A DNase I inhibition assay showed a significant decrease in the amount of G actin when DNPEP was overexpressed in OK cells, suggesting a role for DNPEP in stabilizing the cytoskeleton. DNPEP was not present in the urine of healthy rats; however, it was readily detected in the urine in rat models of mild and heavy proteinuria (diabetic nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, respectively). Urinary levels of DNPEP were found to correlate with the severity of proteinuria. Therefore, we have identified another key molecular component of the albumin endocytic machinery in the renal proximal tubule and describe a new role for DNPEP in stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Magnetic circular dichroism and cobalt(II) binding equilibrium studies of Escherichia coli methionyl aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, James A; Leung, Chin Hin; Moore, Rhonda L; Thamrong-nawasawat, Thun; Wessler, Benjamin S H

    2004-10-06

    Equilibrium dialysis of methionyl aminopeptidase from Escherichia coli (EcMetAP) monitored by atomic absorption spectrometry and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) shows that the enzyme binds up to 1.1 +/- 0.1 equiv of Co(2+) in the metal concentration range likely to be found in vivo. The dissociation constant, K(d), is estimated to be between 2.5 and 4.0 microM. Analysis of the temperature and magnetization behavior of the two major peaks in the MCD spectrum at 495 and 567 nm suggests that these transitions arise from Co(2+) with different ground states. Ligand field calculations using AOMX are used to assign the 495 nm peak to Co(2+) in the 6-coordinate binding site and the 567 nm peak to Co(2+) in the 5-coordinate site. This is further supported by the fact that the binding affinity of the Co(2+) associated with the 567 nm peak is enhanced when the pH is increased from 7.5 to 9.0, consistent with having an imidazole ligand from a histidine amino acid residue. On the basis of the MCD intensities, it is estimated that, when the 5-coordinate site is fully occupied, 0.1 equiv of cobalt is in the 6-coordinate site. Even when the cobalt concentration is very low, there is a small fraction of binuclear sites in EcMetAP formed through cooperative binding between the 5- and 6-coordinate Co(2+) ions. The magnetization behavior of the 6-coordinate Co(2+) MCD peak is consistent with an isolated pseudo-Kramer doublet ground state, suggesting that the cobalt ions in the binuclear sites are not magnetically coupled.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Histones Induce Endothelial Proinflammatory Response and Barrier Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gillrie, Mark R.; Lee, Kristine; Gowda, D. Channe; Davis, Shevaun P.; Monestier, Marc; Cui, Liwang; Hien, Tran Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Ho, May

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite of human erythrocytes that causes the most severe form of malaria. Severe P. falciparum infection is associated with endothelial activation and permeability, which are important determinants of the outcome of the infection. How endothelial cells become activated is not fully understood, particularly with regard to the effects of parasite subcomponents. We demonstrated that P. falciparum histones extracted from merozoites (HeH) directly stimulated the production of IL-8 and other inflammatory mediators by primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells through a signaling pathway that involves Src family kinases and p38 MAPK. The stimulatory effect of HeH and recombinant P. falciparum H3 (PfH3) was abrogated by histone-specific antibodies. The release of nuclear contents on rupture of infected erythrocytes was captured by live cell imaging and confirmed by detecting nucleosomes in the supernatants of parasite cultures. HeH and recombinant parasite histones also induced endothelial permeability through a charge-dependent mechanism that resulted in disruption of junctional protein expression and cell death. Recombinant human activated protein C cleaved HeH and PfH3 and abrogated their proinflammatory effects. Circulating nucleosomes of both human and parasite origin were detected in the plasma of patients with falciparum malaria and correlated positively with disease severity. These results support a pathogenic role for both host- and pathogen-derived histones in P. falciparum-caused malaria. PMID:22260922

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: reduction of endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Christoph Josef; Lehr, Hans Anton; Westphal, Kathi; Unverricht, Marcus; Kratzius, Manja; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2005-03-01

    Organ failure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with neutrophil activation and endothelial damage. This study investigates whether neutrophil-induced endothelial damage involves apoptosis and whether it can be prevented by neutralization of neutrophil secretory products. Endothelial cells from human umbilical veins were coincubated with neutrophils from healthy donors and with sera from eight patients with P. falciparum malaria, three patients with P. vivax malaria, and three healthy controls. Endothelial apoptosis was demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and annexin V staining. The rate of apoptosis of cells was markedly increased after incubation with patient serum compared to that with control serum. Apoptosis was most pronounced after incubation with sera from two patients with fatal cases of P. falciparum malaria, followed by sera of survivors with severe P. falciparum malaria and, finally, by sera of patients with mild P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and ulinastatin reduced the apoptosis rate, but gabexate mesilate and pentoxifylline did not. Furthermore, in fatal P. falciparum malaria, apoptotic endothelial cells were identified in renal and pulmonary tissue by TUNEL staining. These findings show that apoptosis caused by neutrophil secretory products plays a major role in endothelial cell damage in malaria. The antioxidants ascorbic acid and tocopherol and the protease inhibitor ulinastatin can reduce malaria-associated endothelial apoptosis in vitro.

  1. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. [Treatment of fulminant falciparum malaria with erythrapheresis].

    PubMed

    Rouvier, B; Maudan, P; Debue, J F; Joussemet, M; Roué, R

    1988-01-01

    Ten days after his return from Cameroon, a twenty-six year old Frenchman, serving on voluntary service overseas, presented with fulminant falciparum malaria: shock, altered consciousness, haemolytic anaemia, threatening disseminated coagulation (platelets less than 150 X 10(-6).l-1; prothrombin time and Stuart factor less than 50%; fibrinogen less than 1.5 g.l-1). In spite of quinine therapy, parasitaemia increased from 4 to 35% within 24 h. Using an Haemonetics V50, the exchange of one and a half red blood cell masses was carried out with 17 red blood cell packs. Calcium gluconate was used to prevent the hypocalcaemia induced by the anticoagulant solution. The patient's platelets and plasma were completely reinjected. The result was very satisfactory. This kind of exchange, well tolerated clinically and biologically, would seem better than the classical exchange transfusion. When 10% of the red blood cells are infected by Plasmodium falciparum, it is necessary to exchange from one and a half to two blood masses. Lesser exchanges are always associated with important relapses and quinine therapy must be carried on during and after the exchange. Restricting this exchange only to red blood cells enabled the patient to benefit from his own coagulation factors, antibodies and platelets, and consequently to reduce the number of blood donors involved. However, metabolites (especially bilirubin and circulating immune complexes) were not eliminated. Partial plasmapheresis may be associated with erythropheresis using human albumin as plasma substitute. This technique needs to be assessed, in order to optimize immediate efficiency and post-transfusion infectious risk.

  3. Atomic far-IR fine-structure line mapping of L1630, M17, and W3: Comparison of (O I) and (C II) distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. E.; Jaffe, Dan T.; Zhou, Shudong

    1995-01-01

    We mapped the distribution of atomic far-IR line emission from (O I) and (C II) over parsec scales in the Galactic star-forming regions L1630, M17, and W3 using the MPE Far-Infrared Fabry-Perot Imaging spectrometer (FIFI) on board the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The lines mapped include (O I) 63 microns, (O I) 146 microns, and (C II) 158 microns. Comparison of the intensities and ratios of these lines with models of photodissociation regions (e.g., Tielens & Hollenbach 1985, ApJ, 344, 770) allows us to derive temperatures and densities of the primarily neutral atomic gas layers lying on the surfaces of UV-illuminated molecular gas. In general, the (C II) line arises ubiquitously throughout the molecular clouds while the (O I) lines are mainly confined to warm, dense gas (T is greater than 100 K, n is greater than 10(exp 4)/cu cm) near the sites of O and B stars. The distribution of (C II) in the star-forming clouds implies that the (C II) emission arises on the surfaces of molecular clumps throughout the clouds, rather than only at the boundary layer between molecular gas and H II regions.

  4. Biochemical and functional characterization of Plasmodium falciparum GTP cyclohydrolase I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antifolates are currently in clinical use for malaria preventive therapy and treatment. The drugs kill the parasites by targeting the enzymes in the de novo folate pathway. The use of antifolates has now been limited by the spread of drug-resistant mutations. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1) is the first and the rate-limiting enzyme in the folate pathway. The amplification of the gch1 gene found in certain Plasmodium falciparum isolates can cause antifolate resistance and influence the course of antifolate resistance evolution. These findings showed the importance of P. falciparum GCH1 in drug resistance intervention. However, little is known about P. falciparum GCH1 in terms of kinetic parameters and functional assays, precluding the opportunity to obtain the key information on its catalytic reaction and to eventually develop this enzyme as a drug target. Methods Plasmodium falciparum GCH1 was cloned and expressed in bacteria. Enzymatic activity was determined by the measurement of fluorescent converted neopterin with assay validation by using mutant and GTP analogue. The genetic complementation study was performed in ∆folE bacteria to functionally identify the residues and domains of P. falciparum GCH1 required for its enzymatic activity. Plasmodial GCH1 sequences were aligned and structurally modeled to reveal conserved catalytic residues. Results Kinetic parameters and optimal conditions for enzymatic reactions were determined by the fluorescence-based assay. The inhibitor test against P. falciparum GCH1 is now possible as indicated by the inhibitory effect by 8-oxo-GTP. Genetic complementation was proven to be a convenient method to study the function of P. falciparum GCH1. A series of domain truncations revealed that the conserved core domain of GCH1 is responsible for its enzymatic activity. Homology modelling fits P. falciparum GCH1 into the classic Tunnelling-fold structure with well-conserved catalytic residues at the active site. Conclusions

  5. Intestinal assimilation of a proline-containing tetrapeptide. Role of a brush border membrane postproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, A; Chung, Y C; Freeman, H J; Erickson, R H; Sleisenger, M H; Kim, Y S

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of hydrolysis and absorption of a proline-containing tetrapeptide, Leu-Pro-Gly-Gly (10 mM) by rat intestine was examined in vivo by using jejunal perfusion methods. The peptide substrate and hydrolysis products were analyzed by use of an automated amino acid analyzer. Leucine, proline, and glycine were absorbed by the intestine at a significantly higher rate from the tetrapeptide than from an equivalent amino acid mixture. The analysis of the hydrolytic products in the lumen during in vivo perfusion of the tetrapeptide showed that two dipeptides, Leu-Pro and Gly-Gly, were the major products. These two dipeptides were also the major hydrolytic products when a purified rat intestinal brush border membrane preparation was incubated with Leu-Pro-Gly-Gly. The rate of hydrolysis of the tetrapeptide was much higher than that for several other proline-containing peptides (Leu-Pro, Pro-Leu, and Pro-Gly-Gly) that were tested. Studies using Gly-Pro-beta-naphthylamide, a specific substrate for postproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV, showed that this enzyme is mainly localized to the brush border membrane and is responsible for the hydrolysis of the tetrapeptide into the two dipeptides Leu-Pro and Gly-Gly. Thus, brush border membrane dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV very likely plays an important role at the intestinal mucosal cell surface in the final stages of digestion of proline-containing peptides. PMID:6135710

  6. RNAi in the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, establishes a functional role for aminopeptidase N in Cry1Ab intoxication.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Y; Du, L X; Liu, C X; Gong, L; Han, L Z; Peng, Y F

    2017-02-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is a major target pest of transgenic rice expressing the Cry1Ab protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. Evolution of resistance in this pest is a major threat to the durability of Bt rice. Since Bt exerts its activity through binding to specific receptors in the midgut of target insects, identification of functional Cry1Ab receptors in the midgut of C. suppressalis larvae is crucial to evaluate potential resistance mechanisms and develop effective strategies for delaying insect resistance. In this work, we identified the putative Cry1Ab toxin-binding protein, aminopeptidase-N (APN), in the midgut of C. suppressalis by ligand blot and mass spectrometry. After cloning the full-length cDNAs encoding APN isoforms from the C. suppressalis larval midgut, we studied their spatiotemporal expression in different gut tissues and developmental stages. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) against C. suppressalis aminopeptidases (CsAPNs) was employed to illustrate a functional role for CsAPNs in Cry1Ab toxicity to C. suppressalis larvae using injection and oral delivery of Stealth™ siRNA. Down-regulating the expression of CsAPNs by RNAi was closely associated with reduced susceptibility of C. suppressalis to Cry1Ab. These data provide the first direct evidence that CsAPNs participate in the mode of Cry1Ab action and may act as the functional receptor of Cry1A in C. suppressalis larvae.

  7. Identification of alanyl aminopeptidase (CD13) as a surface marker for isolation of mature gastric zymogenic chief cells

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Benjamin D.; Jin, Ramon U.; Osaki, Luciana; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Noto, Jennifer; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Injury and inflammation in the gastric epithelium can cause disruption of the pathways that guide the differentiation of cell lineages, which in turn can cause persistent alterations in differentiation patterns, known as metaplasia. Metaplasia that occurs in the stomach is associated with increased risk for cancer. Methods for isolating distinct gastric epithelial cell populations would facilitate dissection of the molecular and cellular pathways that guide normal and metaplastic differentiation. Here, we identify alanyl aminopeptidase (CD13) as a specific surface marker of zymogenic chief cells (ZCs) in the gastric epithelium. We show that 1) among gastric epithelial cells alanyl aminopeptidase expression is confined to mature ZCs, and 2) its expression is lost en route to metaplasia in both mouse and human stomachs. With this new marker coupled with new techniques that we introduce for dissociating gastric epithelial cells and overcoming their constitutive autofluorescence, we are able to reliably isolate enriched populations of ZCs for both molecular analysis and for the establishment of ZC-derived ex vivo gastroid cultures. PMID:26514774

  8. Specific nonpeptide inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase with a 2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Hiroki; Tanatani, Aya; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2003-11-01

    Potent, specific, chemically stable and non-peptide/small-molecular inhibitors of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, such as 3-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione (PAQ-22, 5), were prepared by the structural development of a potent PSA inhibitor, 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1,3-dione (PIQ-22, 4). The design was carried out partly by applying electrostatic potential field information obtained from PIQ-22 (4) and its derivatives based on thalidomide (2). This information revealed that a positive electrostatic potential field around the benzylic methylene in the tetrahydroisoquinoline ring is necessary for potent activity. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that PAQ-22 (5) and its derivatives inhibit puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) in a non-competitive manner. These potent and specific PSA inhibitors showed dose-dependent cell invasion-inhibitory activity in a Matrigel assay using mouse melanoma B16F10/L5 cells, in spite of their low cell toxicity.

  9. Aminopeptidase B from the rat testis is a bifunctional enzyme structurally related to leukotriene-A4 hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Cadel, Sandrine; Foulon, Thierry; Viron, Annie; Balogh, Agnès; Midol-Monnet, Stéphanie; Noël, Nadine; Cohen, Paul

    1997-01-01

    An aminopeptidase B (Ap-B) was previously purified to homogeneity from rat testis extracts and characterized. In the present work, by using oligonucleotides selected on the basis of partial amino acid microsequences of pure Ap-B and PCR techniques, the nucleotide sequence of a 2.2-kb cDNA was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to a 648-residue protein (72.3 kDa) containing the canonical “HEXXHX18E” signature, which allowed its classification as a member of the M1 family of metallopeptidases. It exhibits 33% identity and 48% similarity with leukotriene-A4 hydrolase, a relation further supported by the capacity of Ap-B to hydrolyze leukotriene A4. Both enzymes also were closely related to a partially sequenced protein from Dictyostelium discoideum, which might constitute the putative common ancestor of either aminopeptidase or epoxide hydrolase, or both. Ap-B and its mRNA were detected in the germ line and in the Sertoli and peritubular cells of the seminiferous tubules. Because the enzyme was found in the medium conditioned by spermatocytes and spermatids and in the acrosome during spermatozoa formation, together these observations suggested an involvement of this exometallopeptidase in the secretory pathway. It is concluded that this ubiquitous enzyme may be involved in multiple processing mechanisms. PMID:9096329

  10. Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

    PubMed

    Graves, Patricia M; Gelband, Hellen; Garner, Paul

    2012-09-12

    Mosquitoes become infected with malaria when they ingest gametocyte stages of the parasite from the blood of a human host. Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are sensitive to the drug primaquine (PQ). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends giving a single dose or short course of PQ alongside primary treatment for people ill with P. falciparum infection to reduce malaria transmission. Gametocytes themselves cause no symptoms, so this intervention does not directly benefit individuals. PQ causes haemolysis in some people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency so may not be safe.   To assess whether a single dose or short course of PQ added to treatments for malaria caused by P. falciparum infection reduces malaria transmission and is safe. We searched the following databases up to 10 April 2012 for studies: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the WHO trials search portal using 'malaria*', 'falciparum', and 'primaquine' as search terms. In addition, we searched conference proceedings and reference lists of included studies, and we contacted likely researchers and organizations for relevant trials. Trials of mass treatment of whole populations (or actively detected fever or malaria cases within such populations) with antimalarial drugs, compared to treatment with the same drug plus PQ; or patients with clinical malaria being treated for malaria at health facilities randomized to short course/single dose PQ versus no PQ. Two authors (PMG and HG) independently screened all abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and abstracted data. We sought data on the effect of PQ on malaria transmission intensity, participant infectiousness, the number of participants with gametocytes, and gametocyte density over time. We stratified results by primary treatment drug as

  11. Corticotropin releasing factor up-regulates the expression and function of norepinephrine transporter in SK-N-BE (2) M17 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Tufan, Turan; Deng, Maoxian; Wright, Gary; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been implicated to act as a neurotransmitter or modulator in central nervous activation during stress. In this study, we examined the regulatory effect of CRF on the expression and function of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in vitro. SK-N-BE (2) M17 cells were exposed to different concentrations of CRF for different periods. Results showed that exposure of cells to CRF significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of NET in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The CRF-induced increase in NET expression was mimicked by agonists of either CRF receptor 1 or 2. Furthermore, similar CRF treatments induced a parallel increase in the uptake of [(3) H] norepinephrine. Both increased expression and function of NET caused by CRF were abolished by simultaneous administration of CRF receptor antagonists, indicating a mediation by CRF receptors. However, there was no additive effect for the combination of both receptor antagonists. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm an increased acetylation of histone H3 on the NET promoter following treatment with CRF. Taken together, this study demonstrates that CRF up-regulates the expression and function of NET in vitro. This regulation is mediated through CRF receptors and an epigenetic mechanism related to histone acetylation may be involved. This CRF-induced regulation on NET expression and function may play a role in development of stress-related depression and anxiety. This study demonstrated that corticotropin release factor (CRF) up-regulated the expression and function of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, through activation of CRF receptors and possible histone acetylation in NET promoter. The results indicate that their interaction may play an important role in stress-related physiological and pathological status.

  12. Leuhistin, a new inhibitor of aminopeptidase M, produced by Bacillus laterosporus BMI156-14F1. II. Structure determination of leuhistin.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Naganawa, H; Aoyagi, T; Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, Y; Kodama, Y

    1991-06-01

    Leuhistin, a new inhibitor of aminopeptidase M, has been isolated from the culture broth of Bacillus laterosporus BMI156-14F1. The structure of leuhistin was determined by NMR studies. X-Ray and chemical analysis confirmed the absolute structure to be (2R,3S)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-5-methylhe xanoic acid.

  13. Unlinked genetic loci control the reduced transcription of aminopeptidase N 1 and 3 in the European corn borer and determine tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crystalline (Cry) toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control insect feeding damage on crop plants via foliar applications or by expression within transgenic plants, but continued Bt use is threatened by the buildup of insect resistance traits. Aminopeptidase N (apn) gene family members encode m...

  14. Secretory vesicle aminopeptidase B related to neuropeptide processing: molecular identification and subcellular localization to enkephalin- and NPY-containing chromaffin granules.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; O'Neill, Audrey; Bark, Steven; Foulon, Thierry; Hook, Vivian

    2007-03-01

    Biosynthesis of peptide hormones and neurotransmittters involves proteolysis of proprotein precursors by secretory vesicle cathepsin L. Cathepsin L generates peptide intermediates with basic residues at their NH(2)-termini, indicating that Arg/Lys aminopeptidase is needed to generate the smaller biologically active peptide. Therefore, this study identified the Arg/Lys aminopeptidase that is present in secretory vesicles of adrenal medulla and neuroendocrine tissues, achieved by molecular cloning and localization in 'model' neuropeptide-containing secretory vesicles (bovine). Molecular cloning of the bovine aminopeptidase B (AP-B) cDNA defined its primary sequence that allowed selection of antisera for immunolocalization studies. AP-B was present in secretory vesicles that contain cathepsin L with the neuropeptides enkephalin and neuropeptide Y. The AP-B in several neuroendocrine tissues was detected by western blots. Recombinant bovine AP-B showed preference for Arg-methylcoumarinamide substrate. AP-B was inhibited by arphamenine, an inhibitor of aminopeptidases. Bovine AP-B showed similar activities for Arg-(Met)enkephalin (ME) and Lys-ME neuropeptide substrates to generate ME, while rat AP-B preferred Arg-ME. Furthermore, AP-B possesses an acidic pH optimum of 5.5-6.5 that is similar to the internal pH of secretory vesicles. The significant finding of the secretory vesicle localization of AP-B with neuropeptides and cathepsin L suggests a role for this exopeptidase in the biosynthesis of neuropeptides.

  15. Molecular characterization and RNA interference of three midgut aminopeptidase N isozymes from bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer diatraea saccharalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) proteins located at the midgut epithelium of some lepidopterous species have been implicated as receptors for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. cDNAs of three APN isoforms, DsAPN1, DsAPN2, and DsAPN3, from Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-...

  16. Novel role of aminopeptidase-A in angiotensin-(1–7) metabolism post myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Alghamri, Mahmoud S.; Meszaros, J. Gary; Elased, Khalid M.; Grobe, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    Aminopeptidase-A (APA) is a less well-studied enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system. We propose that it is involved in cardiac angiotensin (ANG) metabolism and its pathologies. ANG-(1–7) can ameliorate remodeling after myocardial injury. The aims of this study are to 1) develop mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for the assessment of ANG processing by APA within the myocardium; and 2) investigate the role of APA in cardiac ANG-(1–7) metabolism after myocardial infarction (MI) using sensitive MS techniques. MI was induced in C57Bl/6 male mice by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Frozen mouse heart sections (in situ assay) or myocardial homogenates (in vitro assay) were incubated with the endogenous APA substrate, ANG II. Results showed concentration- and time-dependent cardiac formation of ANG III from ANG II, which was inhibited by the specific APA inhibitor, 4-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid. Myocardial APA activity was significantly increased 24 h after LAD ligation (0.82 ± 0.02 vs. 0.32 ± 0.02 ρmol·min−1·μg−1, MI vs. sham, P < 0.01). Both MS enzyme assays identified the presence of a new peptide, ANG-(2–7), m/z 784, which accumulated in the MI (146.45 ± 6.4 vs. 72.96 ± 7.0%, MI vs. sham, P < 0.05). Use of recombinant APA enzyme revealed that APA is responsible for ANG-(2–7) formation from ANG-(1–7). APA exhibited similar substrate affinity for ANG-(1–7) compared with ANG II {Km (ANG II) = 14.67 ± 1.6 vs. Km [ANG-(1–7)] = 6.07 ± 1.12 μmol/l, P < 0.05}. Results demonstrate a novel role of APA in ANG-(1–7) metabolism and suggest that the upregulation of APA, which occurs after MI, may deprive the heart of cardioprotective ANG-(1–7). Thus APA may serve as a potentially novel therapeutic target for management of tissue remodeling after MI. PMID:24464749

  17. Influence of bestatin, an inhibitor of aminopeptidases, on T and B lymphocyte subsets in mice.

    PubMed

    Lis, M; Szczypka, M; Suszko, A; Obmińska-Mrukowicz, B

    2011-01-01

    Bestatin, a low-molecular weight dipeptide, is a potent inhibitor of aminopeptidase N which has been demonstrated to have antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. The effects of bestatin (10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally once, five or ten times to mice on the total number of lymphocytes in the thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes and the percentage and the absolute number of T cell subsets (CD4+CD8+, CD4-CD8-, CD4+, CD8+) in the thymus and T (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were studied. It has been found that bestatin administered ten times at doses of 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg increased the total number of thymocytes, splenocytes and lymphocytes of mesenteric lymph nodes. Bestatin also changed the percentage and the absolute number of T cell subsets in the thymus and T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphatic organs. Five and ten exposures to bestatin (10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg) increased the absolute count of both immature CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8- thymic cells. Moreover, both a single and multiple administration of bestatin (1 and 0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage and absolute count of CD3+ splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells with corresponding decreases in the percentage and absolute count of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Both a single and multiple administration of bestatin at all the doses under investigation augmented the percentage and the absolute count of CD19+ (B lymphocytes) in the peripheral lymphatic organs. The results of the study show that there is a relationship between the effect induced by bestatin and the dose of the drug as well as the number of doses applied. The strongest effect on the T and B lymphocyte subsets was noted after five injections of bestatin at doses of 1 and 0.1 mg/kg.

  18. Molecular structure of leucine aminopeptidase at 2.7-A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Burley, S K; David, P R; Taylor, A; Lipscomb, W N

    1990-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) complexed with bestatin, a slow-binding inhibitor, has been solved to 3.0-A resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement method with phase combination and density modification. In addition, the structure of the isomorphous native enzyme has been refined at 2.7-A resolution, and the current crystallographic R factor is 0.169 for a model that includes the two zinc ions and all 487 amino acid residues comprising the asymmetric unit. The enzyme is physiologically active as a hexamer, which has 32 symmetry and is triangular in shape with a triangle edge length of 115 A and maximal thickness of 90 A. The monomers are crystallographically equivalent and each is folded into two unequal alpha/beta domains connected by an alpha-helix to give a comma-like shape with approximate maximal dimensions of 90 x 55 x 55 A3. The secondary structural composition is 40% alpha-helix and 19% beta-strand. The N-terminal domain (160 amino acids) mediates trimer-trimer interactions and does not appear to participate directly in catalysis. The C-terminal domain (327 amino acids) is responsible for catalysis and binds the two zinc ions, which are 2.88 A apart. The pair of metal ions is located near the edge of an eight-stranded, saddle-shaped beta-sheet. One zinc ion is coordinated by carboxylate oxygen atoms of Asp-255, Asp-332, and Glu-334 and the carbonyl oxygen of Asp-332. The other zinc ion is coordinated by the carboxylate oxygen atoms of Asp-255, Asp-273, and Glu-334. The active site also contains two positively charged residues, Lys-250 and Arg-336. The six active sites are themselves located in the interior of the hexamer, where they line a disk-shaped cavity of radius 15 A and thickness 10 A. Access to this cavity is provided by solvent channels that run along the twofold symmetry axes. Images PMID:2395881

  19. Intrarenal aminopeptidase N inhibition restores defective angiontesin II type 2-mediated natriuresis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shetal H; Howell, Nancy L; Kemp, Brandon A; Fournie-Zaluski, Marie-Claude; Roques, Bernard P; Carey, Robert M

    2010-02-01

    The preferred ligand of angiotensin (Ang) II type 2 (AT(2)R)-mediated natriuresis is Ang III. The major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of Ang III is aminopeptidase N, which is selectively inhibited by compound PC-18. In this study, urine sodium excretion rates (U(Na)V), fractional excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of lithium, glomerular filtration rate, and mean arterial pressures were studied in prehypertensive and hypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Although renal interstitial infusion of Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan increased U(Na)V in WKYs from a baseline of 0.05+/-0.01 to 0.17+/-0.04 micromol/min (P<0.01), identical infusions failed to increase U(Na)V in hypertensive SHRs. Coinfusion of AT(2)R antagonist PD-123319 abolished the natriuretic responses to candesartan in WKYs, indicating an AT(2)R-mediated effect. AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis was enabled in hypertensive SHRs by inhibiting the metabolism of Ang III with PC-18 (0.05+/-0.01 to 0.11+/-0.03 micromol/min; P<0.05). The defects in sodium excretion were present before the onset of hypertension in SHRs, because young WKYs demonstrated double the U(Na)V of SHRs (0.04+/-0.006 versus 0.02+/-0.003 micromol/min; P<0.01) at baseline. The increased U(Na)V of young WKYs was attributed to reduced renal proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, because increases in fractional excretion of sodium were paralleled by increases in fractional excretion of lithium. Renal interstitial PC-18 infusion ameliorated defective AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis in young SHRs by increasing fractional excretion of sodium and fractional excretion of lithium without changing the glomerular filtration rate. Thus, increased renal proximal tubule sodium retention is observed before the onset of hypertension in SHRs, and inhibition of the metabolism of Ang III ameliorates this pathophysiologic defect in sodium excretion.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of the Neutral Leucine Aminopeptidase (LapN) of Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chao-Jung; Park, Sang-Youl; Walling, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) express two forms of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP-A and LAP-N) and two LAP-like proteins. The relatedness of LAP-N and LAP-A was determined using affinity-purified antibodies to four LAP-A protein domains. Antibodies to epitopes in the most N-terminal region were able to discriminate between LAP-A and LAP-N, whereas antibodies recognizing central and COOH-terminal regions recognized both LAP polypeptides. Two-dimensional immunoblots showed that LAP-N and the LAP-like proteins were detected in all vegetative (leaves, stems, roots, and cotyledons) and reproductive (pistils, sepals, petals, stamens, and floral buds) organs examined, whereas LAP-A exhibited a distinct expression program. LapN was a single-copy gene encoding a rare-class transcript. A full-length LapN cDNA clone was isolated, and the deduced sequence had 77% peptide sequence identity with the wound-induced LAP-A. Comparison of LAP-N with other plant LAPs identified 28 signature residues that classified LAP proteins as LAP-N or LAP-A like. Overexpression of a His6-LAP-N fusion protein in Escherichia coli demonstrated distinct differences in His6-LAP-N and His6-LAP-A activities. Similar to LapA, the LapN RNA encoded a precursor protein with a molecular mass of 60 kD. The 5-kD presequence had features similar to plastid transit peptides, and processing of the LAP-N presequence could generate the mature 55-kD LAP-N. Unlike LapA, the LapN transcript contained a second in-frame ATG, and utilization of this potential initiation codon would yield a 55-kD LAP-N protein. The localization of LAP-N could be controlled by the balance of translational initiation site utilization and LAP-N preprotein processing. PMID:12746529

  1. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma and effect of dilution rate on rabbit reproductive performance after insemination with an extender supplemented with buserelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Viudes-de-Castro, M P; Mocé, E; Lavara, R; Marco-Jiménez, F; Vicente, J S

    2014-06-01

    Ovulation induction in artificially inseminated rabbits by adding GnRH synthetic analogues in the seminal doses is a welfare-orientated method to induce ovulation in rabbits and could have some advantages in field practice. This study was conducted to determine the effect of male genotype on the aminopeptidase activity in rabbit seminal plasma and the effects of dilution rate of semen on availability and reproductive performance when buserelin acetate is added to the seminal dose. To study the aminopeptidase activity, 12 mature bucks belonging to a paternal line and 12 from a maternal line were used. The bucks from the paternal line were used to study the effect of dilution rate on the availability of buserelin acetate after 2 hours of dilution and on the reproductive performance of the doses after artificial insemination of 389 commercial crossbreed does. Aminopeptidase activity in seminal plasma is dependent on the male genotype. The paternal line resulted 27% more aminopeptidase activity than the maternal line (P < 0.05). On the other hand, semen diluted 1:20 exhibited a marked increase in the availability of buserelin acetate and the fertility in this group was significantly higher than females from dilution rate 1:5 group, which showed similar results to that of the negative control group (does inseminated with semen diluted 1:20 in non-GnRH-supplemented extender). We conclude that the bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases and is consequently affected by the dilution rate used to prepare the artificial insemination doses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum accompanied the human expansion out of Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Mita, Toshihiro; Jombart, Thibaut; Eriksson, Anders; Horibe, Shun; Palacpac, Nirianne; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Sawai, Hiromi; Sakihama, Naoko; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Escalante, Ananias A; Prugnolle, Franck; Björkman, Anders; Färnert, Anna; Kaneko, Akira; Horii, Toshihiro; Manica, Andrea; Kishino, Hirohisa; Balloux, Francois

    2010-07-27

    Plasmodium falciparum is distributed throughout the tropics and is responsible for an estimated 230 million cases of malaria every year, with a further 1.4 billion people at risk of infection. Little is known about the genetic makeup of P. falciparum populations, despite variation in genetic diversity being a key factor in morbidity, mortality, and the success of malaria control initiatives. Here we analyze a worldwide sample of 519 P. falciparum isolates sequenced for two housekeeping genes (63 single nucleotide polymorphisms from around 5000 nucleotides per isolate). We observe a strong negative correlation between within-population genetic diversity and geographic distance from sub-Saharan Africa (R(2) = 0.95) over Africa, Asia, and Oceania. In contrast, regional variation in transmission intensity seems to have had a negligible impact on the distribution of genetic diversity. The striking geographic patterns of isolation by distance observed in P. falciparum mirror the ones previously documented in humans and point to a joint sub-Saharan African origin between the parasite and its host. Age estimates for the expansion of P. falciparum further support that anatomically modern humans were infected prior to their exit out of Africa and carried the parasite along during their colonization of the world. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A systematic map of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Kidgell, Claire; Volkman, Sarah K; Daily, Johanna; Borevitz, Justin O; Plouffe, David; Zhou, Yingyao; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Le Roch, Karine; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Batalov, Serge; Wirth, Dyann F; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2006-06-01

    Discovering novel genes involved in immune evasion and drug resistance in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is of critical importance to global health. Such knowledge may assist in the development of new effective vaccines and in the appropriate use of antimalarial drugs. By performing a full-genome scan of allelic variability in 14 field and laboratory strains of P. falciparum, we comprehensively identified approximately 500 genes evolving at higher than neutral rates. The majority of the most variable genes have paralogs within the P. falciparum genome and may be subject to a different evolutionary clock than those without. The group of 211 variable genes without paralogs contains most known immunogens and a few drug targets, consistent with the idea that the human immune system and drug use is driving parasite evolution. We also reveal gene-amplification events including one surrounding pfmdr1, the P. falciparum multidrug-resistance gene, and a previously uncharacterized amplification centered around the P. falciparum GTP cyclohydrolase gene, the first enzyme in the folate biosynthesis pathway. Although GTP cyclohydrolase is not the known target of any current drugs, downstream members of the pathway are targeted by several widely used antimalarials. We speculate that an amplification of the GTP cyclohydrolase enzyme in the folate biosynthesis pathway may increase flux through this pathway and facilitate parasite resistance to antifolate drugs.

  4. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hyde, John E

    2005-06-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, the antifolates have the best defined molecular targets, namely the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which function in the folate metabolic pathway. The products of this pathway, reduced folate cofactors, are essential for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of certain amino acids. Moreover, their formation and interconversions involve a number of other enzymes that have not as yet been exploited as drug targets. Antifolates are of major importance as they currently represent the only inexpensive regime for combating chloroquine-resistant malaria, and are now first-line drugs in a number of African countries. Aspects of our understanding of this pathway and antifolate drug resistance are reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on approaches to analysing the details of, and balance between, folate biosynthesis by the parasite and salvage of pre-formed folate from exogenous sources.

  5. Glutamyl aminopeptidase in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Andrés; Segarra, Ana Belén; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; de Gracia, María Del Carmen; Osuna, Antonio; O'Valle, Francisco; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Vargas, Félix; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the content of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAp) in microvesicular and exosomal fractions of urine is related with renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Urine samples were collected 24 hours after injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg, n = 10) or saline serum (n = 10), and they were subjected to differential centrifugation at 1.000, 17.000 and 200.000 g to obtain microvesicular and exosomal fractions. GluAp was measured with a commercial ELISA kit in both fractions. Serum creatinine (SCr) and body weight were measured 15 days after treatment. We analyzed if early excretion of GluAp in microsomal and exosomal fractions was correlated with final SCr and body weight increase. In a second experiment, enzymatic activities of GluAp and alanyl aminopeptidase (AlaAp) in urine, microvesicular and exosomal fractions were measured three days after injection. We analyzed the correlation of both markers with SCr determined at this point. Finally, we studied the expression of GluAp and extracellular vesicles markers Alix and tumor susceptibility gene (TSG101) in both fractions by immunoblotting. GluAp excretion was increased in all fractions of urine after cisplatin treatment, even if data were normalized per mg of creatinine, per body weight or per total protein content of each fraction. We found significant predictive correlations with SCr concentration, and inverse correlations with body weight increase determined 15 days later. Three days after injection, aminopeptidasic activities were markedly increased in all fractions of urine in cisplatin-treated rats. The highest correlation coefficient with SCr was found for GluAp in microvesicular fraction. Increase of GluAp in microvesicular and exosomal fractions from cisplatin-treated rats was confirmed by immunoblotting. Alix and TSG101 showed different patterns of expression in each fraction. Determination of GluAp content or its enzymatic activity in microvesicular and exosomal

  6. Plasmodium falciparum: growth response to potassium channel blocking compounds.

    PubMed

    Waller, Karena L; Kim, Kami; McDonald, Thomas V

    2008-11-01

    Potassium channels are essential for cell survival and regulate the cell membrane potential and electrochemical gradient. During its lifecycle, Plasmodium falciparum parasites must rapidly adapt to dramatically variant ionic conditions within the mosquito mid-gut, the hepatocyte and red blood cell (RBC) cytosols, and the human circulatory system. To probe the participation of K(+) channels in parasite viability, growth response assays were performed in which asexual stage P. falciparum parasites were cultured in the presence of various Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds. These data describe the novel anti-malarial effects of bicuculline methiodide and tubocurarine chloride and the novel lack of effect of apamine and verruculogen. Taken together, the data herein imply the presence of K(+) channels, or other parasite-specific targets, in P. falciparum-infected RBCs that are sensitive to blockade with Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocking compounds.

  7. Multiple independent introductions of Plasmodium falciparum in South America

    PubMed Central

    Yalcindag, Erhan; Elguero, Eric; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Akiana, Jean; Anderson, Timothy J.; Aubouy, Agnes; Balloux, François; Besnard, Patrick; Bogreau, Hervé; Carnevale, Pierre; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Fontenille, Didier; Gamboa, Dionicia; Jombart, Thibaut; Le Mire, Jacques; Leroy, Eric; Maestre, Amanda; Mayxay, Mayfong; Ménard, Didier; Musset, Lise; Newton, Paul N.; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Noya, Oscar; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rogier, Christophe; Veron, Vincent; Wide, Albina; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Carme, Bernard; Legrand, Eric; Chevillon, Christine; Ayala, Francisco J.; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Plasmodium falciparum in South America is controversial. Some studies suggest a recent introduction during the European colonizations and the transatlantic slave trade. Other evidence—archeological and genetic—suggests a much older origin. We collected and analyzed P. falciparum isolates from different regions of the world, encompassing the distribution range of the parasite, including populations from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and South America. Analyses of microsatellite and SNP polymorphisms show that the populations of P. falciparum in South America are subdivided in two main genetic clusters (northern and southern). Phylogenetic analyses, as well as Approximate Bayesian Computation methods suggest independent introductions of the two clusters from African sources. Our estimates of divergence time between the South American populations and their likely sources favor a likely introduction from Africa during the transatlantic slave trade. PMID:22203975

  8. A CATALOG OF CH{sub 3}OH 7{sub 0}-6{sub 1} A {sup +} MASER SOURCES IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. II. MASERS IN NGC 6334F, G8.67-0.36, AND M17

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Laura; Luis, Leticia; Hernandez-Curiel, Idalia; Kurtz, Stan E.; Hofner, Peter; Araya, Esteban D.

    2010-12-15

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the 7{sub 0}-6{sub 1} A {sup +} methanol maser transition at 44 GHz toward NGC 6334F, G8.67-0.36, and M17. These arcsecond resolution observations complete a previous, larger VLA survey of this maser transition in high-mass, star-forming regions reported by Kurtz et al. We confirm the presence of 44 GHz methanol maser emission in all 3 sources, detecting 8 distinct maser components in NGC 6334F, 12 components in G8.67-0.36, and 1 in M17.

  9. [P. falciparum malaria related with travel: four cases].

    PubMed

    Güven, Tümer; Eser, Fatma Civelek; Yılmaz, Gül R; Güner, Rahmet; Taşyaran, Mehmet A

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is still an important public health problem in the world. Although the number of malaria cases in Turkey has been declining in recent years, the febrile patients with a history of travel to the endemic regions should raise the suspicion of malaria. P. vivax is the most common cause of malaria in Turkey; and those caused by other Plasmodium spp. are imported cases. Since P. falciparum malaria may cause fatal complications, urgent therapy is necessary. We hereby report four falciparum malaria cases with a history of travel to Sudan and Uganda.

  10. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Parasite Survival in P. Falciparum Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-26

    falciparum. Nature 315, 347-350. 3. Van der Ploeg, L.H.T., Smits, M., Ponnudurai, T., Vermeulen, A., Meuwissen, LH.E.T., and Langsley , G . (1985...prepared by the Plasmodium cynomolgi complex Cell 48. 311-319 method of ",an der Ploeg et at (1984) Total genomic DNA was briefly Goman, M , Langsley , G ...an erythrocyte receptor Meuwissen, J H E T, and Langsley , G (1985). Chromosome-sized binding protein of P falciparum Cell 44, 689-696 DNA molecules

  11. Ivermectin inhibits the sporogony of Plasmodium falciparum in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When ingested in a blood meal, ivermectin has been shown to reduce the survivorship of Anopheles gambiae in the laboratory and field. Furthermore, ivermectin mass drug administrations in Senegal have been shown to reduce the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum-sporozoite-containing An. gambiae. This study addresses whether ivermectin inhibits sporogony of P. falciparum in An. gambiae. Methods Anophele gambiae s.s. G3 strain were fed two concentrations of ivermectin (LC25 and LC5) along with P. falciparum NF54 in human blood meals at staggered intervals. Mosquitoes ingested ivermectin concurrent with parasites (DPI 0), or at three (DPI 3), six (DPI 6), and nine (DPI 9) days post parasite ingestion, or three days prior (DPI −3) to parasite ingestion. Mosquitoes were dissected at seven, twelve or fourteen days post parasite ingestion and either oocyst or sporozoite prevalence was recorded. To determine if P. falciparum sporozoite-containing An. gambiae were more susceptible to ivermectin than uninfected controls, survivorship was recorded for mosquitoes which ingested P. falciparum or control blood meal on DPI 0 and then a second blood meal containing ivermectin (LC25) on DPI 14. Results Ivermectin (LC25) co-ingested (DPI 0) with parasites reduced the proportion of An. gambiae that developed oocysts (χ2 = 15.4842, P = 0.0002) and sporozoites (χ2 = 19.9643, P < 0.0001). Ivermectin (LC25) ingested DPI 6 (χ2 = 8.5103, P = 0.0044) and 9 (χ2 = 14.7998, P < 0.0001) reduced the proportion of An. gambiae that developed sporozoites but not when ingested DPI 3 (χ2 = 0.0113, P = 1). Ivermectin (LC5) co-ingested (DPI 0) with parasites did not reduce the proportion of An. gambiae that developed oocysts (χ2 = 4.2518, P = 0.0577) or sporozoites (χ2 = 2.3636, P = 0.1540), however, when ingested DPI −3 the proportion of An. gambiae that developed sporozoites was reduced (χ2 = 8.4806, P = 0.0047). Plasmodium falciparum infection significantly reduced the

  12. Cobalt chloride-induced downregulation of puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase suppresses the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Hee; Kim, Hwan Gyu

    2009-05-01

    Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) treatment of cells in vitro has been shown to induce cellular changes that are similar to those seen following hypoxia. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in response to treatment with CoCl(2), we compared the mRNA expression profiles of PC-3 cells that were treated with CoCl(2) with those of untreated PC-3 cells, using specific arbitrary primers and two anchored oligo(dT) primers provided in the ACP-based GeneFishing kits. The results of this study demonstrated that the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) gene was downregulated in PC-3 cells that were treated with CoCl(2). This downregulation of PSA expression, in turn, suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of PC-3 cells, as well as the secretion and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9).

  13. Analyzing the binding of Co(II)-specific inhibitors to the methionyl aminopeptidases from Escherichia coli and Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sanghamitra; Sheppard, George; Wang, Jieyi; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2009-05-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) represent a unique class of protease that is capable of the hydrolytic removal of an N-terminal methionine residue from nascent polypeptide chains. MetAPs are physiologically important enzymes; hence, there is considerable interest in developing inhibitors that can be used as antiangiogenic and antimicrobial agents. A detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study has been performed to probe the binding of a triazole-based inhibitor and a bestatin-based inhibitor to both Mn(II)- and Co(II)-loaded type-I (Escherichia coli) and type-II (Pyrococcus furiosus) MetAPs. Both inhibitors were found to be moderate competitive inhibitors. The triazole-type inhibitor was found to interact with both active-site metal ions, while the bestatin-type inhibitor was capable of switching its mode of binding depending on the metal in the active site and the type of MetAP enzyme.

  14. Residues threonine 346 and leucine 352 are critical for the proper function of Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Chi, Meng-Chun; Huang, Hsien-Ben; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Liang, Wan-Chi; Lin, Long-Liu

    2006-07-01

    The importance of Thr-346 and Leu-352 residues in Bacillus kaustophilus leucine aminopeptidase (BkLAP) was explored by site-directed mutagenesis. The impact of substitutions at these positions was evaluated with His6-BkLAP fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Substitution of Thr-346 with Tyr, Arg, and Leu, respectively, resulted in a dramatic reduction in LAP activity. A complete loss of activity was observed in L352E and L352R variants with the exception of L352 V, which retained approximately 60% of the wild-type activity. Zinc content analysis and protein modeling suggested that Thr-346 and Leu-352 of BkLAP play a role in maintaining the coordination environment for the zinc-binding residues.

  15. Identification of the molecular basis of inhibitor selectivity between the human and streptococcal type I methionine aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Arya, Tarun; Reddi, Ravikumar; Kishor, Chandan; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Bhukya, Supriya; Gumpena, Rajesh; McGowan, Sheena; Drag, Marcin; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2015-03-12

    The methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) family is responsible for the cleavage of the initiator methionine from newly synthesized proteins. Currently, there are no small molecule inhibitors that show selectivity toward the bacterial MetAPs compared to the human enzyme. In our current study, we have screened 20 α-aminophosphonate derivatives and identified a molecule (compound 15) that selectively inhibits the S. pneumonia MetAP in low micromolar range but not the human enzyme. Further bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural analyses suggested that phenylalanine (F309) in the human enzyme and methionine (M205) in the S. pneumonia MetAP at the analogous position render them with different susceptibilities against the identified inhibitor. X-ray crystal structures of various inhibitors in complex with wild type and F309M enzyme further established the molecular basis for the inhibitor selectivity.

  16. X-Prolyl-Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: Characterization of the Enzyme and Isolation of Deficient Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Atlan, Danièle; Laloi, Patrick; Portalier, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 is able to hydrolyze X-proline-para-nitroanilides and X-proline-β-naphthylamides (X for alanyl- or glycyl-). A single metal-independent cytoplasmic enzyme with a molecular weight estimated to be 82,000 is responsible for these activities and was named X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-Pro-DPAP). Isolation and analysis of mutants totally deficient for X-Pro-DPAP activity showed that a total lack of this enzyme induces (i) a decrease in the growth rate; (ii) an increase in cell wall proteinase activity; (iii) the loss of three cell wall proteins with respective molecular masses of 16, 40, and 52 kilodaltons; and (iv) enhancement of a cell wall protein with a molecular mass of 150 kilodaltons. The involvement of X-Pro-DPAP in casein catabolism is discussed. Images PMID:16348239

  17. Expression of Membrane-Bound Human AminopeptidaseP as a Soluble Enzyme and an Investigation into Its Efficacy Towards Offering Protection Against the Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    histidine tag was also introduced in frame immediately before the stop codon. The PCR product was initially cloned into the expression plasmid pCMV 6...114-6. 13. Sprinkle, T.J., C. Caldwell, and J.W. Ryan, Cloning , chromosomal sublocalization of the human soluble aminopeptidase P gene (XPNPEP1...14. Venema, R.C., et al., Cloning and tissue distribution of human membrane-bound aminopeptidase P. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1997. 1354(1): p. 45-8

  18. Crystal structure of the leucine aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas putida reveals the molecular basis for its enantioselectivity and broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Kale, Avinash; Pijning, Tjaard; Sonke, Theo; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H

    2010-05-21

    The zinc-dependent leucine aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas putida (ppLAP) is an important enzyme for the industrial production of enantiomerically pure amino acids. To provide a better understanding of its structure-function relationships, the enzyme was studied by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structures of native ppLAP at pH 9.5 and pH 5.2, and in complex with the inhibitor bestatin, show that the overall folding and hexameric organization of ppLAP are very similar to those of the closely related di-zinc leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) from bovine lens and Escherichia coli. At pH 9.5, the active site contains two metal ions, one identified as Mn(2+) or Zn(2+) (site 1), and the other as Zn(2+) (site 2). By using a metal-dependent activity assay it was shown that site 1 in heterologously expressed ppLAP is occupied mainly by Mn(2+). Moreover, it was shown that Mn(2+) has a significant activation effect when bound to site 1 of ppLAP. At pH 5.2, the active site of ppLAP is highly disordered and the two metal ions are absent, most probably due to full protonation of one of the metal-interacting residues, Lys267, explaining why ppLAP is inactive at low pH. A structural comparison of the ppLAP-bestatin complex with inhibitor-bound complexes of bovine lens LAP, along with substrate modelling, gave clear and new insights into its substrate specificity and high level of enantioselectivity.

  19. In Situ Ratiometric Quantitative Tracing of Intracellular Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity via an Activatable Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaizhi; Liu, Yajing; Guo, Zhiqian; Lian, Cheng; Yan, Chenxu; Shi, Ping; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2016-10-03

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), one of the important proteolytic enzymes, is intertwined with the progress of many pathological disorders as a well-defined biomarker. To explore fluorescent aminopeptidase probe for quantitative detection of LAP distribution and dynamic changes, herein we report a LAP-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (DCM-Leu) for ratiometric quantitative trapping of LAP activity in different kinds of living cells. DCM-Leu is composed of a NIR-emitting fluorophore (DCM) as a reporter and l-leucine as a triggered moiety, which are linked together by an amide bond specific for LAP cleavage. High contrast on the ratiometric NIR fluorescence signal can be achieved in response to LAP activity, thus enabling quantification of endogenous LAP with "build-in calibration" as well as minimal background interference. Its ratiometric NIR signal can be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by bestatin, an LAP inhibitor, indicating that the alteration of endogenous LAP activity results in these obviously fluorescent signal responses. It is worth noting that DCM-Leu features striking characteristics such as a large Stokes shift (∼205 nm), superior selectivity, and strong photostability responding to LAP. Impressively, not only did we successfully exemplify DCM-Leu in situ ratiometric trapping and quantification of endogenous LAP activity in various types of living cells, but also, with the aid of three-dimensional confocal imaging, the intracellular LAP distribution is clearly observed from different perspectives for the first time, owing to the high signal-to-noise of ratiometric NIR fluorescent response. Collectively, these results demonstrate preclinical potential value of DCM-Leu serving as a useful NIR fluorescent probe for early detection of LAP-associated disease and screening inhibitor.

  20. Histidine 450 plays a critical role in catalysis and, with Ca2+, contributes to the substrate specificity of aminopeptidase A.

    PubMed

    Iturrioz, X; Vazeux, G; Célérier, J; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortès, C

    2000-03-21

    Aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7, APA) is a 130 kDa membrane-bound protease that contains the HEXXH consensus sequence found in the zinc metalloprotease family, the zincins. In addition to the catalytic zinc atom, APA contains a Ca2+ ion that increases its enzymatic activity. Aligning the sequences of the mouse APA, APN, and other monozinc aminopeptidases led to the identification of a conserved histidine (His 450 in mouse APA). Replacing this residue with a phenylalanine (Phe 450) by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in markedly lower levels of APA activity and in a change in the sensitivity of APA to Ca2+ (the EC50 for Ca2+ was 25 microM in the wild type and only 279 microM in the mutant). Kinetic studies, with a supramaximal Ca2+ concentration (4 mM), showed that the Km of the mutant enzyme for the substrate alpha-L-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide was 25 times higher than that of the wild type, whereas the kcat value was much lower (factor of 22). Thus, overall, the wild-type enzyme had a cleavage efficiency that was 571 times higher than that of the mutant. The inhibitory potencies of two different classes of inhibitors, a glutamate thiol and a glutamate phosphonate compound, were significantly lower (factors of 19 and 22, respectively) for the mutated enzyme than for the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, inhibition by lysine thiol was unaffected. These data strongly suggest that His 450 is critical for catalytic activity and is involved in substrate binding via interaction with the P1 carboxylate side chain of the substrate. Furthermore, His 450, together with Ca2+, may contribute to the substrate specificity of APA for N-terminal acidic amino acid residues.

  1. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Bielawski, Wieslaw

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  2. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Rick M.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2016-01-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins – the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) – the first-line treatments for malaria – are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in-vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in-vivo and in-vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance; identified its causal genetic determinant; explored its molecular mechanism; and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's ‘K13’ gene; is associated with an upregulated “unfolded protein response” pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins; and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent; test whether new combinations of currently-available drugs cure ACT failures; and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to Sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest. PMID:27337450

  3. Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-06-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins, the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)-the first-line treatments for malaria-are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in vivo and in vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance, identified its causal genetic determinant, explored its molecular mechanism, and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early-ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's K13 gene, is associated with an upregulated "unfolded protein response" pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins, and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent, test whether new combinations of currently available drugs cure ACT failures, and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest.

  4. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum glutaredoxin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Deponte, Marcel; Becker, Katja; Rahlfs, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Glutaredoxin-like proteins form a new subgroup of glutaredoxins with a serine replacing the second cysteine in the CxxC-motif of the active site. Yeast Grx5 is the only glutaredoxin-like protein studied biochemically so far. We identified and cloned three genes encoding glutaredoxin-like proteins from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf Glp1, Pf Glp2, and Pf Glp3) containing a conserved cysteine in the CGFS-, CKFS-, and CKYS-motif, respectively. Here, we describe biochemical properties of Pf Glp1 and Pf Glp2. Cys 99, the only cysteine residue in Pf Glp1, has a pK(a) value as low as 5.5 and is able to mediate covalent homodimerization. Monomeric and dimeric Pf Glp1 react with GSSG and GSH, respectively. Pf Glp2 is monomeric and both of its cysteine residues can be glutathionylated. Molecular models reveal a thioredoxin fold for the putative C-terminal domain of Pf Glp1, Pf Glp2, and Pf Glp3, as well as conserved residues presumably required for glutathione binding. However, Pf Glp1 and Pf Glp2 neither possess activity in a classical glutaredoxin assay nor display activity as glutathione peroxidase or glutathione S-transferase. Mutation of Ser 102 in the CGFS-motif of Pf Glp1 to cysteine did not generate glutaredoxin activity either. We conclude that, despite their ability to react with glutathione, glutaredoxin-like proteins are a mechanistically and functionally heterogeneous group with only little similarities to canonical glutaredoxins.

  6. Inhibition of aminopeptidases N, A and W. A re-evaluation of the actions of bestatin and inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tieku, S; Hooper, N M

    1992-11-03

    The effects of a range of metallopeptidase inhibitors on the activities of the porcine kidney cell surface zinc aminopeptidases, aminopeptidase A (AP-A; EC 3.4.11.2), aminopeptidase N (AP-N; EC 3.4.11.7) and aminopeptidase W (AP-W; EC 3.4.11.16), have been directly compared. Amastatin and probestin were effective against all three aminopeptidases, with the concentration of inhibitor required to cause 50% inhibition (I50) in the low micromolar range (I50 = 1.5-20 microM), except for probestin with AP-N which displayed an I50 of 50 nM. Actinonin failed to inhibit significantly either AP-A or AP-W, and thus can be considered a relatively selective inhibitor (I50 = 2.0 microM) of AP-N. In contrast, bestatin was a relatively poor inhibitor of AP-N (I50 = 89 microM) and failed to inhibit AP-A, but was more potent towards AP-W (I50 = 7.9 microM). Thus, some of the observed chemotherapeutic actions of bestatin may be due to inhibition of cell-surface AP-W. A number of other metallopeptidase inhibitors, including inhibitors of endopeptidase-24.11 (EC 3.4.24.11) and membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.11), and the carboxylalkyl and phosphoryl inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1) failed to inhibit significantly AP-A, AP-N or AP-W. However, AP-W was inhibited with I50 values in the micromolar range by the sulphydryl converting enzyme inhibitors rentiapril (I50 = 1.6 microM), zofenoprilat (I50 = 7.0 microM) and YS 980 (I50 = 17.7 microM). Neither AP-A nor AP-N were affected by these sulphydryl compounds. Inhibition of AP-W may account for some of the side effects noted with the clinical use of the sulphydryl converting enzyme inhibitors. The availability of compounds which are totally selective for AP-W over any of the other mammalian cell surface zinc aminopeptidases may aid in identifying endogenous substrates, and thus physiological or pathophysiological role(s) of AP-W.

  7. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin. PMID:20864995

  8. Identification and localization of a Novel Invasin of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hans, Nidhi; Relan, Udbhav; Dubey, Nneha; Gaur, Deepak; Chauhan, V S

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative organism for the most severe form of malaria among humans. The clinical symptoms are accredited to the asexual stage of parasite life cycle, involving merozoite invasion of erythrocyte, development and re-invasion into the new erythrocyte. Interaction of parasite proteins present on the surface or secreted from apical organelles with the host receptors is indispensable for the invasion process. Identification and elucidation of precise localization and function of these proteins will not only enhance our understanding of this process but will also aid in the progress of development of treatment strategies against malaria. Here we report the identification and localization of a novel protein, PfAEP (P. falciparum Apical Exonemal Protein) (PF3D7_1137200/ PF11_0383) which is conserved across Plasmodium species. Transcription and translation analysis have confirmed its expression in the schizont stage of P. falciparum. Super-resolution microscopy in schizonts and merozoites revealed its localization in the exonemes of P. falciparum.

  9. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tonhosolo, Renata; D'Alexandri, Fabio L.; de Rosso, Veridiana V.; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Matsumura, Miriam Y.; Peres, Valnice J.; Merino, Emilio F.; Carlton, Jane M.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Mercadante, Adriana Z.; Kimura, Emília A.; Katzin, Alejandro M.

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are widespread lipophilic pigments synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some nonphotosynthetic fungi and bacteria. All carotenoids are derived from the C40 isoprenoid precursor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and their chemical and physical properties are associated with light absorption, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activity. Carotenoids are generally synthesized in well defined subcellular organelles, the plastids, which are also present in the phylum Apicomplexa, which comprises a number of important human parasites, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Recently, it was demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii synthesizes abscisic acid. We therefore asked if Plasmodium falciparum is also capable of synthesizing carotenoids. Herein, biochemical findings demonstrated the presence of carotenoid biosynthesis in the intraerythrocytic stages of the apicomplexan parasite P. falciparum. Using metabolic labeling with radioisotopes, in vitro inhibition tests with norflurazon, a specific inhibitor of plant carotenoid biosynthesis, the results showed that intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum synthesize carotenoid compounds. A plasmodial enzyme that presented phytoene synthase activity was also identified and characterized. These findings not only contribute to the current understanding of P. falciparum evolution but shed light on a pathway that could serve as a chemotherapeutic target. PMID:19203994

  10. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium falciparum - Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    R. N., Harper, J. S. Ill, Davidson D. E. Jr., Escajadillo , A. and Christensen H. A. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infec- tions in Panamanian...CONTRACTS R. N. Rossan, Ph. D. D. C. Baerg, Ph. D. J. C. Harper, VMD A. Escajadillo , DVM H. A. Christensen, Ph. D L. Martinez F. Durham G. Ci

  11. Dissecting the role of glutathione biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Wong, Eleanor H; Müller, Sylke

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinyl-glycine, GSH) has vital functions as thiol redox buffer and cofactor of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. Plasmodium falciparum possesses a functional GSH biosynthesis pathway and contains mM concentrations of the tripeptide. It was impossible to delete in P. falciparum the genes encoding γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS) or glutathione synthetase (GS), the two enzymes synthesizing GSH, although both gene loci were not refractory to recombination. Our data show that the parasites cannot compensate for the loss of GSH biosynthesis via GSH uptake. This suggests an important if not essential function of GSH biosynthesis pathway for the parasites. Treatment with the irreversible inhibitor of γGCS L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) reduced intracellular GSH levels in P. falciparum and was lethal for their intra-erythrocytic development, corroborating the suggestion that GSH biosynthesis is important for parasite survival. Episomal expression of γgcs in P. falciparum increased tolerance to BSO attributable to increased levels of γGCS. Concomitantly expression of glutathione reductase was reduced leading to an increased GSH efflux. Together these data indicate that GSH levels are tightly regulated by a functional GSH biosynthesis and the reduction of GSSG. PMID:22151036

  12. Expression and characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum haemoglobinase falcipain-3.

    PubMed Central

    Sijwali, P S; Shenai, B R; Gut, J; Singh, A; Rosenthal, P J

    2001-01-01

    In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, erythrocytic trophozoites hydrolyse haemoglobin to provide amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Cysteine protease inhibitors block parasite haemoglobin hydrolysis and development, indicating that cysteine proteases are required for these processes. Three papain-family cysteine protease sequences have been identified in the P. falciparum genome, but the specific roles of their gene products and other plasmodial proteases in haemoglobin hydrolysis are uncertain. Falcipain-2 was recently identified as a principal trophozoite cysteine protease and potential drug target. The present study characterizes the related P. falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-3. As is the case with falcipain-2, falcipain-3 is expressed by trophozoites and appears to be located within the food vacuole, the site of haemoglobin hydrolysis. Both proteases require a reducing environment and acidic pH for optimal activity, and both prefer peptide substrates with leucine at the P(2) position. The proteases differ, however, in that falcipain-3 undergoes efficient processing to an active form only at acidic pH, is more active and stable at acidic pH, and has much lower specific activity against typical papain-family peptide substrates, but has greater activity against native haemoglobin. Thus falcipain-3 is a second P. falciparum haemoglobinase that is particularly suited for the hydrolysis of native haemoglobin in the acidic food vacuole. The redundancy of cysteine proteases may offer optimized hydrolysis of both native haemoglobin and globin peptides. Consideration of both proteases will be necessary to evaluate cysteine protease inhibitors as antimalarial drugs. PMID:11716777

  13. A genome-wide map of diversity in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Volkman, Sarah K; Sabeti, Pardis C; DeCaprio, David; Neafsey, Daniel E; Schaffner, Stephen F; Milner, Danny A; Daily, Johanna P; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Lukens, Amanda; Derr, Alan; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Waggoner, Skye; Onofrio, Robert; Ziaugra, Liuda; Mauceli, Evan; Gnerre, Sante; Jaffe, David B; Zainoun, Joanne; Wiegand, Roger C; Birren, Bruce W; Hartl, Daniel L; Galagan, James E; Lander, Eric S; Wirth, Dyann F

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variation allows the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to overcome chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines and vector control strategies and remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Here we describe an initial survey of genetic variation across the P. falciparum genome. We performed extensive sequencing of 16 geographically diverse parasites and identified 46,937 SNPs, demonstrating rich diversity among P. falciparum parasites (pi = 1.16 x 10(-3)) and strong correlation with gene function. We identified multiple regions with signatures of selective sweeps in drug-resistant parasites, including a previously unidentified 160-kb region with extremely low polymorphism in pyrimethamine-resistant parasites. We further characterized 54 worldwide isolates by genotyping SNPs across 20 genomic regions. These data begin to define population structure among African, Asian and American groups and illustrate the degree of linkage disequilibrium, which extends over relatively short distances in African parasites but over longer distances in Asian parasites. We provide an initial map of genetic diversity in P. falciparum and demonstrate its potential utility in identifying genes subject to recent natural selection and in understanding the population genetics of this parasite.

  14. Low-Complexity Regions in Plasmodium falciparum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, Elisabetta; Frontali, Clara

    2001-01-01

    Full-sequence data available for Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 2 and 3 are exploited to perform a statistical analysis of the long tracts of biased amino acid composition that characterize the vast majority of P. falciparum proteins and to make a comparison with similarly defined tracts from other simple eukaryotes. When the relatively minor subset of prevalently hydrophobic segments is discarded from the set of low-complexity segments identified by current segmentation methods in P. falciparum proteins, a good correspondence is found between prevalently hydrophilic low-complexity segments and the species-specific, rapidly diverging insertions detected by multiple-alignment procedures when sequences of bona fide homologs are available. Amino acid preferences are fairly uniform in the set of hydrophilic low-complexity segments identified in the two P. falciparum chromosomes sequenced, as well as in sequenced genes from Plasmodium berghei, but differ from those observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dictyostelium discoideum. In the two plasmodial species, amino acid frequencies do not correlate with properties such as hydrophilicity, small volume, or flexibility, which might be expected to characterize residues involved in nonglobular domains but do correlate with A-richness in codons. An effect of phenotypic selection versus neutral drift, however, is suggested by the predominance of asparagine over lysine. PMID:11157785

  15. New Strategies for Drug Discovery and Development for Plasmodium falciparum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    research working in concert with one another. The goal of this work is to use a molecular genetic approach both in the identification of new drug targets and...Plasmodium falciparum for their role in drug resistance and as potential new drug targets, including the analysis of gene expression in response to

  16. Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Parasite Survival In P. Falciparum Malaria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-03

    DNA from (Van Der Ploeg et al., 1985: Wellems et aL, 1987). Strik- the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial ing poiymorphisms have been...and exposed Burke.D F , Carle.G.F. and Olson, MV . 1 19871 .Siucnic. 23.% 806v-812, isernilitl at 70) C with an intensifying screen. ChomnczynskiP. and

  17. Molecular Surveillance for Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naman K.; Alker, Alisa P.; Sem, Rithy; Susanti, Agustina Ika; Muth, Sinuon; Maguire, Jason D.; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted surveillance for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia during 2004–2006 by assessing molecular changes in pfmdr1. The high prevalence of isolates with multiple pfmdr1 copies found in western Cambodia near the Thai border, where artesunate–mefloquine therapy failures occur, contrasts with isolates from eastern Cambodia, where this combination therapy remains highly effective. PMID:18826834

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  19. Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M; Tarmizi, Siti N; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006-2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985-2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2-10 year old PfPR data (PfPR(2-10)) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR(2-10) endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of future strategies against this 2010 baseline

  20. alpha-Aminoalkylphosphonates as a tool in experimental optimisation of P1 side chain shape of potential inhibitors in S1 pocket of leucine- and neutral aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Drag, Marcin; Grembecka, Jolanta; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Kafarski, Paweł

    2005-08-01

    The synthesis and biological activity studies of the series of structurally different alpha-aminoalkylphosphonates were performed in order to optimise the shape of the side chain of the potential inhibitors in S1 pocket of leucine aminopeptidase [E.C.3.4.11.1]. Analysis of a series of compounds with aromatic, aliphatic and alicyclic P1 side chains enabled to find out the structural features, optimal for that fragment of inhibitors of LAP. The most active among all investigated compounds were the phosphonic analogues of homo-tyrosine (K(i)=120 nM) and homo-phenylalanine (K(i)=140 nM), which even as racemic mixtures were better inhibitors in comparison with the best till now-phosphonic analogue of l-leucine (230 nM). Additional comparison of the inhibitory activity obtained for aminopeptidase N (APN, E.C.3.4.11.2) give insight into structural preferences of both enzymes.

  1. Short forms of Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in the kidney are created by aspartyl aminopeptidase (Dnpep)-mediated proteolytic cleavage.

    PubMed

    Markadieu, Nicolas; Rios, Kerri; Spiller, Benjamin W; McDonald, W Hayes; Welling, Paul A; Delpire, Eric

    2014-10-17

    The Ste20-related kinase SPAK regulates sodium, potassium, and chloride transport in a variety of tissues. Recently, SPAK fragments, which lack the catalytic domain and are inhibitory to Na(+) transporters, have been detected in kidney. It has been hypothesized that the fragments originate from alternative translation start sites, but their precise origin is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that kidney lysate possesses proteolytic cleavage activity toward SPAK. Ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography combined with mass spectrometry identified the protease as aspartyl aminopeptidase. The presence of the protease was verified in the active fractions, and recombinant aspartyl aminopeptidase recapitulated the cleavage pattern observed with kidney lysate. Identification of the sites of cleavage by mass spectrometry allowed us to test the function of the smaller fragments and demonstrate their inhibitory action toward the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC2. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Interaction of an atypical Plasmodium falciparum ETRAMP with human apolipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Marissa; McKinlay, Anastasia; LaCount, Douglas J; Chettier, Rakesh; Bell, Russell; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Hughes, Robert E; Fields, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to establish a successful infection in the human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum must establish interactions with a variety of human proteins on the surface of different cell types, as well as with proteins inside the host cells. To better understand this aspect of malaria pathogenesis, a study was conducted with the goal of identifying interactions between proteins of the parasite and those of its human host. Methods A modified yeast two-hybrid methodology that preferentially selects protein fragments that can be expressed in yeast was used to conduct high-throughput screens with P. falciparum protein fragments against human liver and cerebellum libraries. The resulting dataset was analyzed to exclude interactions that are not likely to occur in the human host during infection. Results An initial set of 2,200 interactions was curated to remove proteins that are unlikely to play a role in pathogenesis based on their annotation or localization, and proteins that behave promiscuously in the two-hybrid assay, resulting in a final dataset of 456 interactions. A cluster that implicates binding between P. falciparum PFE1590w/ETRAMP5, a putative parasitophorous vacuole membrane protein, and human apolipoproteins ApoA, ApoB and ApoE was selected for further analysis. Different isoforms of ApoE, which are associated with different outcomes of malaria infection, were shown to display differential interactions with PFE1590w. Conclusion A dataset of interactions between proteins of P. falciparum and those of its human host was generated. The preferential interaction of the P. falciparum PFE1590w protein with the human ApoE ε3 and ApoE ε4 isoforms, but not the ApoE ε2 isoform, supports the hypothesis that ApoE genotype affects risk of malaria infection. The dataset contains other interactions of potential relevance to disease that may identify possible vaccine candidates and drug targets. PMID:18937849

  3. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    PubMed

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  4. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  5. Antimalarial Benzoxaboroles Target Plasmodium falciparum Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Sonoiki, Ebere; Palencia, Andres; Guo, Denghui; Ahyong, Vida; Dong, Chen; Li, Xianfeng; Hernandez, Vincent S.; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Choi, Wai; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Cooper, Roland; Alley, M. R. K.; Freund, Yvonne R.; DeRisi, Joseph; Cusack, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for new antimalarials, ideally with novel mechanisms of action. Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomes. Therefore, we investigated the antimalarial activity and mechanism of action of 3-aminomethyl benzoxaboroles against Plasmodium falciparum. Two 3-aminomethyl compounds, AN6426 and AN8432, demonstrated good potency against cultured multidrug-resistant (W2 strain) P. falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 310 nM and 490 nM, respectively) and efficacy against murine Plasmodium berghei infection when administered orally once daily for 4 days (90% effective dose [ED90], 7.4 and 16.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). To characterize mechanisms of action, we selected parasites with decreased drug sensitivity by culturing with stepwise increases in concentration of AN6426. Resistant clones were characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Three generations of resistant parasites had polymorphisms in the predicted editing domain of the gene encoding a P. falciparum leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS; PF3D7_0622800) and in another gene (PF3D7_1218100), which encodes a protein of unknown function. Solution of the structure of the P. falciparum LeuRS editing domain suggested key roles for mutated residues in LeuRS editing. Short incubations with AN6426 and AN8432, unlike artemisinin, caused dose-dependent inhibition of [14C]leucine incorporation by cultured wild-type, but not resistant, parasites. The growth of resistant, but not wild-type, parasites was impaired in the presence of the unnatural amino acid norvaline, consistent with a loss of LeuRS editing activity in resistant parasites. In summary, the benzoxaboroles AN6426 and AN8432 offer effective antimalarial activity and act, at least in part, against a novel target, the editing domain of P. falciparum LeuRS. PMID:27270277

  6. Production of recombinant proteins from Plasmodium falciparum in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Ángela Patricia; Calvo, Eliana Patricia; Wasserman, Moisés; Chaparro-Olaya, Jacqueline

    2016-02-23

    The production of recombinant proteins is essential for the characterization and functional study of proteins from Plasmodium falciparum. However, the proteins of P. falciparum are among the most challenging to express, and when expression is achieved, the recombinant proteins usually fold incorrectly and lead to the formation of inclusion bodies.  To obtain and purify four recombinant proteins and to use them as antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. The production efficiency and solubility were evaluated as the proteins were expressed in two genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli to favor the production of heterologous proteins (BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL and BL21-pG-KJE8).  The four recombinant P. falciparum proteins corresponding to partial sequences of PfMyoA (Myosin A) and PfGAP50 (gliding associated protein 50), and the complete sequences of PfMTIP (myosin tail interacting protein) and PfGAP45 (gliding associated protein 45), were produced as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins, purified and used for immunizing mice.  The protein expression was much more efficient in BL21-CodonPlus, the strain that contains tRNAs that are rare in wild-type E. coli, compared to the expression in BL21-pG-KJE8. In spite of the fact that BL21-pG-KJE8 overexpresses chaperones, this strain did not minimize the formation of inclusion bodies.  The use of genetically modified strains of E. coli was essential to achieve high expression levels of the four evaluated P. falciparum proteins and lead to improved solubility of two of them. The approach used here allowed us to obtain and purify four P. falciparum proteins in enough quantity to produce polyclonal antibodies in mice, and a fair amount of two pure and soluble recombinant proteins for future assays.

  7. The transcriptome of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bozdech, Zbynek; Llinás, Manuel; Pulliam, Brian Lee; Wong, Edith D; Zhu, Jingchun; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2003-10-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most burdensome form of human malaria, affecting 200-300 million individuals per year worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of P. falciparum revealed over 5,400 genes, of which 60% encode proteins of unknown function. Insights into the biochemical function and regulation of these genes will provide the foundation for future drug and vaccine development efforts toward eradication of this disease. By analyzing the complete asexual intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) transcriptome of the HB3 strain of P. falciparum, we demonstrate that at least 60% of the genome is transcriptionally active during this stage. Our data demonstrate that this parasite has evolved an extremely specialized mode of transcriptional regulation that produces a continuous cascade of gene expression, beginning with genes corresponding to general cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, and ending with Plasmodium-specific functionalities, such as genes involved in erythrocyte invasion. The data reveal that genes contiguous along the chromosomes are rarely coregulated, while transcription from the plastid genome is highly coregulated and likely polycistronic. Comparative genomic hybridization between HB3 and the reference genome strain (3D7) was used to distinguish between genes not expressed during the IDC and genes not detected because of possible sequence variations. Genomic differences between these strains were found almost exclusively in the highly antigenic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. The simple cascade of gene regulation that directs the asexual development of P. falciparum is unprecedented in eukaryotic biology. The transcriptome of the IDC resembles a "just-in-time" manufacturing process whereby induction of any given gene occurs once per cycle and only at a time when it is required. These data provide to our knowledge the first comprehensive view of the timing of transcription throughout the intraerythrocytic

  8. The Transcriptome of the Intraerythrocytic Developmental Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Brian Lee; Wong, Edith D; Zhu, Jingchun

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most burdensome form of human malaria, affecting 200–300 million individuals per year worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of P. falciparum revealed over 5,400 genes, of which 60% encode proteins of unknown function. Insights into the biochemical function and regulation of these genes will provide the foundation for future drug and vaccine development efforts toward eradication of this disease. By analyzing the complete asexual intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) transcriptome of the HB3 strain of P. falciparum, we demonstrate that at least 60% of the genome is transcriptionally active during this stage. Our data demonstrate that this parasite has evolved an extremely specialized mode of transcriptional regulation that produces a continuous cascade of gene expression, beginning with genes corresponding to general cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, and ending with Plasmodium-specific functionalities, such as genes involved in erythrocyte invasion. The data reveal that genes contiguous along the chromosomes are rarely coregulated, while transcription from the plastid genome is highly coregulated and likely polycistronic. Comparative genomic hybridization between HB3 and the reference genome strain (3D7) was used to distinguish between genes not expressed during the IDC and genes not detected because of possible sequence variations. Genomic differences between these strains were found almost exclusively in the highly antigenic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. The simple cascade of gene regulation that directs the asexual development of P. falciparum is unprecedented in eukaryotic biology. The transcriptome of the IDC resembles a “just-in-time” manufacturing process whereby induction of any given gene occurs once per cycle and only at a time when it is required. These data provide to our knowledge the first comprehensive view of the timing of transcription throughout the

  9. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples.

  10. Endemicity response timelines for Plasmodium falciparum elimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2009-04-30

    The scaling up of malaria control and renewed calls for malaria eradication have raised interest in defining timelines for changes in malaria endemicity. The epidemiological theory for the decline in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR, the prevalence of infection) following intervention was critically reviewed and where necessary extended to consider superinfection, heterogeneous biting, and aging infections. Timelines for malaria control and elimination under different levels of intervention were then established using a wide range of candidate mathematical models. Analysis focused on the timelines from baseline to 1% and from 1% through the final stages of elimination. The Ross-Macdonald model, which ignores superinfection, was used for planning during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP). In models that consider superinfection, PfPR takes two to three years longer to reach 1% starting from a hyperendemic baseline, consistent with one of the few large-scale malaria control trials conducted in an African population with hyperendemic malaria. The time to elimination depends fundamentally upon the extent to which malaria transmission is interrupted and the size of the human population modelled. When the PfPR drops below 1%, almost all models predict similar and proportional declines in PfPR in consecutive years from 1% through to elimination and that the waiting time to reduce PfPR from 10% to 1% and from 1% to 0.1% are approximately equal, but the decay rate can increase over time if infections senesce. The theory described herein provides simple "rules of thumb" and likely time horizons for the impact of interventions for control and elimination. Starting from a hyperendemic baseline, the GMEP planning timelines, which were based on the Ross-Macdonald model with completely interrupted transmission, were inappropriate for setting endemicity timelines and they represent the most optimistic scenario for places with lower endemicity. Basic

  11. Purification of a specific inhibitor of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II from the marine annelide Hermodice carunculata. in vivo effects in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Isel; Gil-Parrado, Shirley; Cisneros, Miguel; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Díaz, Joaquín; Possani, Lourival D; Charli, Jean Louis; Chávez, María

    2004-01-01

    An inhibitor of the metallo-ectoenzyme, pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII), a thyrotropin releasing hormone-specific peptidase, was identified by screening extracts from marine species of the Cuban coast-line belonging to the phylla Chordata, Echinodermata, Annelida, Mollusca, Cnidaria, Porifera, Chlorophyta and Magnoliophyta. Isolation of the inhibitor (HcPI), from the marine annelide Hermodice carunculata, was achieved by trichloroacetic acid treatment of the aqueous extract, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephacel, gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and reverse phase-HPLC. HcPI had a small apparent molecular weight (below 1000 Da) and was not a peptide. It inhibited rat PPII (a membrane preparation with 8.5mg protein/ml) with an apparent K(i) of 51 nM. HcPI did not inhibit serine (trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV), cysteine (papain, bromelain and pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase I), aspartic (pepsin and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus 1 protease (HIV1-PR)) nor other metallo proteinases (collagenase, gelatinase, angiotensin converting enzyme, aminopeptidase N and carboxypeptidase A). HcPI was non-toxic and active in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of HcPI reduced mouse pituitary and brain PPII activity. Potency of the effect was higher in hypophysis and hypothalamus than in other brain regions. Intrathecal administration to male rats reduced PPII activity in the spinal cord. In conclusion we have identified a specific inhibitor of PPII that is the first M1 family zinc metallo-peptidase inhibitor isolated from marine invertebrates. It may be useful for elucidating the in vivo role of PPII in the pituitary and central nervous system.

  12. Effect of growth temperature and pH on the aminopeptidase activity of Pseudomonas putida, P. fluorescens and Flavobacterium odoratum; the 4-nitroaniline test is reliable.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tomas, L A; Ordoñez, J A; Mediavilla, C; Rodriguez-Marin, J L; Sarmiento, P; Zamora, A; Garcia de Fernando, G

    2008-01-01

    No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the specific aminopeptidase activity (SAA) developed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Flavobacterium odoratum either growing at pH 5.0-6.5 or at 7 and 12 degrees C. Nevertheless, a significant difference was found when comparing the SAA of these organisms. The SAA of F. odoratum was lower than those of pseudomonads. The 4-nitroaniline test is reliable to estimate the G(-) load of fresh food products.

  13. Identification of an oxytocinase/vasopressinase-like leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) in teleost fish and evidence for hypothalamic mRNA expression linked to behavioral social status.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Emma A; Walti, Kayla A; Newberry, Kathryn E; Lema, Sean C

    2017-09-01

    The vasotocin/vasopressin and isotocin/mesotocin/oxytocin family of nonapeptides regulate social behaviors and physiological functions associated with reproductive physiology and osmotic balance. While experimental and correlative studies provide evidence for these nonapeptides as modulators of behavior across all classes of vertebrates, mechanisms for nonapeptide inactivation in regulating these functions have been largely overlooked. Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) - also known as vasopressinase, oxytocinase, placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) - is a membrane-bound zinc-dependent metalloexopeptidase enzyme that inactivates vasopressin, oxytocin, and select other cyclic polypeptides. In humans, LNPEP plays a key role in the clearance of oxytocin during pregnancy. However, the evolutionary diversity, expression distribution, and functional roles of LNPEP remain unresolved for other vertebrates. Here, we isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA encoding a LNPEP-like polypeptide of 1033 amino acids from the ovarian tissue of Amargosa pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis. This deduced polypeptide exhibited high amino acid identity to human LNPEP both in the protein's active domain that includes the peptide binding site and zinc cofactor binding motif (53.1% identity), and in an intracellular region that distinguishes LNPEP from other aminopeptidases (70.3% identity). Transcripts encoding this LNPEP enzyme (lnpep) were detected at highest relative abundance in the gonads, hypothalamus, forebrain, optic tectum, gill and skeletal muscle of adult pupfish. Further evaluation of lnpep transcript abundance in the brain of sexually-mature pupfish revealed that lnpep mRNAs were elevated in the hypothalamus of socially subordinate females and males, and at lower abundance in the telencephalon of socially dominant males compared to dominant females. These findings provide evidence of an association between behavioral social

  14. Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2014-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ∼0.5 μM) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 μM. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ω-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

  15. Glutamyl- but not aspartyl-aminopeptidase activity is modified in serum of N-methyl nitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Carrera, María Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesus; Valenzuela, María Teresa; García, María Jesus; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The rat model of breast cancer induced by the administration of N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU) constitutes a useful tool for dissecting the initiation, promotion and progression process of carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, is an essential component of the metastatic pathway. Tumour vessels have an aberrant response to constrictor hormones, such as angiotensin II (Ang II). Ang II degradation to form angiotensin III (Ang III) begins with the action of glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP) and aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP), named together as aminopeptidase A activity (APA). The present work analyses GluAP and AspAP activities in serum of NMU-induced rat mammary tumours, to evaluate the putative value of these activities as biological markers of the initiation and promotion of the disease. Serum AspAP and GluAP activities were measured fluorimetrically using their corresponding aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamide. The increase found in GluAP but not in AspAP suggests an increase in Ang III and a decrease in Ang II serum circulating levels. The decrease in Ang III may be responsible for the overexpression of AT1 receptors described in breast cancer. However, increased levels of Ang III, which exhibit the same affinity for the AT1 receptor, would favour the development of the disease.

  16. Characterization of a salt-tolerant aminopeptidase from marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 that improves hydrolysis and debittering efficiency for soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fenfen; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was isolated from the marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 (BLAP) and purified. According to the tandem mass spectrometry, the enzyme displayed 11% amino acid identity with the aminopeptidase from Bacillus (gi|496687392). BLAP exhibited maximum activity at 60°C and pH 8.0-8.5 and had a molecular mass of 100kDa. The presence of NaCl enabled 50% improvement of enzyme activity with 10-15% NaCl being the best. The observed inactivation by EDTA and bestatin and activation by Co(2+) and Ag(+) indicated that the obtained enzyme was a metalloaminopeptidase. Such an aminopeptidase could further improve the hydrolysis degree of soy protein isolate hydrolysates catalyzed by papain, Alcalase 2.4L or Flavourzyme 500MG from 8.5%, 9.5% or 14.4-18.8%, 18.7% or 20.1%, respectively, while decreasing the bitter intensity score of the SPI hydrolysates catalyzed by Alcalase 2.4L from 3.6 to 0.4.

  17. Overexpression and divalent metal binding properties of the methionyl aminopeptidase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lu; Ruebush, Shane; D'souza, Ventris M; Copik, Alicja J; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Holz, Richard C

    2002-06-11

    The gene encoding for the methionyl aminopeptidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfMetAP-II; EC 3.4.11.18) has been inserted into a pET 27b(+) vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The new expression system resulted in a 5-fold increase in purified enzyme obtained from a 5 L fermentor growth. The as-purified PfMetAP-II enzyme, to which no exogenous metal ions or EDTA was added, was found to have 1.2 equiv of zinc and 0.1 equiv of iron present by ICP-AES analysis. This enzyme had a specific activity of 5 units/mg, a 60-fold decrease from the fully loaded Fe(II) enzymes. When an additional 2 equiv of Zn(II) was added to the as-purified PfMetAP-II, no activity could be detected. The combination of these data with previously reported whole cell studies on EcMetAP-I further supports the suggestion that the in vivo metal ion for all MetAP's is Fe(II). Both Co(II)- and Fe(II)-loaded PfMetAP-II showed similar substrate specificities to EcMetAP-I. Substrate binding was largely affected by the amino acid in the P1 position and the length of the polypeptide. The substrates MSSHRWDW and MP-p-NA showed the smallest K(m) values while the substrates MGMM and MP-p-NA provided the highest turnover. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of PfMetAP-II for MP-p-NA at 30 degrees C was 799 500 and 340 930 M(-1) s(-1) for Co(II)- and Fe(II)-loaded PfMetAP-II, respectively. Maximum catalytic activity was obtained with 1 equiv of Co(II) or Fe(II), and the dissociation constants (K(d)) for the first metal binding site were found to be 50 +/- 15 and 20 +/- 15 nM for Co(II)- and Fe(II)-substituted PfMetAP-II, respectively. Electronic absorption spectral titration of a 1 mM sample of apo-PfMetAP-II with Co(II) provided a dissociation constant of 0.35 +/- 0.02 mM for the second metal binding site, a 17500-fold increase compared to the first metal binding site. The electronic absorption data also indicated that both Co(II) ions reside in a pentacoordinate

  18. Qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction to predict Plasmodium falciparum treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Kain, K C; Kyle, D E; Wongsrichanalai, C; Brown, A E; Webster, H K; Vanijanonta, S; Looareesuwan, S

    1994-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria is increasing in most malaria-endemic areas. Rapid methods for predicting treatment failure would aid management and control of drug-resistant infections. In this study, Plasmodium falciparum DNA clearance was examined by qualitative and semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thai patients with acute falciparum malaria were prospectively followed by light microscopy and by PCR of P. falciparum DNA eluted from filter paper blood samples. A 206-bp P. falciparum sequence was amplified and detected radiometrically and by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clearance of P. falciparum DNA was significantly delayed in treatment failures compared with that in successfully treated patients (P = .02). Semiquantitative PCR levels did not drop to < 50% of pretreatment levels until day 3 or later in treatment failures compared with day 1 or earlier for successfully treated parasitemia-matched controls (P = .005). These results suggest that qualitative and semiquantitative PCR may be useful as a method for monitoring response to therapy.

  19. Antimalarial Activity of KAF156 in Falciparum and Vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J; Duong, Tran T; Uthaisin, Chirapong; Nosten, François; Phyo, Aung P; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Chuthasmit, Kittiphum; Cheung, Ming S; Feng, Yiyan; Li, Ruobing; Magnusson, Baldur; Sultan, Marc; Wieser, Daniela; Xun, Xiaolei; Zhao, Rong; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter; Leong, F Joel

    2016-09-22

    KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial agents (imidazolopiperazines), with activity against asexual and sexual blood stages and the preerythrocytic liver stages of malarial parasites. We conducted a phase 2, open-label, two-part study at five centers in Thailand and Vietnam to assess the antimalarial efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of KAF156 in adults with acute Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum malaria. Assessment of parasite clearance rates in cohorts of patients with vivax or falciparum malaria who were treated with multiple doses (400 mg once daily for 3 days) was followed by assessment of the cure rate at 28 days in a separate cohort of patients with falciparum malaria who received a single dose (800 mg). Median parasite clearance times were 45 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 48) in 10 patients with falciparum malaria and 24 hours (interquartile range, 20 to 30) in 10 patients with vivax malaria after treatment with the multiple-dose regimen and 49 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 54) in 21 patients with falciparum malaria after treatment with the single dose. Among the 21 patients who received the single dose and were followed for 28 days, 1 had reinfection and 7 had recrudescent infections (cure rate, 67%; 95% credible interval, 46 to 84). The mean (±SD) KAF156 terminal elimination half-life was 44.1±8.9 hours. There were no serious adverse events in this small study. The most common adverse events included sinus bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Vomiting of grade 2 or higher occurred in 2 patients, 1 of whom discontinued treatment because of repeated vomiting after receiving the single 800-mg dose. More adverse events were reported in the single-dose cohort, which had longer follow-up, than in the multiple-dose cohorts. KAF156 showed antimalarial activity without evident safety concerns in a small number of adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria. (Funded by Novartis and

  20. Antimalarial Activity of KAF156 in Falciparum and Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    White, Nicholas J.; Duong, Tran T.; Uthaisin, Chirapong; Nosten, François; Phyo, Aung P.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Chuthasmit, Kittiphum; Cheung, Ming S.; Feng, Yiyan; Li, Ruobing; Magnusson, Baldur; Sultan, Marc; Wieser, Daniela; Xun, Xiaolei; Zhao, Rong; Diagana, Thierry T.; Pertel, Peter; Leong, F. Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial agents (imidazolopiperazines), with activity against asexual and sexual blood stages and the preerythrocytic liver stages of malarial parasites. Methods We conducted a phase 2, open-label, two-part study at five centers in Thailand and Vietnam to assess the antimalarial efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of KAF156 in adults with acute Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum malaria. Assessment of parasite clearance rates in cohorts of patients with vivax or falciparum malaria who were treated with multiple doses (400 mg once daily for 3 days) was followed by assessment of the cure rate at 28 days in a separate cohort of patients with falciparum malaria who received a single dose (800 mg). Results Median parasite clearance times were 45 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 48) in 10 patients with falciparum malaria and 24 hours (interquartile range, 20 to 30) in 10 patients with vivax malaria after treatment with the multiple-dose regimen and 49 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 54) in 21 patients with falciparum malaria after treatment with the single dose. Among the 21 patients who received the single dose and were followed for 28 days, 1 had reinfection and 7 had recrudescent infections (cure rate, 67%; 95% credible interval, 46 to 84). The mean (±SD) KAF156 terminal elimination half-life was 44.1±8.9 hours. There were no serious adverse events in this small study. The most common adverse events included sinus bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Vomiting of grade 2 or higher occurred in 2 patients, 1 of whom discontinued treatment because of repeated vomiting after receiving the single 800-mg dose. More adverse events were reported in the single-dose cohort, which had longer follow-up, than in the multiple-dose cohorts. Conclusions KAF156 showed antimalarial activity without evident safety concerns in a small number of adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P

  1. Enzymatic characterization of a novel Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase XpmA from Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hattori, Ryota; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-08

    Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases are peptidases responsible for the cleavage of any amino acid N-terminally adjacent to a proline residue. We identified a gene encoding a putative Xaa-Pro aminopeptidase in the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae (genome database number: AO090701000720) and named this gene xpmA. We produced its enzyme in a C-terminally His6-tag-fused form in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified it. The purified recombinant XpmA (rXpmA) showed hydrolysis activity toward Xaa-Pro-oligopeptides, especially the two dipeptides Ala-Pro and Phe-Pro. The molecular weight of rXpmA was estimated to be 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 126 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homodimer. The enzyme was activated by various divalent metal ions such as Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Mg(2+); in particular, the enzyme activity was increased 27.6-times relative to the no-addition control by 1 mM Mn(2+). Additionally, 10 mM EDTA suppressed its activity to 0.26-times of the control level. Therefore, rXpmA was a metalloprotease. Optimal hydrolytic activity of rXpmA was observed at 50°C and pH 8.5-9.0. The enzyme was stable up to 50°C and from pH 4.0 to 11.0. rXpmA showed substrate inhibition by Leu-Pro, Ser-Pro and Arg-Pro at concentrations over 4 mM, 10 mM, and 3 mM, respectively. NaCl increased the enzyme activity in the concentration range 0.5-3.0 M, suggesting that the enzyme is halophilic. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-02

    molecular markers Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the lead-ing treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria (1), and their use with... Plasmodium falciparum malaria . N Engl J Med 361(5):455–467. 8. Noedl H, et al.; Artemisinin Resistance in Cambodia 1 (ARC1) Study Consortium (2008...Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia Shannon Takala-Harrisona

  3. Drug and Vaccine Evaluation in the Human Aotus Plasmodium Falciparum Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AD Award Number: DAMDl7-01-C-0039 TITLE: Drug and Vaccine Evaluation in the Human Aotus Plasmodium Falciparum Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicanor... Human Aotus DAMDI7-01-C-0039 Plasmodium Falciparum Model 6. AUTHOR(S): Nicanor Obaldia, III, D.V.M. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...evaluation of drugs and vaccines in the human malarialAotus lemurinus lemurinus monkey model experimientally infected with Plasmodium falciparum or vivax

  4. [Large trophozoites in blood smear of falciparum malaria: one case report].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-bin; Kong, Xiang-li; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Miao, Feng; Chen, Xi-xin

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports one case of atypical falciparum malaria imported from Africa, whose blood smear contains many large trophozoites, with punctiform or massive brown pigment granules, the body shape of the plasmodium is similar to that of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. After the gene detection by PCR, the case was diagnosed as falciparum malaria. As large trophozoites were rarely seen in the peripheral blood of non-severe falciparum malaria cases, much attention should be paid to the identification of Plasmodium falciparum and other plasmodia in microscopic examinations.

  5. Exploring Drug Targets in Isoprenoid Biosynthetic Pathway for Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Tabish; Jamal, Farrukh; Khan, Mohd Y; Sharma, Bechan

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of rapid drug resistance to existing antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum has created the need for prediction of novel targets as well as leads derived from original molecules with improved activity against a validated drug target. The malaria parasite has a plant plastid-like apicoplast. To overcome the problem of falciparum malaria, the metabolic pathways in parasite apicoplast have been used as antimalarial drug targets. Among several pathways in apicoplast, isoprenoid biosynthesis is one of the important pathways for parasite as its multiplication in human erythrocytes requires isoprenoids. Therefore targeting this pathway and exploring leads with improved activity is a highly attractive approach. This report has explored progress towards the study of proteins and inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. For more comprehensive analysis, antimalarial drug-protein interaction has been covered.

  6. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Nasar; Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Kamal, Athar; Ahmad, Mehtab

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with a 4-day history of high-grade fever with rigours and a 2-day history of painful bluish black discolouration of extremities (acrocyanosis). He was haemodynamically stable and all peripheral pulses palpable, but the extremities were cold with gangrene involving bilateral fingers and toes. Mild splenomegaly was present on abdominal examination but rest of the physical examinations were normal. On investigating he was found to have anaemia, thrombocytopaenia with gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum on peripheral blood smear. His blood was uncoagulable during performance of prothrombin time with a raised D-dimer. Oxygen saturation was normal and the arterial Doppler test showed reduced blood flow to the extremities. A diagnosis of complicated P. falciparum malaria with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) leading to symmetrical peripheral gangrene was performed. Artemisinin combination therapy was started and heparin was given for DIC. A final line of demarcation of gangrene started forming by 12th day. PMID:24862424

  7. Antifolate Agents Against Wild and Mutant Strains of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, M. S.; Rana, J.; Gaikwad, D.; Leartsakulpanich, U.; Ambre, Premlata K.; Pissurlenkar, R. R. S.; Coutinho, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase is an important target for antimalarial chemotherapy. The emergence of resistance has significantly reduced the efficacy of the classic antifolate drugs cycloguanil and pyrimethamine. In this paper we report new dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors identified using molecular modelling principles with the goal of designing new antifolate agents active against both wild and tetramutant dihydrofolate reductase strains three series of trimethoprim analogues were designed, synthesised and tested for biological activity. Pyrimethamine and cycloguanil have been reported to loose efficacy because of steric repulsion in the active site pocket produced due to mutation in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase. The synthesised molecules have sufficient flexibility to withstand this steric repulsion to counteract the resistance. The molecules have been synthesised by conventional techniques and fully characterised by spectroscopic methods. The potency of these molecules was evaluated by in vitro enzyme specific assays. Some of the molecules were active in micromolar concentrations and can easily be optimised to improve binding and activity. PMID:24843184

  8. Automated erythrocytapheresis in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Macallan, D C; Pocock, M; Bishop, E; Bevan, D H; Parker-Williams, J; Harrison, T; Robinson, G T

    1999-11-01

    Removal of parasitized erythrocytes is generally considered to be of value as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitaemia. This is commonly achieved by exchange transfusion. We describe three cases of severe falciparum malaria treated by automated erythrocytapheresis (red cell exchange) in addition to quinine and conventional supportive therapy. Erythrocytapheresis consists of removal of the red-cell fraction by apheresis. Plasma, leukocyte and platelet fractions are returned to the patient. In all cases, dramatic reduction in parasitaemia was achieved within 2 h with subsequent complete clinical recovery. Erythrocytapheresis has significant advantages over exchange transfusion in terms of speed, efficiency, haemodynamic stability and retention of plasma components such as clotting factors and may thus represent an improvement in adjunctive therapy for severe malaria.

  9. The mechanism of resistance to sulfa drugs in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Triglia, Tony; Cowman, Alan F.

    1999-02-01

    The sulfonamide and sulfone (sulfa) group of antimalarials has been used extensively throughout malaria endemic regions of the world to control this important infectious disease of humans. Sulfadoxine is the most extensively used drug of this group of drugs and is usually combined with pyrimethamine (Fansidar), particularly for the control of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most lethal form of malaria. Resistance to the sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine combination is widespread. Analysis using molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches has shown that the mechanism of resistance to sulfadoxine involves mutation of dihydropteroate synthase, the enzyme target of this group of drugs. Understanding the mechanism of resistance of P. falciparum to sulfa drugs has allowed detailed analysis of the epidemiology of the spread of drug resistance alleles in the field(1)and, in the future, opens the way to the development of novel antimalarials to this target enzyme. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. A genetic system to study Plasmodium falciparum protein function.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jakob; Flemming, Sven; Reichard, Nick; Soares, Alexandra Blancke; Mesén-Ramírez, Paolo; Jonscher, Ernst; Bergmann, Bärbel; Spielmann, Tobias

    2017-03-13

    Current systems to study essential genes in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are often inefficient and time intensive, and they depend on the genetic modification of the target locus, a process hindered by the low frequency of integration of episomal DNA into the genome. Here, we introduce a method, termed selection-linked integration (SLI), to rapidly select for genomic integration. SLI allowed us to functionally analyze targets at the gene and protein levels, thus permitting mislocalization of native proteins, a strategy known as knock sideways, floxing to induce diCre-based excision of genes and knocking in altered gene copies. We demonstrated the power and robustness of this approach by validating it for more than 12 targets, including eight essential ones. We also localized and inducibly inactivated Kelch13, the protein associated with artemisinin resistance. We expect this system to be widely applicable for P. falciparum and other organisms with limited genetic tractability.

  11. Characterization of the 26S proteasome network in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Delahunty, Claire; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Rahlfs, Stefan; Helena Prieto, Judith; Yates, John R; Becker, Katja

    2015-12-07

    In eukaryotic cells, the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a key regulator of protein quality control is an excellent drug target. We therefore aimed to analyze the 26S proteasome complex in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which still threatens almost half of the world's population. First, we established an affinity purification protocol allowing for the isolation of functional 26S proteasome complexes from the parasite. Subunit composition of the proteasome and component stoichiometry were studied and physiologic interacting partners were identified via in situ protein crosslinking. Furthermore, intrinsic ubiquitin receptors of the plasmodial proteasome were determined and their roles in proteasomal substrate recognition were analyzed. Notably, PfUSP14 was characterized as a proteasome-associated deubiquitinase resulting in the concept that targeting proteasomal deubiquitinating activity in P. falciparum may represent a promising antimalarial strategy. The data provide insights into a profound network orchestrated by the plasmodial proteasome and identified novel drug target candidates in the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  12. An outbreak of artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Jindakhad, Thantip; Kunasol, Chanon; Sutawong, Kreepol; Vejakama, Phisitt; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2015-11-30

    Artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria is an increasing problem in Southeast Asia, but has not been associated with increased transmission of the disease, yet. During a recent outbreak in 2014 in Ubon Ratchatani, Eastern Thailand, parasites from 101 patients with falciparum malaria were genotyped for antimalarial drug resistance markers. Mutations in the Kelch13 marker for artemisinin resistance were present in 93% of samples, mainly C580Y from 2 major clusters as identified by microsatellite typing. Resistance markers for antifolates and chloroquine were also highly prevalent. Most strains (91%) carried single copy number PfMDR1, suggesting sustained sensitivity to mefloquine, the partner drug in the local first-line artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). The high prevalence of artemisinin resistance in this recent malaria outbreak suggests but does not prove a causative role in increased transmission. Careful monitoring of ACT efficacy and additional genetic epidemiological studies are warranted to guide the public health response to the outbreak.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro Resistance to Monodesethylamodiaquine, Dakar, Senegal, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Amalvict, Rémy; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar

    2016-01-01

    We successfully cultured 36 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from blood samples of 44 malaria patients admitted to the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Dakar, Senegal) during August–December 2014. The prevalence of isolates with in vitro reduced susceptibility was 30.6% for monodesethylamodiaquine, 52.8% for chloroquine, 44.1% for mefloquine, 16.7% for doxycycline, 11.8% for piperaquine, 8.3% for artesunate, 5.9% for pyronaridine, 2.8% for quinine and dihydroartemisinin, and 0.0% for lumefantrine. The prevalence of isolates with reduced in vitro susceptibility to the artemisinin-based combination therapy partner monodesethylamodiaquine increased from 5.6% in 2013 to 30.6% in 2014. Because of the increased prevalence of P. falciparum parasites with impaired in vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine, the implementation of in vitro and in vivo surveillance of all artemisinin-based combination therapy partners is warranted. PMID:27088703

  14. The Fragmented Mitochondrial Ribosomal RNAs of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Feagin, Jean E.; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Lee, Jung C.; Coe, Kevin J.; Sands, Bryan H.; Cannone, Jamie J.; Tami, Germaine; Schnare, Murray N.; Gutell, Robin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is most unusual. Over half the genome is composed of the genes for three classic mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome oxidase subunits I and III and apocytochrome b. The remainder encodes numerous small RNAs, ranging in size from 23 to 190 nt. Previous analysis revealed that some of these transcripts have significant sequence identity with highly conserved regions of large and small subunit rRNAs, and can form the expected secondary structures. However, these rRNA fragments are not encoded in linear order; instead, they are intermixed with one another and the protein coding genes, and are coded on both strands of the genome. This unorthodox arrangement hindered the identification of transcripts corresponding to other regions of rRNA that are highly conserved and/or are known to participate directly in protein synthesis. Principal Findings The identification of 14 additional small mitochondrial transcripts from P. falcipaurm and the assignment of 27 small RNAs (12 SSU RNAs totaling 804 nt, 15 LSU RNAs totaling 1233 nt) to specific regions of rRNA are supported by multiple lines of evidence. The regions now represented are highly similar to those of the small but contiguous mitochondrial rRNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. The P. falciparum rRNA fragments cluster on the interfaces of the two ribosomal subunits in the three-dimensional structure of the ribosome. Significance All of the rRNA fragments are now presumed to have been identified with experimental methods, and nearly all of these have been mapped onto the SSU and LSU rRNAs. Conversely, all regions of the rRNAs that are known to be directly associated with protein synthesis have been identified in the P. falciparum mitochondrial genome and RNA transcripts. The fragmentation of the rRNA in the P. falciparum mitochondrion is the most extreme example of any rRNA fragmentation discovered. PMID:22761677

  15. PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM Na+/H+ EXCHANGER ACTIVITY AND QUININE RESISTANCE +

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tyler N.; Patel, Jigar; Ferdig, Michael T.; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt gene cause resistance to the 4 – amino quinoline chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs. Mutations and/or overexpression of a P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene homologue (pfmdr1) may further modify or tailor the degree of quinoline drug resistance. Recently (M.T. Ferdig et al., Molecular Microbiology 52: 985–997 [2004]) QTL analysis further implicated a region of P. falciparum chromosome 13 as a partner (with pfcrt) in conferring resistance to the first quinoline – based antimalarial drug, quinine (QN). Since QN resistance (QNR) and CQR are often (but not always) observed together in parasite strains, since elevated cytosolic pH is frequently (but not always) found in CQR parasites, and since the chr 13 segment linked to QNR prominently harbors a gene encoding what appears to be a P. falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (PfNHE), we have systematically measured cytosolic pH and PfNHE activity for an extended series of parasite strains used in the QTL analysis. Altered PfNHE activity does not correlate with CQR as previously proposed, but significantly elevated PfNHE activity is found for strains with high levels of QNR, regardless their CQR status. We propose that either an elevated pHcyt or a higher vacuolar pH – to – cytosolic pH gradient contributes to one common route to malarial QNR that is also characterized by recently defined chr 13 – chr 9 pairwise interactions. Based on sequence analysis we propose a model whereby observed polymorphisms in PfNHE may lead to altered Na+/H+ set point regulation in QNR parasites. PMID:17353059

  16. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum - Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-15

    chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:703-717. 3. Rossan, RN, Harper, JS III, Davidson, DE Jr., Escajadillo , A. and...primaquine. Presented at XII International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria. Amsterdam. 6, Pollack, S, Rossan, RN, Davidson, DE, Escajadillo , A...1987. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys. Proc Soc Expt Biol Med. 184-162-164. 7. Panton, LJ, Rossan, RN, Escajadillo

  17. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum - Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-23

    Rossan, RN, Harper, JS III, Davidson, DE Jr., Escajadillo , A. and Christensen, HA.1985. Comparison of Plasmodium falc1parum infections in Panamanian and...Malaria. Amsterdam. 6. Pollack, S, Rossan, RN, Davidson, DE, Escajadillo , A., 1987. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys. Proc...Soc Expt Biol Med. 184:162-164.- 7. Panton, LJ, Rossan, RN, Escajadillo , A, Matsumoto, Y, Lee, AT, Labroo, VM, Kirk, KL, Cohen, LA, Airkawa, M, Howard

  18. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Parasite Survival in P. falciparum Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-08

    AD-A279 410 GRANT NO: DAMN17-89-Z-9003 TITLE: MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PARASITE SURVIVAL IN R. E&LEZjpAIM MALARIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR... Analysis of Parasite Survival Grant No. in P. Falciparum Malaria DAMDi 7-89- Z-9003 -6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey V. Ravetch, M.D., Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...consequences of genetic variation for parasite survival. Genetic polymorphisms in PRfalciparum were initially detected by pulsed-field gel analysis of intact

  19. Plasmodium falciparum genetic crosses in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; Pinapati, Richard S.; Cheeseman, Ian H.; Camargo, Nelly; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Checkley, Lisa A.; Nair, Shalini; Hutyra, Carolyn A.; Nosten, François H.; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Ferdig, Michael T.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic crosses of phenotypically distinct strains of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are a powerful tool for identifying genes controlling drug resistance and other key phenotypes. Previous studies relied on the isolation of recombinant parasites from splenectomized chimpanzees, a research avenue that is no longer available. Here, we demonstrate that human-liver chimeric mice support recovery of recombinant progeny for the identification of genetic determinants of parasite traits and adaptations. PMID:26030447

  20. Fate of haem iron in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Timothy J; Combrinck, Jill M; Egan, Joanne; Hearne, Giovanni R; Marques, Helder M; Ntenteni, Skhumbuzo; Sewell, B Trevor; Smith, Peter J; Taylor, Dale; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Walden, Jason C

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analysis has shown that Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites contain 61+/-2% of the iron within parasitized erythrocytes, of which 92+/-6% is located within the food vacuole. Of this, 88+/-9% is in the form of haemozoin. (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that haemozoin is the only detectable iron species in trophozoites. Electron spectroscopic imaging confirms this conclusion. PMID:12033986

  1. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 Å resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s. PMID:21045287

  2. Sensitive and specific DNA probe for detection of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Enea, V

    1986-01-01

    The isolation and some characteristics of a very sensitive DNA probe for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum are described. The probe is species specific and represents a large, albeit variable, fraction of the genome in all the strains tested. In addition to its immediate practical uses for the detection and quantitation of parasites, the probe defines an interesting family of repeated sequences. Images PMID:3023833

  3. Plasmodium falciparum MLH is schizont stage specific endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Mohammed; Satsangi, Akash Tripathi; Ahmad, Moaz; Singh, Shailja; Tuteja, Renu

    2012-02-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in many regions around the world including India. Plasmodium falciparum is the cause of most lethal form of malaria while Plasmodium vivax is the major cause outside Africa. Regardless of considerable efforts over the last many years there is still no commercial vaccine against malaria and the disease is mainly treated using a range of established drugs. With time, the malaria parasite is developing drug resistance to most of the commonly used drugs. This drug resistance might be due to defective mismatch repair in the parasite. Previously we have reported that the P. falciparum genome contains homologues to most of the components of mismatch repair (MMR) complex. In the present study we report the detailed biochemical characterization of one of the main component of MMR complex, MLH, from P. falciparum. Our results show that MLH is an ATPase and it can incise covalently closed circular DNA in the presence of Mn(2+) or Mg(2+) ions. Using the truncated derivatives we show that full length protein MLH is required for all the enzymatic activities. Using immunodepletion assays we further show that the ATPase and endomuclease activities are attributable to PfMLH protein. Using immunofluorescence assay we report that the peak expression of MLH in both 3D7 and Dd2 strains of P. falciparum is mainly in the schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic development, where DNA replication is active. MMR also contributes to the overall fidelity of DNA replication and the peak expression of MLH in the schizont stages suggests that MLH is most likely involved in correcting the mismatches occurring during replication. This study should make a significant contribution in our better understanding of DNA metabolic processes in the parasite.

  4. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, K A; Awburn, M M; Cowden, W B; Clark, I A

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro susceptibility of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to killing by nitric oxide and related molecules. A saturated solution of nitric oxide did not inhibit parasite growth, but two oxidation products of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate ions) were toxic to the parasite in millimolar concentrations. Nitrosothiol derivatives of cysteine and glutathione were found to be about a thousand times more active (50% growth inhibitory concentration, approximately 40 microM) than nitrite. PMID:1879941

  5. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  6. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum-Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    liver and erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. If successful, it will establish for the first time that DNA vaccines can protect non- human primates, a...of the Institute of Laboratory Resources, National Research Council (NIH Publication No. 86-23, Revised 1985). For the protection of human subjects...essential that new drugs be evaluated in the preclinical Aotus model for their potential usefulness against human infections. Initially, antimalarial

  7. Drug Evaluation in the Plasmodium Falciparum-Aotus Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    with. drug resistant P. falciparum, chloroquine resist ance-l R) was reversed by chlorpromazine and prochlorperazine. Both water-insoluble and soluble...Animals of the Institute of Laboratory Resources, National Research Council (NIH Publication No. 86-23, Revised 1985) For the protection of human sub...new drugs be evaluated in the preclinical Aotus model for their potential usefulness against human infections. Initially, antimalarial drug studies

  8. A Novel Virulence Strategy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by an Autotransporter with Arginine-Specific Aminopeptidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Chase; AbuOun, Manal; Wright, Victoria; Paredes-Osses, Esteban; Ward, Jenny; Goto, Hana; Heeb, Stephan; Pommier, Stéphanie; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Cámara, Miguel; Hardie, Kim R.

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is a major cause of infections in chronic wounds, burns and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. The P. aeruginosa genome encodes at least three proteins exhibiting the characteristic three domain structure of autotransporters, but much remains to be understood about the functions of these three proteins and their role in pathogenicity. Autotransporters are the largest family of secreted proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, and those characterised are virulence factors. Here, we demonstrate that the PA0328 autotransporter is a cell-surface tethered, arginine-specific aminopeptidase, and have defined its active site by site directed mutagenesis. Hence, we have assigned PA0328 with the name AaaA, for arginine-specific autotransporter of P. aeruginosa. We show that AaaA provides a fitness advantage in environments where the sole source of nitrogen is peptides with an aminoterminal arginine, and that this could be important for establishing an infection, as the lack of AaaA led to attenuation in a mouse chronic wound infection which correlated with lower levels of the cytokines TNFα, IL-1α, KC and COX-2. Consequently AaaA is an important virulence factor playing a significant role in the successful establishment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:22927813

  9. Effects of orchidectomy and testosterone replacement on mouse enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase activity in the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2003-12-01

    Opiates are involved in the regulation of several functions in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under physiological conditions. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of orchidectomy and testosterone (T) replacement on soluble (S) and membrane bound (MB) enkephalin-degrading aminopeptidase (EDA) activities in the HPA axis. Forty male mice (Balb/C) were distributed in five groups: sham-operated control (C), orchidectomized (OR-C), and orchidectomized treated with increasing doses of T (3, 6 or 12 mg/kg). In hypothalamus, orchidectomy did not modify either S or MB EDA, although T replacement increased S but not MB EDA. In pituitary, neither S nor MB EDA activities changed with orchidectomy, although both activities changed after T replacement. On the other hand, in adrenal glands, orchidectomy increased S and MB EDA activities, whereas T replacement returned both activities to control levels. These results suggest a direct effect of T in S and MB EDA activities and therefore, an influence on their endogenous substrates regulation.

  10. Calcium-dependent modulation by ethanol of mouse synaptosomal pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase activity under basal and K(+)-stimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Tsuboyama, G; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2000-11-03

    We studied the in vitro effects of ethanol (25, 50 and 100 mM) on pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase activity (pGluAP), which has been reported as thyrotrophin-releasing-hormone-degrading activity. pGluAP was measured in presence or absence of calcium, under basal and K(+)-stimulated conditions, in synaptosomes and their incubation supernatant, using pyroglutamyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. In basal conditions, in synaptosomes, pGluAP was inhibited by ethanol in a calcium-independent way. In the supernatant, the response differed depending on the concentration of ethanol. Depolarization with K(+) modified pGluAP in synaptosomes and supernatant depending on the presence or not of calcium. In synaptosomes, in absence of calcium, the activity was inhibited at the highest concentrations of ethanol. In contrast, in the supernatant, under depolarizing conditions, ethanol increases pGluAP in absence of calcium. These changes may be in part responsible of the behavioural changes associated to alcohol intake.

  11. Statistical optimization of cell disruption techniques for releasing intracellular X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis.

    PubMed

    Üstün-Aytekin, Özlem; Arısoy, Sevda; Aytekin, Ali Özhan; Yıldız, Ece

    2016-03-01

    X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (PepX) is an intracellular enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis NRRL B-1821, and it has commercial importance. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of several cell disruption methods on the activity of PepX. Statistical optimization methods were performed for two cavitation methods, hydrodynamic (high-pressure homogenization) and acoustic (sonication), to determine the more appropriate disruption method. Two level factorial design (2FI), with the parameters of number of cycles and pressure, and Box-Behnken design (BBD), with the parameters of cycle, sonication time, and power, were used for the optimization of the high-pressure homogenization and sonication methods, respectively. In addition, disruption methods, consisting of lysozyme, bead milling, heat treatment, freeze-thawing, liquid nitrogen, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Triton-X, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), chloroform, and antibiotics, were performed and compared with the high-pressure homogenization and sonication methods. The optimized values of high-pressure homogenization were one cycle at 130 MPa providing activity of 114.47 mU ml(-1), while sonication afforded an activity of 145.09 mU ml(-1) at 28 min with 91% power and three cycles. In conclusion, sonication was the more effective disruption method, and its optimal operation parameters were manifested for the release of intracellular enzyme from a L. lactis spp. lactis strain, which is a Gram-positive bacterium.

  12. Efficient inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and growth by a synthetic peptide blocking S100A4-methionine aminopeptidase 2 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ochiya, Takahiro; Takenaga, Keizo; Asagiri, Masataka; Nakano, Kazumi; Satoh, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Endo, Hideya

    2015-01-01

    The prometastatic calcium-binding protein, S100A4, is expressed in endothelial cells, and its downregulation markedly suppresses tumor angiogenesis in a xenograft cancer model. Given that endothelial S100A4 can be a molecular target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, we addressed here whether synthetic peptide capable of blocking S100A4-effector protein interaction could be a novel antiangiogenic agent. To examine this hypothesis, we focused on the S100A4-binding domain of methionine aminopeptidase 2, an effector protein, which plays a role in endothelial cell growth. Overexpression of the domain in mouse endothelial MSS31 cells reduced DNA synthesis, and the corresponding synthetic peptide (named NBD) indeed interacted with S100A4 and inhibited capillary formation in vitro and new blood vessel formation in vivo. Intriguingly, a single intra-tumor administration of the NBD peptide in human prostate cancer xenografts significantly reduced vascularity, resulting in tumor regression. Mechanistically, the NBD peptide enhanced assembly of nonmuscle myosin IIA filaments along with Ser1943 phosphorylation, stimulated formation of focal adhesions without phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, and provoked G1/S arrest of the cell cycle. Altogether, the NBD peptide is a potent inhibitor for tumor angiogenesis, and is the first example of an anticancer peptide drug developed on the basis of an endothelial S100A4-targeted strategy. PMID:26029719

  13. Bestatin, an inhibitor for aminopeptidases, modulates the production of cytokines and chemokines by activated monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lkhagvaa, Battur; Tani, Kenji; Sato, Keiko; Toyoda, Yuko; Suzuka, Chiyuki; Sone, Saburo

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of bestatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, on the production of cytokines from peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). Human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were incubated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of bestatin. AM obtained from patients with sarcoidosis were incubated in the presence or absence of bestatin. The concentration of cytokines in the culture supernatant was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of mRNA was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Bestatin suppressed the production and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha by LPS-stimulated monocytes. The mean percentage of the inhibition of IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL3/MIP-1alpha by bestatin at a concentration of 50 microg/mL was 71.2%, 29.7% and 61.0%, respectively. On the other hand, bestatin increased the production and mRNA expression of IL-10 by LPS-stimulated monocytes. The treatment with bestatin significantly inhibited the production of IL-6 and CXCL8/IL-8 by AM from patients with sarcoidosis. The data presented here indicate that bestatin suppresses the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates the anti-inflammatory cytokine by activated human monocytes. This study suggests that bestatin may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent in various inflammatory diseases.

  14. Expression of leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3) correlates with prognosis and malignant development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Tian, Si-Yuan; Chen, Shou-Hua; Shao, Bing-Feng; Cai, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Yi-Long; Xu, Ai-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) were associated with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and/or angiogenesis. LAP3 is one important member of this family. However, its clinical significance and biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that LAP3 expression was significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues as well as cells and was closely correlated with lower differentiation, positive lymph node metastasis and high Ki-67 expression, indicating a poor prognosis. Then cell viability assays, flow cytometry assays, wound-healing assays and matrigel invasion assays were performed to demonstrate that LAP3 promoted HCC cells proliferation by regulating G1/S checkpoint in cell cycle and advanced HCC cells migration. Furthermore, we discovered that knockdown LAP3 will enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to cisplatin, thus promoting the cell death of HCC cells. Collectively, our results indicated that up-regulated expression of LAP3 might contribute to the proliferation and metastasis of HCC. Our data gains greater insight into the cancer-promoting role of LAP3 and its functions in HCC cells, possibly providing potential therapeutic strategies for clinical trials.

  15. Construction and evaluation of a chimeric protein made from Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase and cathepsin L1.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, K; Sahagún-Ruiz, A; Vallecillo, A J; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2016-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and cathepsin L1 (CL1) are important enzymes for the pathogenesis and physiology of Fasciola hepatica. These enzymes were analysed in silico to design a chimeric protein containing the most antigenic sequences of LAP (GenBank; AAV59016.1; amino acids 192-281) and CL1 (GenBank CAC12806.1; amino acids 173-309). The cloned 681-bp chimeric fragment (rFhLAP-CL1) contains 270 bp from LAP and 411 bp from CL1, comprising three epitopes, DGRVVHLKY (amino acids 54-62) from LAP, VTGYYTVHSGSEVELKNLV (amino acids 119-137) and YQSQTCLPF (amino acids 161-169) from CL1. The ~25 kDa rFhLAP-CL1 chimeric protein was expressed from the pET15b plasmid in the Rosetta (DE3) Escherichia coli strain. The chimeric protein rFhLAP-CL1, which showed antigenic and immunogenic properties, was recognized in Western blot assays using F. hepatica-positive bovine sera, and induced strong, specific antibody responses following immunization in rabbits. The newly generated chimeric protein may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of antibodies against F. hepatica in bovine sera and as an immunogen to induce protection against bovine fasciolosis.

  16. Antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin in mice are dependent on the presence of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Loyens, Ellen; De Bundel, Dimitri; Demaegdt, Heidi; Chai, Siew Yeen; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Gard, Paul; Smolders, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Oxytocin is a neuromodulator with antidepressant-like effects. In vitro, oxytocin is rapidly cleaved by insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Oxytocin metabolites are known to exert strong central activities that are different from the effects of the parent molecule. Our goal is to investigate in vivo whether IRAP deletion modifies the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice, IRAP wild-type (IRAP(+/+)) and knock-out (IRAP(-/-)) mice were injected subcutaneously with saline, oxytocin or oxytocin combined with angiotensin IV. One hour after injection, immobility was timed during a 5 min forced swim that was preceded by an open field to study locomotor behaviour. Oxytocin induced antidepressant-like effects in male (0.25 mg/kg oxytocin) and female (0.15 mg/kg oxytocin) C57Bl/6 mice subjected to the forced swim test. Oxytocin did not influence locomotor behaviour in mice, as shown with the open field. These findings were reproduced in transgenic male (aged 3-6 months) and female (aged 12-18 months) IRAP(+/+) mice. However, the major findings of our study were that the antidepressant-like effect was reversed in angiotensin IV treated IRAP(+/+) mice and was completely absent in age- and gender-matched IRAP(-/-) mice. The lack of an antidepressant-like effect of oxytocin in young male and middle-aged female IRAP(-/-) mice attributes an important role to IRAP in mediating this effect.

  17. Novel reversible methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) inhibitors based on purine and related bicyclic templates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Timo; Buchstaller, Hans-Peter; Cezanne, Bertram; Rohdich, Felix; Bomke, Jörg; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Krier, Mireille; Knöchel, Thorsten; Musil, Djordje; Leuthner, Birgitta; Zenke, Frank

    2017-02-01

    The natural product fumagillin 1 and derivatives like TNP-470 2 or beloranib 3 bind to methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP-2) irreversibly. This enzyme is critical for protein maturation and plays a key role in angiogenesis. In this paper we describe the synthesis, MetAP-2 binding affinity and structural analysis of reversible MetAP-2 inhibitors. Optimization of enzymatic activity of screening hit 10 (IC50: 1μM) led to the most potent compound 27 (IC50: 0.038μM), with a concomitant improvement in LLE from 2.1 to 4.2. Structural analysis of these MetAP-2 inhibitors revealed an unprecedented conformation of the His339 side-chain imidazole ring being co-planar sandwiched between the imidazole of His331 and the aryl-ether moiety, which is bound to the purine scaffold. Systematic alteration and reduction of H-bonding capability of this metal binding moiety induced an unexpected 180° flip for the triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimdine bicyclic template.

  18. The anti-angiogenic agent fumagillin covalently modifies a conserved active-site histidine in the Escherichia coli methionine aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, W. Todd; McMillen, Debra A.; Orville, Allen M.; Matthews, Brian W.

    1998-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) exists in two forms (type I and type II), both of which remove the N-terminal methionine from proteins. It previously has been shown that the type II enzyme is the molecular target of fumagillin and ovalicin, two epoxide-containing natural products that inhibit angiogenesis and suppress tumor growth. By using mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequence analysis, and electronic absorption spectroscopy we show that fumagillin and ovalicin covalently modify a conserved histidine residue in the active site of the MetAP from Escherichia coli, a type I enzyme. Because all of the key active site residues are conserved, it is likely that a similar modification occurs in the type II enzymes. This modification, by occluding the active site, may prevent the action of MetAP on proteins or peptides involved in angiogenesis. In addition, the results suggest that these compounds may be effective pharmacological agents against pathogenic and resistant forms of E. coli and other microorganisms. PMID:9770455

  19. Cerenkov luminescence tomography of aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) expression in mice bearing HT1080 tumors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhua; Yang, Weidong; Ma, Xiaowei; Ma, Wenhui; Qu, Xiaochao; Liang, Jimin; Wang, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2013-05-01

    In vivo imaging of aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) expression is crucial for the early detection of cancer. This study attempted to show that APN/CD13 expression can be imaged and quantified with novel Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT). Na131I with various activities was placed at different depths in a tissue-mimicking phantom, and various porcine tissues and luminescent images were acquired. The binding of 131I-NGR with human fibrosarcoma HT1080 and human colon cancer HT-29 cells was detected with Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI). Nude mice bearing HT-1080 tumors were imaged after injection with 131I-NGR using both planar and tomographic CLI methods. The penetration depth increased with ascending activity of Na131I. There was a robust linear correlation between the optical signal intensity and the HT1080 cell numbers (r2 = .9691), as well as the activity (r2 = .9860). The three-dimensional visualization CLT results clearly showed that 131I-NGR uptake in tumor tissues represented a high expression of the APN/CD13 receptor. CLT also allowed quantifying 131I-NGR uptake in tumor tissues showing an average activity of 0.1388 ± 4.6788E-6 MBq in tumor tissues. Our study indicated that 131I-NGR combined with CLT allowed us to image and quantify tumor-associated APN/CD13 expression noninvasively. The promising CLT technique could be potentially used for sensitively evaluating tumor angiogenesis in vivo.

  20. Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, L; Acosta, D; Basmadjian, I; Dalton, J P; Carmona, C

    1999-04-01

    The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.

  1. Vaccination with Cathepsin L Proteinases and with Leucine Aminopeptidase Induces High Levels of Protection against Fascioliasis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Piacenza, Lucía; Acosta, Daniel; Basmadjian, Isabel; Dalton, John P.; Carmona, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone. PMID:10085042

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin interaction with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N in a model membrane environment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, M A; Carroll, J; Travis, E R; Williams, D H; Ellar, D J

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin was shown to bind in a biphasic manner to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N (APN) present in a novel model membrane. Surface plasmon resonance analysis allowed the quantification of toxin binding to M. sexta APN in a supported lipid monolayer. The initial binding was rapid and reversible, with an affinity constant of 110 nM. The second phase was slower and resulted in an overall affinity constant of 3.0 nM. Reagents used to disrupt protein-protein interactions did not dissociate the toxin after high-affinity binding was attained. The initial association between Cry1Ac and APN was inhibited by the sugar GalNAc, but the higher-affinity state was resistant to GalNAc-induced dissociation. The results suggest that after binding to M. sexta APN, the Cry1Ac toxin undergoes a rate-limiting step leading to a high-affinity state. A site-directed Cry1Ac mutant, N135Q, exhibited a similar initial binding affinity for APN but did not show the second slower phase. This inability to form an irreversible association with the APN-lipid monolayer helps explain the lack of toxicity of this protein towards M. sexta larvae and its deficient membrane-permeabilizing activity on M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:9677328

  3. Microencapsulation of a recombinant aminopeptidase (PepN) from Lactobacillus rhamnosus S93 in chitosan-coated alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Azarnia, Sorayya; Lee, Byong H; Robert, Normand; Champagne, Claude P

    2008-02-01

    A recombinant aminopeptidase (90 kDa) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus S93 produced by E. coli was encapsulated in alginate or chitosan-treated alginate beads prepared by an extrusion method. This study investigated the effects of alginate, CaCl2, chitosan concentrations, hardening time, pH and alginate/enzyme ratios on the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and the enzyme release (ER). Chitosan in the gelling solution significantly increased the EE from 30.2% (control) to 88.6% (coated). This polycationic polymer retarded the ER from beads during their dissolution in release buffer. An increase in alginate and chitosan concentrations led to greater EE and lesser ER from the beads. The greatest EE was observed in a pH 5.4 solution (chitosan-CaCl2) during bead formation. Increasing the CaCl2 concentration over 0.1 M neither affected the EE nor the ER. Increasing hardening time beyond 10 min led to a decrease in EE and the alginate:enzyme ratio (3 : 1) was optimal to prevent the ER.

  4. A domain-specific marker for the hepatocyte plasma membrane: localization of leucine aminopeptidase to the bile canalicular domain

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence was used to establish a domain-specific marker for hepatocyte plasma membranes. In frozen sections of fixed rat liver (0.5-4 microns), antibodies directed against rat intestinal leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) recognized an antigen that was restricted to the bile canalicular plasma membrane. Fluorescence was not observed on the sinusoidal or lateral membranes, and intracellular staining was not detected. The liver antigen was identified as LAP, based on its chemical similarity to intestinal LAP. First, immunoprecipitation experiments using trypsin-solubilized intestinal LAP (G-200 fraction, 91% pure) established a correlation between the loss of LAP enzyme activity from the soluble fraction and the appearance in the specific immunoprecipitates of polypeptides migrating on SDS PAGE between 110,000 and 130,000 daltons. The antigen precipitated from a detergent extract of liver plasma membranes had the same electrophoretic mobility. Second, the chymotryptic map of the major band in the liver immunoprecipitate was similar to that of purified intestinal LAP. PMID:6304108

  5. Aminopeptidase N1 is involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxicity in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lin; Cui, Songhe; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Boyao; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with their hosts is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal activity. Previous studies support ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCC2/3) and one cadherin-like protein are Cry1Ac functional receptors in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). In this study, a combined one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting approach identified aminopeptidase N (APNs) as putative Cry1Ac binding proteins in the midgut brush border membrane of S. exigua larvae. Functional analyses by gene silencing of six different S. exigua APN genes (SeAPN1, SeAPN2, SeAPN3, SeAPN4, SeAPN5 and SeAPN6) showed that only suppression of SeAPN1 resulted in decreased larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin. These results support that SeAPN1 plays important functional role in Cry1Ac toxicity in S. exigua. PMID:28327568

  6. The crystal structure of superoxide dismutase from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Ian W; Brzozowski, Andrzej M; Brannigan, James A; Schnick, Claudia; Smith, Derek J; Kyes, Sue A; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Background Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are important enzymes in defence against oxidative stress. In Plasmodium falciparum, they may be expected to have special significance since part of the parasite life cycle is spent in red blood cells where the formation of reactive oxygen species is likely to be promoted by the products of haemoglobin breakdown. Thus, inhibitors of P. falciparum SODs have potential as anti-malarial compounds. As a step towards their development we have determined the crystal structure of the parasite's cytosolic iron superoxide dismutase. Results The cytosolic iron superoxide dismutase from P. falciparum (PfFeSOD) has been overexpressed in E. coli in a catalytically active form. Its crystal structure has been solved by molecular replacement and refined against data extending to 2.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-domain organisation and an iron centre in which the metal is coordinated by three histidines, an aspartate and a solvent molecule. Consistent with ultracentrifugation analysis the enzyme is a dimer in which a hydrogen bonding lattice links the two active centres. Conclusion The tertiary structure of PfFeSOD is very similar to those of a number of other iron-and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutases, moreover the active site residues are conserved suggesting a common mechanism of action. Comparison of the dimer interfaces of PfFeSOD with the human manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase reveals a number of differences, which may underpin the design of parasite-selective superoxide dismutase inhibitors. PMID:17020617

  7. Gene copy number variation throughout the Plasmodium falciparum genome.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Ian H; Gomez-Escobar, Natalia; Carret, Celine K; Ivens, Alasdair; Stewart, Lindsay B; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Conway, David J

    2009-08-04

    Gene copy number variation (CNV) is responsible for several important phenotypes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, including drug resistance, loss of infected erythrocyte cytoadherence and alteration of receptor usage for erythrocyte invasion. Despite the known effects of CNV, little is known about its extent throughout the genome. We performed a whole-genome survey of CNV genes in P. falciparum using comparative genome hybridisation of a diverse set of 16 laboratory culture-adapted isolates to a custom designed high density Affymetrix GeneChip array. Overall, 186 genes showed hybridisation signals consistent with deletion or amplification in one or more isolate. There is a strong association of CNV with gene length, genomic location, and low orthology to genes in other Plasmodium species. Sub-telomeric regions of all chromosomes are strongly associated with CNV genes independent from members of previously described multigene families. However, approximately 40% of CNV genes were located in more central regions of the chromosomes. Among the previously undescribed CNV genes, several that are of potential phenotypic relevance are identified. CNV represents a major form of genetic variation within the P. falciparum genome; the distribution of gene features indicates the involvement of highly non-random mutational and selective processes. Additional studies should be directed at examining CNV in natural parasite populations to extend conclusions to clinical settings.

  8. Preerythrocytic, live-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidates by design.

    PubMed

    VanBuskirk, Kelley M; O'Neill, Matthew T; De La Vega, Patricia; Maier, Alexander G; Krzych, Urszula; Williams, Jack; Dowler, Megan G; Sacci, John B; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Kneteman, Norman M; Heppner, Donald G; Murdock, Brant A; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Aly, Ahmed S I; Cowman, Alan F; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2009-08-04

    Falciparum malaria is initiated when Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the Plasmodium sporozoite stage during a blood meal. Irradiated sporozoites confer sterile protection against subsequent malaria infection in animal models and humans. This level of protection is unmatched by current recombinant malaria vaccines. However, the live-attenuated vaccine approach faces formidable obstacles, including development of accurate, reproducible attenuation techniques. We tested whether Plasmodium falciparum could be attenuated at the early liver stage by genetic engineering. The P. falciparum genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs) harbor individual deletions or simultaneous deletions of the sporozoite-expressed genes P52 and P36. Gene deletions were done by double-cross-over recombination to avoid genetic reversion of the knockout parasites. The gene deletions did not affect parasite replication throughout the erythrocytic cycle, gametocyte production, mosquito infections, and sporozoite production rates. However, the deletions caused parasite developmental arrest during hepatocyte infection. The double-gene deletion line exhibited a more severe intrahepatocytic growth defect compared with the single-gene deletion lines, and it did not persist. This defect was assessed in an in vitro liver-stage growth assay and in a chimeric mouse model harboring human hepatocytes. The strong phenotype of the double knockout GAP justifies its human testing as a whole-organism vaccine candidate using the established sporozoite challenge model. GAPs might provide a safe and reproducible platform to develop an efficacious whole-cell malaria vaccine that prevents infection at the preerythrocytic stage.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth coinfection in a semi urban population of pregnant women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Stephen D; Booth, Mark; Muhangi, Lawrence; Nkurunziza, Peter; Khihembo, Macklyn; Kakande, Muhammad; Sewankambo, Moses; Kizindo, Robert; Kizza, Moses; Muwanga, Moses; Elliott, Alison M

    2008-09-15

    Helminth infections and malaria are widespread in the tropics. Recent studies suggest helminth infections may increase susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infection. If confirmed, this increased susceptibility could be particularly important during pregnancy-induced immunosuppression. To evaluate the geographical distribution of P. falciparum-helminth coinfection and the associations between P. falciparum infection and infection with various parasite species in pregnant women in Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at baseline during a trial of antihelminthic drugs during pregnancy. Helminth and P. falciparum infections were quantified in 2,507 asymptomatic women. Subjects' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and geographical details were recorded. Hookworm and Mansonella perstans infections were associated with P. falciparum infection, but the effect of hookworm infection was seen only in the absence of M. perstans infection. The odds ratio [OR] for P. falciparum infection, adjusted for age, tribe, socioeconomic status, HIV infection status, and location was as follows: for individuals infected with hookworm but not M. perstans, 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.14); for individuals infected with M. perstans but not hookworm, 2.33 (95% CI, 1.47-3.69); for individuals infected with both hookworm and M. perstans, 1.85 (CI, 1.24-2.76). No association was observed between infection with Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris, or Strongyloides species and P. falciparum infection. Hookworm-P. falciparum coinfection and M. perstans-P. falciparum coinfection among pregnant women in Entebbe is more common than would be expected by chance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of this association. A helminth-induced increase in susceptibility to P. falciparum could have important consequences for pregnancy outcome and responses to P. falciparum infection in infancy.

  10. Sex-partitioning of the Plasmodium falciparum Stage V Gametocyte Proteome Provides Insight into falciparum-specific Cell Biology*

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Dingyin; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena; Mathias, Derrick K.; King, Jonas G.; Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Tripathi, Abhai; Goldowitz, Ilana; Graham, David R.; Moss, Eli; Marti, Matthias; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical gaps in malaria transmission biology and surveillance is our lack of knowledge about Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte biology, especially sexual dimorphic development and how sex ratios that may influence transmission from the human to the mosquito. Dissecting this process has been hampered by the lack of sex-specific protein markers for the circulating, mature stage V gametocytes. The current evidence suggests a high degree of conservation in gametocyte gene complement across Plasmodium, and therefore presumably for sex-specific genes as well. To better our understanding of gametocyte development and subsequent infectiousness to mosquitoes, we undertook a Systematic Subtractive Bioinformatic analysis (filtering) approach to identify sex-specific P. falciparum NF54 protein markers based on a comparison with the Dd2 strain, which is defective in producing males, and with syntenic male and female proteins from the reanalyzed and updated P. berghei (related rodent malaria parasite) gametocyte proteomes. This produced a short list of 174 male- and 258 female-enriched P. falciparum stage V proteins, some of which appear to be under strong diversifying selection, suggesting ongoing adaptation to mosquito vector species. We generated antibodies against three putative female-specific gametocyte stage V proteins in P. falciparum and confirmed either conserved sex-specificity or the lack of cross-species sex-partitioning. Finally, our study provides not only an additional resource for mass spectrometry-derived evidence for gametocyte proteins but also lays down the foundation for rational screening and development of novel sex-partitioned protein biomarkers and transmission-blocking vaccine candidates. PMID:25056935

  11. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria . We conducted blinded ex vivo activity...Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates... malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum refer- ence clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from

  12. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Londono, Berlin; Johnson, Dawn; Lafontant, Christina; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection. PMID:18257993

  13. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15–25 and 30–44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003–2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. PMID:26438030

  14. Lack of evidence for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed.

  15. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-12-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15-25 and 30-44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003-2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Possible clinical failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ernestina C; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  17. Amplification of a Gene Related to Mammalian mdr Genes in Drug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Craig M.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Wasley, Annemarie; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Wirth, Dyann F.

    1989-06-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains at least two genes related to the mammalian multiple drug resistance genes, and at least one of the P. falciparum genes is expressed at a higher level and is present in higher copy number in a strain that is resistant to multiple drugs than in a strain that is sensitive to the drugs.

  18. Lack of Evidence for Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Leogane, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed. PMID:22932030

  19. Possible Clinical Failure of Artemether-Lumefantrine in an Italian Traveler with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ernestina C.; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G.

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:22084655

  20. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in rainy season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Londono, Berlin; Johnson, Dawn; Lafontant, Christina; Krogstad, Donald J

    2007-10-01

    We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection.

  1. Induction of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) like activity with wounding and methyl jasmonate in pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan) suggests the role of these enzymes in plant defense in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Lomate, Purushottam R; Hivrale, Vandana K

    2011-06-01

    Aminopeptidases are ubiquitous in nature and their activities have been identified in several plant species. Leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are predominantly studied in solanaceous plants and are induced in response to wounding, herbivory and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). The functions of plant aminopeptidases are still under discussion and it is likely that the different classes play various roles. In the present study we report the local and systemic induction of LAP-like activity upon mechanical wounding and MeJA treatment. Two proteins with LAP-like activity were detected in pigeonpea leaves. They were designated as AP1 and AP2. AP1 activity was significantly induced upon wounding and application of MeJA. The estimated molecular masses of AP1 and AP2 were ∼ 60 and 41 kDa respectively in SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum for LAP-like activity in control leaf extracts was found to be neutral (pH 7.0) however the enzymes showed highest activity at alkaline pH (pH 9.0) in the leaf extracts of treated plants. The temperature optimum for LAP-like activity was around 40-50 °C. The enzymes were strongly inhibited by 1, 10 phenanthroline and bestatin. Heavy metal ions and EDTA inhibited LAP-like activities, whereas Mn(+2) and Mg(+2) activated the enzyme activities. Beside LpNA (33.5 U/mg/min) pigeonpea LAP-like enzymes also cleaved ApNA (15 U/mg/min) but were unable to cleave VpNA. Total proteolytic activity was also observed to be induced in treated plants. LAP-like activity was increased upto 19.5 fold after gel filtration chromatography. Results suggest that these enzymes may have functional defensive role in pigeonpea.

  2. Experimental evidence for a metallohydrolase mechanism in which the nucleophile is not delivered by a metal ion: EPR spectrokinetic and structural studies of aminopeptidase from Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Periyannan, Gopal Raj; Narayanan, Beena; Kittell, Aaron W.; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bennett, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Metallohydrolases catalyse some of the most important reactions in biology and are targets for numerous chemotherapeutic agents designed to combat bacterial infectivity, antibiotic resistance, HIV infectivity, tumour growth, angiogenesis and immune disorders. Rational design of inhibitors of these enzymes with chemotherapeutic potential relies on detailed knowledge of the catalytic mechanism. The roles of the catalytic transition ions in these enzymes have long been assumed to include the activation and delivery of a nucleophilic hydroxy moiety. In the present study, catalytic intermediates in the hydrolysis of L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine by Vibrio proteolyticus aminopeptidase were characterized in spectrokinetic and structural studies. Rapid-freeze-quench EPR studies of reaction products of L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine and Co(II)-substituted aminopeptidase, and comparison of the EPR data with those from structurally characterized complexes of aminopeptidase with inhibitors, indicated the formation of a catalytically competent post-Michaelis pre-transition state intermediate with a structure analogous to that of the inhibited complex with bestatin. The X-ray crystal structure of an aminopeptidase–L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucine complex was also analogous to that of the bestatin complex. In these structures, no water/hydroxy group was observed bound to the essential metal ion. However, a water/hydroxy group was clearly identified that was bound to the metal-ligating oxygen atom of Glu152. This water/hydroxy group is proposed as a candidate for the active nucleophile in a novel metallohydrolase mechanism that shares features of the catalytic mechanisms of aspartic proteases and of B2 metallo-β-lactamases. Preliminary studies on site-directed variants are consistent with the proposal. Other features of the structure suggest roles for the dinuclear centre in geometrically and electrophilically activating the substrate. PMID:17238863

  3. The heliothis virescens 170 kDa aminopeptidase functions as "receptor A" by mediating specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A delta-endotoxin binding and pore formation.

    PubMed

    Luo, K; Sangadala, S; Masson, L; Mazza, A; Brousseau, R; Adang, M J

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin binding and pore formation was investigated using a purified 170 kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) from Heliothis virescens brush border membranes. Aminopeptidases with molecular sizes of 110, 140 and 170 kDa were eluted from a Cry1Ac toxin affinity column using N-acetylgalactosamine. The 140 kDa aminopeptidase has a cross-reacting determinant typical of a cleaved glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. After mild base treatment to de-acylate the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linkage and incubation in phosphatidyl inositol phospholipase C, anti-cross-reacting determinant antibody recognized the 170 kDa protein. Kinetic binding characteristics of Cry1A toxins to purified 170 kDa APN were determined using surface plasmon resonance. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, but not Cry1C and Cry1E toxins recognized 170 kDa APN. Each Cry1A toxin recognized two binding sites: a high affinity site with KD ranging from 41 to 95 nM and a lower affinity site with KD in the 325 to 623 nM range. N-acetylgalactosamine inhibited Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab binding to 170 kDa APN. When reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles, the 170 kDa APN promoted toxin-induced 86Rb+ release for Cry1A toxins, but not Cry1C toxin. Furthermore Cry1Ac, the Cry protein most toxic to H. virescens larvae, caused 86Rb+ release at lower concentrations, and to a greater extent than Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins. The correlation between toxin-binding specificity and 86Rb+ release strongly suggests that the purified 170 kDa APN is the functional receptor A in the H. virescens midgut epithelial cell brush border membranes.

  4. CAN TREATMENT OF P. VIVAX LEAD TO A UNEXPECTED APPEARANCE OF FALCIPARUM MALARIA?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Daniel Philippe; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Chokejindachai, Watcharee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Supavej, Suvanee; McKenzie, F Ellis; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2008-01-01

    Of 994 patients admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases for P. vivax malaria, 104 (10.5%) experienced appearance of Plasmodium falciparum following drug treatment for P. vivax . In all patients, P. falciparum parasites were not found by microscopic examination upon admission. The mean time for P. falciparum appearance was 12.6 days after the commencement of chloroquine treatment. Patients experiencing appearance of P. falciparum. had significantly lower hematocrit, and greater initial P. vivax parasite counts. We use a mathematical model to explore the consequences of chloroquine treatment of such mixed infections. Both clinical results and features of the model suggest that such “hidden infections” may be quite common, and that the appearance of P. falciparum may be stimulated by treatment of P. vivax. PMID:11485096

  5. Refrigeration provides a simple means to synchronize in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lili; Hao, Mingming; Wu, Lanou; Zhao, Zhen; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Li, Xiaomei; He, Yongshu; Sun, Ling; Feng, Guohua; Xiang, Zheng; Cui, Liwang; Yang, Zhaoqing