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Sample records for falciparum malaria prevalence

  1. Plasmodium falciparum infection in febrile Congolese children: prevalence of clinical malaria 10 years after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapies.

    PubMed

    Etoka-Beka, Mandingha Kosso; Ntoumi, Francine; Kombo, Michael; Deibert, Julia; Poulain, Pierre; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Kobawila, Simon Charles; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the proportion of malaria infection in febrile children consulting a paediatric hospital in Brazzaville, to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection, to characterise Plasmodium falciparum infection and compare the prevalence of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria according to haemoglobin profiles. Blood samples were collected from children aged <10 years with an axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C consulting the paediatric ward of Marien Ngouabi Hospital in Brazzaville. Parasite density was determined and all samples were screened for P. falciparum by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the P. falciparum msp-2 marker to detect submicroscopic infections and characterise P. falciparum infection. Sickle cell trait was screened by PCR. A total of 229 children with fever were recruited, of whom 10% were diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria and 21% with submicroscopic infection. The mean parasite density in children with uncomplicated malaria was 42 824 parasites/μl of blood. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 1.59 in children with uncomplicated malaria and 1.69 in children with submicroscopic infection. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.1 ± 1.7 for children with uncomplicated malaria and 12.0 ± 8.6 for children with submicroscopic infection. About 13% of the children harboured the sickle cell trait (HbAS); the rest had normal haemoglobin (HbAA). No difference in prevalence of uncomplicated malaria and submicroscopic infection, parasite density, haemoglobin level, MOI and P. falciparum genetic diversity was observed according to haemoglobin type. The low prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in febrile Congolese children indicates the necessity to investigate carefully other causes of fever. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of PCR detectable malaria infection among febrile patients with a negative Plasmodium falciparum specific rapid diagnostic test in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Baltzell, Kimberly A; Shakely, Deler; Hsiang, Michelle; Kemere, Jordan; Ali, Abdullah Suleiman; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas; Omar, Rahila; Elfving, Kristina; Msellem, Mwinyi; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Rosenthal, Philip J; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2013-02-01

    We screened for malaria in 594 blood samples from febrile patients who tested negative by a Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein-2-based rapid diagnostic test at 12 health facilities in Zanzibar districts North A and Micheweni, from May to August 2010. Screening was with microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene (cytbPCR) of the four major human malaria species, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The prevalence of cytbPCR-detectable malaria infection was 2% (12 of 594), including 8 P. falciparum, 3 Plasmodium malariae, and 1 Plasmodium vivax infections. Microscopy identified 4 of 8 P. falciparum infections. Parasite density as estimated by microscopy or qPCR was > 4,000 parasites/μL in 5 of 8 cytbPCR-detectable P. falciparum infections. The infections that were missed by the rapid diagnostic test represent a particular challenge in malaria elimination settings and highlight the need for more sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tools to improve case detection of all human malaria species in febrile patients.

  3. Relationship between entomological inoculation rate, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence rate, and incidence of malaria attack in rural Gabon.

    PubMed

    Elissa, N; Migot-Nabias, F; Luty, A; Renaut, A; Touré, F; Vaillant, M; Lawoko, M; Yangari, P; Mayombo, J; Lekoulou, F; Tshipamba, P; Moukagni, R; Millet, P; Deloron, P

    2003-03-01

    To assess the relationships between variations of Plasmodium falciparum transmission and those of peripheral parasitaemia prevalence or malaria attack incidence rates in regions with limited fluctuations of transmission, we conducted a follow-up in two Gabonese populations. Entomological surveys were carried out from May 1995 to April 1996 in Dienga, and from May 1998 to April 1999 in Benguia. In Dienga, malaria transmission was seasonal, being not detected during two 3-month periods. Mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 0.28 infective bite/person/night. In Benguia, malaria transmission was perennial with seasonal fluctuations, mean EIR being 0.76 infective bite/person/night. In Dienga, 301 schoolchildren were followed from October 1995 to March 1996. Clinical malaria attack was defined as fever associated with >5000 parasites/microl of blood. P. falciparum prevalence varied from 28 to 42%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 30 to 169 per thousand. In Benguia, the entire population (122 persons) was followed from November 1998 to April 1999. Prevalence varied from 22 to 50%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 52 to 179 per thousand. In each area, entomological variations were not related to parasite prevalence, but preceded malaria attack incidence with 1- or 2-month time lag, corresponding to the pre-patency period that differs in the two populations, possibly according to differences in immunity related to parasite transmission.

  4. Defining the relationship between infection prevalence and clinical incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Ewan; Battle, Katherine E.; Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J.; Bisanzio, Donal; Mappin, Bonnie; Dalrymple, Ursula; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.; Griffin, Jamie T.; Wenger, Edward A.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Smith, Thomas A.; Penny, Melissa A.; Gething, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries health system data remain too weak to accurately enumerate Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. In response, cartographic approaches have been developed that link maps of infection prevalence with mathematical relationships to predict the incidence rate of clinical malaria. Microsimulation (or ‘agent-based') models represent a powerful new paradigm for defining such relationships; however, differences in model structure and calibration data mean that no consensus yet exists on the optimal form for use in disease-burden estimation. Here we develop a Bayesian statistical procedure combining functional regression-based model emulation with Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to calibrate three selected microsimulation models against a purpose-built data set of age-structured prevalence and incidence counts. This allows the generation of ensemble forecasts of the prevalence–incidence relationship stratified by age, transmission seasonality, treatment level and exposure history, from which we predict accelerating returns on investments in large-scale intervention campaigns as transmission and prevalence are progressively reduced. PMID:26348689

  5. Changing trends in prevalence of different Plasmodium species with dominance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Aligarh (India).

    PubMed

    Khan, Haris M; Shujatullah, Fatima; Ashfaq, Mohammad; Raza, Adil

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of malaria in Aligarh and analyze species dominance in different years over a decade. Diagnosis of malaria was done using microscopy as gold standard, rapid antigen detection assays and quantitative buffy coat (QBC) assays. Giemsa stained blood smear examination was done, thick and thin films were examined for presence of different Plasmodium spp. Rapid antigen detection assays employing detection of HRP-2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase antigen (pLDH) by immunochromatography was done in patients whose blood smear found to be negative by conventional Giemsa slide examination. QBC was done in cases where there is strong clinical suspicion of malaria with blood smear negative, in patients with chronic malaria, splenomegaly, or in those patients who had inadequate treatment and for post-treatment follow up. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were only species detected in our hospital. Overall prevalence of malaria in Aligarh was found to be 8.8%. The maximum prevalence of 20.1% was observed in year 2008 and lowest 2.3% in 2002. High prevalence of malaria is observed in this part of country with dominance of both species particularly Plasmodium falciparum should be monitored and factors accounting for occurrence should be studied to employ effective control measures. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An epidemiological study to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and malaria control measures in Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sié, Ali; Sirima, Sodiomon; Sylla, Khadime; Ndiaye, Mahmadou; Bountogo, Mamadou; Ouedraogo, Espérance; Tine, Roger; Ndiaye, Assane; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Faye, Babacar; Ba, El Hadji; Compaore, Guillaume; Tiono, Alfred; Sokhna, Cheikh; Yé, Maurice; Diarra, Amidou; Bahmanyar, Edith Roset; De Boer, Melanie; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Usuf, Effua Abigail

    2017-02-06

    Malariometric information is needed to decide how to introduce malaria vaccines and evaluate their impact in sub-Saharan African countries. This cross-sectional study (NCT01954264) was conducted between October and November, 2013, corresponding to the high malaria transmission season, in four sites with Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) [two sites with moderate-to-high malaria endemicity in Burkina Faso (Nouna and Saponé) and two sites with low malaria endemicity in Senegal (Keur Socé and Niakhar)]. Children (N = 2421) were randomly selected from the DSS lists of the study sites and were stratified into two age groups (6 months-4 years and 5-9 years). A blood sample was collected from each child to evaluate parasite prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species and gametocyte density by microscopy, and rapid diagnosis test in the event of fever within 24 h. Case report forms were used to evaluate malaria control measures and other factors. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 707 (29.2%) children, with a higher prevalence in Burkina Faso than Senegal (57.5 vs 0.9% of children). In Burkina Faso, prevalence was 57.7% in Nouna and 41.9% in Saponé in the 6 months-4 years age group, and 75.4% in Nouna and 70.1% in Saponé in the 5-9 years age group. Infections with other Plasmodium species were rare and only detected in Burkina Faso. While mosquito nets were used by 88.6-97.0 and 64.7-80.2% of children in Burkina Faso and Senegal, other malaria control measures evaluated at individual level were uncommon. In Burkina Faso, exploratory analyses suggested that use of malaria treatment or any other medication within 14 days, and use of insecticide spray within 7 days decreased the prevalence of malaria infection; older age, rural residence, natural floor, grass/palm roof, and unavailability of electricity in the house were factors associated with increased malaria occurrence. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children

  7. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum transmission reducing immunity among primary school children in a malaria moderate transmission region in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Paul, Noah H; Vengesai, Arthur; Mduluza, Takafira; Chipeta, James; Midzi, Nicholas; Bansal, Geetha P; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-11-01

    Malaria continues to cause alarming morbidity and mortality in more than 100 countries worldwide. Antigens in the various life cycle stages of malaria parasites are presented to the immune system during natural infection and it is widely recognized that after repeated malaria exposure, adults develop partially protective immunity. Specific antigens of natural immunity represent among the most important targets for the development of malaria vaccines. Immunity against the transmission stages of the malaria parasite represents an important approach to reduce malaria transmission and is believed to become an important tool for gradual elimination of malaria. Development of immunity against Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages was evaluated in primary school children aged 6-16 years in Makoni district of Zimbabwe, an area of low to modest malaria transmission. Malaria infection was screened by microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests and finally using nested PCR. Plasma samples were tested for antibodies against recombinant Pfs48/45 and Pfs47 by ELISA. Corresponding serum samples were used to test for P. falciparum transmission reducing activity in Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae mosquitoes using the membrane feeding assay. The prevalence of malaria diagnosed by rapid diagnostic test kit (Paracheck)™ was 1.7%. However, of the randomly tested blood samples, 66% were positive by nested PCR. ELISA revealed prevalence (64% positivity at 1:500 dilution, in randomly selected 66 plasma samples) of antibodies against recombinant Pfs48/45 (mean A 405nm=0.53, CI=0.46-0.60) and Pfs47 (mean A405nm=0.91, CI=0.80-1.02); antigens specific to the sexual stages. The mosquito membrane feeding assay demonstrated measurable transmission reducing ability of the samples that were positive for Pfs48/45 antibodies by ELISA. Interestingly, 3 plasma samples revealed enhancement of infectivity of P. falciparum in An. stephensi mosquitoes. These studies revealed the presence of antibodies with

  8. High prevalence of mefloquine-resistant falciparum malaria in eastern Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Fontanet, A. L.; Johnston, D. B.; Walker, A. M.; Rooney, W.; Thimasarn, K.; Sturchler, D.; Macdonald, M.; Hours, M.; Wirth, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the risk and predictors of mefloquine resistance we monitored a cohort of 113 patients in eastern Thailand who had been treated for uncomplicated falciparum malaria with a single dose of 15 mg/kg of the drug and followed up for 42 days. The overall treatment failure rate at day 42 was 59.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 50%, 68%) with only 2.7% of the patients being lost to follow-up. There were 6.4% RIII, 20.9% RII, 31.8% RI, and 40.9% sensitive responses, based on a modified WHO classification. A low haemoglobin level on the day of treatment and diarrhoea during the first two days after treatment were independent predictors of treatment failure. These findings remained statistically significant in a Cox proportional hazards model, after controlling for other baseline characteristics and adverse effects. Although a history of digestive disorders prior to treatment was associated with diarrhoea on day 2 (P = 0.024), it was in itself not a predictor of treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.35, 2.14). A total of 60 patients with an R response were hospitalized for 7 days to receive supervised treatment with quinine-tetracycline. Only three had a positive thick smear for asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum 14 days later, and quinine-tetracycline therefore remains a good alternative treatment for mefloquine-resistant falciparum malaria. PMID:8324857

  9. Prevalence of multiple drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Soni, Monika; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    Two numbers of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Gossingpara, Runikhata area in Chirang district of Assam had shown multiple mutations in Pfcrt-dhfr-dhps gene (up to seven mutations: One mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene and three mutations in Pfdhps gene). Similarly, two cases in Bat camp, Miao area under Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh had shown a total of eight mutations, of which one mutation in Pfcrt gene, three mutations in Pfdhfr gene, three mutations in Pfdhps gene and one mutation in PfATPase6 gene. One case in 3 Miles, Miao area of Changlang district has shown mutations in Pfcrt(one mutation), Pfdhfr(four mutations) and Pfdhps(three mutations) gene. These results indicated that there is an existence of multiple mutant P. falciparum malaria cases in northeastern region of India.

  10. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in a Residual Malaria Focus Area in Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Imwong, Mallika; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Saat, Muhammad Nor Farhan; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Jelip, Jenarun; Tikuson, Moizin; Yusof, Norsalleh; Rundi, Christina; Mudin, Rose Nani; Syed Mohamed, Ami Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP) were widely used for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum for several decades in Malaysia prior to the introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2008. Our previous study in Kalabakan, located in south-east coast of Sabah showed a high prevalence of resistance to CQ and SP, suggesting the use of the treatment may no longer be effective in the area. This study aimed to provide a baseline data of antimalarial drug resistant markers on P. falciparum isolates in Kota Marudu located in the north-east coast of Sabah. Mutations on genes associated with CQ (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP (pfdhps and pfdhfr) were assessed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations on the kelch13 marker (K13) associated with artemisinin resistance were determined by DNA sequencing technique. The assessment of pfmdr1 copy number variation associated with mefloquine resistant was done by real-time PCR technique. A low prevalence (6.9%) was indicated for both pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y mutations. All P. falciparum isolates harboured the pfdhps A437G mutation. Prevalence of pfdhfr gene mutations, S108N and I164L, were 100% and 10.3%, respectively. Combining the different resistant markers, only two isolates were conferred to have CQ and SP treatment failure markers as they contained mutant alleles of pfcrt and pfmdr1 together with quintuple pfdhps/pfdhfr mutation (combination of pfdhps A437G+A581G and pfdhfr C59R+S108N+I164L). All P. falciparum isolates carried single copy number of pfmdr1 and wild type K13 marker. This study has demonstrated a low prevalence of CQ and SP resistance alleles in the study area. Continuous monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy is warranted and the findings provide information for policy makers in ensuring a proper malaria control. PMID:27788228

  11. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in a Residual Malaria Focus Area in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Imwong, Mallika; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Saat, Muhammad Nor Farhan; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Jelip, Jenarun; Tikuson, Moizin; Yusof, Norsalleh; Rundi, Christina; Mudin, Rose Nani; Syed Mohamed, Ami Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP) were widely used for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum for several decades in Malaysia prior to the introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2008. Our previous study in Kalabakan, located in south-east coast of Sabah showed a high prevalence of resistance to CQ and SP, suggesting the use of the treatment may no longer be effective in the area. This study aimed to provide a baseline data of antimalarial drug resistant markers on P. falciparum isolates in Kota Marudu located in the north-east coast of Sabah. Mutations on genes associated with CQ (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP (pfdhps and pfdhfr) were assessed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations on the kelch13 marker (K13) associated with artemisinin resistance were determined by DNA sequencing technique. The assessment of pfmdr1 copy number variation associated with mefloquine resistant was done by real-time PCR technique. A low prevalence (6.9%) was indicated for both pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y mutations. All P. falciparum isolates harboured the pfdhps A437G mutation. Prevalence of pfdhfr gene mutations, S108N and I164L, were 100% and 10.3%, respectively. Combining the different resistant markers, only two isolates were conferred to have CQ and SP treatment failure markers as they contained mutant alleles of pfcrt and pfmdr1 together with quintuple pfdhps/pfdhfr mutation (combination of pfdhps A437G+A581G and pfdhfr C59R+S108N+I164L). All P. falciparum isolates carried single copy number of pfmdr1 and wild type K13 marker. This study has demonstrated a low prevalence of CQ and SP resistance alleles in the study area. Continuous monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy is warranted and the findings provide information for policy makers in ensuring a proper malaria control.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Steele, R W

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old adolescent daughter of a missionary presented with fever and jaundice 1 week after returning from Africa. Examination of peripheral blood film revealed the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Therapy with oral quinine and doxycycline was curative. Diagnosis requires a travel history and a high index of suspicion. Because of the frequency of international travel, United States physicians need to be familiar with the presentation and management of imported P falciparum. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of chemoprophylaxis.

  13. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  14. Plasmodium prevalence and artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Canier, Lydie; Kim, Nimol; Khim, Saorin; Alipon, Sweet C; Chuor Char, Meng; Chea, Nguon; Dysoley, Lek; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Ménard, Didier; Kindermans, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-06

    Intensified efforts are urgently needed to contain and eliminate artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion. Médecins Sans Frontières plans to support the Ministry of Health in eliminating P. falciparum in an area with artemisinin resistance in the north-east of Cambodia. As a first step, the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and the presence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance were evaluated in two districts of Preah Vihear Province. A cross-sectional population-based study using a two-stage cluster sampling was conducted in the rural districts of Chhaeb and Chey Saen, from September to October 2013. In each district, 30 clusters of 10 households were randomly selected. In total, blood samples were collected for 1,275 participants in Chhaeb and 1,224 in Chey Saen. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was assessed by PCR on dried blood spots. Plasmodium falciparum positive samples were screened for mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene (PF3D7_1343700). The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was estimated at 1.49% (95% CI 0.71-3.11%) in Chhaeb and 2.61% (95% CI 1.45-4.66%) in Chey Saen. Twenty-seven samples were positive for P. falciparum, giving a prevalence of 0.16% (95% CI 0.04-0.65) in Chhaeb and 2.04% (95% CI 1.04-3.99%) in Chey Saen. Only 4.0% of the participants testing positive presented with fever or history of fever. K13-propeller domain mutant type alleles (C580Y and Y493H) were found, only in Chey Saen district, in seven out of 11 P. falciparum positive samples with enough genetic material to allow testing. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was low in both districts but parasites presenting mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene, strongly associated with artemisinin-resistance, are circulating in Chey Saen.The prevalence might be underestimated because of the absentees - mainly forest workers - and the workers of private companies who were not included in the study. These results confirm the need to

  15. Hemoglobin E Prevalence among Ethnic Groups Residing in Malaria-Endemic Areas of Northern Thailand and Its Lack of Association with Plasmodium falciparum Invasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lithanatudom, Pathrapol; Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Inti, Pitsinee; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kampuansai, Jatupol

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE). Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria.

  16. Hemoglobin E Prevalence among Ethnic Groups Residing in Malaria-Endemic Areas of Northern Thailand and Its Lack of Association with Plasmodium falciparum Invasion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Inti, Pitsinee; Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Svasti, Saovaros; Fucharoen, Suthat; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kampuansai, Jatupol

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE). Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria. PMID:26808200

  17. Congenital Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Melissa; Szymanski, Ann Marie; Slovin, Ariella; Wong, Edward C C; DeBiasi, Roberta L

    2017-01-11

    Congenital malaria is rare in the United States, but is an important diagnosis to consider when evaluating febrile infants. Herein, we describe a case of congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a 2-week-old infant born in the United States to a mother who had emigrated from Nigeria 3 months before delivery. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  19. Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Rick M.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2016-01-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins – the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) – the first-line treatments for malaria – are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in-vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in-vivo and in-vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance; identified its causal genetic determinant; explored its molecular mechanism; and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's ‘K13’ gene; is associated with an upregulated “unfolded protein response” pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins; and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent; test whether new combinations of currently-available drugs cure ACT failures; and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to Sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest. PMID:27337450

  20. Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Rick M; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-06-01

    For more than five decades, Southeast Asia (SEA) has been fertile ground for the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. After generating parasites resistant to chloroquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and mefloquine, this region has now spawned parasites resistant to artemisinins, the world's most potent antimalarial drugs. In areas where artemisinin resistance is prevalent, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs)-the first-line treatments for malaria-are failing fast. This worrisome development threatens to make malaria practically untreatable in SEA, and threatens to compromise global endeavors to eliminate this disease. A recent series of clinical, in vitro, genomics, and transcriptomics studies in SEA have defined in vivo and in vitro phenotypes of artemisinin resistance, identified its causal genetic determinant, explored its molecular mechanism, and assessed its clinical impact. Specifically, these studies have established that artemisinin resistance manifests as slow parasite clearance in patients and increased survival of early-ring-stage parasites in vitro; is caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parasite's K13 gene, is associated with an upregulated "unfolded protein response" pathway that may antagonize the pro-oxidant activity of artemisinins, and selects for partner drug resistance that rapidly leads to ACT failures. In SEA, clinical studies are urgently needed to monitor ACT efficacy where K13 mutations are prevalent, test whether new combinations of currently available drugs cure ACT failures, and advance new antimalarial compounds through preclinical pipelines and into clinical trials. Intensifying these efforts should help to forestall the spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance from SEA to sub-Saharan Africa, where the world's malaria transmission, morbidity, and mortality rates are highest.

  1. An outbreak of artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Jindakhad, Thantip; Kunasol, Chanon; Sutawong, Kreepol; Vejakama, Phisitt; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2015-11-30

    Artemisinin resistant falciparum malaria is an increasing problem in Southeast Asia, but has not been associated with increased transmission of the disease, yet. During a recent outbreak in 2014 in Ubon Ratchatani, Eastern Thailand, parasites from 101 patients with falciparum malaria were genotyped for antimalarial drug resistance markers. Mutations in the Kelch13 marker for artemisinin resistance were present in 93% of samples, mainly C580Y from 2 major clusters as identified by microsatellite typing. Resistance markers for antifolates and chloroquine were also highly prevalent. Most strains (91%) carried single copy number PfMDR1, suggesting sustained sensitivity to mefloquine, the partner drug in the local first-line artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). The high prevalence of artemisinin resistance in this recent malaria outbreak suggests but does not prove a causative role in increased transmission. Careful monitoring of ACT efficacy and additional genetic epidemiological studies are warranted to guide the public health response to the outbreak.

  2. Combating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Thu, Aung Myint; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Nosten, François H

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against all antimalarial drugs used against it: chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, quinine, piperaquine and mefloquine. More recently, resistance to the artemisinin derivatives and the resulting failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are threatening all major gains made in malaria control. Each time resistance has developed progressively, with delayed clearance of parasites first emerging only in a few regions, increasing in prevalence and geographic range, and then ultimately resulting in the complete failure of that antimalarial. Drawing from this repeated historical chain of events, this article presents context-specific approaches for combating drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. The approaches begin with a context of drug-sensitive parasites and focus on the prevention of the emergence of drug resistance. Next, the approaches address a scenario in which resistance has emerged and is increasing in prevalence and geographic extent, with interventions focused on disrupting transmission through vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and the use of new combination therapies. Elimination is also presented as an approach for addressing the imminent failure of all available antimalarials. The final drug resistance context presented is one in which all available antimalarials have failed; leaving only personal protection and the use of new antimalarials (or new combinations of antimalarials) as a viable strategy for dealing with complete resistance. All effective strategies and contexts require a multipronged, holistic approach. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. The Limits and Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Transmission: Implications for Malaria Control and Elimination Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Carlos A; Gikandi, Priscilla W; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Smith, Dave L; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control using appropriate combinations of interventions requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk. An evidence-based description of the global range of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity has not been assembled in almost 40 y. This paper aims to define the global geographic distribution of P. falciparum malaria in 2007 and to provide a preliminary description of its transmission intensity within this range. Methods and Findings The global spatial distribution of P. falciparum malaria was generated using nationally reported case-incidence data, medical intelligence, and biological rules of transmission exclusion, using temperature and aridity limits informed by the bionomics of dominant Anopheles vector species. A total of 4,278 spatially unique cross-sectional survey estimates of P. falciparum parasite rates were assembled. Extractions from a population surface showed that 2.37 billion people lived in areas at any risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2007. Globally, almost 1 billion people lived under unstable, or extremely low, malaria risk. Almost all P. falciparum parasite rates above 50% were reported in Africa in a latitude band consistent with the distribution of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Conditions of low parasite prevalence were also common in Africa, however. Outside of Africa, P. falciparum malaria prevalence is largely hypoendemic (less than 10%), with the median below 5% in the areas surveyed. Conclusions This new map is a plausible representation of the current extent of P. falciparum risk and the most contemporary summary of the population at risk of P. falciparum malaria within these limits. For 1 billion people at risk of unstable malaria transmission, elimination is epidemiologically feasible, and large areas of Africa are more amenable to control than appreciated previously. The release of this information in the public domain will

  4. Low Prevalence of Pfcrt Resistance Alleles among Patients with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Niger Six Years after Chloroquine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Salissou, Adamou; Zamanka, Halima; Biyghe Binze, Brigitte; Rivière, Taiana; Tichit, Magalie; Ibrahim, Maman Laminou; Fandeur, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance is widespread in Africa, but few data are available for Niger. Pfcrt haplotypes (aa 56–118) and ex vivo responses to CQ and amodiaquine were characterized for 26 isolates collected in South Niger from children under 15 years of age suffering from uncomplicated falciparum malaria, six years after the introduction of artemisinin-based combinations and the withdrawal of CQ. The wild-type Pfcrt haplotype CVMNK was found in 22 of the 26 isolates, with CVIET sequences observed in only three of the samples. We also describe for the first time a new CVINT haplotype. The ex vivo responses were better for CVMNK than for CVIET parasites. Pfcrt sequence data were compared with those obtained for 26 additional parasitized blood samples collected in Gabon, from an area of CQ resistance used as a control. Our findings suggest that there has been a significant decline in CQ-resistant genotypes since the previous estimates for Niger were obtained. No such decline in molecular resistance to CQ was observed in the subset of samples collected in similar conditions from Gabon. These results have important implications for public health and support the policy implemented in Niger since 2005, which aims to increase the efficacy and availability of antimalarial drugs whilst controlling the spread of resistance. PMID:25506465

  5. High Plasmodium falciparum longitudinal prevalence is associated with high multiclonality and reduced clinical malaria risk in a seasonal transmission area of Mali.

    PubMed

    Adomako-Ankomah, Yaw; Chenoweth, Matthew S; Durfee, Katelyn; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Keita, Abdoul S; Nikolaeva, Daria; Tullo, Gregory S; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K; Diakite, Mahamadou; Miura, Kazutoyo; Long, Carole A

    2017-01-01

    The effects of persistent Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection and multiclonality on subsequent risk of clinical malaria have been reported, but the relationship between these 2 parameters and their relative impacts on the clinical outcome of infection are not understood. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in a seasonal and high-transmission area of Mali, in which 500 subjects aged 1-65 years were followed for 1 year. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks, and incident malaria cases were diagnosed and treated. Pf infection in each individual at each time point was assessed by species-specific nested-PCR, and Pf longitudinal prevalence per person (PfLP, proportion of Pf-positive samples over 1 year) was calculated. Multiclonality of Pf infection was measured using a 24-SNP DNA barcoding assay at 4 time-points (two in wet season, and two in dry season) over one year. PfLP was positively correlated with multiclonality at each time point (all r≥0.36; all P≤0.011). When host factors (e.g., age, gender), PfLP, and multiclonality (at the beginning of the transmission season) were analyzed together, only increasing age and high PfLP were associated with reduced clinical malaria occurrence or reduced number of malaria episodes (for both outcomes, P<0.001 for age, and P = 0.005 for PfLP). When age, PfLP and baseline Pf positivity were analyzed together, the effect of high PfLP remained significant even after adjusting for the other two factors (P = 0.001 for malaria occurrence and P<0.001 for number of episodes). In addition to host age and baseline Pf positivity, both of which have been reported as important modifiers of clinical malaria risk, our results demonstrate that persistent parasite carriage, but not baseline multiclonality, is associated with reduced risk of clinical disease in this population. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering repeated parasite exposure in future studies that evaluate clinical malaria risk.

  6. High Plasmodium falciparum longitudinal prevalence is associated with high multiclonality and reduced clinical malaria risk in a seasonal transmission area of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Adomako-Ankomah, Yaw; Chenoweth, Matthew S.; Durfee, Katelyn; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Keita, Abdoul S.; Nikolaeva, Daria; Tullo, Gregory S.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K.; Diakite, Mahamadou; Long, Carole A.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of persistent Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection and multiclonality on subsequent risk of clinical malaria have been reported, but the relationship between these 2 parameters and their relative impacts on the clinical outcome of infection are not understood. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in a seasonal and high-transmission area of Mali, in which 500 subjects aged 1–65 years were followed for 1 year. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks, and incident malaria cases were diagnosed and treated. Pf infection in each individual at each time point was assessed by species-specific nested-PCR, and Pf longitudinal prevalence per person (PfLP, proportion of Pf-positive samples over 1 year) was calculated. Multiclonality of Pf infection was measured using a 24-SNP DNA barcoding assay at 4 time-points (two in wet season, and two in dry season) over one year. PfLP was positively correlated with multiclonality at each time point (all r≥0.36; all P≤0.011). When host factors (e.g., age, gender), PfLP, and multiclonality (at the beginning of the transmission season) were analyzed together, only increasing age and high PfLP were associated with reduced clinical malaria occurrence or reduced number of malaria episodes (for both outcomes, P<0.001 for age, and P = 0.005 for PfLP). When age, PfLP and baseline Pf positivity were analyzed together, the effect of high PfLP remained significant even after adjusting for the other two factors (P = 0.001 for malaria occurrence and P<0.001 for number of episodes). In addition to host age and baseline Pf positivity, both of which have been reported as important modifiers of clinical malaria risk, our results demonstrate that persistent parasite carriage, but not baseline multiclonality, is associated with reduced risk of clinical disease in this population. Our study emphasizes the importance of considering repeated parasite exposure in future studies that evaluate clinical malaria risk. PMID:28158202

  7. Quantifying aggregated uncertainty in Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence and populations at risk via efficient space-time geostatistical joint simulation.

    PubMed

    Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Hay, Simon I

    2010-04-01

    Risk maps estimating the spatial distribution of infectious diseases are required to guide public health policy from local to global scales. The advent of model-based geostatistics (MBG) has allowed these maps to be generated in a formal statistical framework, providing robust metrics of map uncertainty that enhances their utility for decision-makers. In many settings, decision-makers require spatially aggregated measures over large regions such as the mean prevalence within a country or administrative region, or national populations living under different levels of risk. Existing MBG mapping approaches provide suitable metrics of local uncertainty--the fidelity of predictions at each mapped pixel--but have not been adapted for measuring uncertainty over large areas, due largely to a series of fundamental computational constraints. Here the authors present a new efficient approximating algorithm that can generate for the first time the necessary joint simulation of prevalence values across the very large prediction spaces needed for global scale mapping. This new approach is implemented in conjunction with an established model for P. falciparum allowing robust estimates of mean prevalence at any specified level of spatial aggregation. The model is used to provide estimates of national populations at risk under three policy-relevant prevalence thresholds, along with accompanying model-based measures of uncertainty. By overcoming previously unchallenged computational barriers, this study illustrates how MBG approaches, already at the forefront of infectious disease mapping, can be extended to provide large-scale aggregate measures appropriate for decision-makers.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic.

  9. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:26894117

  10. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae; Park, Yoonseon; Chang, Tae Ik; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kim, Seung Jun; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2012-04-01

    Glomerulonephritis occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Herein, we report a case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy for the first time. A 49-yr old male who had been to East Africa was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Microhematuria and proteinuria along with acute kidney injury developed during the course of the disease. Kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and IgA deposits with tubulointerstitial inflammation. Laboratory tests after recovery from malaria showed disappearance of urinary abnormalities and normalization of kidney function. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy.

  11. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  12. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rainy Season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Londono, Berlin; Johnson, Dawn; Lafontant, Christina; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection. PMID:18257993

  13. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in rainy season, Artibonite Valley, Haiti, 2006.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas P; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Londono, Berlin; Johnson, Dawn; Lafontant, Christina; Krogstad, Donald J

    2007-10-01

    We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection.

  14. [P. falciparum malaria related with travel: four cases].

    PubMed

    Güven, Tümer; Eser, Fatma Civelek; Yılmaz, Gül R; Güner, Rahmet; Taşyaran, Mehmet A

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is still an important public health problem in the world. Although the number of malaria cases in Turkey has been declining in recent years, the febrile patients with a history of travel to the endemic regions should raise the suspicion of malaria. P. vivax is the most common cause of malaria in Turkey; and those caused by other Plasmodium spp. are imported cases. Since P. falciparum malaria may cause fatal complications, urgent therapy is necessary. We hereby report four falciparum malaria cases with a history of travel to Sudan and Uganda.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Lu, Liang; Tian, Linwei; Zhou, Shuisen; Wu, Haixia; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female) for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is characterized by the predominance

  16. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Robertson, Joel D.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Shaw, George M.; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here, we developed a novel polymerase chain reaction based single genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in fecal samples of wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed, and almost always comprised of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas was comprised of parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin. PMID:20864995

  17. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Ionete-Collard, Denisa E; Mabika-Manfoumbi, Modeste; Kendjo, Eric; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Mavoungou, Elie; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2003-01-01

    Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57%) had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%)of them were primigravidae, 38 (40%) in their second pregnancy and 180 (64%) were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population. PMID:12919637

  18. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: reduction of endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Christoph Josef; Lehr, Hans Anton; Westphal, Kathi; Unverricht, Marcus; Kratzius, Manja; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2005-03-01

    Organ failure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with neutrophil activation and endothelial damage. This study investigates whether neutrophil-induced endothelial damage involves apoptosis and whether it can be prevented by neutralization of neutrophil secretory products. Endothelial cells from human umbilical veins were coincubated with neutrophils from healthy donors and with sera from eight patients with P. falciparum malaria, three patients with P. vivax malaria, and three healthy controls. Endothelial apoptosis was demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and annexin V staining. The rate of apoptosis of cells was markedly increased after incubation with patient serum compared to that with control serum. Apoptosis was most pronounced after incubation with sera from two patients with fatal cases of P. falciparum malaria, followed by sera of survivors with severe P. falciparum malaria and, finally, by sera of patients with mild P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and ulinastatin reduced the apoptosis rate, but gabexate mesilate and pentoxifylline did not. Furthermore, in fatal P. falciparum malaria, apoptotic endothelial cells were identified in renal and pulmonary tissue by TUNEL staining. These findings show that apoptosis caused by neutrophil secretory products plays a major role in endothelial cell damage in malaria. The antioxidants ascorbic acid and tocopherol and the protease inhibitor ulinastatin can reduce malaria-associated endothelial apoptosis in vitro.

  19. Minireview: Invasive fungal infection complicating acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Däbritz, Jan; Schneider, Markward; Just-Nuebling, Gudrun; Groll, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in people, affecting 5-10% of the world's population with more than two million deaths a year. Whereas invasive bacterial infections are not uncommon during severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, only a few cases of opportunistic fungal infections have been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of disseminated hyalohyphomycosis associated with acute P. falciparum malaria in a non-immune traveller, review the cases reported in the literature and discuss the theoretical foundations for the increased susceptibility of non-immune individuals with severe P. falciparum malaria to opportunistic fungal infections. Apart from the availability of free iron as sequelae of massive haemolysis, tissue damage, acidosis and measures of advanced life support, patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria also are profoundly immunosuppressed by the organism's interaction with innate and adaptive host immune mechanisms.

  20. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance markers to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine among pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Birungi, Josephine; Yanow, Stephanie K; Shokoples, Sandra; Malamba, Samuel; Alifrangis, Michael; Magnussen, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). A molecular epidemiological study of P. falciparum parasite resistance markers to SP was conducted from August 2010 to February 2012 in Mukono district in central Uganda. DNA was extracted from 413 P. falciparum-positive samples. Real-time PCR, followed by melting curve analysis, was used to characterize point mutations in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes that are associated with SP resistance. The prevalence of the single-nucleotide mutations in Pfdhfr at codons 51I, 59R, and 108N and in Pfdhps at codons 437G and 540E was high (>98%), reaching 100% fixation after one dose of SP, while the prevalence of 581G was 3.3% at baseline, reaching 12.5% after one dose of SP. At baseline, the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps quintuple mutations was 89%, whereas the sextuple mutations (including 581G) were not prevalent (3.9%), reaching 16.7% after one dose of SP. However, the numbers of infections at follow-up visits were small, and hence there was insufficient statistical power to test whether there was a true rise in the prevalence of this allele. The overall high frequency of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps quintuple mutations throughout pregnancy excluded further analyses of possible associations between certain haplotypes and the risk of lower birth weight and anemia. However, women infected with P. falciparum had 1.3-g/dl-lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.001) and delivered babies with a 400-g-lower birth weight (P = 0.001) compared to nonparasitemic women. Despite this, 44 women who were P. falciparum positive at baseline became negative after one or two doses of SP (i.e., 50.5%), implying that SP-IPTp still has some efficacy. P. falciparum resistance markers to SP are high in this population, whereas P. falciparum

  1. Immune activation during cerebellar dysfunction following Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    de Silva, H J; Hoang, P; Dalton, H; de Silva, N R; Jewell, D P; Peiris, J B

    1992-01-01

    Evidence for immune activation was investigated in 12 patients with a rare syndrome of self-limiting, delayed onset cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria which occurred 18-26 d previously. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 2 were all significantly higher in serum samples of patients during cerebellar ataxia than in recovery sera and in the sera of 8 patients who did not develop delayed cerebellar dysfunction following an attack of falciparum malaria. Cytokine concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were also significantly higher in ataxic patients than in controls. These findings suggest that immunological mechanisms may play a role in delayed cerebellar dysfunction following falciparum malaria.

  2. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Clements, Archie CA; Gething, Peter W; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of < 5%; areas with ≥ 5% prevalence were predominantly in the south. Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia. PMID:18717998

  3. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Clements, Archie C A; Gething, Peter W; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2008-08-21

    Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of < 5%; areas with > or = 5% prevalence were predominantly in the south. The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  4. The efficiency of sporozoite transmission in the human malarias, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax*

    PubMed Central

    Burkot, T. R.; Graves, P. M.; Cattan, J. A.; Wirtz, R. A.; Gibson, F. D.

    1987-01-01

    Reported are malaria sporozoite and inoculation rates over a 1-year period in eight epidemiologically defined villages of different endemicity in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. In the study, more than 41 000 wild-caught mosquitos were analysed for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites by ELISA. In a given village the entomological inoculation rates correlated strongly with the prevalences of both these malarial parasites in children. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum infections in children was much higher than that of P. vivax, despite similar inoculation rates for the two species. These data suggest that in Papua New Guinea P. falciparum is more efficiently transmitted than P. vivax from mosquito to man. The increased efficiency of transmission of P. falciparum may be due to the heavier sporozoite densities in wild-caught mosquitos naturally infected with P. falciparum sporozoites that were tenfold greater than the sporozoite densities in mosquitos infected with P. vivax. PMID:3311441

  5. A Locally Acquired Falciparum Malaria via Nosocomial Transmission in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Su; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kang, Young-A; Kwon, Jun-Wook; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    A 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. He had not traveled outside of Korea for over 30 years. Through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to Africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. We confirmed through molecular genotyping of the MSP-1 gene that Plasmodium falciparum genotypes of the 2 patients were identical. It is suggested that a breach of standard infection control precautions resulted in this P. falciparum transmission between 2 patients in a hospital environment. This is the first report of a nosocomial transmission of falciparum malaria in Korea. PMID:19724701

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Duffy-positive and Duffy-negative populations in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eugenia; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Zhong, Daibin; Zemene, Endalew; Degefa, Teshome; Tushune, Kora; Ha, Margaret; Lee, Ming-Chieh; James, Anthony A; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-02-19

    Malaria is the most prevalent communicable disease in Ethiopia, with 75% of the country's landmass classified as endemic for malaria. Accurate information on the distribution and clinical prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic areas, as well as in Duffy-negative populations, is essential to develop integrated control strategies. A total of 390 and 416 community and clinical samples, respectively, representing different localities and age groups across Ethiopia were examined. Malaria prevalence was estimated using nested PCR of the 18S rRNA region. Parasite gene copy number was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic samples, as well as between children/adolescents and adults from the local community. An approximately 500-bp segment of the human DARC gene was amplified and sequenced to identify Duffy genotype at the -33rd nucleotide position for all the clinical and community samples. Plasmodium vivax prevalence was higher in the south while P. falciparum was higher in the north. The prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria is the highest in children compared to adolescents and adults. Four P. vivax infections were detected among the Duffy-negative samples. Samples from asymptomatic individuals show a significantly lower parasite gene copy number than those from symptomatic infections for P. vivax and P. falciparum. Geographical and age differences influence the distribution of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. These findings offer evidence-based guidelines in targeting malaria control efforts in the country.

  7. Sickle Cell Trait and the Risk of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Other Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Thomas N.; Mwangi, Tabitha W.; Wambua, Sammy; Alexander, Neal D.; Kortok, Moses; Snow, Robert W.; Marsh, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Background The gene for sickle hemoglobin (HbS) is a prime example of natural selection. It is generally believed that its current prevalence in many tropical populations reflects selection for the carrier form (sickle cell trait [HbAS]) through a survival advantage against death from malaria. Nevertheless, >50 years after this hypothesis was first proposed, the epidemiological description of the relationships between HbAS, malaria, and other common causes of child mortality remains incomplete. Methods We studied the incidence of falciparum malaria and other childhood diseases in 2 cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. Results The protective effect of HbAS was remarkably specific for falciparum malaria, having no significant impact on any other disease. HbAS had no effect on the prevalence of symptomless parasitemia but was 50% protective against mild clinical malaria, 75% protective against admission to the hospital for malaria, and almost 90% protective against severe or complicated malaria. The effect of HbAS on episodes of clinical malaria was mirrored in its effect on parasite densities during such episodes. Conclusions The present data are useful in that they confirm the mechanisms by which HbAS confers protection against malaria and shed light on the relationships between HbAS, malaria, and other childhood diseases. PMID:15942909

  8. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles ...

  9. Validity of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to optimize falciparum malaria surveys in low-transmission areas.

    PubMed

    Rabarijaona, L; Rakotomanana, F; Ranaivo, L; Raharimalala, L; Modiano, D; Boisier, P; De Giorgi, F; Raveloson, N; Jambou, R

    2001-01-01

    To control the reappearance of malaria in the Madagascan highlands, indoor house-spraying of DDT was conducted from 1993 until 1998. Before the end of the insecticide-spraying programme, a surveillance system was set up to allow rapid identification of new malaria epidemics. When the number of suspected clinical malaria cases notified to the surveillance system exceeds a predetermined threshold, a parasitological survey is carried out in the community to confirm whether or not transmission of falciparum malaria is increasing. Owing to the low specificity of the surveillance system, this confirmation stage is essential to guide the activities of the control programme. For this purpose, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), which usually requires smaller sample sizes, seemed to be a valuable alternative to conventional survey methods. In parallel to a conventional study of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence carried out in 1998, we investigated the ability of LQAS to rapidly classify zones according to a predetermined prevalence level. Two prevalence thresholds (5% and 15%) were tested using various sampling plans. A plan (36, 2), meaning that at least 2 individuals found to be positive among a random sample of 36, enabled us to classify a community correctly with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94%. LQAS is an effective tool for rapid assessment of falciparum malaria prevalence when monitoring malaria transmission.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum and P. malariae epidemiology in a West African village.

    PubMed Central

    Boudin, C.; Robert, V.; Verhave, J. P.; Carnevale, P.; Ambroise-Thomas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. malariae was studied in a village in Burkina Faso. Consecutive captures of mosquitos were organized twice a month over a year and the species of the mosquitos identified. Also, the prevalences and densities of Plasmodium spp. were determined every 2 months in a sample of children who lived in the village. Anopheles gambiae, A. funestus, and A. nili were the local vectors, but only the first two played a predominant role in both P. falciparum and P. malariae transmission. The parasitological sporozoite index (SI) was 4.48% for A. gambiae and 4.22% for A. funestus. The immunological SIs were higher: 5.82% of A. gambiae were infected with P. falciparum and only 0.16% with P. malariae; the corresponding proportions for A. funestus were 6.45% and 0.41%. Transmission of Plasmodium spp. by A. gambiae was important during the rainy season (July-October) and by A. funestus at the beginning of the dry season (September-November). Each child in the study village could receive about 396 P. falciparum-infected bites per year but only 22 of P. malariae. The P. falciparum parasite indices were maximum during the middle of the rainy season (August), while those for P. malariae reached a peak during the dry season (February). PMID:1677615

  11. El Niño and variations in the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M; Brindle, R

    2009-12-01

    Malaria, both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, is a major cause of morbidity in Vanuatu. As P. vivax is more prevalent in seasonal climates and P. falciparum in areas of more consistent rainfall, it is postulated that there will be a correlation between the ratio of vivax:falciparum and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which affects sea surface temperatures and rainfall. With changes in global climate, the frequency, duration and strength of the ENSO are expected to alter, influencing the pattern of malaria. The data showed no obvious correlation between ENSO and either cases of malaria or the vivax:falciparum ratio.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine drug resistance among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in malaria endemic areas of Assam.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J; Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Soni, M; Dey, D; Mahanta, J

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antimalarial drug resistance malaria parasite is widespread in North eastern region of India. During January 2012-December 2013, we conducted active surveillance for detection of antifolate resistance-associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite from different malaria endemic areas of Assam. A total of 281 field samples were collected from suspected malaria patients of which 106 malaria P. falciparum positive cases were detected in microscopic slide examination. A nested PCR was done for amplification of a 648 bp portion of the dhfr gene and 710 bp portion of the dhps gene. Mutation analysis revealed existence of three different haplotypes of the P. falciparum dhfr gene of which ANRNI was highly prevalent (90%). Triple mutant haplotypes AIRNI (N51I+C59R+S108N) of the dhfr gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance were prevalent in Chirang district of Assam. Whereas, dhps mutation study revealed that triple mutant haplotype AGEAA (S436A+A437G+K540E) associated with Sulphadoxine resistance was found among 26% of P. falciparum field isolates. However, P. falciparum dhfr-dhps two locus mutation analysis showed that there were a total of nine dhfr-dhps genotypes. It was noticed that 93.62% (88/94) isolates had mutations in the sequences of both enzymes, which is an indication of prevalence of high grade of Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine resistance in P. falciparum malaria parasites in Assam.

  13. Malaria in pregnancy in rural Mozambique: the role of parity, submicroscopic and multiple Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    PubMed

    Saute, Francisco; Menendez, Clara; Mayor, Alfredo; Aponte, John; Gomez-Olive, Xavier; Dgedge, Martinho; Alonso, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Falciparum malaria affects pregnant women, especially primigravidae, but before malaria control programmes targeted to them can be designed, a description of the frequency and parity pattern of the infection is needed. There is little information on the frequency and effect of submicroscopic malaria infection, as well as on multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in pregnancy. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia and their relation to parity and age in pregnant women, during two malaria transmission seasons in a rural area of southern Mozambique. It also tried to assess the frequency and effect on anaemia of submicroscopic and multiple falciparum infections. A total of 686 pregnant women were enrolled in three cross-sectional community-based surveys during different transmission seasons in rural southern Mozambique. In each survey a questionnaire was administered on previous parity history, the gestational age was assessed, the axillary temperature recorded and both haematocrit and malaria parasitaemia were determined. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to determine submicroscopic and multiple P. falciparum infections in a subsample of women. A total of 156 women (23%) had microscopic parasitaemia, of which 144 (92%) were asexual forms of P. falciparum. The prevalence of clinical malaria was 18 of 534 (3%), that of anaemia, 382 of 649 (59%). In a multivariate analysis age but not parity was associated with an increased risk of microscopic parasitaemia. Anaemia was associated with microscopic P. falciparum parasitaemia. Both malaria parasitaemia and anaemia were more frequent during the rainy season. Although not statistically significant, submicroscopic infections tended to be more frequent among grand-multiparous pregnant women. Subpatent infections were not associated with increased anaemia. Multiplicity of infection was not associated with either

  14. Impact of long-lasting, insecticidal nets on anaemia and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among children under five years in areas with highly resistant malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Tokponnon, Filémon T; Ogouyémi, Aurore Hounto; Sissinto, Yolande; Sovi, Arthur; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Cornélie, Sylvie; Adéothy, Adicath Adéola; Ossè, Razaki; Wakpo, Abel; Gbénou, Dina; Oke, Mariam; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothée; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Akogbeto, Martin C; Massougbodji, Achille

    2014-03-01

    The widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) leads to the development of vector resistance to insecticide. This resistance can reduce the effectiveness of LLIN-based interventions and perhaps reverse progress in reducing malaria morbidity. To prevent such difficulty, it is important to know the real impact of resistance in the effectiveness of mosquito nets. Therefore, an assessment of LLIN efficacy was conducted in malaria prevention among children in high and low resistance areas. The study was conducted in four rural districts and included 32 villages categorized as low or high resistance areas in Plateau Department, south-western Benin. Larvae collection was conducted to measure vector susceptibility to deltamethrin and knockdown resistance (kdr) frequency. In each resistance area, around 500 children were selected to measure the prevalence of malaria infection as well as the prevalence of anaemia associated with the use of LLINs. Observed mortalities of Anopheles gambiae s.s population exposed to deltamethrin ranged from 19 to 96%. Knockdown resistance frequency was between 38 and 84%. The prevalence of malaria infection in children under five years was 22.4% (19.9-25.1). This prevalence was 17.3% (14.2-20.9) in areas of high resistance and 27.1% (23.5-31.1) in areas of low resistance (p=0.04). Eight on ten children that were aged six - 30 months against seven on ten of those aged 31-59 months were anaemic. The anaemia observed in the six to 30-month old children was significantly higher than in the 31-59 month old children (p=0.00) but no difference associated with resistance areas was observed (p=0.35). The net use rate was 71%. The risk of having malaria was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with LLIN use in both low and high resistance areas. The preventive effect of LLINs in high resistance areas was 60% (95% CI: 40-70), and was significantly higher than that observed in low resistance areas (p<0.05). The results of this study showed that the

  15. Impact of long-lasting, insecticidal nets on anaemia and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among children under five years in areas with highly resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) leads to the development of vector resistance to insecticide. This resistance can reduce the effectiveness of LLIN-based interventions and perhaps reverse progress in reducing malaria morbidity. To prevent such difficulty, it is important to know the real impact of resistance in the effectiveness of mosquito nets. Therefore, an assessment of LLIN efficacy was conducted in malaria prevention among children in high and low resistance areas. Methods The study was conducted in four rural districts and included 32 villages categorized as low or high resistance areas in Plateau Department, south-western Benin. Larvae collection was conducted to measure vector susceptibility to deltamethrin and knockdown resistance (kdr) frequency. In each resistance area, around 500 children were selected to measure the prevalence of malaria infection as well as the prevalence of anaemia associated with the use of LLINs. Results Observed mortalities of Anopheles gambiae s.s population exposed to deltamethrin ranged from 19 to 96%. Knockdown resistance frequency was between 38 and 84%. The prevalence of malaria infection in children under five years was 22.4% (19.9-25.1). This prevalence was 17.3% (14.2-20.9) in areas of high resistance and 27.1% (23.5-31.1) in areas of low resistance (p = 0.04). Eight on ten children that were aged six - 30 months against seven on ten of those aged 31–59 months were anaemic. The anaemia observed in the six to 30-month old children was significantly higher than in the 31–59 month old children (p = 0.00) but no difference associated with resistance areas was observed (p = 0.35). The net use rate was 71%. The risk of having malaria was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with LLIN use in both low and high resistance areas. The preventive effect of LLINs in high resistance areas was 60% (95% CI: 40–70), and was significantly higher than that observed in low resistance

  16. Malaria morbidity in Papua Indonesia, an area with multidrug resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Karyana, Muhammad; Burdarm, Lenny; Yeung, Shunmay; Kenangalem, Enny; Wariker, Noah; Maristela, Rilia; Umana, Ketut Gde; Vemuri, Ram; Okoseray, Maurits J; Penttinen, Pasi M; Ebsworth, Peter; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Richard N

    2008-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance has emerged to both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum and yet the comparative epidemiology of these infections is poorly defined. Methods All laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria in Timika, Papua, Indonesia, presenting to community primary care clinics and an inpatient facility were reviewed over a two-year period. In addition information was gathered from a house-to-house survey to quantify the prevalence of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of people with fever. Results Between January 2004 and December 2005, 99,158 laboratory-confirmed episodes of malaria were reported, of which 58% (57,938) were attributable to P. falciparum and 37% (36,471) to P. vivax. Malaria was most likely to be attributable to pure P. vivax in children under one year of age (55% 2,684/4,889). In the household survey, the prevalence of asexual parasitaemia was 7.5% (290/3,890) for P. falciparum and 6.4% (248/3,890) for P. vivax. The prevalence of P. falciparum infection peaked in young adults aged 15–25 years (9.8% 69/707), compared to P. vivax infection which peaked in children aged 1 to 4 years (9.5% 61/642). Overall 35% (1,813/5,255) of people questioned reported a febrile episode in the preceding month. Of the 60% of people who were estimated to have had malaria, only 39% would have been detected by the surveillance network. The overall incidence of malaria was therefore estimated as 876 per 1,000 per year (Range: 711–906). Conclusion In this region of multidrug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum, both species are associated with substantial morbidity, but with significant differences in the age-related risk of infection. PMID:18673572

  17. Estimating the Global Clinical Burden of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Snow, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of malaria makes surveillance-based methods of estimating its disease burden problematic. Cartographic approaches have provided alternative malaria burden estimates, but there remains widespread misunderstanding about their derivation and fidelity. The aims of this study are to present a new cartographic technique and its application for deriving global clinical burden estimates of Plasmodium falciparum malaria for 2007, and to compare these estimates and their likely precision with those derived under existing surveillance-based approaches. Methods and Findings In seven of the 87 countries endemic for P. falciparum malaria, the health reporting infrastructure was deemed sufficiently rigorous for case reports to be used verbatim. In the remaining countries, the mapped extent of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria transmission was first determined. Estimates of the plausible incidence range of clinical cases were then calculated within the spatial limits of unstable transmission. A modelled relationship between clinical incidence and prevalence was used, together with new maps of P. falciparum malaria endemicity, to estimate incidence in areas of stable transmission, and geostatistical joint simulation was used to quantify uncertainty in these estimates at national, regional, and global scales. Combining these estimates for all areas of transmission risk resulted in 451 million (95% credible interval 349–552 million) clinical cases of P. falciparum malaria in 2007. Almost all of this burden of morbidity occurred in areas of stable transmission. More than half of all estimated P. falciparum clinical cases and associated uncertainty occurred in India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Myanmar (Burma), where 1.405 billion people are at risk. Recent surveillance-based methods of burden estimation were then reviewed and discrepancies in national estimates explored. When these cartographically derived national

  18. Geographical patterns of malaria transmission based on serological markers for falciparum and vivax malaria in Ratanakiri, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, Karen; Sluydts, Vincent; Heng, Somony; Kim, Saorin; Pareyn, Myrthe; Willen, Laura; Canier, Lydie; Sovannaroth, Siv; Ménard, Didier; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2016-10-19

    Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, especially in low endemic countries, such as Cambodia. This results in geographical clusters of residual transmission in the dry, low transmission season, which can fuel the transmission to wider areas or populations during the wet season. A better understanding of spatial clustering of malaria can lead to a more efficient, targeted strategy to reduce malaria transmission. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of serological markers to define spatial patterns in malaria exposure. Blood samples collected in a community-based randomized trial performed in 98 high endemic communities in Ratanakiri province, north-eastern Cambodia, were screened with a multiplex serological assay for five serological markers (three Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax). The antibody half-lives range from approximately six months until more than two years. Geographical heterogeneity in malaria transmission was examined using a spatial scan statistic on serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rate data. Furthermore, to identify behavioural patterns or intrinsic factors associated with malaria exposure (antibody levels), risk factor analyses were performed by using multivariable random effect logistic regression models. The serological outcomes were then compared to PCR prevalence and malaria incidence data. A total of 6502 samples from two surveys were screened in an area where the average parasite prevalence estimated by PCR among the selected villages is 3.4 %. High-risk malaria pockets were observed adjacent to the 'Tonle San River' and neighbouring Vietnam for all three sets of data (serology, PCR prevalence and malaria incidence rates). The main risk factors for all P. falciparum antigens and P. vivax MSP1.19 are age, ethnicity and staying overnight at the plot hut. It is possible to identify similar malaria pockets of higher malaria transmission together with the potential risk factors by using serology

  19. [Treatment of fulminant falciparum malaria with erythrapheresis].

    PubMed

    Rouvier, B; Maudan, P; Debue, J F; Joussemet, M; Roué, R

    1988-01-01

    Ten days after his return from Cameroon, a twenty-six year old Frenchman, serving on voluntary service overseas, presented with fulminant falciparum malaria: shock, altered consciousness, haemolytic anaemia, threatening disseminated coagulation (platelets less than 150 X 10(-6).l-1; prothrombin time and Stuart factor less than 50%; fibrinogen less than 1.5 g.l-1). In spite of quinine therapy, parasitaemia increased from 4 to 35% within 24 h. Using an Haemonetics V50, the exchange of one and a half red blood cell masses was carried out with 17 red blood cell packs. Calcium gluconate was used to prevent the hypocalcaemia induced by the anticoagulant solution. The patient's platelets and plasma were completely reinjected. The result was very satisfactory. This kind of exchange, well tolerated clinically and biologically, would seem better than the classical exchange transfusion. When 10% of the red blood cells are infected by Plasmodium falciparum, it is necessary to exchange from one and a half to two blood masses. Lesser exchanges are always associated with important relapses and quinine therapy must be carried on during and after the exchange. Restricting this exchange only to red blood cells enabled the patient to benefit from his own coagulation factors, antibodies and platelets, and consequently to reduce the number of blood donors involved. However, metabolites (especially bilirubin and circulating immune complexes) were not eliminated. Partial plasmapheresis may be associated with erythropheresis using human albumin as plasma substitute. This technique needs to be assessed, in order to optimize immediate efficiency and post-transfusion infectious risk.

  20. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbayi, Adebola M; Bolaji, Oloyede S; Akindele, Akeem A; Adefioye, Olusegun A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%), hookworm (5.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.6%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9%) and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%). For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9%) were more infected than males (2.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978). Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359) were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria. PMID:22091292

  1. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to chloroquine is widespread in eastern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rab, M A; Freeman, T W; Durrani, N; de Poerck, D; Rowland, M W

    2001-01-01

    After two decades of war and conflict in Afghanistan, the public-health system is in disarray and malaria has re-emerged as a major disease, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria becoming increasingly common. The limited healthcare services that are available are mainly delivered by non-governmental organizations in collaboration with the Ministry of Health. Although chloroquine (CQ) remains the official first-line treatment against P. falciparum malaria, there is little information on the severity or distribution of resistance to this drug in Afghanistan. In-vivo surveys, co-ordinated by the Malaria Reference Centre in Jalalabad, were therefore performed to determine the frequency and grades of CQ resistance in the three eastern provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar and Laghman. Of the 142 cases enrolled in the study, only 47 (33%) were sensitive. Most of the cases (55%) showed RI resistance but RII/RIII resistance was not uncommon (11%). The prevalence of resistance appeared similar in children and adults, in males and females, and in each of the three provinces investigated. Gametocyte carriage post-treatment was elevated in the resistant cases. As in neighbouring Pakistan, the resurgence of P. falciparum in Afghanistan is probably associated with the transmission and spread of chloroquine-resistant strains. The first-line therapy used against P. falciparum malaria must be changed in order to reverse this trend.

  2. Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Krisin; Asih, Puji; Sekartuti; Dewi, Rita M; Coutrier, Farah; Rozy, Ismail E; Susanti, Augustina I; Elyazar, Iqbal RF; Sutamihardja, Awalludin; Rahmat, Agus; Kinzer, Michael; Rogers, William O

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed. PMID:19134197

  3. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  4. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Two cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Netherlands without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country.

    PubMed

    Arends, Joop E; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen M; Kaan, Jan A; Fanoy, Ewout B; Haas, Pieter-Jan; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Sankatsing, Sanjay U C

    2013-09-01

    Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered.

  6. Two Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Netherlands without Recent Travel to a Malaria-Endemic Country

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Joop E.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen M.; Kaan, Jan A.; Fanoy, Ewout B.; Haas, Pieter-Jan; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Sankatsing, Sanjay U. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered. PMID:23857021

  7. Urinary bile casts in bile cast nephropathy secondary to severe falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Ashok Kumar; Karua, Purna Chandra; Bariha, Prafulla Kumar; Rath, Ashutosh; Aggrawal, Kailash Chandra; Nahak, Snigdha Rani; Gudaganatti, Santosh Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe cholestatic jaundice may complicate with bile cast nephropathy (BCN) causing severe acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigate BCN in severe falciparum malaria complicated with jaundice and AKI. Methods This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary health care institution with high prevalence of malaria. A cohort of 110 patients with falciparum malaria complicated with cerebral malaria, jaundice and AKI were enrolled. Species diagnosis was made from peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test. Severe malaria was diagnosed from WHO criteria. BCN was diagnosed with the detection of bile casts in urine or in biopsy. The recovery pattern and outcome with and without BCN was assessed. Results Out of 110 patients, 20 (18.2%) patients had BCN and 15 (13.6%) patients had hepato-renal syndrome. Patients with BCN had high conjugated bilirubin (26.5 ± 4.1 mg/dL), urea (75.9 ± 10.3 mg/dL) and creatinine (7.2 ± 0.8 mg/dL), longer duration of illness (6.4 ± 1.1 days), higher mortality (25.0%) and prolonged recovery time of hepatic (9.6 ± 2.4 days) and renal dysfunction (15.1 ± 6.5 days) compared with patients without BCN. Conclusions Prolonged duration of illness and increased bilirubin cause BCN among patients with severe falciparum malaria with jaundice and AKI, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. PMID:27478612

  8. Hemoglobinopathies: slicing the Gordian knot of Plasmodium falciparum malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve M; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits--including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia--are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a "natural experiment" to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the "Gordian knot" of host and parasite

  9. Hemoglobinopathies: Slicing the Gordian Knot of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve M.; Cerami, Carla; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria kills over 500,000 children every year and has been a scourge of humans for millennia. Owing to the co-evolution of humans and P. falciparum parasites, the human genome is imprinted with polymorphisms that not only confer innate resistance to falciparum malaria, but also cause hemoglobinopathies. These genetic traits—including hemoglobin S (HbS), hemoglobin C (HbC), and α-thalassemia—are the most common monogenic human disorders and can confer remarkable degrees of protection from severe, life-threatening falciparum malaria in African children: the risk is reduced 70% by homozygous HbC and 90% by heterozygous HbS (sickle-cell trait). Importantly, this protection is principally present for severe disease and largely absent for P. falciparum infection, suggesting that these hemoglobinopathies specifically neutralize the parasite's in vivo mechanisms of pathogenesis. These hemoglobin variants thus represent a “natural experiment” to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which P. falciparum produces clinical morbidity, which remain partially obscured due to the complexity of interactions between this parasite and its human host. Multiple lines of evidence support a restriction of parasite growth by various hemoglobinopathies, and recent data suggest this phenomenon may result from host microRNA interference with parasite metabolism. Multiple hemoglobinopathies mitigate the pathogenic potential of parasites by interfering with the export of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of the host red blood cell. Few studies have investigated their effects upon the activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, although recent murine studies suggest a role for heme oxygenase-1 in protection. Ultimately, the identification of mechanisms of protection and pathogenesis can inform future therapeutics and preventive measures. Hemoglobinopathies slice the “Gordian knot” of host and parasite

  10. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: A rare complication of plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Atul; Singh, DP; Kaur, Gurdeep; Verma, SK; Mahur, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, the most important of the parasitic diseases of humans, is transmitted in 108 countries containing 3 billion people and causes nearly 1 million deaths each year. With the re-emergence of malaria various life-threatening complications of malaria have been observed. Unarousable coma/cerebral malaria, severe normochromic, normocytic anemia, renal failure, pulmonary edema/adult respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglycemia, hypotension/shock, bleeding/disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hemoglobinuria and jaundice are few of the common complications of severe malaria. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) has been reported as a rare complication of malaria. We report a rare and unique case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria complicated by DIC, severe normocytic normochromic anemia, and SPG. PMID:26629458

  11. Direct detection of falciparum and non-falciparum malaria DNA from a drop of blood with high sensitivity by the dried-LAMP system.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Simukoko, Humphrey; Simuunza, Martin; Ndebe, Joseph; Chota, Amos; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2017-01-13

    Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system (CZC-LAMP) was applied to the diagnosis of malaria as simple, rapid and highly sensitive method as an alternative for conventional RDTs in malaria endemic areas where laboratory resources are limited. LAMP primer sets for mitochondria DNAs of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and human-infective species other than Pf (non-Pf; P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae) were designed and tested by using human blood DNA samples from 74 residents from a malaria endemic area in eastern Zambia. These malaria dry-LAMPs were optimized for field or point-of-care operations, and evaluated in the field at a malaria endemic area in Zambia with 96 human blood samples. To determine the sensitivities and specificities, results obtained by the on-site LAMP diagnosis were compared with those by the nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing of its product. The dry LAMPs showed the sensitivities of 89.7% for Pf and 85.7% for non-Pf, and the specificities of 97.2% for Pf and 100% for non-Pf, with purified blood DNA samples. The direct blood LAMP diagnostic methods, in which 1 μl of anticoagulated blood were used as the template, showed the sensitivities of 98.1% for Pf, 92.1% for non-Pf, and the specificities of 98.1% for Pf, 100% for non-Pf. The prevalences of P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale in the surveyed area were 52.4, 25.3 and 10.6%, respectively, indicating high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in endemic areas in Zambia. We have developed new field-applicable malaria diagnostic tests. The malaria CZC-LAMPs showed high sensitivity and specificity to both P. falciparum and non-P. falciparum. These malaria CZC-LAMPs provide new

  12. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  13. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Parasite Survival in P. falciparum Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-08

    AD-A279 410 GRANT NO: DAMN17-89-Z-9003 TITLE: MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PARASITE SURVIVAL IN R. E&LEZjpAIM MALARIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR... Analysis of Parasite Survival Grant No. in P. Falciparum Malaria DAMDi 7-89- Z-9003 -6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey V. Ravetch, M.D., Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...consequences of genetic variation for parasite survival. Genetic polymorphisms in PRfalciparum were initially detected by pulsed-field gel analysis of intact

  14. The return of chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, Sydney; Joshi, Sudhaunshu; Nambozi, Michael; Chileshe, Justin; Malunga, Phidelis; Kabuya, Jean-Bertin Bukasa; Hachizovu, Sebastian; Manyando, Christine; Mulenga, Modest; Laufer, Miriam

    2016-12-05

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to malaria control and elimination. The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy. Many countries have observed decreases in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance with the discontinuation of chloroquine use. In Zambia, chloroquine was used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria until treatment failures led the Ministry of Health to replace it with artemether-lumefantrine in 2003. Specimens from a recent study were analysed to evaluate prevalence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in Nchelenge district a decade after chloroquine use was discontinued. Parasite DNA was extracted from dried blood spots collected by finger-prick in pregnant women who were enrolling in a clinical trial. The specimens underwent pyrosequencing to determine the genotype of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, the gene that is associated with CQ resistance. Three-hundred and two specimens were successfully analysed. No chloroquine-resistant genotypes were detected. The study found the disappearance of chloroquine-resistant malaria after the removal of chloroquine drug pressure. Chloroquine may have a role for malaria prevention or treatment in Zambia and throughout the region in the future.

  15. Age patterns of severe paediatric malaria and their relationship to Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity

    PubMed Central

    Okiro, Emelda A; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Reyburn, Hugh; Idro, Richard; Berkley, James A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background The understanding of the epidemiology of severe malaria in African children remains incomplete across the spectrum of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensities through which communities might expect to transition, as intervention coverage expands. Methods Paediatric admission data were assembled from 13 hospitals serving 17 communities between 1990 and 2007. Estimates of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in these communities were assembled to be spatially and temporally congruent to the clinical admission data. The analysis focused on the relationships between community derived parasite prevalence and the age and clinical presentation of paediatric malaria in children aged 0–9 years admitted to hospital. Results As transmission intensity declined a greater proportion of malaria admissions were in older children. There was a strong linear relationship between increasing transmission intensity and the proportion of paediatric malaria admissions that were infants (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). Cerebral malaria was reported among 4% and severe malaria anaemia among 17% of all malaria admissions. At higher transmission intensity cerebral malaria was a less common presentation compared to lower transmission sites. There was no obvious relationship between the proportions of children with severe malaria anaemia and transmission intensity. Conclusion As the intensity of malaria transmission declines in Africa through the scaling up of insecticide-treated nets and other vector control measures a focus of disease prevention among very young children becomes less appropriate. The understanding of the relationship between parasite exposure and patterns of disease risk should be used to adapt malaria control strategies in different epidemiological settings. PMID:19128453

  16. Prevalence of malaria among patients attending public health facilities in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Mutemba, Rosalia; Morgan, Juliette; Streat, Elizabeth; Roberts, Jacquelin; Menon, Manoj; Mabunda, Samuel

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a health facility-based survey to estimate the prevalence of malaria among febrile patients at health facilities (HFs) in Maputo City. Patients answered a questionnaire on malaria risk factors and underwent malaria testing. A malaria case was defined as a positive result for malaria by microscopy in a patient with fever or history of fever in the previous 24 hours. Among 706 patients with complete information, 111 (15.7%) cases were identified: 105 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum only, two for Plasmodium ovale only, and four for both P. falciparum and P. ovale. Fever documented at study enrollment, age ≥ 5 years, rural HF, and travel outside Maputo City were statistically significantly associated with malaria by multivariate analysis. We found a high prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria among febrile patients in Maputo City. Further studies are needed to relate these findings with mosquito density to better support malaria prevention and control.

  17. Refractory pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia due to falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Varun; Maheshwari, Anu; Rath, Bimbadhar; Kumar, Praveen; Basu, Srikanta

    2011-08-01

    Anemia is a common complication in malarial infection. Direct destruction and ineffective erythropoesis does not adequately explain the cause of anemia in malaria. We present a case with refractory megaloblastic anemia with asymptomatic falciparum malaria. We hypothesize that promoter variants in the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene might be the cause of severe refractory megaloblastic anemia and pancytopenia in our patient. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of anemia especially in endemic areas even if the child is asymptomatic or there is no demonstrable parasite on routine smear examination.

  18. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples.

  19. Skeletal muscle involvement in falciparum malaria: biochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Pongponratan, E; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Helliwell, T; Holloway, P; White, N J

    1999-10-01

    Biochemical evidence of skeletal muscle damage is common in malaria, but rhabdomyolysis appears to be rare. To investigate the relationship between serum creatine kinase and myoglobin levels, muscle histology, and renal function in Plasmodium falciparum infections, we studied 13 patients with uncomplicated malaria, 13 with severe noncerebral malaria, and 10 with cerebral malaria. A muscle biopsy specimen was obtained from each patient for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Mean serum creatine kinase concentrations +/- SD were raised but similar for the three groups (258 +/- 277, 149 +/- 158, and 203 +/- 197 U/L, respectively; P = .5). The mean serum myoglobin level +/- SD was highest in cerebral malaria (457 +/- 246 vs. 170 +/- 150 and 209 +/- 125 ng/mL in uncomplicated and severe malaria, respectively; P < .01) and correlated with the mean serum creatinine level (r = .39 for 36 patients; P = .02). The number of intravascular parasites, proportion of mature forms, and glycogen depletion were highest in biopsy specimens from patients with cerebral malaria. Myonecrosis was not observed. Muscle appears to be an important site for P. falciparum sequestration, which could contribute to metabolic and renal complications.

  20. Immunity to malaria and naturally acquired antibodies to the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, S L; Wistar, R; Ballou, W R; Hollingdale, M R; Wirtz, R A; Schneider, I; Marwoto, H A; Hockmeyer, W T

    1986-09-04

    A candidate Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine, R32tet32, which includes 32 tetrapeptide repeats derived from the circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum, has been developed on the basis of the hypothesis that antibodies to the repeat region of this protein will protect against sporozoite infection. The results of two in vitro assays, the circumsporozoite precipitation reaction and the inhibition of sporozoite invasion into hepatoma cells, are thought to indicate protective immunity. We therefore tested serum samples from persons living in a hyperendemic malarious area of Indonesia for antibodies against R32tet32 and for their ability to produce circumsporozoite precipitation and to inhibit sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cells. The prevalence and mean titer of antibody against R32tet32 increased with the age of the subjects, whereas the prevalence of P. falciparum infection in the community decreased. Only serum samples with IgG or IgM R32tet32 antibody titers greater than or equal to 1/800 had precipitation activity and invasion-inhibiting activity of more than 75 percent. When the serum samples were fractionated by affinity chromatography, only the fractions containing purified human antibody to R32tet32 were found to contain this activity. These data support the hypotheses that antibodies to the circumsporozoite protein are important in reducing the prevalence of malaria with increasing age among persons in areas in which malaria is endemic and that vaccine-elicited antibody to the circumsporozoite repeat region will protect against infection with P. falciparum sporozoites.

  1. Developmental impairments following severe falciparum malaria in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Julie A; Ross, Amanda J; Neville, Brian G R; Obiero, Elizabeth; Katana, Khamis; Mung'ala-Odera, Victor; Lees, Janet A; Newton, Charles R J C

    2005-01-01

    Neurological deficits are reported in children after cerebral malaria (CM) but little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of persisting neurocognitive consequences. The prevalence of developmental impairments following other complications of falciparum malaria, such as multiple, prolonged or focal seizures, is not known. Thus, our objective was to investigate the long-term developmental outcome of CM and malaria with complicated seizures (M/S). We followed up a cohort of children previously exposed to CM or M/S and children unexposed to either condition. All children between 6 and 9 years of age, exposed to CM, and an equal number of children exposed to M/S were identified from databases of hospital admissions from 1991 to 1998. The unexposed group was randomly selected from a census database. The children's performance was measured using assessments of cognition, motor, speech and language, hearing and vision. A parental questionnaire was used to identify children with epilepsy. CM group scores were significantly lower than unexposed group scores on the assessments of higher level language (adjusted mean difference -1.63, 95% CI: -2.99 to -0.27), vocabulary (-0.02, 95% CI: -0.04 to -0.01), pragmatics (OR 2.81, 95% CI: 1.04-7.6) and non-verbal functioning (-0.33, 95% CI: -0.61 to -0.06). The areas of significantly reduced functioning for the M/S group were concentrated on phonology (OR 2.74, 95% CI: 1.26-5.95), pragmatics (OR 3.23, 95% CI: 1.2-8.71) and behaviour (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.23). The performance of the active epilepsy group was significantly poorer than that of the group without epilepsy on the tests of comprehension, syntax, pragmatics, word finding, memory, attention, behaviour and motor skills. CM and M/S are associated with developmental impairments. If these impairments persist, this may have implications for least 250,000 children in Sub-Saharan Africa each year. Active epilepsy significantly increases the risk of cognitive and

  2. Automated erythrocytapheresis in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Macallan, D C; Pocock, M; Bishop, E; Bevan, D H; Parker-Williams, J; Harrison, T; Robinson, G T

    1999-11-01

    Removal of parasitized erythrocytes is generally considered to be of value as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitaemia. This is commonly achieved by exchange transfusion. We describe three cases of severe falciparum malaria treated by automated erythrocytapheresis (red cell exchange) in addition to quinine and conventional supportive therapy. Erythrocytapheresis consists of removal of the red-cell fraction by apheresis. Plasma, leukocyte and platelet fractions are returned to the patient. In all cases, dramatic reduction in parasitaemia was achieved within 2 h with subsequent complete clinical recovery. Erythrocytapheresis has significant advantages over exchange transfusion in terms of speed, efficiency, haemodynamic stability and retention of plasma components such as clotting factors and may thus represent an improvement in adjunctive therapy for severe malaria.

  3. Invasive bacterial co-infection in African children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Church, James; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-02-19

    Severe malaria remains a major cause of pediatric hospital admission across Africa. Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is a recognized complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, resulting in a substantially worse outcome. Whether a biological relationship exists between malaria infection and IBI susceptibility remains unclear. We, therefore, examined the extent, nature and evidence of this association. We conducted a systematic search in August 2012 of three major scientific databases, PubMed, Embase and Africa Wide Information, for articles describing bacterial infection among children with P. falciparum malaria using the search string '(malaria OR plasmodium) AND (bacteria OR bacterial OR bacteremia OR bacteraemia OR sepsis OR septicaemia OR septicemia).' Eligiblity criteria also included studies of children hospitalized with malaria or outpatient attendances in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 25 studies across 11 African countries fulfilled our criteria. They comprised twenty cohort analyses, two randomized controlled trials and three prospective epidemiological studies. In the meta-analysis of 7,208 children with severe malaria the mean prevalence of IBI was 6.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.81 to 6.98%). In a further meta-analysis of 20,889 children hospitalised with all-severity malaria and 27,641 children with non-malarial febrile illness the mean prevalence of IBI was 5.58 (95% CI 5.5 to 5.66%) in children with malaria and 7.77% (95% CI 7.72 to 7.83%) in non-malaria illness. Ten studies reported mortality stratified by IBI. Case fatality was higher at 81 of 336, 24.1% (95% CI 18.9 to 29.4) in children with malaria/IBI co-infection compared to 585 of 5,760, 10.2% (95% CI 9.3 to 10.98) with malaria alone. Enteric gram-negative organisms were over-represented in malaria cases, non-typhoidal Salmonellae being the most commonest isolate. There was weak evidence indicating IBI was more common in the severe anemia manifestation of severe malaria. The

  4. Invasive bacterial co-infection in African children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malaria remains a major cause of pediatric hospital admission across Africa. Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is a recognized complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, resulting in a substantially worse outcome. Whether a biological relationship exists between malaria infection and IBI susceptibility remains unclear. We, therefore, examined the extent, nature and evidence of this association. Methods We conducted a systematic search in August 2012 of three major scientific databases, PubMed, Embase and Africa Wide Information, for articles describing bacterial infection among children with P. falciparum malaria using the search string ‘(malaria OR plasmodium) AND (bacteria OR bacterial OR bacteremia OR bacteraemia OR sepsis OR septicaemia OR septicemia).’ Eligiblity criteria also included studies of children hospitalized with malaria or outpatient attendances in sub-Saharan Africa. Results A total of 25 studies across 11 African countries fulfilled our criteria. They comprised twenty cohort analyses, two randomized controlled trials and three prospective epidemiological studies. In the meta-analysis of 7,208 children with severe malaria the mean prevalence of IBI was 6.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.81 to 6.98%). In a further meta-analysis of 20,889 children hospitalised with all-severity malaria and 27,641 children with non-malarial febrile illness the mean prevalence of IBI was 5.58 (95% CI 5.5 to 5.66%) in children with malaria and 7.77% (95% CI 7.72 to 7.83%) in non-malaria illness. Ten studies reported mortality stratified by IBI. Case fatality was higher at 81 of 336, 24.1% (95% CI 18.9 to 29.4) in children with malaria/IBI co-infection compared to 585 of 5,760, 10.2% (95% CI 9.3 to 10.98) with malaria alone. Enteric gram-negative organisms were over-represented in malaria cases, non-typhoidal Salmonellae being the most commonest isolate. There was weak evidence indicating IBI was more common in the severe anemia manifestation

  5. Modelling the potential of focal screening and treatment as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Erhart, Annette; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Branch, Oralee; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel; Lambert, Philippe; Frasso, Gianluca; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sihuincha, Moisés; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Speybroeck, Niko

    2015-05-07

    Focal screening and treatment (FSAT) of malaria infections has recently been introduced in Peru to overcome the inherent limitations of passive case detection (PCD) and further decrease the malaria burden. Here, we used a relatively straightforward mathematical model to assess the potential of FSAT as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Region. A baseline model was developed to simulate a scenario with seasonal malaria transmission and the effect of PCD and treatment of symptomatic infections on the P. falciparum malaria transmission in a low endemic area of the Peruvian Amazon. The model was then adjusted to simulate intervention scenarios for predicting the long term additional impact of FSAT on P. falciparum malaria prevalence and incidence. Model parameterization was done using data from a cohort study in a rural Amazonian community as well as published transmission parameters from previous studies in similar areas. The effect of FSAT timing and frequency, using either microscopy or a supposed field PCR, was assessed on both predicted incidence and prevalence rates. The intervention model indicated that the addition of FSAT to PCD significantly reduced the predicted P. falciparum incidence and prevalence. The strongest reduction was observed when three consecutive FSAT were implemented at the beginning of the low transmission season, and if malaria diagnosis was done with PCR. Repeated interventions for consecutive years (10 years with microscopy or 5 years with PCR), would allow reaching near to zero incidence and prevalence rates. The addition of FSAT interventions to PCD may enable to reach P. falciparum elimination levels in low endemic areas of the Amazon Region, yet the progression rates to those levels may vary substantially according to the operational criteria used for the intervention.

  6. Antimalarial Activity of KAF156 in Falciparum and Vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J; Duong, Tran T; Uthaisin, Chirapong; Nosten, François; Phyo, Aung P; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Chuthasmit, Kittiphum; Cheung, Ming S; Feng, Yiyan; Li, Ruobing; Magnusson, Baldur; Sultan, Marc; Wieser, Daniela; Xun, Xiaolei; Zhao, Rong; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter; Leong, F Joel

    2016-09-22

    KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial agents (imidazolopiperazines), with activity against asexual and sexual blood stages and the preerythrocytic liver stages of malarial parasites. We conducted a phase 2, open-label, two-part study at five centers in Thailand and Vietnam to assess the antimalarial efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of KAF156 in adults with acute Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum malaria. Assessment of parasite clearance rates in cohorts of patients with vivax or falciparum malaria who were treated with multiple doses (400 mg once daily for 3 days) was followed by assessment of the cure rate at 28 days in a separate cohort of patients with falciparum malaria who received a single dose (800 mg). Median parasite clearance times were 45 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 48) in 10 patients with falciparum malaria and 24 hours (interquartile range, 20 to 30) in 10 patients with vivax malaria after treatment with the multiple-dose regimen and 49 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 54) in 21 patients with falciparum malaria after treatment with the single dose. Among the 21 patients who received the single dose and were followed for 28 days, 1 had reinfection and 7 had recrudescent infections (cure rate, 67%; 95% credible interval, 46 to 84). The mean (±SD) KAF156 terminal elimination half-life was 44.1±8.9 hours. There were no serious adverse events in this small study. The most common adverse events included sinus bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Vomiting of grade 2 or higher occurred in 2 patients, 1 of whom discontinued treatment because of repeated vomiting after receiving the single 800-mg dose. More adverse events were reported in the single-dose cohort, which had longer follow-up, than in the multiple-dose cohorts. KAF156 showed antimalarial activity without evident safety concerns in a small number of adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria. (Funded by Novartis and

  7. Antimalarial Activity of KAF156 in Falciparum and Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    White, Nicholas J.; Duong, Tran T.; Uthaisin, Chirapong; Nosten, François; Phyo, Aung P.; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Chuthasmit, Kittiphum; Cheung, Ming S.; Feng, Yiyan; Li, Ruobing; Magnusson, Baldur; Sultan, Marc; Wieser, Daniela; Xun, Xiaolei; Zhao, Rong; Diagana, Thierry T.; Pertel, Peter; Leong, F. Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial agents (imidazolopiperazines), with activity against asexual and sexual blood stages and the preerythrocytic liver stages of malarial parasites. Methods We conducted a phase 2, open-label, two-part study at five centers in Thailand and Vietnam to assess the antimalarial efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of KAF156 in adults with acute Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum malaria. Assessment of parasite clearance rates in cohorts of patients with vivax or falciparum malaria who were treated with multiple doses (400 mg once daily for 3 days) was followed by assessment of the cure rate at 28 days in a separate cohort of patients with falciparum malaria who received a single dose (800 mg). Results Median parasite clearance times were 45 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 48) in 10 patients with falciparum malaria and 24 hours (interquartile range, 20 to 30) in 10 patients with vivax malaria after treatment with the multiple-dose regimen and 49 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 54) in 21 patients with falciparum malaria after treatment with the single dose. Among the 21 patients who received the single dose and were followed for 28 days, 1 had reinfection and 7 had recrudescent infections (cure rate, 67%; 95% credible interval, 46 to 84). The mean (±SD) KAF156 terminal elimination half-life was 44.1±8.9 hours. There were no serious adverse events in this small study. The most common adverse events included sinus bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Vomiting of grade 2 or higher occurred in 2 patients, 1 of whom discontinued treatment because of repeated vomiting after receiving the single 800-mg dose. More adverse events were reported in the single-dose cohort, which had longer follow-up, than in the multiple-dose cohorts. Conclusions KAF156 showed antimalarial activity without evident safety concerns in a small number of adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P

  8. Symptomatic malaria diagnosis overestimate malaria prevalence, but underestimate anaemia burdens in children: results of a follow up study in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Choge, Joseph K; Magak, Ng'wena G; Akhwale, Willis; Koech, Julius; Ngeiywa, Moses M; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Esamai, Fabian; Osano, Odipo; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-04-09

    The commonly accepted gold standard diagnostic method for detecting malaria is a microscopic reading of Giemsa-stained blood films. However, symptomatic diagnosis remains the basis of therapeutic care for the majority of febrile patients in malaria endemic areas. This study aims to compare the discrepancy in malaria and anaemia burdens between symptomatic diagnosed patients with those diagnosed through the laboratory. Data were collected from Western Kenya during a follow-up study of 887 children with suspected cases of malaria visiting the health facilities. In the laboratory, blood samples were analysed for malaria parasite and haemoglobin levels. Differences in malaria prevalence between symptomatic diagnosis and laboratory diagnosis were analysed by Chi-square test. Bayesian probabilities were used for the approximation of the malaria and anaemia burdens. Regression analysis was applied to: (1) determine the relationships between haemoglobin levels, and malaria parasite density and (2) relate the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia ranged from 10% to 34%, being highest during the rainy seasons. The predominant malaria parasite was P. falciparum (92.3%), which occurred in higher density in children aged 2‒5 years. Fever, high temperature, sweating, shivering, vomiting and severe headache symptoms were associated with malaria during presumptive diagnosis. After conducting laboratory diagnosis, lower malaria prevalence was reported among the presumptively diagnosed patients. Surprisingly, there were no attempts to detect anaemia in the same cohort. There was a significant negative correlation between Hb levels and parasite density. We also found a positive correlation between the prevalence of anaemia and the prevalence of malaria after laboratory diagnosis indicating possible co-occurrence of malaria and anaemia. Symptomatic diagnosis of malaria overestimates malaria prevalence, but underestimates the

  9. Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China and its mortality: an analysis of driving factors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shengjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Huang, Zhuojie; Bosco, Claudio; Sun, Junling; Bird, Tomas; Wesolowski, Amy; Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Canjun; Li, Zhongjie; Tatem, Andrew J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China is rising with increasing Chinese overseas investment and international travel. Identifying networks and drivers of this phenomenon as well as the contributors to high case-fatality rate is a growing public health concern to enable efficient response. From 2011–2015, 8653 P. falciparum cases leading to 98 deaths (11.3 per 1000 cases) were imported from 41 sub-Saharan countries into China, with most cases (91.3%) occurring in labour-related Chinese travellers. Four strongly connected groupings of origin African countries with destination Chinese provinces were identified, and the number of imported cases was significantly associated with the volume of air passengers to China (P = 0.006), parasite prevalence in Africa (P < 0.001), and the amount of official development assistance from China (P < 0.001) with investment in resource extraction having the strongest relationship with parasite importation. Risk factors for deaths from imported cases were related to the capacity of malaria diagnosis and diverse socioeconomic factors. The spatial heterogeneity uncovered, principal drivers explored, and risk factors for mortality found in the rising rates of P. falciparum malaria importation to China can serve to refine malaria elimination strategies and the management of cases, and high risk groups and regions should be targeted. PMID:28000753

  10. Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China and its mortality: an analysis of driving factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shengjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Huang, Zhuojie; Bosco, Claudio; Sun, Junling; Bird, Tomas; Wesolowski, Amy; Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Canjun; Li, Zhongjie; Tatem, Andrew J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China is rising with increasing Chinese overseas investment and international travel. Identifying networks and drivers of this phenomenon as well as the contributors to high case-fatality rate is a growing public health concern to enable efficient response. From 2011–2015, 8653 P. falciparum cases leading to 98 deaths (11.3 per 1000 cases) were imported from 41 sub-Saharan countries into China, with most cases (91.3%) occurring in labour-related Chinese travellers. Four strongly connected groupings of origin African countries with destination Chinese provinces were identified, and the number of imported cases was significantly associated with the volume of air passengers to China (P = 0.006), parasite prevalence in Africa (P < 0.001), and the amount of official development assistance from China (P < 0.001) with investment in resource extraction having the strongest relationship with parasite importation. Risk factors for deaths from imported cases were related to the capacity of malaria diagnosis and diverse socioeconomic factors. The spatial heterogeneity uncovered, principal drivers explored, and risk factors for mortality found in the rising rates of P. falciparum malaria importation to China can serve to refine malaria elimination strategies and the management of cases, and high risk groups and regions should be targeted.

  11. [From malaria parasite point of view--Plasmodium falciparum evolution].

    PubMed

    Zerka, Agata; Kaczmarek, Radosław; Jaśkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago) than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  12. The prognostic value of schizontaemia in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum infection, peripheral parasite counts do not always correlate well with the sequestered parasite burden. As erythrocytes parasitized with mature trophozoites and schizonts have a high tendency to adhere to the microvascular endothelium, they are often absent in peripheral blood samples. The appearance of schizonts in peripheral blood smears is thought to be a marker of high sequestered parasite burden and severe disease. In the present study, the value of schizontaemia as an early marker for severe disease in non-immune individuals with imported malaria was evaluated. Methods All patients in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria between 1 January 1999 and 1 January 2012 were included. Thick and thin blood films were examined for the presence of schizontaemia. The occurrence of WHO defined severe malaria was the primary endpoint. The diagnostic performance of schizontaemia was compared with previously evaluated biomarkers C-reactive protein and lactate. Results Schizonts were present on admission in 49 of 401 (12.2%) patients. Patients with schizontaemia were more likely to present with severe malaria, a more complicated course and had longer duration of admission in hospital. Schizontaemia had a specificity of 0.95, a sensitivity of 0.53, a negative predictive value of 0.92 and a positive predictive value of 0.67 for severe malaria. The presence of schizonts was an independent predictor for severe malaria. Conclusion Absence of schizonts was found to be a specific marker for exclusion of severe malaria. Presence of schizonts on admission was associated with a high positive predictive value for severe malaria. This may be of help to identify patients who are at risk of a more severe course than would be expected when considering peripheral parasitaemia alone. PMID:22929647

  13. Antibody responses to P. falciparum blood stage antigens and incidence of clinical malaria in children living in endemic area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mariama K; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume S; Diarra, Amidou; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred; Cavanagh, David R; Michael, Theisen; Konaté, Amadou T; Watson, Nora L; Sanza, Megan; Dube, Tina J T; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Nebié, Issa

    2017-09-08

    High parasite-specific antibody levels are generally associated with low susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This has been supported by several studies in which clinical malaria cases of P. falciparum malaria were reported to be associated with low antibody avidities. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of age, malaria transmission intensity and incidence of clinical malaria in the induction of protective humoral immune response against P. falciparum malaria in children living in Burkina Faso. We combined levels of IgG and IgG subclasses responses to P. falciparum antigens: Merozoite Surface Protein 3 (MSP3), Merozoite Surface Protein 2a (MSP2a), Merozoite Surface Protein 2b (MSP2b), Glutamate Rich Protein R0 (GLURP R0) and Glutamate Rich Protein R2 (GLURP R2) in plasma samples from 325 children under five (05) years with age, malaria transmission season and malaria incidence. We notice higher prevalence of P. falciparum infection in low transmission season compared to high malaria transmission season. While, parasite density was lower in low transmission than high transmission season. IgG against all antigens investigated increased with age. High levels of IgG and IgG subclasses to all tested antigens except for GLURP R2 were associated with the intensity of malaria transmission. IgG to MSP3, MSP2b, GLURP R2 and GLURP R0 were associated with low incidence of malaria. All IgG subclasses were associated with low incidence of P. falciparum malaria, but these associations were stronger for cytophilic IgGs. On the basis of the data presented in this study, we conclude that the induction of humoral immune response to tested malaria antigens is related to age, transmission season level and incidence of clinical malaria.

  14. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (`K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

  15. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O.; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain (‘K13-propeller’) with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread. PMID:24352242

  16. A molecular marker of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Beghain, Johann; Langlois, Anne-Claire; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Duru, Valentine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ma, Laurence; Lim, Pharath; Leang, Rithea; Duong, Socheat; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Chuor, Char Meng; Bout, Denis Mey; Ménard, Sandie; Rogers, William O; Genton, Blaise; Fandeur, Thierry; Miotto, Olivo; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Berry, Antoine; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Fairhurst, Rick M; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ménard, Didier

    2014-01-02

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. To monitor the spread of artemisinin resistance, a molecular marker is urgently needed. Here, using whole-genome sequencing of an artemisinin-resistant parasite line from Africa and clinical parasite isolates from Cambodia, we associate mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 kelch propeller domain ('K13-propeller') with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Mutant K13-propeller alleles cluster in Cambodian provinces where resistance is prevalent, and the increasing frequency of a dominant mutant K13-propeller allele correlates with the recent spread of resistance in western Cambodia. Strong correlations between the presence of a mutant allele, in vitro parasite survival rates and in vivo parasite clearance rates indicate that K13-propeller mutations are important determinants of artemisinin resistance. K13-propeller polymorphism constitutes a useful molecular marker for large-scale surveillance efforts to contain artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion and prevent its global spread.

  17. Persistent Epstein-Barr viral reactivation in young African children with a history of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Yone, Clarisse L R P; Kube, Dieter; Kremsner, Peter G; Luty, Adrian J F

    2006-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum have overlapping distributions and are thought to have causal interactions, particularly with regard to the aetiology of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Using real-time PCR, we quantified and compared EBV DNA levels in the blood before and after antimalarial treatment of age- and gender-matched groups of Gabonese children who presented with either mild or severe P. falciparum malaria. Following treatment, the prevalence of EBV DNA declined in the mild malaria group but increased in the severe malaria group, and a significantly higher proportion of the latter had EBV DNA detectable in their blood when they were healthy and parasite free (67% vs. 39%; P=0.013). High EBV DNA loads were associated with more malaria attacks and with elevated plasma concentrations of both TNF-alpha and IL-12p40. Significantly more under 5 year olds had EBV DNA, highlighting the strong age dependence of the interaction between the two pathogens. These findings confirm that EBV is reactivated during acute P. falciparum malaria but, importantly, also reveal that: (i) EBV activity persists at a higher frequency in children with a history of severe malaria; and (ii) higher peripheral blood EBV DNA loads are associated with susceptibility to more frequent P. falciparum episodes and with altered cytokine activity.

  18. Malaria vaccines: identifying Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage targets

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Spencer, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria remains a top priority for global health researchers. Despite the huge rise in recognition of malaria as a global health problem and the concurrent rise in funding over the past 10–15 years, malaria continues to remain a widespread burden. The evidence of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides is a growing concern. Hence, an efficacious and durable preventative vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective tools and have successfully been used in the prevention and control of many diseases, however, the development of a vaccine for the Plasmodium parasite has proved difficult. Given the early success of whole sporozoite mosquito-bite delivered vaccination strategies, we know that a vaccine for malaria is an achievable goal, with sub-unit vaccines holding great promise as they are simple and cheap to both manufacture and deploy. However a major difficulty in development of sub-unit vaccines lies within choosing the appropriate antigenic target from the 5000 or so genes expressed by the parasite. Given the liver-stage of malaria represents a bottle-neck in the parasite’s life cycle, there is widespread agreement that a multi-component sub-unit malaria vaccine should preferably contain a liver-stage target. In this article we review progress in identifying and screening Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage targets for use in a malaria vaccine. PMID:26441899

  19. The spectrum of retinopathy in adults with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Beare, Nicholas A V; Abu Sayeed, Abdullah; Chang, Christina C; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Faiz, M Abul; Hossain, Amir; Yunus, Emran Bin; Hoque, M Gofranul; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2009-07-01

    A specific retinopathy has been described in African children with cerebral malaria, but in adults this has not been extensively studied. Since the structure and function of the retinal vasculature greatly resembles the cerebral vasculature, study of retinal changes can reveal insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria. A detailed observational study of malarial retinopathy in Bangladeshi adults was performed using high-definition portable retinal photography. Retinopathy was present in 17/27 adults (63%) with severe malaria and 14/20 adults (70%) with cerebral malaria. Moderate or severe retinopathy was more frequent in cerebral malaria (11/20, 55%) than in uncomplicated malaria (3/15, 20%; P=0.039), bacterial sepsis (0/5, 0%; P=0.038) or healthy controls (0/18, 0%; P<0.001). The spectrum of malarial retinopathy was similar to that previously described in African children, but no vessel discolouration was observed. The severity of retinal whitening correlated with admission venous plasma lactate (P=0.046), suggesting that retinal ischaemia represents systemic ischaemia. In conclusion, retinal changes related to microvascular obstruction were common in adults with severe falciparum malaria and correlated with disease severity and coma, suggesting that a compromised microcirculation has important pathophysiological significance in severe and cerebral malaria. Portable retinal photography has potential as a valuable tool to study malarial retinopathy.

  20. Diagnosis and management of the neurological complications of falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Saroj K.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the developing world owing to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Of all the malarial parasites that infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum is most commonly associated with neurological complications, which manifest as agitation, psychosis, seizures, impaired consciousness and coma (cerebral malaria). Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication; the condition is associated with mortality of 15–20%, and a substantial proportion of individuals with this condition develop neurocognitive sequelae. In this Review, we describe the various neurological complications encountered in malaria, discuss the underlying pathogenesis, and outline current management strategies for these complications. Furthermore, we discuss the role of adjunctive therapies in improving outcome. PMID:19347024

  1. Effects of Maternal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and HIV infection on Birth Weight in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie J.; Duhlinska, Dochka D.; Ujam, Treasure N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of malaria and HIV infection on birth weight were assessed among 300 women in childbirth in Southeastern Nigeria using standard techniques. Prevalence of maternal Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection was 16.0%. Individuals of younger age, primigravidae, anemic (with Hgb <11.0g/dl) and those who had never attended antenatal clinic (ANC) were more likely to have malaria infection. Prevalence of HIV infection was 3.6% and malaria prevalence was significantly higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative women (37.5%, 95% CI, 4.0-71.0% versus 14.3%, 95% CI., 9.6-19.0%), (χ2 =13.3, P<0.05). Malaria-infected women had a significantly higher proportion of lBW babies than the uninfected (F-ratio=15.05, P<0.05). A higher proportion of low birth weight (lBW) was recorded among anemic women, primigravidae and those who never attended ANC. lBW babies were significantly higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative women (25.0% vs 16.6%), (F-ratio=130.8, P<0.05). Malaria and HIV interventions via ANC are crucial for reduction of their adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. PMID:21152333

  2. Pharmacokinetics of quinine in African patients with acute falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Sowunmi, A; Walker, O

    1998-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of quinine were studied in six Nigerian patients during acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and convalescent periods. An oral dose of 10 mg/kg quinine dihydrochloride administered 8-hourly for 7 days gave parasite and fever clearance times of 36.0 +/- 16.6 h and 18.0 +/- 6.4 h, respectively. From the individual quinine plasma profiles the mean plasma concentration of quinine at the time of parasite clearance was estimated as 4.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml. Plasma quinine levels during malaria rose rapidly reaching a peak around the second and third days and declining thereafter as patients improved clinically. In acute malaria plasma quinine levels were more than two-fold higher than in convalescence; the mean AUC(0-12) in malaria was 37.9 +/- 14.7 micrograms.h/ml compared to 17.9 +/- 8.5 micrograms.h/ml in convalescence. The apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vd/F) during the acute phase of the malaria (1.9 +/- 0.7 ml/min/kg and 1.8 +/- 0.9 l/kg, respectively) were significantly lower than in convalescence (4.5 +/- 2.1 ml/min/kg and 4.2 +/- 3.2 l/kg). The present data suggest that malaria parasites in African patients are still very sensitive to quinine and that the current dosage of quinine is effective for the treatment of acute falciparum malaria in African patients without augmenting therapy with any other drug such as tetracycline or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. It also confirms that malaria significantly alters the pharmacokinetics of quinine in humans.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  4. Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M; Tarmizi, Siti N; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006-2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985-2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2-10 year old PfPR data (PfPR(2-10)) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR(2-10) endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of future strategies against this 2010 baseline

  5. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 < or = 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2-10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2-10 > or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0

  6. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  7. Longitudinal analysis of Plasmodium falciparum genetic variation in Turbo, Colombia: implications for malaria control and elimination.

    PubMed

    Chenet, Stella M; Taylor, Jesse E; Blair, Silvia; Zuluaga, Lina; Escalante, Ananias A

    2015-09-22

    Malaria programmes estimate changes in prevalence to evaluate their efficacy. In this study, parasite genetic data was used to explore how the demography of the parasite population can inform about the processes driving variation in prevalence. In particular, how changes in treatment and population movement have affected malaria prevalence in an area with seasonal malaria. Samples of Plasmodium falciparum collected over 8 years from a population in Turbo, Colombia were genotyped at nine microsatellite loci and three drug-resistance loci. These data were analysed using several population genetic methods to detect changes in parasite genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, a coalescent-based method was used to estimate substitution rates at the microsatellite loci. The estimated mean microsatellite substitution rates varied between 5.35 × 10(-3) and 3.77 × 10(-2) substitutions/locus/month. Cluster analysis identified six distinct parasite clusters, five of which persisted for the full duration of the study. However, the frequencies of the clusters varied significantly between years, consistent with a small effective population size. Malaria control programmes can detect re-introductions and changes in transmission using rapidly evolving microsatellite loci. In this population, the steadily decreasing diversity and the relatively constant effective population size suggest that an increase in malaria prevalence from 2004 to 2007 was primarily driven by local rather than imported cases.

  8. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15–25 and 30–44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003–2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. PMID:26438030

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Hainan Province, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ding-Wei; Du, Jian-Wei; Wang, Guang-Ze; Li, Yu-Chun; He, Chang-Hua; Xue, Rui-De; Wang, Shan-Qing; Hu, Xi-Min

    2015-12-01

    In Hainan Province, China, great achievements in elimination of falciparum malaria have been made since 2010. There have been no locally acquired falciparum malaria cases since that time. The cost-effectiveness of elimination of falciparum malaria has been analyzed in Hainan Province. There were 4,422 falciparum malaria cases reported from 2002 to 2012, more cases occurred in males than in females. From 2002 to 2012, a total of 98.5 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were reported because of falciparum malaria. Populations in the age ranges of 15-25 and 30-44 years had higher incidences and DALYs than other age groups. From 2002 to 2012, malaria-related costs for salaries of staff, funds from the provincial government, national government, and the GFATM were US$3.02, US$2.24, US$1.44, and US$5.08 million, respectively. An estimated 9,504 falciparum malaria cases were averted during the period 2003-2012. The estimated cost per falciparum malaria case averted was US$116.5. The falciparum malaria elimination program in Hainan was highly effective and successful. However, funding for maintenance is still needed because of imported cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Diagnosing congenital malaria in a high-transmission setting: clinical relevance and usefulness of P. falciparum HRP2-based testing.

    PubMed

    Natama, Hamtandi Magloire; Ouedraogo, Delwendé Florence; Sorgho, Hermann; Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Somé, M Athanase; Coulibaly-Traoré, Maminata; Mens, Petra F; Kestens, Luc; Tinto, Halidou; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2017-05-18

    Congenital malaria diagnosis is challenging due to frequently observed low parasite density infections, while their clinical relevance during early infancy is not well characterized. In Nanoro health district (Burkina Faso), we determined the prevalence of congenital malaria by real-time quantitative PCR and we assessed the performance of rapid diagnosis test (RDT) and light microscopy (LM) to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections in cord-blood samples. In addition, we examined the usefulness of P. falciparum Histidine Rich Protein2 (PfHRP2) as surrogate biomarker of infection and explored association between congenital malaria and clinical outcomes. A prevalence of congenital malaria by qPCR of 4% (16/400) was found, which increased to 10% among newborns from mothers infected at delivery. RDT and LM showed poor performances indicating limited utility for congenital malaria screening in cord blood. Because PfHRP2 detection in cord blood could be affected by transplacental passage of parasite antigens, PfHRP2 might not be used as a surrogate biomarker of congenital malaria infections. There was no evidence of a significant clinical impact of congenital malaria on infant's health from birth to 59 days of life. Case control studies including long-term follow up may provide additional understanding on the relevance of neonatal malaria infections.

  11. Subclinical Plasmodium falciparum infections act as year-round reservoir for malaria in the hypoendemic Chittagong Hill districts of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kerry L; Khan, Wasif A; Sack, David A; Alam, M Shafiul; Ahmed, Sabeena; Prue, Chai Shwai; Khyang, Jacob; Ram, Malathi; Haq, M Zahirul; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory E; Shields, Timothy M; Galagan, Sean R; Nyunt, Myaing M; Sullivan, David J

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of the risk factors and seasonal and spatial distribution of individuals with subclinical malaria in hypoendemic Bangladesh was performed. From 2009 to 2012, active malaria surveillance without regard to symptoms was conducted on a random sample (n=3971) and pregnant women (n=589) during a cohort malaria study in a population of 24000. The overall subclinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria point prevalence was 1.0% (n=35), but was 3.2% (n=18) for pregnant women. The estimated incidence was 39.9 per 1000 person-years for the overall population. Unlike symptomatic malaria, with a marked seasonal pattern, subclinical infections did not show a seasonal increase during the rainy season. Sixty-nine percent of those with subclinical P. falciparum infections reported symptoms commonly associated with malaria compared to 18% without infection. Males, pregnant women, jhum cultivators, and those living closer to forests and at higher elevations had a higher prevalence of subclinical infection. Hypoendemic subclinical malaria infections were associated with a number of household and demographic factors, similar to symptomatic cases. Unlike clinical symptomatic malaria, which is highly seasonal, these actively detected infections were present year-round, made up the vast majority of infections at any given time, and likely acted as reservoirs for continued transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic alteration in splenic function during acute falciparum malaria

    SciTech Connect

    Looareesuwan, S.; Ho, M.; Wattanagoon, Y.; White, N.J.; Warrell, D.A.; Bunnag, D.; Harinasuta, T.; Wyler, D.J.

    1987-09-10

    Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes lose their normal deformability and become susceptible to splenic filtration. In animal models, this is one mechanism of antimalarial defense. To assess the effect of acute falciparum malaria on splenic filtration, we measured the clearance of heated /sup 51/Cr-labeled autologous erythrocytes in 25 patients with acute falciparum malaria and in 10 uninfected controls. Two groups of patients could be distinguished. Sixteen patients had splenomegaly, markedly accelerated clearance of the labeled erythrocytes (clearance half-time, 8.4 +/- 4.4 minutes (mean +/- SD) vs. 62.5 +/- 36.5 minutes in controls; P less than 0.001), and a lower mean hematocrit than did the patients without splenomegaly (P less than 0.001). In the nine patients without splenomegaly, clearance was normal. After institution of antimalarial chemotherapy, however, the clearance in this group accelerated to supernormal rates similar to those in the patients with splenomegaly, but without the development of detectable splenomegaly. Clearance was not significantly altered by treatment in the group with splenomegaly. Six weeks later, normal clearance rates were reestablished in most patients in both groups. We conclude that splenic clearance of labeled erythrocytes is enhanced in patients with malaria if splenomegaly is present and is enhanced only after treatment if splenomegaly is absent. Whether this enhanced splenic function applies to parasite-infected erythrocytes in patients with malaria and has any clinical benefit will require further studies.

  13. Lack of evidence for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C; Schwartz, Eli

    2012-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed.

  14. Possible clinical failure of artemether-lumefantrine in an italian traveler with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ernestina C; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo.

  15. Lack of Evidence for Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Leogane, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Zhong, Kathleen; Kain, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Haiti is considered chloroquine susceptible, although resistance transporter alleles associated with chloroquine resistance were recently detected. Among 49 patients with falciparum malaria, we found neither parasites carrying haplotypes associated with chloroquine resistance nor instances of chloroquine treatment failure. Continued vigilance to detect emergence of chloroquine resistance is needed. PMID:22932030

  16. Possible Clinical Failure of Artemether-Lumefantrine in an Italian Traveler with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ernestina C.; Traverso, Antonio; Giacomazzi, Claudio G.

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in endemic areas with multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We report a case of possible artemether-lumefantrine clinical failure in an Italian traveler with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria imported from Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:22084655

  17. [Large trophozoites in blood smear of falciparum malaria: one case report].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-bin; Kong, Xiang-li; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Miao, Feng; Chen, Xi-xin

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports one case of atypical falciparum malaria imported from Africa, whose blood smear contains many large trophozoites, with punctiform or massive brown pigment granules, the body shape of the plasmodium is similar to that of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. After the gene detection by PCR, the case was diagnosed as falciparum malaria. As large trophozoites were rarely seen in the peripheral blood of non-severe falciparum malaria cases, much attention should be paid to the identification of Plasmodium falciparum and other plasmodia in microscopic examinations.

  18. Predictors of the failure of treatment with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, A; Fateye, B A; Adedeji, A A; Gbotosho, G O; Happi, T C; Bamgboye, A E; Bolaji, O M; Oduola, A M J

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa or other parts of the world in the last one or two decades. The factors that identify children at risk of treatment failure after being given PS were evaluated in 291 children with acute, symptomatic, uncomplicated, P. falciparum malaria. The children took part in four antimalarial drug trials between July 1996 and July 2004 in a hyperendemic area of southwestern Nigeria. Following treatment, 64 (22%) of 291 children failed treatment by day 7 or 14. In a multivariate analysis, an age < or = 1.5 years (AOR=2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.4, P = 0.009) and presence of fever (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.28-7.14, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of the failure of treatment with PS at presentation. Following treatment, delay in parasite clearance >3 days (AOR = 2.56, CI 1.19-5.56, P = 0.016) was an independent predictor of the failure of treatment with PS. In addition, compared with the children who had no fever then, children with fever three or more days after starting treatment were more likely to be treatment failures. These findings may have implications for malaria control efforts in some sub-Saharan African countries where treatment of malaria disease depends almost entirely on PS monotherapy, and for programmes employing PS or PS-based combination therapy.

  19. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Incidence in Chano Mille, South Ethiopia: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia. A cohort of 8,121 people was followed for 101 weeks with active and passive surveillance. Among 317 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria episodes, 29.3% occurred among temporary residents. The incidence density was 3.6/10,000 person-weeks of observation. We observed higher malaria incidence among males, children 5–14 years of age, ITNs non-users, the poor, and people who lived closer to vector breeding places. Rainfall increased and indoor residual spraying with Deltamethrin reduced falciparum incidence. Although ITNs prevented falciparum malaria for the users, we did not find that free mass ITNs distribution reduced falciparum malaria on a village level. PMID:22826493

  20. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in Chano Mille, South Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia. A cohort of 8,121 people was followed for 101 weeks with active and passive surveillance. Among 317 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria episodes, 29.3% occurred among temporary residents. The incidence density was 3.6/10,000 person-weeks of observation. We observed higher malaria incidence among males, children 5-14 years of age, ITNs non-users, the poor, and people who lived closer to vector breeding places. Rainfall increased and indoor residual spraying with Deltamethrin reduced falciparum incidence. Although ITNs prevented falciparum malaria for the users, we did not find that free mass ITNs distribution reduced falciparum malaria on a village level.

  1. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, S; Weiss, D J; Cameron, E; Bisanzio, D; Mappin, B; Dalrymple, U; Battle, K; Moyes, C L; Henry, A; Eckhoff, P A; Wenger, E A; Briët, O; Penny, M A; Smith, T A; Bennett, A; Yukich, J; Eisele, T P; Griffin, J T; Fergus, C A; Lynch, M; Lindgren, F; Cohen, J M; Murray, C L J; Smith, D L; Hay, S I; Cibulskis, R E; Gething, P W

    2015-10-08

    Since the year 2000, a concerted campaign against malaria has led to unprecedented levels of intervention coverage across sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the effect of this control effort is vital to inform future control planning. However, the effect of malaria interventions across the varied epidemiological settings of Africa remains poorly understood owing to the absence of reliable surveillance data and the simplistic approaches underlying current disease estimates. Here we link a large database of malaria field surveys with detailed reconstructions of changing intervention coverage to directly evaluate trends from 2000 to 2015, and quantify the attributable effect of malaria disease control efforts. We found that Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in endemic Africa halved and the incidence of clinical disease fell by 40% between 2000 and 2015. We estimate that interventions have averted 663 (542-753 credible interval) million clinical cases since 2000. Insecticide-treated nets, the most widespread intervention, were by far the largest contributor (68% of cases averted). Although still below target levels, current malaria interventions have substantially reduced malaria disease incidence across the continent. Increasing access to these interventions, and maintaining their effectiveness in the face of insecticide and drug resistance, should form a cornerstone of post-2015 control strategies.

  2. Defining Surrogate Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Severe Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Plewes, Katherine; Maude, Richard J.; Hanson, Josh; Herdman, M. Trent; Leopold, Stije J.; Ngernseng, Thatsanun; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hasan, M. Mahtab Uddin; Fanello, Caterina I.; Faiz, Md Abul; Hien, Tran Tinh; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical trials in severe falciparum malaria require a large sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in mortality. This means few interventions can be evaluated at any time. Using a validated surrogate endpoint for mortality would provide a useful alternative allowing a smaller sample size. Here we evaluate changes in coma score and plasma lactate as surrogate endpoints for mortality in severe falciparum malaria. Methods Three datasets of clinical studies in severe malaria were re-evaluated: studies from Chittagong, Bangladesh (adults), the African ‘AQUAMAT’ trial comparing artesunate and quinine (children), and the Vietnamese ‘AQ’ study (adults) comparing artemether with quinine. The absolute change, relative change, slope of the normalization over time, and time to normalization were derived from sequential measurements of plasma lactate and coma score, and validated for their use as surrogate endpoint, including the proportion of treatment effect on mortality explained (PTE) by these surrogate measures. Results Improvements in lactate concentration or coma scores over the first 24 hours of admission, were strongly prognostic for survival in all datasets. In hyperlactataemic patients in the AQ study (n = 173), lower mortality with artemether compared to quinine closely correlated with faster reduction in plasma lactate concentration, with a high PTE of the relative change in plasma lactate at 8 and 12 hours of 0.81 and 0.75, respectively. In paediatric patients enrolled in the ‘AQUAMAT’ study with cerebral malaria (n = 785), mortality was lower with artesunate compared to quinine, but this was not associated with faster coma recovery. Conclusions The relative changes in plasma lactate concentration assessed at 8 or 12 hours after admission are valid surrogate endpoints for severe malaria studies on antimalarial drugs or adjuvant treatments aiming at improving the microcirculation. Measures of coma recovery are not valid

  3. [Acute renal failure and Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kissou, S A; Cessouma, R; Barro, M; Traoré, H; Nacro, B

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease caused by one of the several Plasmodium species. Severe malaria is mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum in highly endemic areas. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a criterion of malaria severity as defined by WHO. Often observed in adults, particularly in India and Southeast Asia, this complication remains a rare complication of malaria in children. We report a case of oliguric ARF that occurred in a 7-year-old girl a few days after the onset of fever. The vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes often causing tubular necrosis is the primary mechanism of renal failure. As a possible diagnosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, renal failure and quartan hemoglobinuric nephropathy are other possible causes of renal failure in malaria. Renal biopsy, which was not performed in our patient, would have been a great help, but was not available. The outcome was favorable with recovery of renal function after 3 weeks of diuretic therapy. This development is not always the rule and the prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment options.

  4. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene due to Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Nasar; Malik, Azharuddin Mohammed; Kamal, Athar; Ahmad, Mehtab

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with a 4-day history of high-grade fever with rigours and a 2-day history of painful bluish black discolouration of extremities (acrocyanosis). He was haemodynamically stable and all peripheral pulses palpable, but the extremities were cold with gangrene involving bilateral fingers and toes. Mild splenomegaly was present on abdominal examination but rest of the physical examinations were normal. On investigating he was found to have anaemia, thrombocytopaenia with gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum on peripheral blood smear. His blood was uncoagulable during performance of prothrombin time with a raised D-dimer. Oxygen saturation was normal and the arterial Doppler test showed reduced blood flow to the extremities. A diagnosis of complicated P. falciparum malaria with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) leading to symmetrical peripheral gangrene was performed. Artemisinin combination therapy was started and heparin was given for DIC. A final line of demarcation of gangrene started forming by 12th day. PMID:24862424

  5. MAD 20 alleles of merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ghanchi, Najia Karim; Hasan, Zahra; Islam, Muniba; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2015-04-01

    Various factors determine the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum infection such as parasite load, sequestration, adhesion molecules, and immune mediators. P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) and msp-2 genotypes were also found associated with severe disease. We investigated the association between msp-1 and msp-2 genotypes in patients with uncomplicated malaria (UM) and severe malaria (SM). Twenty-two malaria patients with microscopy-confirmed P. falciparum infection and eight healthy endemic controls were selected for analysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify P. falciparum genotypes. The plasma concentration of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)] and chemokines [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and CXCL10] were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-α levels were significantly higher in both UM (389 pg/mL, p = 0.020) and SM (771 pg/mL, p = 0.004) compared with healthy controls, while they were greater in SM (p = 0.012) as compared to UM. CXCL9 levels were significantly raised in SM as compared to UM and negative controls (NCs). CXCL10 levels were raised in UM (550 pg/mL, p = 0.001) and SM (1480 pg/mL, p = 0.01) as compared with NCs. Increased levels of IL-6 were found in patients carrying the FC27 allelic type of msp-2. A higher prevalence of MAD 20 and K1 msp-1 alleles was observed in the SM group compared to UM. Overall, a greater prevalence of MAD 20 alleles and increased serum TNF-α and CXCL9 levels were associated with severe outcome in malaria. Understanding the diversity of malaria genotypes is important for predicting disease-related outcomes of P. falciparum infection in endemic areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and

  7. Artemisinin-naphthoquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Isba, Rachel; Zani, Babalwa; Gathu, Michael; Sinclair, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treating people with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Five combinations are currently recommended, all administered over three days. Artemisinin-naphthoquine is a new combination developed in China, which is being marketed as a one-day treatment. Although shorter treatment courses may improve adherence, the WHO recommends at least three days of the short-acting artemisinin component to eliminate 90% P. falciparum parasites in the bloodstream, before leaving the longer-acting partner drug to clear the remaining parasites. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the artemisinin-naphthoquine combination for treating adults and children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; and LILACS up to January 2015. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'malaria' and 'arte* OR dihydroarte*' as search terms. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing artemisinin-naphthoquine combinations with established WHO-recommended ACTs for the treatment of adults and children with uncomplicated malaria due to P. falciparum. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed primary outcomes in line with the WHO 'Protocol for assessing and monitoring antimalarial drug efficacy' and compared drugs using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Secondary outcomes were effects on gametocytes, haemoglobin, and adverse events. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Four trials, enrolling 740 adults and children, met the inclusion criteria. Artemisinin-naphthoquine was administered as a single dose (two

  8. Proteomics of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Sims, Paul F G; Hyde, John E

    2006-02-01

    The lethal species of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, continues to exact a huge toll of mortality and morbidity, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Completion of the genome sequence of this organism and advances in proteomics and mass spectrometry have opened up unprecedented opportunities for understanding the complex biology of this parasite and how it responds to drug challenge and other interventions. This review describes recent progress that has been made in applying proteomics technology to this important pathogen and provides a look forward to likely future developments.

  9. [Falciform anemia and Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a threat to flap survival?].

    PubMed

    Mariéthoz, S; Pittet, B; Loutan, L; Humbert, J; Montandon, D

    1999-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a parasitic disease, and sickle cell anemia, a hereditary disease, are two diseases affecting erythrocyte cycle, occurring with a high prevalence in tropical Africa. They may induce microthrombosis inducing vaso-occlusion, organ dysfunction and flap necrosis. During the acute phase of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, destruction of parasitized and healthy erythrocytes, release of parasite and erythrocyte material into the circulation, and secondary host reaction occur. Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes also sequester in the microcirculation of vital organs and may interfere with microcirculatory flow in the flap during the postoperative period. The lower legs of homozygous sickle cell anemia patients are areas of marginal vascularity where minor abrasions become foci of inflammation. Inflammation results in decreased local oxygen tension, sickling of erythrocytes, increased blood viscosity and thrombosis with consequent ischemia, tissue breakdown and leg ulcer. Tissue transfer has become the procedure of choice for reconstruction of the lower third of the leg although flaps may become necrotic. The aim of this study is to analyse circumstances predisposing to surgical complications and to define preventive and therapeutic measures. A review of the literature will describe the current research and the new perspectives to treat sickle cell anemia, for example hydroxyurea and vasoactive substances (pentoxifylline, naftidrofuryl, buflomedil).

  10. Resisting and tolerating P. falciparum in pregnancy under different malaria transmission intensities.

    PubMed

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Mbuba, Emmanuel; González, Raquel; Cisteró, Pau; Kariuki, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Rupérez, María; Fonseca, Ana Maria; Vala, Anifa; Maculuve, Sonia; Jiménez, Alfons; Quintó, Llorenç; Ouma, Peter; Ramharter, Michael; Aponte, John J; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Massougbodji, Achille; Briand, Valerie; Kremsner, Peter G; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Desai, Meghna; Macete, Eusebio; Cot, Michel; Menéndez, Clara; Mayor, Alfredo

    2017-07-17

    Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique. Resistance was defined by the proportion of submicroscopic infections and the levels of anti-parasite antibodies quantified by Luminex, and tolerance by the relationship of pregnancy outcomes with parasite densities at delivery. P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR in peripheral and/or placental blood of HIV-uninfected Mozambican, Gabonese and Beninese women at delivery was 6% (21/340), 11% (28/257) and 41% (143/349), respectively. The proportion of peripheral submicroscopic infections was higher in Benin (83%) than in Mozambique (60%) and Gabon (55%; P = 0.033). Past or chronic placental P. falciparum infection was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in Mozambican newborns (OR = 7.05, 95% CI 1.79 to 27.82). Microscopic infections were associated with reductions in haemoglobin levels at delivery among Mozambican women (-1.17 g/dL, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.24) as well as with larger drops in haemoglobin levels from recruitment to delivery in Mozambican (-1.66 g/dL, 95% CI -2.68 to -0.64) and Gabonese (-0.91 g/dL, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.02) women. Doubling qPCR-peripheral parasite densities in Mozambican women were associated with decreases in haemoglobin levels at delivery (-0.16 g/dL, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.02) and increases in the drop of haemoglobin levels (-0.29 g/dL, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.14). Beninese women had higher anti-parasite IgGs than Mozambican women (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the proportion of submicroscopic

  11. Oral clindamycin in the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Salazar, N P; Saniel, M C; Estoque, M H; Talao, F A; Bustos, D G; Palogan, L P; Gabriel, A I

    1990-09-01

    Clinical trials on oral clindamycin as an antimalarial in hospitalized patients and residents of endemic communities were conducted in the Philippines between May 1984 and December 1985. Seven and 9 qualified subjects in hospital were treated with 300 mg (regimen A) and 600 mg (regimen B) respectively, twice daily for 5 days. Eighteen patients seen at a rural health unit were given the lower dosage. On the basis of the 28-day extended in vivo test of WHO, P. falciparum in all but one patient showed susceptibility to the drug as a blood schizontocide hence, the clinical cure of malaria. Side effects were few and self-limiting. Ten other patients on regimen A were cured within the 7- and/or 28-day extended test period. Clindamycin per se is currently one of the few alternatives in the treatment of clinically moderate drug-resistant malaria.

  12. Deployment of early diagnosis and mefloquine-artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria in Thailand: the Tak Malaria Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Verena Ilona; Sirilak, Supakit; Thonglairuam, Janjira; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn; Proux, Stephane; Gilbos, Valery; Brockman, Al; Ashley, Elizabeth A; McGready, Rose; Krudsood, Srivicha; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas; Nosten, François

    2006-06-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy (MAS) have reduced the transmission of falciparum malaria dramatically and halted the progression of mefloquine resistance in camps for displaced persons along the Thai-Burmese border, an area of low and seasonal transmission of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We extended the same combination drug strategy to all other communities (estimated population 450,000) living in five border districts of Tak province in northwestern Thailand. Existing health structures were reinforced. Village volunteers were trained to use rapid diagnostic tests and to treat positive cases with MAS. Cases of malaria, hospitalizations, and malaria-related deaths were recorded in the 6 y before, during, and after the Tak Malaria Initiative (TMI) intervention. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and during the TMI period. P. falciparum malaria cases fell by 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.5-34.4) and hospitalisations for falciparum malaria fell by 39% (95% CI, 37.0-39.9) during the TMI period, while hospitalisations for P. vivax malaria remained constant. There were 32 deaths attributed to malaria during, and 22 after the TMI, a 51.5% (95% CI, 39.0-63.9) reduction compared to the average of the previous 3 y. Cross-sectional surveys indicated that P. vivax had become the predominant species in Thai villages, but not in populations living on the Myanmar side of the border. In the displaced persons population, where the original deployment took place 7 y before the TMI, the transmission of P. falciparum continued to be suppressed, the incidence of falciparum malaria remained low, and the in vivo efficacy of the 3-d MAS remained high. In the remote malarious north western border area of Thailand, the early detection of malaria by trained village volunteers, using rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with mefloquine-artesunate was feasible and reduced the morbidity and mortality of multidrug

  13. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  14. Alterations in Plasmodium falciparum genetic structure two years after increased malaria control efforts in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Zhou, Guofa; Zhong, Daibin; Afrane, Yaw A; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    The impact of malaria intervention measures (insecticide-treated net use and artemisinin combination therapy) on malaria genetics was investigated at two sites in western Kenya: an endemic lowland and an epidemic highland. The genetic structure of the parasite population was assessed by using microsatellites, and the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Two years after intervention, genetic diversity remained high in both populations. A significant decrease in the prevalence of quintuple mutations conferring resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was detected in both populations, but the mutation prevalence at codon 1246 of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene had increased in the highland population. The decrease in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant mutants is encouraging, but the increase in P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene mutations is worrisome because these mutations are linked to resistance to other antimalarial drugs. In addition, the high level of genetic diversity observed after intervention suggests transmission is still high in each population.

  15. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa since 1900.

    PubMed

    Snow, Robert W; Sartorius, Benn; Kyalo, David; Maina, Joseph; Amratia, Punam; Mundia, Clara W; Bejon, Philip; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2017-10-11

    Malaria transmission is influenced by climate, land use and deliberate interventions. Recent declines have been observed in malaria transmission. Here we show that the African continent has witnessed a long-term decline in the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum from 40% prevalence in the period 1900-1929 to 24% prevalence in the period 2010-2015, a trend that has been interrupted by periods of rapidly increasing or decreasing transmission. The cycles and trend over the past 115 years are inconsistent with explanations in terms of climate or deliberate intervention alone. Previous global initiatives have had minor impacts on malaria transmission, and a historically unprecedented decline has been observed since 2000. However, there has been little change in the high transmission belt that covers large parts of West and Central Africa. Previous efforts to model the changing patterns of P. falciparum transmission intensity in Africa have been limited to the past 15 years or have used maps drawn from historical expert opinions. We provide quantitative data, from 50,424 surveys at 36,966 geocoded locations, that covers 115 years of malaria history in sub-Saharan Africa; inferring from these data to future trends, we would expect continued reductions in malaria transmission, punctuated with resurgences.

  16. A high PCT level correlates with disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children.

    PubMed

    Carannante, Novella; Rossi, Marco; Fraganza, Fiorentino; Coppola, Grazia; Chiesa, Daniela; Attanasio, Vittorio; Sbrana, Francesco; Corcione, Antonio; Tascini, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Most clinicians in developed countries have limited experience in making clinical assessments of malaria disease severity and/or monitoring high-level parasitemia in febrile patients with imported malaria. Hyperparasitemia is a risk factor for severe P. falciparum malaria, and procalcitonin (PCT) has recently been related to the severity of malaria. In developed countries, where not all hospital have skilled personnel to count parasitemia, a rapid test might be useful for the prompt diagnosis of malaria but unfortunately these tests are not able to count the number of parasites. In this context, PCT might have a prognostic value for the assessment of severe malaria, especially in children with cerebral malaria. We describe two children with severe cerebral malaria, who were directly admitted to the ICU with a high level of PCT and extremely high (>25%) parasitemia. Our conclusion is that PCT may also be a measure of severity of P. falciparum malaria in children.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase is essential for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bobenchik, April M.; Witola, William H.; Augagneur, Yoann; Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Garg, Aprajita; Pachikara, Niseema; Choi, Jae-Yeon; Zhao, Yang O.; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Lee, Albert; Adjalley, Sophie H.; Samanta, Swapna; Fidock, David A.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fikrig, Erol; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2013-01-01

    Efficient transmission of Plasmodium species between humans and Anopheles mosquitoes is a major contributor to the global burden of malaria. Gametocytogenesis, the process by which parasites switch from asexual replication within human erythrocytes to produce male and female gametocytes, is a critical step in malaria transmission and Plasmodium genetic diversity. Nothing is known about the pathways that regulate gametocytogenesis and only few of the current drugs that inhibit asexual replication are also capable of inhibiting gametocyte development and blocking malaria transmission. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence indicating that the pathway for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in Plasmodium falciparum membranes from host serine is essential for parasite gametocytogenesis and malaria transmission. Parasites lacking the phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase enzyme, which catalyzes the limiting step in this pathway, are severely altered in gametocyte development, are incapable of producing mature-stage gametocytes, and are not transmitted to mosquitoes. Chemical screening identified 11 inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase that block parasite intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocyte differentiation in the low micromolar range. Kinetic studies in vitro as well as functional complementation assays and lipid metabolic analyses in vivo on the most promising inhibitor NSC-158011 further demonstrated the specificity of inhibition. These studies set the stage for further optimization of NSC-158011 for development of a class of dual activity antimalarials to block both intraerythrocytic asexual replication and gametocytogenesis. PMID:24145416

  18. International population movements and regional Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Smith, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Calls for the eradication of malaria require the development of global and regional strategies based on a strong and consistent evidence base. Evidence from the previous global malaria eradication program and more recent transborder control campaigns have shown the importance of accounting for human movement in introducing infections to areas targeted for elimination. Here, census-based migration data were analyzed with network analysis tools, Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission maps, and global population databases to map globally communities of countries linked by relatively high levels of infection movements. The likely principal sources and destinations of imported cases in each region were also mapped. Results indicate that certain groups of countries, such as those in West Africa and central Asia are much more strongly connected by relatively high levels of population and infection movement than others. In contrast, countries such as Ethiopia and Myanmar display significantly greater isolation in terms of likely infection movements in and out. The mapping here of both communities of countries linked by likely higher levels of infection movement, and “natural” migration boundaries that display reduced movement of people and infections between regions has practical utility. These maps can inform the design of malaria elimination strategies by identifying regional communities of countries afforded protection from recolonization by surrounding regions of reduced migration. For more isolated countries, a nationally focused control or elimination program is likely to stand a better chance of success than those receiving high levels of visitors and migrants from high-transmission regions. PMID:20566870

  19. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Socheat, Duong; Nguon, Chea; Saroth, Preap; Dara, Prak; Li, Guoqiao; Song, Jianping; Yeung, Shunmay; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; White, Lisa J

    2012-01-01

    Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA) and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for elimination

  20. [Evaluation of effect of prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District].

    PubMed

    She, Guo-lin; Ma, Yu-Cai; Wang, Fu-biao

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the current situation of the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District and evaluate its effect. According to the Management Scheme on Control of Imported Falciparum Malaria in Yangzhou City, the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria was implemented, and the relevant malaria data were collected and analyzed statistically. The data included plasmodium blood test ratio of fever patients among exported labors and those returned, the ratio of laboratory-confirmed cases among all reported cases of falciparum malaria, the ratio of falciparum malaria patients who received the standard treatment within 24 hours after onset, etc from 2010 to 2012. After the implementation of the comprehensive prevention and control system, the confirmation ratio of falciparum malaria cases within 24 hours following first visit has reached 60.47%, the average time from first visit to confirmation has shortened to 1.8 d, and the average time from onset to confirmation has shortened to 3.7 d. The health education coverage ratio was 100%, the health knowledge awareness ratio was 95.56%, the ratio of patients seeking treatment on own initiative was 100%, the laboratory-confirmed ratio was 100%, and the ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. The comprehensive prevention and control system carried out by Hanjiang District has made remarkable achievements.

  1. Reduced erythrocyte deformability associated with hypoargininemia during Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Rey, Juliana; Buffet, Pierre A; Ciceron, Liliane; Milon, Geneviève; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Safeukui, Innocent

    2014-01-20

    The mechanisms underlying reduced red blood cell (RBC) deformability during Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the possible involvement of the L-arginine and nitric oxide (NO) pathway on RBC deformability in Pf-infected patients and parasite cultures. RBC deformability was reduced during the acute attack (day0) and returned to normal values upon convalescence (day28). Day0 values correlated with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.69; p = 0.01) and weakly with parasitemia (r = -0.38; p = 0.006). In vitro, day0 patient's plasma incubated with ring-stage cultures at 41°C reduced RBC deformability, and this effect correlated strongly with plasma L-arginine levels (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001). Moreover, addition of exogenous L-arginine to the cultures increased deformability of both Pf-free and trophozoite-harboring RBCs. NO synthase activity, evidenced in Pf-infected RBCs, induced L-arginine-dependent NO production. These data show that hypoargininemia during P. falciparum malaria may altogether impair NO production and reduce RBC deformability, particularly at febrile temperature.

  2. Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Malcolm J; Hall, Neil; Fung, Eula; White, Owen; Berriman, Matthew; Hyman, Richard W; Carlton, Jane M; Pain, Arnab; Nelson, Karen E; Bowman, Sharen; Paulsen, Ian T; James, Keith; Eisen, Jonathan A; Rutherford, Kim; Salzberg, Steven L; Craig, Alister; Kyes, Sue; Chan, Man-Suen; Nene, Vishvanath; Shallom, Shamira J; Suh, Bernard; Peterson, Jeremy; Angiuoli, Sam; Pertea, Mihaela; Allen, Jonathan; Selengut, Jeremy; Haft, Daniel; Mather, Michael W; Vaidya, Akhil B; Martin, David M A; Fairlamb, Alan H; Fraunholz, Martin J; Roos, David S; Ralph, Stuart A; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Cummings, Leda M; Subramanian, G Mani; Mungall, Chris; Venter, J Craig; Carucci, Daniel J; Hoffman, Stephen L; Newbold, Chris; Davis, Ronald W; Fraser, Claire M; Barrell, Bart

    2002-10-03

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of malaria, and kills more than one million African children annually. Here we report an analysis of the genome sequence of P. falciparum clone 3D7. The 23-megabase nuclear genome consists of 14 chromosomes, encodes about 5,300 genes, and is the most (A + T)-rich genome sequenced to date. Genes involved in antigenic variation are concentrated in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes. Compared to the genomes of free-living eukaryotic microbes, the genome of this intracellular parasite encodes fewer enzymes and transporters, but a large proportion of genes are devoted to immune evasion and host-parasite interactions. Many nuclear-encoded proteins are targeted to the apicoplast, an organelle involved in fatty-acid and isoprenoid metabolism. The genome sequence provides the foundation for future studies of this organism, and is being exploited in the search for new drugs and vaccines to fight malaria.

  3. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Helegbe, Gideon K; Goka, Bamenla Q; Kurtzhals, Joergen AL; Addae, Michael M; Ollaga, Edwin; Tetteh, John KA; Dodoo, Daniel; Ofori, Michael F; Obeng-Adjei, George; Hirayama, Kenji; Awandare, Gordon A; Akanmori, Bartholomew D

    2007-01-01

    Background Severe anaemia (SA), intravascular haemolysis (IVH) and respiratory distress (RD) are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. Methods The direct Coombs test (DCT) and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ) and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35) and decay accelerating factor (CD55)] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and RD were investigated. Results Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27%) were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8%) were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2%) were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p < 0.001). DCT correlated significantly with RD (β = -304, p = 0.006), but multiple regression analysis revealed that, Hb (β = -0.341, p = 0.012) and coma (β = -0.256, p = 0.034) were stronger predictors of RD than DCT (β = 0.228, p = 0.061). DCT was also not associated with IVH, p = 0.19, while spleen size was inversely correlated with Hb (r = -402, p = 0.001). Flow cytometry showed similar mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) values of CD35, CD55 and C3bαβ levels on the surfaces of RBC in patients and asymptomatic controls (AC). However, binding of C3bαβ correlated significantly with CD35 or CD55 (p < 0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In

  4. High Malaria Prevalence among Schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Kuboza, Josephat; Mnyeshi, Peter; Changalucha, John M.; Ko, Yunsuk; Chang, Su Young; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the status of malaria among schoolchildren on Kome Island (Lake Victoria), near Mwanza, Tanzania, a total of 244 schoolchildren in 10 primary schools were subjected to a blood survey using the fingerprick method. The subjected schoolchildren were 123 boys and 121 girls who were 6-8 years of age. Only 1 blood smear was prepared for each child. The overall prevalence of malaria was 38.1% (93 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable. However, the positive rate was the highest in Izindabo Primary School (51.4%) followed by Isenyi Primary School (48.3%) and Bugoro Primary School (46.7%). The lowest prevalence was found in Muungano Primary School (16.7%) and Nyamiswi Primary School (16.7%). These differences were highly correlated with the location of the school on the Island; those located in the peripheral area revealed higher prevalences while those located in the central area showed lower prevalences. Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species (38.1%; 93/244), with a small proportion of them mixed-infected with Plasmodium vivax (1.6%; 4/244). The results revealed that malaria is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren on Kome Island, Tanzania, and there is an urgent need to control malaria in this area. PMID:26537036

  5. Amodiaquine failure associated with erythrocytic glutathione in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Lina; Pabón, Adriana; López, Carlos; Ochoa, Aleida; Blair, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish the relationship between production of glutathione and the therapeutic response to amodiaquine (AQ) monotherapy in Plasmodium falciparum non-complicated malaria patients. Methodology Therapeutic response to AQ was evaluated in 32 patients with falciparum malaria in two townships of Antioquia, Colombia, and followed-up for 28 days. For every patient, total glutathione and enzymatic activity (glutathione reductase, GR, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, γ-GCS) were determined in parasitized erythrocytes, non-infected erythrocytes and free parasites, on the starting day (day zero, before ingestion of AQ) and on the day of failure (in case of occurrence). Results There was found an AQ failure of 31.25%. Independent of the therapeutic response, on the starting day and on the day of failure, lower total glutathione concentration and higher GR activities in parasitized erythrocytes were found, compared with non-infected erythrocytes (p < 0.003). In addition, only on the day of failure, γ-GCS activity of parasitized erythrocytes was higher, compared with that of healthy erythrocytes (p = 0.01). Parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes in therapeutic failure patients (TF) had higher total glutathione on the starting day compared with those of adequate clinical response (ACR) (p < 0.02). Parasitized erythrocytes of TF patients showed lower total glutathione on the failure day, compared with starting day (p = 0.017). No differences was seen in the GR and γ-GCS activities by compartment, neither between the two therapeutic response groups nor between the two treatment days. Conclusion This study is a first approach to explaining P. falciparum therapeutic failure in humans through differences in glutathione metabolism in TF and ACR patients. These results suggest a role for glutathione in the therapeutic failure to antimalarials. PMID:17451604

  6. A molecular mechanism of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Alassane; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Pandharkar, Trupti; Liu, Haining; Estiu, Guillermina; Stahelin, Robert V; Rizk, Shahir S; Njimoh, Dieudonne L; Ryan, Yana; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nguon, Chea; Ghorbal, Mehdi; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan; Pfrender, Michael; Emrich, Scott; Mohandas, Narla; Dondorp, Arjen M; Wiest, Olaf; Haldar, Kasturi

    2015-04-30

    Artemisinins are the cornerstone of anti-malarial drugs. Emergence and spread of resistance to them raises risk of wiping out recent gains achieved in reducing worldwide malaria burden and threatens future malaria control and elimination on a global level. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed parasite genetic loci associated with artemisinin resistance. However, there is no consensus on biochemical targets of artemisinin. Whether and how these targets interact with genes identified by GWAS, remains unknown. Here we provide biochemical and cellular evidence that artemisinins are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PfPI3K), revealing an unexpected mechanism of action. In resistant clinical strains, increased PfPI3K was associated with the C580Y mutation in P. falciparum Kelch13 (PfKelch13), a primary marker of artemisinin resistance. Polyubiquitination of PfPI3K and its binding to PfKelch13 were reduced by the PfKelch13 mutation, which limited proteolysis of PfPI3K and thus increased levels of the kinase, as well as its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). We find PI3P levels to be predictive of artemisinin resistance in both clinical and engineered laboratory parasites as well as across non-isogenic strains. Elevated PI3P induced artemisinin resistance in absence of PfKelch13 mutations, but remained responsive to regulation by PfKelch13. Evidence is presented for PI3P-dependent signalling in which transgenic expression of an additional kinase confers resistance. Together these data present PI3P as the key mediator of artemisinin resistance and the sole PfPI3K as an important target for malaria elimination.

  7. Helminth Infection and Eosinophilia and the Risk of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in 1- to 6-Year-Old Children in a Malaria Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Bejon, Philip; Mwangi, Tabitha W.; Lowe, Brett; Peshu, Norbert; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Marsh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Helminth infection is common in malaria endemic areas, and an interaction between the two would be of considerable public health importance. Animal models suggest that helminth infections may increase susceptibility to malaria, but epidemiological data has been limited and contradictory. Methodology/Principal Findings In a vaccine trial, we studied 387 one- to six-year-old children for the effect of helminth infections on febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes. Gastrointestinal helminth infection and eosinophilia were prevalent (25% and 50% respectively), but did not influence susceptibility to malaria. Hazard ratios were 1 for gastrointestinal helminth infection (95% CI 0.6–1.6) and 0.85 and 0.85 for mild and marked eosinophilia, respectively (95% CI 0.56–1.76 and 0.69–1.96). Incident rate ratios for multiple episodes were 0.83 for gastro-intestinal helminth infection (95% CI 0.5–1.33) and 0.86 and 0.98 for mild and marked eosinophilia (95% CI 0.5–1.4 and 0.6–1.5). Conclusions/Significance There was no evidence that infection with gastrointestinal helminths or urinary schistosomiasis increased susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in this study. Larger studies including populations with a greater prevalence of helminth infection should be undertaken. PMID:18265875

  8. Artesunate plus pyronaridine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bukirwa, Hasifa; Unnikrishnan, B; Kramer, Christine V; Sinclair, David; Nair, Suma; Tharyan, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria are treated using Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT). ACT combines three-days of a short-acting artemisinin derivative with a longer-acting antimalarial which has a different mode of action. Pyronaridine has been reported as an effective antimalarial over two decades of use in parts of Asia, and is currently being evaluated as a partner drug for artesunate. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of artesunate-pyronaridine compared to alternative ACTs for treating people with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and the WHO International Clinical Trials Search Portal up to 16 January 2014. We searched reference lists and conference abstracts, and contacted experts for information about ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of artesunate-pyronaridine versus other ACTs in adults and children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. For the safety analysis, we also included adverse events data from trials comparing any treatment regimen containing pyronaridine with regimens not containing pyronaridine. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We combined dichotomous data using risk ratios (RR) and continuous data using mean differences (MD), and presented all results with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included six randomized controlled trials enrolling 3718 children and adults. Artesunate-pyronaridine versus artemether-lumefantrine In two multicentre trials, enrolling

  9. Severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults at Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few published reports on severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults in Africa. Methods Clinical pattern/manifestations of severe P. falciparum and P. vivax (according to World Health Organization 2000 criteria) were described in adult patients admitted to Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan. Results A total of 139 adult patients (80 males, 57.6%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (1.5) years presented with severe P. falciparum (113, 81.3%) or P. vivax (26, 18.7%) malaria. Manifestations among the 139 patients included hypotension (38, 27.3%), cerebral malaria (23, 16.5%), repeated convulsions (18, 13.0%), hypoglycaemia (15, 10.8%), hyperparasitaemia (14, 10.1%), jaundice (14, 10.1%), severe anaemia (10, 7.2%), bleeding (six, 4.3%), renal impairment (one, 0.7%) and more than one criteria (27, 19.4%). While the geometric mean of the parasite count was significantly higher in patients with severe P. vivax than with severe P. falciparum malaria (5,934.2 vs 13,906.6 asexual stage parasitaemia per μL, p = 0.013), the different disease manifestations were not significantly different between patients with P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria. Three patients (2.2%) died due to severe P. falciparum malaria. One had cerebral malaria, the second had renal impairment, jaundice and hypoglycaemia, and the third had repeated convulsions and hypotension. Conclusions Severe malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria is an existing entity among adults in eastern Sudan. Patients with severe P. falciparum and P. vivax develop similar disease manifestations. PMID:23634728

  10. Evaluation of a rapid and inexpensive dipstick assay for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, C. D.; Burgess, D. C.; Taylor, H. J.; Kain, K. C.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid, accurate and affordable methods are needed for the diagnosis of malaria. Reported here is an evaluation of a new immunochromatographic strip, the PATH Falciparum Malaria IC Strip, which is impregnated with an immobilized IgM monoclonal antibody that binds to the HRP-II antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. In contrast to other commercially available kits marketed for the rapid diagnosis of falciparum malaria, this kit should be affordable in the malaria-endemic world. Using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as reference standards, we compared two versions of the PATH test for the detection of P. falciparum infection in 200 febrile travellers. As determined by PCR and microscopy, 148 travellers had malaria, 50 of whom (33.8%) were infected with P. falciparum. Compared with PCR, the two versions of the PATH test had initial sensitivities of 90% and 88% and specificities of 97% and 96%, respectively, for the detection of falciparum malaria. When discrepant samples were retested blindly with a modified procedure (increased sample volume and longer washing step) the sensitivity and specificity of both kits improved to 96% and 99%, respectively. The two remaining false negatives occurred in samples with < 100 parasites per microliter of blood. The accuracy, simplicity and predicted low cost may make this test a useful diagnostic tool in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:10444878

  11. Prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and influence of HIV infection on malaria disease severity in population residing in malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection and assess the effect of HIV coinfection on malaria disease severity in malaria patients from the endemic area of Thailand along the Thai-Myanmar border. Blood samples were collected from a total of 867 patients with malaria (all species and severity) who attended Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during 2005-2007 (439 samples), 2008-2010 (273 samples), and 2011-2013 (155 samples). The average prevalence rate of malaria and HIV coinfected cases in this malaria endemic area of the country during the three periods was 1.85%. HIV coinfection was observed only in samples with mono-infection of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, with similar proportions (0.81 vs. 1.04%). Patients' admission parasite density, an indicator of disease severity, was significantly higher in cases with HIV coinfection observed during 2008-2010. Anemia was found at a significantly higher frequency in patients coinfected with malaria and HIV observed during 2005-2007 compared with those infected with malaria alone. No association was observed between malaria and HIV coinfection and gender, and infected malaria species during the three observation periods. Patients with malaria and HIV coinfection had a significantly lower hemoglobin level than those with malaria infection alone. In conclusion, the prevalence of malaria and HIV coinfection in population of the malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border is low. HIV coinfection tended to increase parasite density, an indicator of malaria disease severity.

  12. Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omalu, Innocent Chukwuemeka James; Mgbemena, Charles; Mgbemena, Amaka; Ayanwale, Victoria; Olayemi, Israel Kayode; Lateef, Adeniran; Chukwuemeka, Victoria I.

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) showed positive peripheral parasitaemia. Placental parasitaemia was 7/152 (4.61%), while cord blood parasitaemia was 9/152 (5.92%). There were strong associations between peripheral and cord malaria parasitaemia and congenital malaria (P < 0.05). Plasmodium falciparum occurred in all, and none had mixed infection. The average birth weights of the babies delivered of nonmalarious pregnant women were higher than those delivered by malarious pregnant women, though not significant (P > 0.05). Malaria parasitaemia occurred more frequently in primigravidae than multigravidae. PMID:21876706

  13. Prevalence of congenital malaria in minna, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omalu, Innocent Chukwuemeka James; Mgbemena, Charles; Mgbemena, Amaka; Ayanwale, Victoria; Olayemi, Israel Kayode; Lateef, Adeniran; Chukwuemeka, Victoria I

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) showed positive peripheral parasitaemia. Placental parasitaemia was 7/152 (4.61%), while cord blood parasitaemia was 9/152 (5.92%). There were strong associations between peripheral and cord malaria parasitaemia and congenital malaria (P < 0.05). Plasmodium falciparum occurred in all, and none had mixed infection. The average birth weights of the babies delivered of nonmalarious pregnant women were higher than those delivered by malarious pregnant women, though not significant (P > 0.05). Malaria parasitaemia occurred more frequently in primigravidae than multigravidae.

  14. Ethics, economics, and the use of primaquine to reduce falciparum malaria transmission in asymptomatic populations.

    PubMed

    Lubell, Yoel; White, Lisa; Varadan, Sheila; Drake, Tom; Yeung, Shunmay; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Maude, Richard J; Dondorp, Arjen; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Parker, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Yoel Lubell and colleagues consider ethical and economic perspectives on mass drug administration of primaquine to limit transmission of P. falciparum malaria. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Efficacy and safety of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for non-falciparum malaria: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Visser, Benjamin J; Wieten, Rosanne W; Kroon, Daniëlle; Nagel, Ingeborg M; Bélard, Sabine; van Vugt, Michèle; Grobusch, Martin P

    2014-11-26

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, whereas chloroquine is still commonly used for the treatment of non-falciparum species (Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae). A more simplified, more uniform treatment approach across all malaria species is worthwhile to be considered both in endemic areas and for malaria as an imported condition alike. A PROSPERO-registered systematic review to determine the efficacy and safety of ACT for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Without language restrictions, Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus were searched for studies published up to November 2014. The literature search identified 986 reports; 40 publications were found eligible for inclusion, all of them on non-falciparum malaria in endemic areas. Most evidence was available for P. vivax (n = 35). Five clinical trials in total were identified evaluating ACT for P. ovale, P. malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi. Most ACT presentations have high efficacy against P. vivax parasites; artemisinin-based combinations have shorter parasite and fever clearance times compared to chloroquine. ACT is as effective as chloroquine in preventing recurrent parasitaemia before day 28. Artemisinin-based combinations with long half-lives show significantly fewer recurrent parasitaemia up to day 63. The limited evidence available supports both the use of chloroquine and an ACT for P. ovale and P. malariae. ACT seems to be preferable for optimal treatment of P. knowlesi. ACT is at least equivalent to chloroquine in effectively treating non-falciparum malaria. These findings may facilitate development of simplified protocols for treating all forms of malaria with ACT, including returning travellers. Obtaining comprehensive efficacy and

  16. Malaria Control and the Intensity of Plasmodium falciparum Transmission in Namibia 1969–1992

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M.; Alegana, Victor A.; Kamwi, Richard N.; Hansford, Clifford F.; Ntomwa, Benson; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Historical evidence of the levels of intervention scale up and its relationships to changing malaria risks provides important contextual information for current ambitions to eliminate malaria in various regions of Africa today. Methods Community-based Plasmodium falciparum prevalence data from 3,260 geo-coded time-space locations between 1969 and 1992 were assembled from archives covering an examination of 230,174 individuals located in northern Namibia. These data were standardized the age-range 2 to less than 10 years and used within a Bayesian model-based geo-statistical framework to examine the changes of malaria risk in the years 1969, 1974, 1979, 1984 and 1989 at 5×5 km spatial resolution. This changing risk was described against rainfall seasons and the wide-scale use of indoor-residual house-spraying and mass drug administration. Results Most areas of Northern Namibia experienced low intensity transmission during a ten-year period of wide-scale control activities between 1969 and 1979. As control efforts waned, flooding occurred, drug resistance emerged and the war for independence intensified the spatial extent of moderate-to-high malaria transmission expanded reaching a peak in the late 1980s. Conclusions Targeting vectors and parasite in northern Namibia was likely to have successfully sustained a situation of low intensity transmission, but unraveled quickly to a peak of transmission intensity following a sequence of events by the early 1990s. PMID:23667604

  17. Malaria control and the intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Namibia 1969-1992.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Kamwi, Richard N; Hansford, Clifford F; Ntomwa, Benson; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence of the levels of intervention scale up and its relationships to changing malaria risks provides important contextual information for current ambitions to eliminate malaria in various regions of Africa today. Community-based Plasmodium falciparum prevalence data from 3,260 geo-coded time-space locations between 1969 and 1992 were assembled from archives covering an examination of 230,174 individuals located in northern Namibia. These data were standardized the age-range 2 to less than 10 years and used within a Bayesian model-based geo-statistical framework to examine the changes of malaria risk in the years 1969, 1974, 1979, 1984 and 1989 at 5×5 km spatial resolution. This changing risk was described against rainfall seasons and the wide-scale use of indoor-residual house-spraying and mass drug administration. Most areas of Northern Namibia experienced low intensity transmission during a ten-year period of wide-scale control activities between 1969 and 1979. As control efforts waned, flooding occurred, drug resistance emerged and the war for independence intensified the spatial extent of moderate-to-high malaria transmission expanded reaching a peak in the late 1980s. Targeting vectors and parasite in northern Namibia was likely to have successfully sustained a situation of low intensity transmission, but unraveled quickly to a peak of transmission intensity following a sequence of events by the early 1990s.

  18. Evaluation of some haemostatic parameters in falciparum malaria and HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca C; Ukaejiofo, Ernest O; Ele, Prince U; Onyenekwe, Charles C; Chukwuanukwu, Titus O; Ifeanyichukwu, Martin O

    2016-10-01

    Studies from sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic have observed high incidences of malaria and HIV co-infection. It has long been accepted that malaria causes alterations in haemostatic parameters and that HIV is associated with a wide range of haematological changes. We assessed the effect of the overlap of these infections on routine haemostatic parameters. The study involved 337 subjects grouped according to their HIV and malaria status: Group 1 'Asymptomatic HIV seropositive, Plasmodium falciparum positive' (n = 61); Group 2 'Asymptomatic HIV seropositive, P. falciparum negative' (n = 73); Group 3 'Symptomatic HIV seropositive, P. falciparum positive' (n = 49); Group 4 'Symptomatic HIV positive P. falciparum negative' (n = 56); Group 5 'Control HIV negative, P. falciparum positive' (n = 52) and Group 6 'Control HIV negative, P. falciparum negative' (n = 46). Blood samples were taken for HIV testing, diagnosis of falciparum malaria and malaria parasite density counts. Citrated samples were used within one hour of collection for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). CD4(+) T cell counts, platelet count and haematocrit (Hct) were also performed. Our results demonstrate greater alterations in APTT, PT and platelet count with prolongation of APTT, PT and lower platelet counts in HIV and malaria co-infection. In spite of this, the co-infected subjects with mild to moderate parasitaemia did not show a bleeding tendency; however, the risk is higher in severe malaria. These results suggest that co-infected subjects with severe malaria have a higher risk of bleeding and would require greater monitoring.

  19. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contributing factor for their pathogenesis in the host. As with other eukaryotes, successful mitosis is an essential requirement for Plasmodium reproduction; however, some aspects of Plasmodium mitosis are quite distinct and not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the architecture and key events of mitosis in Plasmodium falciparum and related parasites and compare them with the traditional mitotic events described for other eukaryotes. PMID:21317311

  20. Artemisinin-naphthoquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Isba, Rachel; Zani, Babalwa; Gathu, Michael; Sinclair, David

    2015-02-23

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treating people with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Five combinations are currently recommended, all administered over three days. Artemisinin-naphthoquine is a new combination developed in China, which is being marketed as a one-day treatment. Although shorter treatment courses may improve adherence, the WHO recommends at least three days of the short-acting artemisinin component to eliminate 90% P. falciparum parasites in the bloodstream, before leaving the longer-acting partner drug to clear the remaining parasites. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the artemisinin-naphthoquine combination for treating adults and children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; and LILACS up to January 2015. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'malaria' and 'arte* OR dihydroarte*' as search terms. Randomized controlled trials comparing artemisinin-naphthoquine combinations with established WHO-recommended ACTs for the treatment of adults and children with uncomplicated malaria due to P. falciparum. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed primary outcomes in line with the WHO 'Protocol for assessing and monitoring antimalarial drug efficacy' and compared drugs using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Secondary outcomes were effects on gametocytes, haemoglobin, and adverse events. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Four trials, enrolling 740 adults and children, met the inclusion criteria. Artemisinin-naphthoquine was administered as a single dose (two trials), as two doses given eight hours apart (one trial), and once daily for three days (one trial

  1. Falciparum malaria: sticking up, standing out and out-standing.

    PubMed

    Cooke, B; Coppel, R; Wahlgren, M

    2000-10-01

    Cytoadherence is believed to be fundamental for the survival of Plasmodium falciparum in vivo and, uniquely, is a major determinant of the virulence of this parasite. Despite the widely professed importance of cytoadhesion in the development of severe disease, there are a number of aspects of this highly complex process that remain poorly understood. Recent progress in the understanding of cytoadhesive phenomena was discussed extensively at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference, Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000. Here, Brian Cooke, Mats Wahlgren and Ross Coppel consider just how far we have progressed during the past 30 years and highlight what is still missing in our understanding of the mechanisms and clinical relevance of this apparently vital process.

  2. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: a multisite prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Amato, Roberto; Blessborn, Daniel; Song, Lijiang; Tullo, Gregory S; Fay, Michael P; Anderson, Jennifer M; Tarning, Joel; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum threatens to reduce the efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), thus compromising global efforts to eliminate malaria. Recent treatment failures with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line ACT in Cambodia, suggest that piperaquine resistance may be emerging in this country. We explored the relation between artemisinin resistance and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failures, and sought to confirm the presence of piperaquine-resistant P falciparum infections in Cambodia. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients aged 2-65 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in three Cambodian provinces: Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri. Participants were given standard 3-day courses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Peripheral blood parasite densities were measured until parasites cleared and then weekly to 63 days. The primary outcome was recrudescent P falciparum parasitaemia within 63 days. We measured piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline, 7 days, and day of recrudescence. We assessed phenotypic and genotypic markers of drug resistance in parasite isolates. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01736319. Between Sept 4, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013, we enrolled 241 participants. In Pursat, where artemisinin resistance is entrenched, 37 (46%) of 81 patients had parasite recrudescence. In Preah Vihear, where artemisinin resistance is emerging, ten (16%) of 63 patients had recrudescence and in Ratanakiri, where artemisinin resistance is rare, one (2%) of 60 patients did. Patients with recrudescent P falciparum infections were more likely to have detectable piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline compared with non-recrudescent patients, but did not differ significantly in age, initial parasite density, or piperaquine plasma concentrations at 7 days. Recrudescent parasites had a higher prevalence of kelch13 mutations, higher piperaquine 50% inhibitory

  3. Dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: a multisite prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Amato, Roberto; Blessborn, Daniel; Song, Lijiang; Tullo, Gregory S; Fay, Michael P; Anderson, Jennifer M; Tarning, Joel; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum threatens to reduce the efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), thus compromising global efforts to eliminate malaria. Recent treatment failures with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line ACT in Cambodia, suggest that piperaquine resistance may be emerging in this country. We explored the relation between artemisinin resistance and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine failures, and sought to confirm the presence of piperaquine-resistant P falciparum infections in Cambodia. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients aged 2–65 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in three Cambodian provinces: Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri. Participants were given standard 3-day courses of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine. Peripheral blood parasite densities were measured until parasites cleared and then weekly to 63 days. The primary outcome was recrudescent P falciparum parasitaemia within 63 days. We measured piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline, 7 days, and day of recrudescence. We assessed phenotypic and genotypic markers of drug resistance in parasite isolates. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01736319. Findings Between Sept 4, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013, we enrolled 241 participants. In Pursat, where artemisinin resistance is entrenched, 37 (46%) of 81 patients had parasite recrudescence. In Preah Vihear, where artemisinin resistance is emerging, ten (16%) of 63 patients had recrudescence and in Ratanakiri, where artemisinin resistance is rare, one (2%) of 60 patients did. Patients with recrudescent P falciparum infections were more likely to have detectable piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline compared with non-recrudescent patients, but did not differ significantly in age, initial parasite density, or piperaquine plasma concentrations at 7 days. Recrudescent parasites had a higher prevalence of kelch13 mutations

  4. Malaria antifolate resistance with contrasting Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) polymorphisms in humans and Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Mharakurwa, Sungano; Kumwenda, Taida; Mkulama, Mtawa A. P.; Musapa, Mulenga; Chishimba, Sandra; Shiff, Clive J.; Sullivan, David J.; Thuma, Philip E.; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance for drug-resistant parasites in human blood is a major effort in malaria control. Here we report contrasting antifolate resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum when parasites in human blood were compared with parasites in Anopheles vector mosquitoes from sleeping huts in rural Zambia. DNA encoding P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (EC 1.5.1.3) was amplified by PCR with allele-specific restriction enzyme digestions. Markedly prevalent pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were evident in human P. falciparum infections—S108N (>90%), with N51I, C59R, and 108N+51I+59R triple mutants (30–80%). This resistance level may be from selection pressure due to decades of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use in the region. In contrast, cycloguanil-resistant mutants were detected in very low frequency in parasites from human blood samples—S108T (13%), with A16V and 108T+16V double mutants (∼4%). Surprisingly, pyrimethamine-resistant mutants were of very low prevalence (2–12%) in the midguts of Anopheles arabiensis vector mosquitoes, but cycloguanil-resistant mutants were highly prevalent—S108T (90%), with A16V and the 108T+16V double mutant (49–57%). Structural analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase by in silico modeling revealed a key difference in the enzyme within the NADPH binding pocket, predicting the S108N enzyme to have reduced stability but the S108T enzyme to have increased stability. We conclude that P. falciparum can bear highly host-specific drug-resistant polymorphisms, most likely reflecting different selective pressures found in humans and mosquitoes. Thus, it may be useful to sample both human and mosquito vector infections to accurately ascertain the epidemiological status of drug-resistant alleles. PMID:22065788

  5. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in southern Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Ouldabdallahi, M M; Sarr, O; Basco, L K; Lebatt, S M; Lo, B; Gaye, O

    2016-08-01

    Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment. This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days. Isolates were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and reinfection. Treatment success rates and survival were analysed per protocol to evaluate drug efficacy. After inclusion, 2 patients were excluded for protocol violations, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 50 patients (per protocol population), 43 (86%) had adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Of the 7 patients with treatment failure, 5 (10%) were early failures, while 2 (4%) had initially responded and had late clinical failure on day 7, associated with recrudescence. With the exception of one adult weighing 91 kg, all treatment failures occurred in children aged from 7 to 12 years. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy was moderately effective but insufficiently reliable in view of the relatively high rate of early treatment failure. The high prevalence of chloroquine resistance found in earlier studies and the results of the present study on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine justify the change in national policy and systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for first-line treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Mauritania.

  6. Treatment Failure of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Dong, Le Than; Loi, Mai Anh; Ménard, Didier; Tarning, Joel; Bustos, Dorina; Ringwald, Pascal; Galappaththy, Gawrie Loku; Thieu, Nguyen Quang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process. PMID:28322709

  7. Recrudescence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria contracted in Lombok, Indonesia after quinine/doxycycline and mefloquine: case report.

    PubMed

    Tish, K N; Pillans, P I

    1997-07-11

    A patient is reported who contracted Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Lombok, Indonesia. The infection recrudesced after quinine/doxycycline and mefloquine. Treatment with halofantrine was successful after he developed cerebral malaria with recovery.

  8. Association of CD40L gene polymorphism with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Prasanta; Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar; Patel, Siris; Das, Padmalaya; Das, Kishalaya; Panigrahi, Jogeswar

    2017-01-01

    Many host genetic factors are associated with the disease severity and fatal outcome of falciparum malaria. CD40L gene has been found to be one of the most important factors associated with malaria in African countries. This study was aimed to investigate the possible association of CD40L gene polymorphism in severe falciparum malaria in Indian adults. One hundred fifteen adult cases with severe falciparum malaria were included in the study. Two single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD40L gene, CD40L-726(C/T) and CD40L+220(C/T) were investigated, and the possible association with different clinical sub-phenotypes of severe falciparum malaria were analyzed. Statistically no significant difference was observed in the incidence of CD40L-726C between the patients and control group. The incidence of CD40L+220C allele was found to be significantly higher (OR, 2.25; p = 0.03) in male patients compared to controls but no significant difference was observed in females. Haplotype data showed the susceptibility of -726T/+220C haplotype to severe malaria whereas -726C/+220T was associated with protection against severe malaria. CD40L+220C allele was associated with severe malarial anaemia in males (χ2 = 6.60; p = 0.01). CD40L gene polymorphism was found to be associated with severe falciparum malaria in Indian population especially in severe malarial anaemia. CD40L may be considered as a factor of immunity in understanding the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria.

  9. Assembling a global database of malaria parasite prevalence for the Malaria Atlas Project

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Carlos A; Hay, Simon I; Lucioparedes, Lorena S; Gikandi, Priscilla W; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Open access to databases of information generated by the research community can synergize individual efforts and are epitomized by the genome mapping projects. Open source models for outputs of scientific research funded by tax-payers and charities are becoming the norm. This has yet to be extended to malaria epidemiology and control. Methods The exhaustive searches and assembly process for a global database of malaria parasite prevalence as part of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) are described. The different data sources visited and how productive these were in terms of availability of parasite rate (PR) data are presented, followed by a description of the methods used to assemble a relational database and an associated geographic information system. The challenges facing spatial data assembly from varied sources are described in an effort to help inform similar future applications. Results At the time of writing, the MAP database held 3,351 spatially independent PR estimates from community surveys conducted since 1985. These include 3,036 Plasmodium falciparum and 1,347 Plasmodium vivax estimates in 74 countries derived from 671 primary sources. More than half of these data represent malaria prevalence after the year 2000. Conclusion This database will help refine maps of the global spatial limits of malaria and be the foundation for the development of global malaria endemicity models as part of MAP. A widespread application of these maps is envisaged. The data compiled and the products generated by MAP are planned to be released in June 2009 to facilitate a more informed approach to global malaria control. PMID:17306022

  10. Imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in HIV-infected patients: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    As HIV becomes a chronic infection, an increasing number of HIV-infected patients are travelling to malaria-endemic areas. Association of malaria with HIV/AIDS can be clinically severe. Severe falciparum malaria is a medical emergency that is associated with a high mortality, even when treated in an Intensive Care Unit. This article describes two cases of HIV-positive patients, who returned from malaria-endemic areas and presented a parasitaemia > 5% of erythrocytes and clinical signs of severe falciparum malaria, both with > 350 CD4 cell count/μl, absence of chemoprophylaxis and successful response. Factors like drug interactions and the possible implication of anti-malarial therapy bioavailability are all especially interesting in HIV-malaria co-infections. PMID:22540214

  11. International Funding for Malaria Control in Relation to Populations at Risk of Stable Plasmodium falciparum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W; Guerra, Carlos A; Mutheu, Juliette J; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007. Methods and Findings The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum–endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars) per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted. Conclusions Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the

  12. Increasing Incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria following Control of P. falciparum and P. vivax Malaria in Sabah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    William, Timothy; Rahman, Hasan A.; Jelip, Jenarun; Ibrahim, Mohammad Y.; Menon, Jayaram; Grigg, Matthew J.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Barber, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time. Methods Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992–2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity. Results From 1992–2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly. Conclusions A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence. PMID:23359830

  13. Increasing incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria following control of P. falciparum and P. vivax Malaria in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    William, Timothy; Rahman, Hasan A; Jelip, Jenarun; Ibrahim, Mohammad Y; Menon, Jayaram; Grigg, Matthew J; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M; Barber, Bridget E

    2013-01-01

    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time. Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992-2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity. From 1992-2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈ 100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly. A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence.

  14. Construction of a human functional single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody recognizing the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wajanarogana, Sumet; Prasomrothanakul, Teerawat; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2006-04-01

    Falciparum malaria is one of the most deadly and profound human health problems around the tropical world. Antimalarial drugs are now considered to be a powerful treatment; however, there are drugs currently being used that are resistant to Plasmodium falciparum parasites spreading in different parts of the world. Although the protective immune response against intraerythrocytic stages of the falciparum malaria parasite is still not fully understood, immune antibodies have been shown to be associated with reduced parasite prevalence. Therefore antibodies of the right specificity present in adequate concentrations and affinity are reasonably effective in providing protection. In the present study, VH (variable domain of heavy chain) and VL (variable domain of light chain) were isolated from human blood lymphocytes of P. falciparum in one person who had high serum titre to RESA (ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen). Equal amounts of VH and VL were assembled together with universal linker (G4S)3 to generate scFvs (single-chain variable fragments). The scFv antibodies were expressed with a phage system for the selection process. Exclusively, an expressed scFv against asynchronous culture of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes was selected and characterized. Sequence analysis of selected scFv revealed that this clone could be classified into a VH family-derived germline gene (VH1) and Vkappa family segment (Vkappa1). Using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we could show that soluble expressed scFv reacted with falciparum-infected erythrocytes. The results encourage the further study of scFvs for development as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.

  15. In vivo removal of malaria parasites from red blood cells without their destruction in acute falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Angus, B J; Chotivanich, K; Udomsangpetch, R; White, N J

    1997-09-01

    During acute falciparum malaria infection, red blood cells (RBC) containing abundant ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf 155 or RESA), but no intracellular parasites, are present in the circulation. These RESA-positive parasite negative RBC are not seen in parasite cultures in vitro. This indicates that in acute falciparum malaria there is active removal of intraerythrocytic parasites by a host mechanism in vivo (probably the spleen) without destruction of the parasitized RBC. This may explain the observed disparity between the drop in hematocrit and decrease in parasite count in some hyperparasitemic patients. The fate of these "once-parasitized" RBC in vivo is not known.

  16. Protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria by PfSPZ Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Judith E.; Paolino, Kristopher M.; Richie, Thomas L.; Sedegah, Martha; Singer, Alexandra; Ruben, Adam J.; Chakravarty, Sumana; Stafford, April; Ruck, Richard C.; Eappen, Abraham G.; Billingsley, Peter F.; Manoj, Anita; Moser, Kara; Nielsen, Robin; Tosh, Donna; Cicatelli, Susan; Ganeshan, Harini; Case, Jessica; Padilla, Debbie; Davidson, Silas; Saverino, Elizabeth; Murshedkar, Tooba; Gunasekera, Anusha; Twomey, Patrick S.; Reyes, Sharina; Moon, James E.; James, Eric R.; KC, Natasha; Li, Minglin; Abot, Esteban; Belmonte, Arnel; Hauns, Kevin; Belmonte, Maria; Huang, Jun; Vasquez, Carlos; Remich, Shon; Carrington, Mary; Abebe, Yonas; Tillman, Amy; Hickey, Bradley; Regules, Jason; Villasante, Eileen; Sim, B. Kim Lee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccine, PfSPZ Vaccine, protected 6 of 6 subjects (100%) against homologous Pf (same strain as in the vaccine) controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 3 weeks after 5 doses administered intravenously. The next step was to assess protective efficacy against heterologous Pf (different from Pf in the vaccine), after fewer doses, and at 24 weeks. METHODS: The trial assessed tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3 or 5 doses of PfSPZ Vaccine in non-immune subjects. RESULTS: Three weeks after final immunization, 5 doses of 2.7 × 105 PfSPZ protected 12 of 13 recipients (92.3% [95% CI: 48.0, 99.8]) against homologous CHMI and 4 of 5 (80.0% [10.4, 99.5]) against heterologous CHMI; 3 doses of 4.5 × 105 PfSPZ protected 13 of 15 (86.7% [35.9, 98.3]) against homologous CHMI. Twenty-four weeks after final immunization, the 5-dose regimen protected 7 of 10 (70.0% [17.3, 93.3]) against homologous and 1 of 10 (10.0% [–35.8, 45.6]) against heterologous CHMI; the 3-dose regimen protected 8 of 14 (57.1% [21.5, 76.6]) against homologous CHMI. All 22 controls developed Pf parasitemia. PfSPZ Vaccine was well tolerated, safe, and easy to administer. No antibody or T cell responses correlated with protection. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge that PfSPZ Vaccine can protect against a 3-week heterologous CHMI in a limited group of malaria-naive adult subjects. A 3-dose regimen protected against both 3-week and 24-week homologous CHMI (87% and 57%, respectively) in this population. These results provide a foundation for developing an optimized immunization regimen for preventing malaria. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02215707. FUNDING: Support was provided through the US Army Medical Research and Development Command, Military Infectious Diseases Research Program, and the Naval Medical Research

  17. Prevalence of human malaria infection in Pakistani areas bordering with Iran.

    PubMed

    Yasinzai, Mohammad Iqbal; Kakarsulemankhel, Juma Khan

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of malarial infections in human population of district Panjgur in south-western Pakistan. The cross-sectional study identified malarial parasites in the blood slides of 6119 suspected malaria patients from July 2006 to June 2008 through passive and active case detection methods. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. Out of 6119 suspected cases of malaria, 2346 (38.3%) were found to be positive for malarial parasite on blood smear slides. Of these, 1868 (79.6%) cases were due to Plasmodium vivax infection, and 478 (20.3%) had P. falciparum. However, seasonal variation was also noted: P. vivax infection was the highest (n = 131/144, 90.9%) in November and the lowest (n=83/176, 47.1%) in October. The prevalence was higher (n=1831, 78%) in males. Age-wise, the prevalence of the disease was 81.2% (n=334) and 80% (n=860) for age groups 1-10 years and 11-20 years. No case of P. malariae and P. ovale was detected in the study period. No association was found between types of infection and age groups. Human malaria infection was quite frequent in the study region, which is one of the hottest areas of Balochistan, Pakistan. In clinically-suspected cases of malaria, there was a high slide positivity rate. The high prevalence rate of P. vivax poses a significant health hazard but R falciparum also may lead to serious complications, including cerebral malaria.

  18. [Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum during the rainy season (June-December) in the southeast district of Haiti].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P; Cicéron, M; Dossil, R; Boncy, J

    2012-01-01

    This malaria prevalence survey was conducted in Haiti from June through November 2010. The Plasmodium falciparum rate was assessed in 16 municipalities and villages of the southeast district, by examination of thick films from a randomly drawn population sample. The study included 2,126 people aged one to 90 years. P. falciparum was detected among 201 non-febrile subjects. This district, with a P. falciparum rate of 9.5%, is in a low endemic area for malaria. Nonetheless, the infection rates varied considerably from one area to another. Along the coast, the P. falciparum rate ranged from 0 to 34.5%, in four separate categories: four highly infected (mean P. falciparum rate = 21.4% and mean gametocyte rate = 15.3%), four moderately infected (mean P. falciparum rate = 6.1% and gametocyte rate = 5.9%), five slightly infected (mean P. falciparum rate = 3.3% and gametocyte rate = 1.1%) and one uninfected in the interior. No cases of infection were detected in two areas located at an altitude above 600 m. The trophozoite and gametocyte rates varied little as a function of age and thus indicated a low level of protection within the population. This study shows the persistence of endemic malaria at highly variable prevalence levels in this district of Haiti. The development of this region that could be highly desirable to tourists requires the establishment of an appropriate disease control program.

  19. Liver changes in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria: histopathology, apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver involvement in severe Plasmodium falciparum infection is commonly a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among humans. The clinical presentation of jaundice often reflects a certain degree of liver damage. This study investigated the liver pathology of severe P. falciparum malaria as well as the regulation and occurrence of apoptosis in cellular components of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues. Methods The liver tissues used in the study came from patients who died from P. falciparum malaria with hyperbilirubinaemia (total bilirubin (TB) ≥ 51.3 μmol/L or 3 mg/dl) (12 cases), P. falciparum malaria without hyperbilirubinaemia (TB < 51.3 μmol/L) (10 cases); and patients who died due to accidents, whose liver histology was normal (the control group) (10 cases). The histopathology of the liver tissue was studied by routine histology method. Caspase-3 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expressions were determined using immunohistochemistry. Results The severity of liver histopathology, occurrence of apoptosis and NF-κB p65 activation in P. falciparum malaria were associated with higher TB level. Significant correlations were found between NF-κB p65 expression and apoptosis in Kupffer cells and lymphocytes in the portal tracts. Conclusions Hyperplastic Kupffer cells and portal tract inflammation are two main features found in the liver tissues of severe P. falciparum malaria cases. In addition, NF-κB is associated with Kupffer cells and lymphocyte apoptosis in severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:24636003

  20. Heritability of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria in a Karen population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phimpraphi, Waraphon; Paul, Richard; Witoonpanich, Bhee; Turbpaiboon, Chairat; Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon; Louicharoen, Chalisa; Casademont, Isabelle; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kaewkunwal, Jaranit; Sura, Thanyachai; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies concerning malaria host genetics have focused on individual genes that confer protection against rather than susceptibility to malaria. Establishing the relative impact of genetic versus non-genetic factors on malaria infection and disease is essential to focus effort on key determinant factors. This relative contribution has rarely been evaluated for Plasmodium falciparum and almost never for Plasmodium vivax. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in a Karen population of 3,484 individuals in a region of mesoendemic malaria, Thailand from 1998 to 2005. The number of P. falciparum and P. vivax clinical cases and the parasite density per person were determined. Statistical analyses were performed to account for the influence of environmental factors and the genetic heritability of the phenotypes was calculated using the pedigree-based variance components model. The genetic contribution to the number of clinical episodes resulting from P. falciparum and P. vivax were 10% and 19% respectively. There was also moderate genetic contribution to the maximum and overall parasite trophozoite density phenotypes for both P. falciparum (16%&16%) and P. vivax (15%&13%). These values, for P. falciparum, were similar to those previously observed in a region of much higher transmission intensity in Senegal, West Africa. Although environmental factors play an important role in acquiring an infection, genetics plays a determinant role in the outcome of an infection with either malaria parasite species prior to the development of immunity.

  1. Complement Activation Correlates With Disease Severity and Contributes to Cytokine Responses in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aase; Otterdal, Kari; Patel, Sam; Gonca, Miguel; David, Catarina; Dalen, Ingvild; Nymo, Stig; Nilsson, Margareta; Nordling, Sofia; Magnusson, Peetra U; Ueland, Thor; Prato, Mauro; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Aukrust, Pål; Langeland, Nina; Nilsson, Per H

    2015-12-01

    The impact of complement activation and its possible relation to cytokine responses during malaria pathology was investigated in plasma samples from patients with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria and in human whole-blood specimens stimulated with malaria-relevant agents ex vivo. Complement was significantly activated in the malaria cohort, compared with healthy controls, and was positively correlated with disease severity and with certain cytokines, in particular interleukin 8 (IL-8)/CXCL8. This was confirmed in ex vivo-stimulated blood specimens, in which complement inhibition significantly reduced IL-8/CXCL8 release. P. falciparum malaria is associated with systemic complement activation and complement-dependent release of inflammatory cytokines, of which IL-8/CXCL8 is particularly prominent. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Clinical Factors for Severity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Hospitalized Adults in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sagaki, Patrick; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ruangkanchanasetr, Prajej

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of severe malaria in Southeast Asia, however, there is limited information regarding clinical factors associated with the severity of falciparum malaria from this region. We performed a retrospective case-control study to compare clinical factors and outcomes between patients with severe and non-severe malaria, and to identify clinical factors associated with the requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients with severe falciparum malaria among hospitalized adults in Southeast Asia. A total of 255 patients with falciparum malaria in the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between 2006 and 2012 were included. We identified 104 patients with severe malaria (cases) and 151 patients with non-severe malaria (controls). Patients with falciparum malaria with following clinical and laboratory characteristics on admission (1) referrals, (2) no prior history of malaria, (3) body temperature of >38.5°C, (4) white blood cell counts >10×109/µL, (5) presence of schizonts in peripheral blood smears, and (6) albumin concentrations of <3.5 g/dL, were more likely to develop severe malaria (P<0.05). Among patients with severe malaria, patients who met ≥3 of the 2010 WHO criteria had sensitivity of 79.2% and specificity of 81.8% for requiring ICU admission. Multivariate analysis identified the following as independent associated factors for severe malaria requiring ICU admission; (1) ethnicity of Thai [odds ratio (OR) = 3.601, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.011–12.822] or Myanmar [OR = 3.610, 95% CI = 1.138–11.445]; (2) referrals [OR = 3.571, 95% CI = 1.306–9.762]; (3) no prior history of malaria [OR = 5.887, 95% CI = 1.354–25.594]; and (4) albumin concentrations of <3.5 g/dL [OR = 7.200, 95% CI = 1.802–28.759]. Our findings are important for the clinical management of patients with malaria because it can help early identification of patients that could

  3. Transmission dynamics of co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum in Ethiopia and prevalence of antimalarial resistant genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Nguyen, Jennifer; Kebede, Estifanos; Zemene, Endalew; Getachew, Sisay; Tushune, Kora; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa; Petros, Beyene; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the few African countries where Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with P. falciparum. Malaria transmission is seasonal and transmission intensity varies mainly by landscape and climate. Although the recent emergence of drug resistant parasites presents a major issue to malaria control in Ethiopia, little is known about the transmission pathways of parasite species and prevalence of resistant markers. This study used microsatellites to determine population diversity and gene flow patterns of P. falciparum (N = 226) and P. vivax (N = 205), as well as prevalence of drug resistant markers to infer the impact of gene flow and existing malaria treatment regimes. Plasmodium falciparum indicated a higher rate of polyclonal infections than P. vivax. Both species revealed moderate genetic diversity and similar population structure. Populations in the northern highlands were closely related to the eastern Rift Valley, but slightly distinct from the southern basin area. Gene flow via human migrations between the northern and eastern populations were frequent and mostly bidirectional. Landscape genetic analyses indicated that environmental heterogeneity and geographical distance did not constrain parasite gene flow. This may partly explain similar patterns of resistant marker prevalence. In P. falciparum, a high prevalence of mutant alleles was detected in codons related to chloroquine (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (pfdhps and pfdhfr) resistance. Over 60% of the samples showed pfmdr1 duplications. Nevertheless, no mutation was detected in pfK13 that relates to artemisinin resistance. In P. vivax, while sequences of pvcrt-o were highly conserved and less than 5% of the samples showed pvmdr duplications, over 50% of the samples had pvmdr1 976F mutation. It remains to be tested if this mutation relates to chloroquine resistance. Monitoring the extent of malaria spread and markers of drug resistance is imperative to inform policy for evidence

  4. Comparative haematological parameters of HbAA and HbAS genotype children infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Albiti, Anisa H; Nsiah, Kwabena

    2014-04-01

    Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) is known to offer considerable protection against falciparum malaria. However, the mechanism of protection is not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigate how the presence of the sickle cell trait affects the haematological profile of AS persons with malaria, in comparison with similarly infected persons with HbAA. This study is based on the hypothesis that the sickle cell trait plays a protective role against malaria. Children from an endemic malaria transmission area in Yemen were enrolled in this study. Hematological parameters were estimated using manual methods, the percentage of parasite density on stained thin smear was calculated, haemoglobin genotypes were determined on paper electrophoresis, ferritin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum iron and TIBC were assayed using spectrophotometer, transferrin saturation index was calculated by dividing serum iron by TIBC and expressing the result as a percentage. Haematological parameters were compared in HbAA- and HbAS-infected children. Falciparum malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in the blood smears of 62 children, 44 (55.7%) of AA and 18 (37.5%) AS, so there was higher prevalence in HbAA children (P = 0.047). Parasite density was lower in HbAS- than HbAA-infected children (P = 0.003). Anaemia was prominent in malaria-infected children, with high proportions of moderate and severe forms in HbAA (P = 0.001). The mean levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, reticulocyte count, platelets count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and serum iron were significantly lower while total leukocytes, immature granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin were significantly higher in HbAA-infected children than HbAS-infected children. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria caused more significant haematological alterations of HbAA children than HbAS. This study supports the observation that sickle cell trait

  5. Comparative study of clinical presentation and hematological indices in hospitalized sickle cell patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Prasanta; Mohanty, Pradeep Kumar; Patel, Siris; Das, Padmalaya; Panigrahi, Jogeswar; Das, Kishalaya

    2017-09-15

    Sickle-cell-gene has a high frequency in malaria endemic regions. In India, though the prevalence of both sickle-cell-gene and malaria are high, no study has been carried out. This study aims to find out the possible differences in hematological and clinical parameters in severe falciparum malaria with respect to sickle cell genotypes. Five hundred fourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria hospitalized in Department of Medicine, Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Burla, between August, 2010 to December, 2014 were included and categorized on the basis of sickle cell genotypes. The hematological parameters were compared by one-way-analysis-of-variance and incidence of sub-phenotypes of severe malaria was compared by χ2 test across the groups. Patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and severe falciparum malaria had lower hemoglobin level compared to patients with normal β-globin genotype (HbAA) and sickle cell trait (HbAS). Most of the hematological parameters were homogeneous in patients with HbAA and HbAS and different from patients with HbSS. Incidence of acute renal failure was low (χ2, 9.91; p, 0.002) and jaundice was high (χ2, 5.20; p, 0.022) in patients with HbSS. No clinical difference was observed in patients with HbAA and HbAS. The mortality was low (χ2, 4.33; p, 0.037) and high (χ2, 10.48; p, 0.001) in patients with HbAS and HbSS respectively compared to patients with HbAA. Though sickle-cell-gene protects against falciparum infections, the hematological parameters and sub-phenotypes of severe malaria remain unchanged when the infection progresses to a severe form in patients with HbAA and HbAS. Presence of hemolytic anemia in patients with HbSS shows diverse hematological and clinical phenotypes as compared to others. High mortality in patients with HbSS emphasizes the need for a better preventive approach to save valuable lives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium regulation in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Alleva, L M; Kirk, K

    2001-10-01

    The regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) in the intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, was investigated using parasites 'isolated' from their host cells by saponin-permeabilisation of the erythrocyte membrane. The isolated parasites maintained tight control over their resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration which ranged from approximately 100 nM in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) to approximately 700 nM in the presence of 1 mM extracellular Ca(2+). The parasite has two functionally discrete intracellular Ca(2+) stores. One is an 'endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like' store, the other an 'acidic store'. The ER-like store was discharged by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCAs) of animal and plant cells, but not by thapsigargin (TG), a more specific inhibitor of SERCAs of animal cells. The acidic store was discharged by nigericin and by NH(4)(+). The amount of Ca(2+) in the ER-like store increased with increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas the amount of Ca(2+) in the acidic store did not. Ca(2+) released from the ER-like store by CPA was cleared from the parasite cytosol by uptake into the acidic store (over a range of extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations), consistent with the acidic store serving as a Ca(2+) reservoir within the intracellular parasite.

  7. Deletion of the APOBEC3B gene strongly impacts susceptibility to falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj; Sinha, Swapnil; Kanchan, Kanika; Qidwai, Tabish; Narang, Ankita; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Pati, Sudhanshu S; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K; Sharma, Surya K; Awasthi, Shally; Venkatesh, Vimala; Jain, Sanjeev; Basu, Analabha; Xu, Shuhua; Mukerji, Mitali; Habib, Saman

    2012-01-01

    APOBEC3B, a gene involved in innate response, exhibits insertion-deletion polymorphism across world populations. We observed the insertion allele to be nearly fixed in malaria endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa as well as populations with high malaria incidence in the past. This prompted us to investigate the possible association of the polymorphism with falciparum malaria. We studied the distribution of APOBEC3B, in 25 diverse Indian populations comprising of 500 samples and 176 severe or non-severe Plasmodium falciparum patients and 174 ethnically-matched uninfected individuals from a P. falciparum endemic and a non-endemic region of India. The deletion frequencies ranged from 0% to 43% in the Indian populations. The frequency of the insertion allele strikingly correlated with the endemicity map of P. falciparum malaria in India. A strong association of the deletion allele with susceptibility to falciparum malaria in the endemic region (non-severe vs. control, Odds ratio=4.96, P value=9.5E(-06); severe vs. control, OR=4.36, P value=5.76E(-05)) was observed. Although the frequency of deletion allele was higher in the non-endemic region, there was a significant association of the homozygous deletion genotype with malaria (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.10-10.32, P value=0.0177). Our study also presents a case for malaria as a positive selection force for the APOBEC3B insertion and suggests a major role for this gene in innate immunity against malaria.

  8. Cytokine Profiling in Immigrants with Clinical Malaria after Extended Periods of Interrupted Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Moncunill, Gemma; Mayor, Alfredo; Bardají, Azucena; Puyol, Laura; Nhabomba, Augusto; Barrios, Diana; Aguilar, Ruth; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Almirall, Mercè; Soler, Cristina; Muñoz, José; Gascón, Joaquim; Dobaño, Carlota

    2013-01-01

    Immunity to malaria is believed to wane with time in the absence of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infection, but immunoepidemiological data on longevity of immunity remain controversial. We quantified serum cytokines and chemokines by suspension array technology as potential biomarkers for durability of immunity in immigrants with clinical malaria after years without parasite exposure. These were compared to serum/plasma profiles in naïve adults (travelers) and semi-immune adults under continuous exposure, with malaria, along with immigrant and traveler patients without malaria. Immigrants had higher levels of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-8 compared to semi-immune adults with malaria (P≤0.0200). Time since immigration correlated with increased IL-2 (rho=0.2738P=0.0495) and IFN-γ (rho=0.3044P=0.0282). However, immigrants did not show as high IFN-γ concentrations as travelers during a first malaria episode (P<0.0001). Immigrants and travelers with malaria had higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 (P<0.0100) than patients with other diseases, and IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated in immigrants with malaria (P<0.0500). Therefore, malaria patients had a characteristic strong pro-inflammatory/Th1 signature. Upon loss of exposure, control of pro-inflammatory responses and tolerance to P. falciparum appeared to be reduced. Understanding the mechanisms to maintain non-pathogenic effector responses is important to develop new malaria control strategies. PMID:23967342

  9. K13 mutations and pfmdr1 copy number variation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, Aye A; Imwong, Mallika; Kyaw, Myat P; Woodrow, Charles J; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon

    2016-02-24

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy has been first-line treatment for falciparum malaria in Myanmar since 2005. The wide extent of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong sub-region and the presence of mefloquine resistance at the Myanmar-Thailand border raise concerns over resistance patterns in Myanmar. The availability of molecular markers for resistance to both drugs enables assessment even in remote malaria-endemic areas. A total of 250 dried blood spot samples collected from patients with Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection in five malaria-endemic areas across Myanmar were analysed for kelch 13 sequence (k13) and pfmdr1 copy number variation. K13 mutations in the region corresponding to amino acids 210-726 (including the propeller region of the protein) were detected by nested PCR amplification and sequencing, and pfmdr1 copy number variation by real-time PCR. In two sites, a sub-set of patients were prospectively followed up for assessment of day-3 parasite clearance rates after a standard course of artemether-lumefantrine. K13 mutations and pfmdr1 amplification were successfully analysed in 206 and 218 samples, respectively. Sixty-nine isolates (33.5 %) had mutations within the k13 propeller region with 53 of these (76.8 %) having mutations already known to be associated with artemisinin resistance. F446I (32 isolates) and P574L (15 isolates) were the most common examples. K13 mutation was less common in sites in western border regions (29 of 155 isolates) compared to samples from the east and north (40 of 51 isolates; p < 0.0001). The overall proportion of parasites with multiple pfmdr1 copies (greater than 1.5) was 5.5 %. Seven samples showed both k13 mutation and multiple copies of pfmdr1. Only one of 36 patients followed up after artemether-lumefantrine treatment still had parasites at day 3; molecular analysis indicated wild-type k13 and single copy pfmdr1. The proportion of P. falciparum isolates with mutations in the propeller region of k

  10. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  11. Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Lo, Eugenia; Nguyen, Kristie; Nguyen, Jennifer; Hemming-Schroeder, Elizabeth; Xu, Jiaobao; Etemesi, Harrisone; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-04-01

    In Africa, control programs that target primarily Plasmodium falciparum are inadequate for eliminating malaria. To learn more about prevalence and genetic variability of P. malariae in Africa, we examined blood samples from 663 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic persons from western Kenya during June-August of 2014 and 2015. P. malariae accounted for 5.3% (35/663) of asymptomatic infections and 3.3% (8/245) of clinical cases. Among asymptomatic persons, 71% (32/45) of P. malariae infections detected by PCR were undetected by microscopy. The low sensitivity of microscopy probably results from the significantly lower parasitemia of P. malariae. Analyses of P. malariae circumsporozoite protein gene sequences revealed high genetic diversity among P. malariae in Africa, but no clear differentiation among geographic populations was observed. Our findings suggest that P. malariae should be included in the malaria elimination strategy in Africa and highlight the need for sensitive and field-applicable methods to identify P. malariae in malaria-endemic areas.

  12. Plasmodium malariae Prevalence and csp Gene Diversity, Kenya, 2014 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kristie; Nguyen, Jennifer; Hemming-Schroeder, Elizabeth; Xu, Jiaobao; Etemesi, Harrisone; Githeko, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, control programs that target primarily Plasmodium falciparum are inadequate for eliminating malaria. To learn more about prevalence and genetic variability of P. malariae in Africa, we examined blood samples from 663 asymptomatic and 245 symptomatic persons from western Kenya during June–August of 2014 and 2015. P. malariae accounted for 5.3% (35/663) of asymptomatic infections and 3.3% (8/245) of clinical cases. Among asymptomatic persons, 71% (32/45) of P. malariae infections detected by PCR were undetected by microscopy. The low sensitivity of microscopy probably results from the significantly lower parasitemia of P. malariae. Analyses of P. malariae circumsporozoite protein gene sequences revealed high genetic diversity among P. malariae in Africa, but no clear differentiation among geographic populations was observed. Our findings suggest that P. malariae should be included in the malaria elimination strategy in Africa and highlight the need for sensitive and field-applicable methods to identify P. malariae in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:28322694

  13. Both heterozygous and homozygous alpha+ thalassemias protect against severe and fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria on the coast of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas N; Wambua, Sammy; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Mwacharo, Jedidah K; Newton, Charles R J C; Maitland, Kathryn

    2005-07-01

    Although the alpha+ thalassemias almost certainly confer protection against death from malaria, this has not been formally documented. We have conducted a study involving 655 case patients with rigorously defined severe malaria and 648 controls, frequency matched on area of residence and ethnic group. The prevalence of both heterozygous and homozygous alpha+ thalassemia was reduced in both case patients with severe malaria (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 0.73 and 0.57; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 0.57-0.94 and 0.40-0.81; P = .013 and P = .002, respectively, compared with controls) and among the subgroup of children who died after admission with severe malaria (OR, 0.60 and 0.37; 95% CI, 0.37-1.00 and 0.16-0.87; P = .05 and P = .02, respectively, compared with surviving case patients). The lowest ORs were seen for the forms of malaria associated with the highest mortality-coma and severe anemia complicated by deep, acidotic breathing. Our study supports the conclusion that both heterozygotes and homozygotes enjoy a selective advantage against death from Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  14. Temporal Association of Acute Hepatitis A and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children

    PubMed Central

    Klein Klouwenberg, Peter; Sasi, Philip; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Awuondo, Ken; Bonten, Marc; Berkley, James; Marsh, Kevin; Borrmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, Plasmodium falciparum and hepatitis A (HAV) infections are common, especially in children. Co-infections with these two pathogens may therefore occur, but it is unknown if temporal clustering exists. Materials and Methods We studied the pattern of co-infection of P. falciparum malaria and acute HAV in Kenyan children under the age of 5 years in a cohort of children presenting with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. HAV status was determined during a 3-month follow-up period. Discussion Among 222 cases of uncomplicated malaria, 10 patients were anti-HAV IgM positive. The incidence of HAV infections during P. falciparum malaria was 1.7 (95% CI 0.81–3.1) infections/person-year while the cumulative incidence of HAV over the 3-month follow-up period was 0.27 (95% CI 0.14–0.50) infections/person-year. Children with or without HAV co-infections had similar mean P. falciparum asexual parasite densities at presentation (31,000/µL vs. 34,000/µL, respectively), largely exceeding the pyrogenic threshold of 2,500 parasites/µL in this population and minimizing risk of over-diagnosis of malaria as an explanation. Conclusion The observed temporal association between acute HAV and P. falciparum malaria suggests that co-infections of these two hepatotrophic human pathogens may result from changes in host susceptibility. Testing this hypothesis will require larger prospective studies. PMID:21754982

  15. Asymptomatic Multiclonal Plasmodium falciparum Infections Carried Through the Dry Season Predict Protection Against Subsequent Clinical Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sondén, Klara; Doumbo, Safiatou; Hammar, Ulf; Vafa Homann, Manijeh; Ongoiba, Aissata; Traoré, Boubacar; Bottai, Matteo; Crompton, Peter D.; Färnert, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunity to the antigenically diverse parasite Plasmodium falciparum is acquired gradually after repeated exposure. Studies in areas of high malaria transmission have shown that asymptomatic individuals infected with multiclonal infections are at reduced risk of febrile malaria during follow-up. Methods We assessed the relationship between the genetic diversity of clones in P. falciparum infections that persist through the dry season and the subsequent risk of febrile malaria in 225 individuals aged 2–25 years in Mali, where the 6-month malaria and dry seasons are sharply demarcated. Polymerase chain reaction–based genotyping of the highly polymorphic merozoite surface protein 2 gene was performed on blood samples collected at 5 cross-sectional surveys. Results In an age-adjusted analysis, individuals with multiclonal P. falciparum infections before the rainy season were at reduced risk of febrile malaria, compared with individuals who were uninfected (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], .11–.69). In contrast, there was no significant association between risk of malaria and having 1 clone at baseline (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, .36–1.40). Conclusions The results suggest that persistent multiclonal infections carried through the dry season contribute to protection against subsequent febrile malaria, possibly by maintaining protective immune responses that depend on ongoing parasite infection. PMID:25712968

  16. Monocyte polarization in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to nitric oxide insufficiency and disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, J. Brice; Volkheimer, Alicia D.; Rubach, Matthew P.; Florence, Salvatore M.; Mukemba, Jackson P.; Kalingonji, Ayam R.; Langelier, Charles; Chen, Youwei; Bush, Margaret; Yeo, Tsin W.; Granger, Donald L.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Mwaikambo, Esther D.

    2016-01-01

    We earlier established that nitric oxide (NO) is protective against severe malaria and that arginine and NO levels are reduced in malaria patients. We now show that an M2-like blood monocyte phenotype is significantly associated with hypoargininemia, NO insufficiency, and disease severity in Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria. Compared to control children (n = 106), children with moderately severe (n = 77) and severe falciparum malaria (n = 129) had significantly higher mononuclear cell arginase 1 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity; lower NOS2 mRNA; lower plasma arginine; and higher plasma IL-10, IL-13, and IL-4. In addition, monocyte CD206 and CD163 and plasma soluble CD163 were elevated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant correlation of risk of severe malaria with both plasma IL-10 and soluble CD163 levels. Monocyte M2 skewing likely contributes to NO bioinsufficiency in falciparum malaria in children. Treatments that reverse the M2 polarization may have potential as adjunctive treatment for malaria. PMID:27385484

  17. Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dore Bafeno Area, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zerihun, Tewodros; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2011-08-01

    To assess the distribution of ABO blood group and their relationship with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria among febrile outpatients who sought medical attention at Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 269 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia, were examined for malaria and also tested for ABO blood groups in January 2010. The blood specimens were collected by finger pricking, stained with Geimsa, and examined microscopically. Positive cases of the parasitemia were counted. CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo was also used to test the blood specimens for malaria. ABO blood groups were determined by agglutination test using ERYCLONE(®) antisera. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and treatment status of the participants were also collected. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Out of a total of 269 participants, 178 (66.2%) febrile patients were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites, among which 146 (54.3%), 28 (10.4%), and 4 (1.5%) belonged to P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. All febrile patients were also tested for ABO blood groups and 51.3%, 23.5%, 21.9% and 3.3% were found to be blood types of O, A, B and AB, respectively. Both total malaria infection and P. falciparum infection showed significant association with blood types (P<0.05). The proportion of A or B but not O phenotypes was higher (P<0.05) in individuals with P. falciparum as compared with non-infected individuals. The chance of having P. falciparum infection in patients with blood groups A, B and AB was 2.5, 2.5 and 3.3 times more than individuals showing blood O phenotypes, respectively. The mean P. falciparum malaria parasitaemia for blood groups A, B, AB, and O were 3 744/µL, 1 805/µL, 5 331/µL, and 1 515/µL, respectively (P<0.01). The present findings indicate that individuals of blood groups A, B and AB are

  18. Trend and manifestations of falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    PubMed

    Saya, Rama Prakasha; Saya, Ganesh Kumar; Debabrata, Goswami

    2016-01-01

    The recent focus is on the increase in the burden of falciparum cases with a varied spectrum of presentation and outcome, especially in developing countries like India. This study was undertaken to analyze the trend and manifestations of falciparum malaria in a tertiary care hospital. This descriptive study was carried out at the Gauhati Government Medical College and Hospital from June 2006 to May 2007. The data were collected on demographic and time characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, the outcome of disease and expressed in proportion or percentages. Out of the 100 cases, around 2(nd)/3(rd) (63%) of cases were in the age group of 15-30 years and the mean age was found to be 29.51 years. About 66% of them were males. Clinical presentations included pain abdomen (42, 42%), nausea and vomiting (35, 35%), jaundice (34, 34%), oliguria (24, 24%), altered sensorium (24, 24%), breathing difficulty (10, 10%), and seizures (5, 5%). Number of cases and mortality were more with a peak in the month of May and September. Manifestations of severe falciparum malaria included hepatopathy (38%), renal failure (28%), shock (9%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (7%), hypoglycemia (3%), and severe anemia (1%). Eighty-two cases (82%) recovered and 18 cases (18%) expired. Falciparum malaria is more among younger adult age group and males. Complications and mortality are also more due to falciparum malaria.

  19. Clinico-pathological studies of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax - malaria in India and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajihullah; Zakai, Haytham A; Umm-E-Asma

    2014-06-01

    Malaria is one of the most devastating diseases of tropical countries with clinical manifestations such as anaemia, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, hepatomegaly and acute renal failures. In this study, cases of thrombocytopenia and haemoglobinemia were more prominent in subjects infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) than those with Plasmodium vivax (Grassi et Feletti, 1890). However, anaemia, jaundice, convulsions and acute renal failure were significantly high (3-4 times) in subjects infected with P. falciparum than those infected with P. vivax. The incidence of splenomegaly and neurological sequelae were 2 and 6 times higher in P. falciparum infections compared to the infections of P. vivax. Both in P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria, the cases of splenomegaly, jaundice and neurological sequelae were almost double in children (<10 years) compared to older patients. The liver enzymes were generally in normal range in cases of low and mild infections. However, the AST, ALT, ALP activities and serum bilirubin, creatinine, and the urea content were increased in P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria patients having high parasitaemia, confirming liver dysfunction and renal failures in few cases of severe malaria both in India and Saudi Arabia.

  20. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Babalwa; Gathu, Michael; Donegan, Sarah; Olliaro, Piero L; Sinclair, David

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This review aims to assist the decision-making of malaria control programmes by providing an overview of the relative effects of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-P) versus other recommended ACTs. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DHA-P compared to other ACTs for treating uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in adults and children. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) up to July 2013. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing a three-day course of DHA-P to a three-day course of an alternative WHO recommended ACT in uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed primary outcomes in line with the WHO 'Protocol for assessing and monitoring antimalarial drug efficacy’ and compared drugs using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Secondary outcomes were effects on gametocytes, haemoglobin, and adverse events. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 27 trials, enrolling 16,382 adults and children, and conducted between 2002 and 2010. Most trials excluded infants aged less than six months and pregnant women. DHA-P versus artemether-lumefantrine In Africa, over 28 days follow-up, DHA-P is superior to artemether-lumefantrine at preventing further parasitaemia (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.39, nine trials, 6200 participants, high quality evidence), and although PCR-adjusted treatment failure was below 5% for both ACTs, it was consistently lower

  1. A review of the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum-dominated malaria in irrigated areas of the Thar Desert, India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, B K

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of malaria in several parts of India, and the Thar Desert in north-western India, is currently suffering from the impact of repeated annual epidemics. Nearly all malaria epidemics in the Thar Desert have come about with the progression of canal-irrigation work, particularly the massive Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana (IGNP). Therefore, the Thar Desert provides an excellent model for understanding the underlying factors responsible for the exacerbation of malaria, pathways of evolution of the epidemics, succession in anopheline fauna, changes in the vector breeding and feeding preferences and, most importantly, the possible repercussions of mismanagement of irrigation systems. Before the initiation of canalised irrigation only Anopheles stephensi, breeding exclusively in household and community-based underground water reservoirs, and transmitting malaria at a low level, was prevalent in the interior of the Thar Desert. Since the 1980s, extensive irrigation with water from three different canal systems has altered the desert physiography, vector preponderance, distribution and vectorial capacity, whilst triggering the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum-dominated malaria in the virgin levees of the Thar Desert. The major objective of bringing the Himalayan waters to the xeric environment of the Thar was to transform it into verdure through growing irrigation-intensive crops like paddy, groundnut, cotton, mustard, wheat and sugarcane, besides providing drinking water to the desert dwellers. The change in crop pattern, retention of high surface moisture, and excessive canalisation rife with mismanagement of irrigation water have attracted several anophelines, including Anopheles culicifacies, which were earlier unknown in the desert. Thus, A. culicifacies has penetrated into the interior of the Thar Desert, along with irrigation and is now established in vast areas covered by the IGNP project. The distribution of P. falciparum

  2. The Potential Contribution of Mass Treatment to the Control of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Lucy C.; Griffin, Jamie T.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hollingsworth, T. Déirdre; Churcher, Thomas S.; White, Michael J.; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J.; Ghani, Azra C.

    2011-01-01

    Mass treatment as a means to reducing P. falciparum malaria transmission was used during the first global malaria eradication campaign and is increasingly being considered for current control programmes. We used a previously developed mathematical transmission model to explore both the short and long-term impact of possible mass treatment strategies in different scenarios of endemic transmission. Mass treatment is predicted to provide a longer-term benefit in areas with lower malaria transmission, with reduced transmission levels for at least 2 years after mass treatment is ended in a scenario where the baseline slide-prevalence is 5%, compared to less than one year in a scenario with baseline slide-prevalence at 50%. However, repeated annual mass treatment at 80% coverage could achieve around 25% reduction in infectious bites in moderate-to-high transmission settings if sustained. Using vector control could reduce transmission to levels at which mass treatment has a longer-term impact. In a limited number of settings (which have isolated transmission in small populations of 1000–10,000 with low-to-medium levels of baseline transmission) we find that five closely spaced rounds of mass treatment combined with vector control could make at least temporary elimination a feasible goal. We also estimate the effects of using gametocytocidal treatments such as primaquine and of restricting treatment to parasite-positive individuals. In conclusion, mass treatment needs to be repeated or combined with other interventions for long-term impact in many endemic settings. The benefits of mass treatment need to be carefully weighed against the risks of increasing drug selection pressure. PMID:21629651

  3. Prevalence, risk factors, and antimalarial resistance patterns of falciparum plasmodiasis among pregnant women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Maryam Muhammad; Nasir, Idris Abdullahi; Umar, Yahaya Abdullahi; Vanstawa, Anthony Philip; Medugu, Jessy Thomas; Emeribe, Anthony Uchenna; Amadu, Dele Ohinoyi

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women infected with malaria represent a significant obstetric problem, especially in the face of antimalarial resistance. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, associated risk factors as well as the antimalarial resistance pattern of Plasmodium isolates from pregnant women attending four selected secondary health facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 353 pregnant women attending selected hospitals. Malaria microscopy and parasite density count were conducted based on standard protocols. Antimalarial susceptibility test (using chloroquine, artesunate, artether, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine), and hemoglobin concentrations were determined using schizont maturation assay and methemoglobin method, respectively. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) was defined by resistance against ≥3 antimalarial drugs. The overall prevalence of plasmodiasis was 22.4%. Out of those infected, 5.2% was found to be anemic. Malaria parasitemia was significantly associated with parity, residential area, age of women, and use of preventive measures against malaria (P < 0.05) but not with hemoglobin concentration, occupation, and trimester of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Malaria parasites from the pregnant women exhibited the highest resistance against chloroquine, 75 (94.9%) followed Artemether, 30 (37.9%) then sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 29 (36.7%) and least resistant to artesunate, 28 (35.4%). The prevalence of MDR was 40.5% (32/79). The prevalence of malaria was relatively high due to inadequate and/or ineffective preventive measures adopted by pregnant women. More so, significant isolates of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited MDR against antimalarial agents tested.

  4. CAN TREATMENT OF P. VIVAX LEAD TO A UNEXPECTED APPEARANCE OF FALCIPARUM MALARIA?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Daniel Philippe; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Chokejindachai, Watcharee; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Supavej, Suvanee; McKenzie, F Ellis; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2008-01-01

    Of 994 patients admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases for P. vivax malaria, 104 (10.5%) experienced appearance of Plasmodium falciparum following drug treatment for P. vivax . In all patients, P. falciparum parasites were not found by microscopic examination upon admission. The mean time for P. falciparum appearance was 12.6 days after the commencement of chloroquine treatment. Patients experiencing appearance of P. falciparum. had significantly lower hematocrit, and greater initial P. vivax parasite counts. We use a mathematical model to explore the consequences of chloroquine treatment of such mixed infections. Both clinical results and features of the model suggest that such “hidden infections” may be quite common, and that the appearance of P. falciparum may be stimulated by treatment of P. vivax. PMID:11485096

  5. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-07

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings.

  6. Monocyte activation and cytokine production in Malawian children presenting with P. falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Mandala, W L; Msefula, C L; Gondwe, E N; Drayson, M T; Molyneux, M E; MacLennan, C A

    2016-05-01

    Malaria in malaria-naïve adults is associated with an inflammatory response characterized by expression of specific activation markers on innate immune cells. Here, we investigate activation and adhesion marker expression, and cytokine production in monocytes from children presenting with cerebral malaria (CM, n = 36), severe malarial anaemia (SMA, n = 42) or uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 66), and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 52) in Blantyre, Malawi. In all malaria groups, but particularly in the two severe malaria groups, monocyte expression of CD11b, CD11c, CD18, HLA-DR and CD86, and percentages of TNF-α- and IL-6-producing monocytes were lower than in healthy controls, while expression of CD11a, TLR2 and TLR4 was lower in children with severe malaria compared with controls. These levels mostly normalized during convalescence, but percentages of cytokine-producing monocytes remained suppressed in children with SMA. In all malaria groups, especially the SMA group, a greater proportion of monocytes were loaded with haemozoin than among controls. In a P. falciparum hyperendemic area, monocytes in children with acute symptomatic malaria have reduced expression of adhesion molecules and activation markers and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. This immune suppression could be due to accumulation of haemozoin and/or previous exposure to P. falciparum.

  7. Sequestration and Red Cell Deformability as Determinants of Hyperlactatemia in Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Haruhiko; Ghose, Aniruddha; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Maude, Richard; Plewes, Katherine; Kingston, Hugh; Intharabut, Benjamas; Woodrow, Charlie; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; Day, Nicholas P.; Faiz, Abul; White, Nicholas J.; Hossain, Amir; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hyperlactatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in severe falciparum malaria. Sequestered parasitized erythrocytes and reduced uninfected red blood cell deformability (RCD) compromise microcirculatory flow, leading to anaerobic glycolysis. Methods. In a cohort of patients with falciparum malaria hospitalized in Chittagong, Bangladesh, bulk RCD was measured using a laser diffraction technique, and parasite biomass was estimated from plasma concentrations of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). A multiple linear regression model was constructed to examine their associations with plasma lactate concentrations. Results. A total of 286 patients with falciparum malaria were studied, of whom 224 had severe malaria, and 70 died. Hyperlactatemia (lactate level, ≥4 mmol/L) was present in 111 cases. RCD at shear stresses of 1.7 Pa and 30 Pa was reduced significantly in patients who died, compared with survivors, individuals with uncomplicated malaria, or healthy individuals (P < .05, for all comparisons). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the plasma PfHRP2 level, parasitemia level, total bilirubin level, and RCD at a shear stress of 1.7 Pa were each independently correlated with plasma lactate concentrations (n = 278; R2 = 0.35). Conclusions. Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells and reduced RCD both contribute to decreased microcirculatory flow in severe disease. PMID:26494775

  8. Sequestration and Red Cell Deformability as Determinants of Hyperlactatemia in Falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Haruhiko; Ghose, Aniruddha; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Maude, Richard; Plewes, Katherine; Kingston, Hugh; Intharabut, Benjamas; Woodrow, Charlie; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Sayeed, Abdullah Abu; Hasan, Mahtab Uddin; Day, Nicholas P; Faiz, Abul; White, Nicholas J; Hossain, Amir; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2016-03-01

    Hyperlactatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in severe falciparum malaria. Sequestered parasitized erythrocytes and reduced uninfected red blood cell deformability (RCD) compromise microcirculatory flow, leading to anaerobic glycolysis. In a cohort of patients with falciparum malaria hospitalized in Chittagong, Bangladesh, bulk RCD was measured using a laser diffraction technique, and parasite biomass was estimated from plasma concentrations of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). A multiple linear regression model was constructed to examine their associations with plasma lactate concentrations. A total of 286 patients with falciparum malaria were studied, of whom 224 had severe malaria, and 70 died. Hyperlactatemia (lactate level, ≥ 4 mmol/L) was present in 111 cases. RCD at shear stresses of 1.7 Pa and 30 Pa was reduced significantly in patients who died, compared with survivors, individuals with uncomplicated malaria, or healthy individuals (P < .05, for all comparisons). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the plasma PfHRP2 level, parasitemia level, total bilirubin level, and RCD at a shear stress of 1.7 Pa were each independently correlated with plasma lactate concentrations (n = 278; R(2) = 0.35). Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells and reduced RCD both contribute to decreased microcirculatory flow in severe disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Efficacy of monthly tafenoquine for prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Douglas S; Eamsila, Chirapa; Sasiprapha, Theerayuth; Sangkharomya, Suebpong; Khaewsathien, Pradith; Supakalin, Panpaka; Tang, Douglas B; Jarasrumgsichol, Phongsak; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Edstein, Michael D; Rieckmann, Karl H; Brewer, Thomas G

    2004-10-15

    We assessed monthly doses of tafenoquine for preventing Plasmodium vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 205 Thai soldiers received either a loading dose of tafenoquine 400 mg (base) daily for 3 days, followed by single monthly 400-mg doses (n = 104), or placebo (n = 101), for up to 5 consecutive months. In volunteers completing follow-up (96 tafenoquine and 91 placebo recipients), there were 22 P. vivax, 8 P. falciparum, and 1 mixed infection. All infections except 1 P. vivax occurred in placebo recipients, giving tafenoquine a protective efficacy of 97% for all malaria (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-99%), 96% for P. vivax malaria (95% CI, 76%-99%), and 100% for P. falciparum malaria (95% CI, 60%-100%). Monthly tafenoquine was safe, well tolerated, and highly effective in preventing P. vivax and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in Thai soldiers during 6 months of prophylaxis. Copyright 2004 Infectious Diseases Society of America

  10. Clustered local transmission and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in a recently emerged, hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon community

    PubMed Central

    Branch, OraLee; Casapia, W Martin; Gamboa, Dionicia V; Hernandez, Jean N; Alava, Freddy F; Roncal, Norma; Alvarez, Eugenia; Perez, Enrique J; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a low incidence of malaria in Iquitos, Peru, suburbs detected by passive case-detection. This low incidence might be attributable to infections clustered in some households/regions and/or undetected asymptomatic infections. Methods Passive case-detection (PCD) during the malaria season (February-July) and an active case-detection (ACD) community-wide survey (March) surveyed 1,907 persons. Each month, April-July, 100-metre at-risk zones were defined by location of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the previous month. Longitudinal ACD and PCD (ACP+PCD) occurred within at-risk zones, where 137 houses (573 persons) were randomly selected as sentinels, each with one month of weekly active sampling. Entomological captures were conducted in the sentinel houses. Results The PCD incidence was 0.03 P. falciparum and 0.22 Plasmodium vivax infections/person/malaria-season. However, the ACD+PCD prevalence was 0.13 and 0.39, respectively. One explanation for this 4.33 and 1.77-fold increase, respectively, was infection clustering within at-risk zones and contiguous households. Clustering makes PCD, generalized to the entire population, artificially low. Another attributable-factor was that only 41% and 24% of the P. falciparum and P. vivax infections were associated with fever and 80% of the asymptomatic infections had low-density or absent parasitaemias the following week. After accounting for asymptomatic infections, a 2.6-fold increase in ACD+PCD versus PCD was attributable to clustered transmission in at-risk zones. Conclusion Even in low transmission, there are frequent highly-clustered asymptomatic infections, making PCD an inadequate measure of incidence. These findings support a strategy of concentrating ACD and insecticide campaigns in houses adjacent to houses were malaria was detected one month prior. PMID:15975146

  11. K13 Propeller Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Regions of Malaria Endemicity in Vietnam from 2009 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Thuy-Nhien, Nguyen; Tuyen, Nguyen Kim; Tong, Nguyen Thanh; Vy, Nguyen Tuong; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Van, Huynh Thuy; Huong-Thu, Pham; Quang, Huynh Hong; Boni, Maciej F; Dolecek, Christiane; Farrar, Jeremy; Thwaites, Guy E; Miotto, Olivo; White, Nicholas J; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2017-04-01

    The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum compromises the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and is considered the greatest threat to current global initiatives to control and eliminate malaria. This is particularly relevant in Vietnam, where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is the recommended ACT for P. falciparum infection. The propeller domain gene of K13, a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance, was successfully sequenced in 1,060 P. falciparum isolates collected at 3 malaria hot spots in Vietnam between 2009 and 2016. Eight K13 propeller mutations (Thr474Ile, Tyr493His, Arg539Thr, Ile543Thr, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu, and Cys580Tyr), including several that have been validated to be artemisinin resistance markers, were found. The prevalences of K13 mutations were 29% (222/767), 6% (11/188), and 43% (45/105) in the Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan, and Gia Lai Provinces of Vietnam, respectively. Cys580Tyr became the dominant genotype in recent years, with 79.1% (34/43) of isolates in Binh Phuoc Province and 63% (17/27) of isolates in Gia Lai Province carrying this mutation. K13 mutations were associated with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in vitro and prolonged parasite clearance in vivo An analysis of haplotypes flanking K13 suggested the presence of multiple strains with the Cys580Tyr mutation rather than a single strain expanding across the three sites.

  12. K13 Propeller Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Regions of Malaria Endemicity in Vietnam from 2009 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Tuyen, Nguyen Kim; Tong, Nguyen Thanh; Vy, Nguyen Tuong; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Van, Huynh Thuy; Huong-Thu, Pham; Quang, Huynh Hong; Boni, Maciej F.; Dolecek, Christiane; Farrar, Jeremy; Thwaites, Guy E.; Miotto, Olivo; White, Nicholas J.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum compromises the therapeutic efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and is considered the greatest threat to current global initiatives to control and eliminate malaria. This is particularly relevant in Vietnam, where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is the recommended ACT for P. falciparum infection. The propeller domain gene of K13, a molecular marker of artemisinin resistance, was successfully sequenced in 1,060 P. falciparum isolates collected at 3 malaria hot spots in Vietnam between 2009 and 2016. Eight K13 propeller mutations (Thr474Ile, Tyr493His, Arg539Thr, Ile543Thr, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu, and Cys580Tyr), including several that have been validated to be artemisinin resistance markers, were found. The prevalences of K13 mutations were 29% (222/767), 6% (11/188), and 43% (45/105) in the Binh Phuoc, Ninh Thuan, and Gia Lai Provinces of Vietnam, respectively. Cys580Tyr became the dominant genotype in recent years, with 79.1% (34/43) of isolates in Binh Phuoc Province and 63% (17/27) of isolates in Gia Lai Province carrying this mutation. K13 mutations were associated with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in vitro and prolonged parasite clearance in vivo. An analysis of haplotypes flanking K13 suggested the presence of multiple strains with the Cys580Tyr mutation rather than a single strain expanding across the three sites. PMID:28137815

  13. The accuracy of the first response histidine-rich protein2 rapid diagnostic test compared with malaria microscopy for guiding field treatment in an outbreak of falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ghouth, Abdulla Salim Bin; Nasseb, Faraj Mubarak; Al-Kaldy, Khaled Hussin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent WHO guidelines recommended a universal “test and treat” strategy for malaria mainly by use of the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in all areas. There are concerns about RDT that use the antigen histidine-rich protein2 (HRP2) to detect Plasmodium falciparum, because infection can persist after effective treatment. Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the accuracy of the first response (HRP2)-RDT compared with malaria microscopy used for guiding the field treatment of patients in an outbreak situation in the Al-Rahabah area in Al-Rydah district in Hadramout/Yemen. Materials and Methods: An ad hoc cross sectional survey of all febrile patients in the affected area was conducted in May 2011. The field team was developed including the case management group and the entomology group. The group of case management prepared their plan based on “test and treat” strategy by using First Response Malaria Antigen HRP2 rapid diagnostic test for falciparum malaria, artemsinin-based combination therapy (ACT) according to the national policy of anti-malaria drugs in Yemen were supplied to treat those who were found to be RDT positive in the field; also blood smear films were taken from every patient with fever in order to validate the use of the RDT in the field. Blood film slides prepared and read by skilled lab technicians, the fourth reading was done by one lab expert in the malaria referral lab. Results: The accuracy parameters of HRP2 compared with microscopy are: Sensitivity (74%), specificity (94%). The positive predictive value is 68% and the negative predictive value is 96%. Total agreement is 148/162 (93%) and the overall prevalence is 14%. All the positive malaria cases were of P. falciparum either coming from RDT or microscopy. Conclusions: HRP2–rapid test is an acceptable test as a guide for field treatment in an outbreak situation where prompt response is indicated. Good prepared blood film slides should be used as it is feasible to

  14. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  15. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Methods An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Results Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1) gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N). Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK) at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt); three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. Conclusions The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study suggests lumefantrine

  16. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Williams, Charles H; Raman, Jaishree; Raswiswi, Eric; Immelman, Etienne; Reichel, Holger; Gate, Kelly; Knight, Steve

    2012-12-28

    Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1) gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N). Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK) at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt); three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study suggests lumefantrine resistance has yet to emerge in Kwa

  17. Increasing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest London: a 25 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Chitre, M; Sharland, M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To identify changes in the presenting number and species of imported malaria in children in southwest London. Methods: A prospective single observer study over 25 years (1975–99) of all cases of paediatric malaria seen at St George's Hospital. Results: A confirmed diagnosis was made in 249 children (56% boys; 44% girls; median age 8.0 years). Of these, 53% were UK residents and 44% were children travelling to the UK. A significant increase was noted in the number of cases over the 25 years (1975–79: mean 4.8 cases/year; 1990–99: mean 13.7 cases/year). Over the 25 years Plasmodium falciparum was seen in 77%, P vivax in 14%, P ovale in 6%, and P malariae in 3% of cases. P falciparum had increased in frequency (1975–79: P falciparum 50%, P vivax 50%; 1990–99: P falciparum 82%, P vivax 6%), associated with an increase in the proportion of children acquiring their infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Median time between arrival in the UK to the onset of fever was: P falciparum, 5 days; P ovale, 25 days; P malariae, 37 days; and P vivax, 62 days. Median time interval between the onset of fever to commencement of treatment was 4 days. This had not improved over the 25 year period. Only 41% of UK resident children presenting to hospital had taken prophylaxis and the overall number of symptomatic children taking no prophylaxis was increasing. Conclusion: Imported childhood P falciparum malaria is increasing in southwest London associated with increasing travel from sub-Saharan Africa. Over the 25 year period there has been no improvement in chemoprophylaxis rates or time to diagnosis. PMID:12023177

  18. Pathogenicity Determinants of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum Have Ancient Origins

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, Andrew J.; Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the human malaria parasites, is a member of the Laverania subgenus that also infects African Great Apes. The virulence of P. falciparum is related to cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes in microvasculature, but the origin of dangerous parasite adhesion traits is poorly understood. To investigate the evolutionary history of the P. falciparum cytoadhesion pathogenicity determinant, we studied adhesion domains from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi. We demonstrate that the P. reichenowi var gene repertoire encodes cysteine-rich interdomain region (CIDR) domains which bind human CD36 and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) with the same levels of affinity and at binding sites similar to those bound by P. falciparum. Moreover, P. reichenowi domains interfere with the protective function of the activated protein C-EPCR pathway on endothelial cells, a presumptive virulence trait in humans. These findings provide evidence for ancient evolutionary origins of two key cytoadhesion properties of P. falciparum that contribute to human infection and pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the microcirculation is a major virulence determinant. P. falciparum is descended from a subgenus of parasites that also infect chimpanzees and gorillas and exhibits strict host species specificity. Despite their high genetic similarity to P. falciparum, it is unknown whether ape parasites encode adhesion properties similar to those of P. falciparum or are as virulent in their natural hosts. Consequently, it has been unclear when virulent adhesion traits arose in P. falciparum and how long they have been present in the parasite population. It is also unknown whether cytoadhesive interactions pose a barrier to cross-species transmission. We show that parasite domains from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi bind human receptors with specificity similar to that of P. falciparum

  19. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.

    PubMed

    Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-11-12

    In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p < 0.0001). Similar trends were observed in infants and children <5 years and in individuals ≥5 years of age. In infants and children <5 years old who experienced symptomatic malaria episodes, the geometric mean P. falciparum density was lower in the intervention arm than the control arm. This trend was not seen in those individuals aged ≥5 years. Over the year, monthly variation in mosquito density and entomological inoculation rate was

  20. Prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Li, San-Jin; Hu, Tao; Yu, Yong-Min; Yang, Cheng-Yun; Zhou, Rui-Min; Liu, Ying; Tang, Jing; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Xiu-Yun; Sun, Yong-Xiang; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Xu, Bian-Li

    2017-04-04

    The spleen plays a pivotal role in the rapid clearance of parasitized red blood cells in patients with falciparum malaria after artemisinin treatment. Prolonged parasite clearance can be found in patients who have had a splenectomy, or those with hemoglobin abnormalities and/or reduced immunity, which are all distinguishable from artemisinin resistance. This paper reports on a case of prolonged parasite clearance in a Chinese splenectomized patient with falciparum malaria imported from Nigeria. A 35-year-old Chinese male suffered 2 days of febrile illness after returning to Zhumadian city of Henan province from Nigeria on October 1, 2014. The main symptoms were febrile, including the highest axillary temperature of 40 °C, headache, and chills. A peripheral blood smear showed parasitemia (53 913 asexual parasites/μl) of Plasmodium falciparum. The patient had not used any chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Nigeria when he worked there as a construction worker between 2009 and 2014. The patient had three episodes of malaria in Nigeria and had a splenectomy due to a traffic accident 8 years ago from the time he was admitted to hospital. The patient was orally administrated a total of 320 mg/2.56 g dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for 2 days and intravenously administrated a total of 3 000 mg artesunate for 18 days. The axillary temperature of the patient ranged between 37.0 and 37.7 °C from Day 0 to Day 3, and blood microscopy revealed falciparum malaria parasitemia (26 674 asexual parasites/μl) on Day 3. The patient was afebrile on Day 4, falciparum malaria parasitemia was continuously present and then gradually decreased on the next days, and was negative on Day 21. The patient was cured and left hospital on Day 24 after no plasmodium falciparum was found in the blood on Day 21 to Day 23. No mutation was found in the K13 propeller gene when compared with the PF3D7_1343700 K13 propeller gene reference sequence. This is the first reported case in China of

  1. Cellular-mediated immune responses in the liver tissue of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Punsawadl, Chuchard; Setthapramote, Chayanee; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen

    2014-09-01

    The immune responses against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria infections are complex and poorly understood. No published studies have yet reported the lymphocyte subsets involved in the human liver tissue of P. falciparum malaria patients. To understand the cellular-mediated immune responses in the liver during malaria infection, we determined the numbers of the various lymphocyte subsets in tissue samples obtained at autopsy from patients who died with P. falciparum malaria infection. All the liver tissue specimens had been stored at the Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand. On the basis of total bilirubin (TB) levels prior to death, patients were divided into 2 groups: those with hyperbilirubinemia [total bilirubin (TB) > or =51.3 micromol/l) (n = 9)] and those without hyperbilirubinemia (TB < 51.3 micromol/l) (n = 12). Normal liver specimens (n = 10) were used as controls. An immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the types and numbers of lymphocytes (T and B lymphocytes), and Kupffer cells, using specific antibodies against CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68+. Our findings reveal the numbers of T lymphocytes (CD3+ T-cells) and their subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells) were significantly greater in the portal tracts and sinusoids of liver tissue obtained from P. falciparum malaria cases with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia or controls. CD8+ T-cells were the major lymphocyte subset in the liver tissue of patients with severe falciparum malaria. A significant positive correlation was seen between the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and the liver enzyme levels among P. falciparum malaria patients. The number of CD68+ cells (Kupffer cells) was significantly greater in the liver sinusoids of P. falciparum malaria cases with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia. These findings suggest T-cells, especially CD8+ T-cells and Kupffer cells are an important part of the

  2. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  3. Modelling the Incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Afghanistan 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Wright, Jim A.; Nahzat, Sami M.; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W.; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. Methods To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. Findings From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours’ travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes’ travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2–9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4–2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. Conclusion This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan. PMID:25033452

  4. Red Blood Cell Immune Complex Binding Capacity in Children with Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) Living in P. falciparum Malaria Holoendemic Region of Western Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-08

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria ; immune complex; sickle cell trait; severe malaria anemia. 1. BACKGROUND Severe anemia is one of the most serious...complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria that occurs predominantly in children in the first 3 years of life and is an important cause of childhood...children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria . Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72(5):593-9. 7. Stoute JA, Odindo AO, Owuor BO, Mibei EK, Opollo MO, Waitumbi

  5. Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    appearance of dark urine after an acute attack of falciparum malaria. Other complications include gastroenteritis in children, pulmonary edema, severe...placental malaria on mothers and neonates from Zaire. Z Parasitenkd 1986;72:57-64. 12. Kean BH, Smith JA. Death due to estivo-autumnal malaria: a

  6. Prevalence of the K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum among chloroquine responders in India.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Biswas, Sukla; Dev, Vas; Kumar, Ashwani; Ansari, M A; Sharma, Y D

    2003-07-01

    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum needs to be monitored in the field for effective malaria control strategies. A point mutation K76T in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) protein has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for the faster detection of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in field. We describe here the evaluation of this marker in Indian P. falciparum isolates. A total of 274 Indian P. falciparum isolates were analyzed for the K76T mutation. This mutation was detected in all the clinical isolates obtained from the in vivo chloroquine non-responders. But majority of the clinical isolates from chloroquine responders (71 of 74 patients, i.e. 96%) also harbored this mutation. The K76T mutation was indeed highly prevalent (91%) among 213 clinical isolates. There was a significant association between K76T mutation and the in vitro chloroquine response (P<0.05) but six isolates showed discordant results. In conclusion, the K76T mutation fails to differentiate majority of the chloroquine responders from that of the non-responders and thus will be of limited use in the field in India.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and cognitive and educational performance among school children in an area of moderate malaria transmission: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the coast of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Katherine E; Karanja, Peris; Turner, Elizabeth L; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Allen, Elizabeth; Jukes, Matthew CH; Brooker, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Studies have typically investigated health and educational consequences of malaria among school-aged children in areas of high malaria transmission, but few have investigated these issues in moderate transmission settings. This study investigates the patterns of and risks for Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia and their association with cognitive and education outcomes on the Kenyan coast, an area of moderate malaria transmission. Methods As part of a cluster randomised trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia and the associations between health status and measures of cognition and educational achievement. Results are presented for 2400 randomly selected children who were enrolled in the 51 intervention schools. Results The overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection and anaemia was 13.0% and 45.5%, respectively. There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of P. falciparum infection by school. In multivariable analysis, being male, younger age, not sleeping under a mosquito net and household crowding were adjusted risk factors for P. falciparum infection, whilst P. falciparum infection, being male and indicators of poor nutritional intake were risk factors for anaemia. No association was observed between either P. falciparum or anaemia and performance on tests of sustained attention, cognition, literacy or numeracy. Conclusion The results indicate that in this moderate malaria transmission setting, P. falciparum is strongly associated with anaemia, but there is no clear association between health status and education. Intervention studies are underway to investigate whether removing the burden of chronic asymptomatic P. falciparum and related anaemia can improve education outcomes. PMID:22950512

  8. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and cognitive and educational performance among school children in an area of moderate malaria transmission: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the coast of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Katherine E; Karanja, Peris; Turner, Elizabeth L; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Allen, Elizabeth; Jukes, Matthew C H; Brooker, Simon J

    2012-05-01

    Studies have typically investigated health and educational consequences of malaria among school-aged children in areas of high malaria transmission, but few have investigated these issues in moderate transmission settings. This study investigates the patterns of and risks for Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia and their association with cognitive and education outcomes on the Kenyan coast, an area of moderate malaria transmission. As part of a cluster randomised trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia and the associations between health status and measures of cognition and educational achievement. Results are presented for 2400 randomly selected children who were enrolled in the 51 intervention schools. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection and anaemia was 13.0% and 45.5%, respectively. There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of P. falciparum infection by school. In multivariable analysis, being male, younger age, not sleeping under a mosquito net and household crowding were adjusted risk factors for P. falciparum infection, whilst P. falciparum infection, being male and indicators of poor nutritional intake were risk factors for anaemia. No association was observed between either P. falciparum or anaemia and performance on tests of sustained attention, cognition, literacy or numeracy. The results indicate that in this moderate malaria transmission setting, P. falciparum is strongly associated with anaemia, but there is no clear association between health status and education. Intervention studies are underway to investigate whether removing the burden of chronic asymptomatic P. falciparum and related anaemia can improve education outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Multicenter Pivotal Clinical Trial of Urine Malaria Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ezeigwe, Nnenna; Ntadom, Godwin; Oladosu, Oladipo O.; Rainwater-Loveth, Kaitlin; O'Meara, Wendy; Okpokoro, Evaezi; Brieger, William

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The need to expand malaria diagnosis capabilities alongside policy requirements for mandatory testing before treatment motivates exploration of noninvasive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We report the outcome of the first cross-sectional, single-blind clinical performance evaluation of a urine malaria test (UMT) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. Matched urine and finger-prick blood samples from participants ≥2 years of age with fever (axillary temperature of ≥37.5°C) or with a history of fever in the preceding 48 h were tested with UMT and microscopy (as the gold standard). BinaxNOW (Pf and Pan versions) blood RDTs were done to assess relative performance. Urinalysis and rheumatoid factor (RF) tests were conducted to evaluate possible interference. Diagnostic performance characteristics were computed at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 1,800 participants screened, 1,691 were enrolled; of these 566 (34%) were febrile, and 1,125 (66%) were afebrile. Among enrolled participants, 341 (20%) tested positive by microscopy, 419 (25%) were positive by UMT, 676 (40%) were positive by BinaxNOW Pf, and 368 (22%) were positive by BinaxNow Pan. UMT sensitivity among febrile patients (for whom the test was indicated) was 85%, and specificity was 84%. Among febrile children ≤5 years of age, UMT sensitivity was 93%, and specificity was 83%. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of UMT (0.84) was not significantly different from that of BinaxNOW Pf (0.86) or of BinaxNOW Pan (0.87), indicating that the tests do not differ in overall performance. Gender, seasons, and RF did not impact UMT performance. Leukocytes, hematuria, and urobilinogen concentrations in urine were associated with lower UMT specificities. UMT performance was comparable to that of the BinaxNOW Pf/Pan tests, making UMT a promising tool to expand malaria testing in public and private health care settings where there are challenges to blood

  10. Various pfcrt and pfmdr1 Genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum Cocirculate with P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax in Northern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Fançony, Cláudia; Gamboa, Dina; Sebastião, Yuri; Hallett, Rachel; Sutherland, Colin; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria has become widely available across Africa. Populations of Plasmodium falciparum that were previously dominated by chloroquine (CQ)-resistant genotypes are now under different drug selection pressures. P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri are sympatric with P. falciparum across the continent and are frequently present as coinfections. The prevalence of human Plasmodium species was determined by PCR using DNA from blood spots collected during a cross-sectional survey in northern Angola. P. falciparum was genotyped at resistance-associated loci in pfcrt and pfmdr1 by real-time PCR or by direct sequencing of amplicons. Of the 3,316 samples collected, 541 (16.3%) contained Plasmodium species infections; 477 (88.2%) of these were P. falciparum alone, 6.5% were P. falciparum and P. malariae together, and 1.1% were P. vivax alone. The majority of the remainder (3.7%) harbored P. ovale curtisi or P. ovale wallikeri alone or in combination with other species. Of 430 P. falciparum isolates genotyped for pfcrt, 61.6% carried the wild-type allele CVMNK at codons 72 to 76, either alone or in combination with the resistant allele CVIET. No other pfcrt allele was found. Wild-type alleles dominated at codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of the pfmdr1 locus among the sequenced isolates. In contrast to previous studies, P. falciparum in the study area comprises an approximately equal mix of genotypes associated with CQ sensitivity and with CQ resistance, suggesting either lower drug pressure due to poor access to treatment in rural areas or a rapid impact of the policy change away from the use of standard monotherapies. PMID:22850519

  11. Malaria prevalence among pregnant women in two districts with differing endemicity in Chhattisgarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, malaria is not uniformly distributed. Chhattisgarh is a highly malarious state where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are prevalent with a preponderance of P. falciparum. Malaria in pregnancy (MIP), especially when caused by P. falciparum, poses substantial risk to the mother and foetus by increasing the risk of foetal death, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and maternal anaemia. These risks vary between areas with stable and unstable transmission. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria, its association with maternal and birth outcomes, and use of anti-malarial preventive measures for development of evidence based interventions to reduce the burden of MIP. Methods A cross-sectional study of pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics (ANC) or delivery units (DU), or hospitalized for non-obstetric illness was conducted over 12 months in high (Bastar) and low (Rajnandgaon) transmission districts in Chhattisgarh state. Intensity of transmission was defined on the basis of slide positivity rates with a high proportion due to P. falciparum. In each district, a rural and an urban health facility was selected. Results Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia was low: 1.3% (35/2696) among women at ANCs and 1.9% at DUs (19/1025). Peripheral parasitaemia was significantly more common in Bastar (2.8%) than in Rajnandgaon (0.1%) (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis of ANC participants, residence in Bastar district (stable malaria transmission) was strongly associated with peripheral parasitaemia (adjusted OR [aOR] 43.4; 95% CI, 5.6-335.2). Additional covariates associated with parasitaemia were moderate anaemia (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8-7.7), fever within the past week (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.6), and lack of formal education (aOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.0-10.7). Similarly, analysis of DU participants revealed that moderate anaemia (aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.4) and fever within the past week (aOR 5.8; 95% CI

  12. Influence of Sickle Cell Gene on the Allelic Diversity at the msp-1 locus of Plasmodium falciparum in Adult Patients with Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dilip Kumar; Mashon, Ranjeet Singh; Purohit, Prasanta; Meher, Satyabrata; Dehury, Snehadhini; Marndi, Chhatray; Das, Kishalaya; Kullu, Bipin Kishore; Patel, Siris; Das, Padmalaya

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have supported that sickle cell trait (HbAS) protects against falciparum malaria, the exact mechanism by which sickle gene confers protection is unclear. Further, there is no information on the influence of the sickle gene on the parasitic diversity of P. falciparum population in severe symptomatic malaria. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of the sickle gene on the parasite densities and diversities in hospitalized adult patients with severe falciparum malaria. The study was carried out in 166 adults hospitalized subjects with severe falciparum malaria at Sickle Cell Clinic and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Burla, Odisha, India. They were divided into three groups on the basis of hemoglobin variants HbAA (n=104), HbAS (n=30) and HbSS (n=32). The msp-1 loci were genotyped using a PCR-based methodology. The parasite densities were significantly high in HbAA compared to HbAS and HbSS. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) and multi-clonality for msp-1 were significantly low in HbSS and HbAS compared to HbAA. The prevalence of K1 (p<0 .0001) and MAD20 (p=0.0003) alleles were significantly high in HbAA. The RO33 allele was detected at a higher frequency in HbSS and HbAS, compared to K1 and MAD20. Sickle gene was found to reduce both the parasite densities and diversity of P. falciparum in adults with severe malaria. PMID:26401239

  13. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 in renal tubular cells in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Wichapoon, Benjamas; Punsawad, Chuchard; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen

    2017-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the clinical manifestation of acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in the kidney tissues. Renal tubular cells often exhibit various degrees of cloudy swelling, cell degeneration, and frank necrosis. To study individual cell death, this study evaluates the degree of renal tubular necrosis in association with apoptosis in malarial kidneys. Kidney tissues from P. falciparum malaria with AKI (10 cases), and without AKI (10 cases) were evaluated for tubular pathology. Normal kidney tissues from 10 cases served as controls. Tubular necrosis was assessed quantitatively in kidney tissues infected with P. falciparum malaria, based on histopathological evaluation. In addition, the occurrence of apoptosis was investigated using cleaved caspase-3 marker. Correlation between tubular necrosis and apoptosis was analyzed. Tubular necrosis was found to be highest in P. falciparum malaria patients with AKI (36.44% ± 3.21), compared to non-AKI (15.88% ± 1.63) and control groups (2.58% ± 0.39) (all p < 0.001). In the AKI group, the distal tubules showed a significantly higher degree of tubular necrosis than the proximal tubules (p = 0.021) and collecting tubules (p = 0.033). Tubular necrosis was significantly correlated with the level of serum creatinine (r = 0.596, p = 0.006), and the occurrence of apoptosis (r = 0.681, p = 0.001). In malarial AKI, the process of apoptosis occurs in ATN. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers.

  15. Slow Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum in Severe Pediatric Malaria, Uganda, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Michael; Conroy, Andrea L.; Opoka, Robert O.; Namasopo, Sophie; Zhong, Kathleen; Liles, W. Conrad; John, Chandy C.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives is emerging in Asia. We examined molecular markers of resistance in 78 children in Uganda who had severe malaria and were treated with intravenous artesunate. We observed in the K13-propeller domain, A578S, a low-frequency (3/78), nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with prolonged parasite clearance. PMID:26079933

  16. Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome due to falciparum malaria in two Indian children.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kallol; Saha, Sudip; Islam, Md Rahiul; Chakraborty, Chayan; Laskar, Mustakim

    2016-11-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is rare in children, mostly caused by neuroblastoma. Here, we present two very rare cases presenting with OMA due to falciparum malaria. Both of them responded to a high dose of adrenocorticotrophin hormone and intravenous immunoglobulin without recurrence and complication.

  17. Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome due to falciparum malaria in two Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Kallol; Saha, Sudip; Islam, Md. Rahiul; Chakraborty, Chayan; Laskar, Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is rare in children, mostly caused by neuroblastoma. Here, we present two very rare cases presenting with OMA due to falciparum malaria. Both of them responded to a high dose of adrenocorticotrophin hormone and intravenous immunoglobulin without recurrence and complication. PMID:27958213

  18. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): a PCR-based strategy to detect malaria parasite carriers and contain drug resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named "Focused Screening and Treatment" (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as "high risk" and "low risk" based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow.

  19. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow. PMID:23049687

  20. Asthma and atopic dermatitis are associated with increased risk of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Herrant, Magali; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bassène, Hubert; Gonçalves, Bronner; Boufkhed, Sabah; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Fontanet, Arnaud; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Mécheri, Salaheddine; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Paul, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of atopy and allergy on the risk of clinical malaria. Design A clinical and immunological allergy cross-sectional survey in a birth cohort of 175 children from 1 month to 14 years of age followed for up to 15 years in a longitudinal open cohort study of malaria in Senegal. Malaria incidence data were available for 143 of these children (aged 4 months to 14 years of age) for up to 15 years. Mixed-model regression analysis was used to determine the impact of allergy status on malaria incidence, adjusting for age, gender, sickle-cell trait and force of infection. Main outcome measures Asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis status, the number of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes since birth and associated parasite density. Results 12% of the children were classified as asthmatic and 10% as having atopic dermatitis. These groups had respectively a twofold (OR 2.12 95%; CI 1.46 to 3.08; p=8×10−5) and threefold (OR 3.15; 1.56 to 6.33; p=1.3×10−3) increase in the risk of clinical P falciparum malaria once older than the age of peak incidence of clinical malaria (3–4 years of age). They also presented with higher P falciparum parasite densities (asthma: mean 105.3 parasites/μL±SE 41.0 vs 51.3±9.7; p=6.2×10−3. Atopic dermatitis: 135.4±70.7 vs 52.3±11.0; p=0.014). There was no effect of allergy on the number of non-malaria clinical presentations. Individuals with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis did not have an increased risk of clinical malaria nor any difference in parasite densities. Conclusions These results demonstrate that asthma and atopic dermatitis delay the development of clinical immunity to P falciparum. Despite the encouraging decrease in malaria incidence rates in Africa, a significant concern is the extent to which the increase in allergy will exacerbate the burden of malaria. Given the demonstrated antiparasitic effect of antihistamines, administration to atopic

  1. Analysis of the Clinical Profile in Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Its Association with Parasite Density.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Praveen; Mittal, Shilpa; Kachhawa, Kamal; Agrawal, Divya; Rath, Bhabagrahi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health hazard in the modern world, particularly in developing countries. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, there is a direct correlation between asexual erythrocytic stage parasite density and disease severity. Accordingly, the correlations between parasite density and various clinical presentations, severity, and outcome were examined in falciparum malaria in India. The study was conducted in a tertiary health-care center in North India. Of 100 cases of falciparum malaria, 65 patients were male and 35 were female. A total of 54 patients were in the uncomplicated group and 46 patients were in the complicated malaria group. Fever, anemia, icterus, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly were common clinical findings. All clinical findings were significantly more common in the complicated malaria group and patients with a high parasite density than in the uncomplicated group and those with a low parasite density. All patients in the uncomplicated malaria group had a parasite density of <5% while most patients in the complicated malaria group had a parasite density of >5%, and the difference between groups was statistically significant. The incidence of cerebral malaria was significantly higher in cases with a high parasite density; 58.33% mortality was observed in these cases. Cerebral malaria and hyperbilirubinemia was the most frequently encountered combination of complications. In P. falciparum malaria, parasite density was associated with complications and poor clinical outcomes. These results may inform treatment decisions and suggest that a threshold parasite density of 5% is informative.

  2. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with drug resistance in Hodh Elgharbi, a malaria hotspot near Malian-Mauritanian border.

    PubMed

    Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Bouchiba, Houssem; Pascual, Aurelie; Pradines, Bruno; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali; Briolant, Sébastien; Basco, Leonardo K; Bogreau, Hervé

    2017-04-05

    A malaria hotspot in the southeastern region of Mauritania, near the Malian border, may hamper malaria control strategies. The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms associated with drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates and establish baseline data. The study was conducted in two malaria-endemic areas in Hodh Elgharbi, situated in the Malian-Mauritanian border area. Blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, and Pfdhps were genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, DNA sequencing and primer extension. The Pfmdr1 gene copy number was determined by real-time PCR. Of 280 P. falciparum-infected patients, 193 (68.9%) carried the Pfcrt 76T mutant allele. The Pfmdr1 86Y and 184F mutations were found in 61 (23.1%) of 264 isolates and 167 (67.6%) of 247 samples that were successfully genotyped, respectively. Pfmdr1 mutant alleles 1034C, 1042D and 1246Y were rarely observed. Of 102 P. falciparum isolates analysed, ten (9.8%) had more than one copy of Pfmdr1 gene. The prevalence of isolates harbouring at least triple mutant Pfdhfr 51I, 59R, 108 N/T was 42% (112/268), of which 42 (37.5%) had an additional Pfdhps 437G mutation. The Pfdhps 540E mutation was observed in four isolates (1.5%), including three associated with Pfdhfr triple mutant. Only two quintuple mutants (Pfdhfr-51I-59R-108N Pfdhps-437G-540E) were observed. The observed mutations in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt may jeopardize the future of seasonal malaria chemoprevention based on amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine. Complementary studies should be carried out to document the distribution, origin and circulation of P. falciparum populations in this region and more widely in the country to assess the risk of the spread of resistance.

  3. Spatial and space-time distribution of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Hundessa, Samuel H; Williams, Gail; Li, Shanshan; Guo, Jinpeng; Chen, Linping; Zhang, Wenyi; Guo, Yuming

    2016-12-19

    Despite the declining burden of malaria in China, the disease remains a significant public health problem with periodic outbreaks and spatial variation across the country. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of malaria is essential for consolidating the disease control and elimination programme. This study aims to understand the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China during 2005-2009. Global Moran's I statistics was used to detect a spatial distribution of local P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria at the county level. Spatial and space-time scan statistics were applied to detect spatial and spatiotemporal clusters, respectively. Both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria showed spatial autocorrelation. The most likely spatial cluster of P. vivax was detected in northern Anhui province between 2005 and 2009, and western Yunnan province between 2010 and 2014. For P. falciparum, the clusters included several counties of western Yunnan province from 2005 to 2011, Guangxi from 2012 to 2013, and Anhui in 2014. The most likely space-time clusters of P. vivax malaria and P. falciparum malaria were detected in northern Anhui province and western Yunnan province, respectively, during 2005-2009. The spatial and space-time cluster analysis identified high-risk areas and periods for both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Both malaria types showed significant spatial and spatiotemporal variations. Contrary to P. vivax, the high-risk areas for P. falciparum malaria shifted from the west to the east of China. Further studies are required to examine the spatial changes in risk of malaria transmission and identify the underlying causes of elevated risk in the high-risk areas.

  4. Potential for reduction of burden and local elimination of malaria by reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission: a mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jamie T; Bhatt, Samir; Sinka, Marianne E; Gething, Peter W; Lynch, Michael; Patouillard, Edith; Shutes, Erin; Newman, Robert D; Alonso, Pedro; Cibulskis, Richard E; Ghani, Azra C

    2016-04-01

    Rapid declines in malaria prevalence, cases, and deaths have been achieved globally during the past 15 years because of improved access to first-line treatment and vector control. We aimed to assess the intervention coverage needed to achieve further gains over the next 15 years. We used a mathematical model of the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to explore the potential effect on case incidence and malaria mortality rates from 2015 to 2030 of five different intervention scenarios: remaining at the intervention coverage levels of 2011-13 (Sustain), for which coverage comprises vector control and access to treatment; two scenarios of increased coverage to 80% (Accelerate 1) and 90% (Accelerate 2), with a switch from quinine to injectable artesunate for management of severe disease and seasonal malaria chemoprevention where recommended for both Accelerate scenarios, and rectal artesunate for pre-referral treatment at the community level added to Accelerate 2; a near-term innovation scenario (Innovate), which included longer-lasting insecticidal nets and expansion of seasonal malaria chemoprevention; and a reduction in coverage to 2006-08 levels (Reverse). We did the model simulations at the first administrative level (ie, state or province) for the 80 countries with sustained stable malaria transmission in 2010, accounting for variations in baseline endemicity, seasonality in transmission, vector species, and existing intervention coverage. To calculate the cases and deaths averted, we compared the total number of each under the five scenarios between 2015 and 2030 with the predicted number in 2015, accounting for population growth. With an increase to 80% coverage, we predicted a reduction in case incidence of 21% (95% credible intervals [CrI] 19-29) and a reduction in mortality rates of 40% (27-61) by 2030 compared with 2015 levels. Acceleration to 90% coverage and expansion of treatment at the community level was predicted to reduce case incidence by

  5. Progression of skeletal muscle damage during treatment of severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Holloway, P; Chubb, P; White, N J

    2000-10-02

    To assess the relationship between severity of malaria and progression of skeletal muscle damage during initial treatment, we studied 28 Thai adults with slide-positive falciparum malaria. Six had uncomplicated malaria (Group 1), 12 had severe non-cerebral malaria (Group 2) and ten had cerebral malaria (Group 3). There were no significant differences between baseline serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in the three groups (P=0.071). There was no change in serum CK during the first 48 h of treatment in Group 1 cases. In Group 2 patients, the median peak serum CK was nine times that at baseline while in Group 3, serum CK peaked at a median concentration 20 times that at presentation. In Groups 2 and 3, the peak serum CK occurred at least 24 h after presentation in more than half the patients, and was independent of intramuscular injections and convulsions during initial therapy. These longitudinal data suggest that: (i) severe falciparum malaria is associated with skeletal muscle damage that increases during initial therapy especially in patients with coma; (ii) the effect of other major treatment or infection-specific factors that are associated with muscle damage does not diminish this relationship; and (iii) cerebral malaria in combination with a high baseline and rising serum CK should pre-empt monitoring and management strategies aimed at preserving renal function including renal dialysis.

  6. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan M.; Jones, Marcus B.; Ongoiba, Aissata; Bijker, Else M.; Schats, Remko; Venepally, Pratap; Skinner, Jeff; Doumbo, Safiatou; Quinten, Edwin; Visser, Leo G.; Whalen, Elizabeth; Presnell, Scott; O’Connell, Elise M.; Kayentao, Kassoum; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Chaussabel, Damien; Lorenzi, Hernan; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Haks, Mariëlle C.; Traore, Boubacar; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Crompton, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective, proof-of-principle study, we compared whole-blood RNA-seq profiles at pre-and post-infection time points from Malian adults who were either asymptomatic (n = 5) or febrile (n = 3) during their first seasonal PCR-positive P. falciparum infection with those from malaria-naïve Dutch adults after a single controlled human malaria infection (n = 5). Our data show a graded activation of pathways downstream of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the highest activation in malaria-naïve Dutch individuals and significantly reduced activation in malaria-experienced Malians. Newly febrile and asymptomatic infections in Malians were statistically indistinguishable except for genes activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combined data provide a molecular basis for the development of a pyrogenic threshold as individuals acquire immunity to clinical malaria. PMID:27506615

  7. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan M; Jones, Marcus B; Ongoiba, Aissata; Bijker, Else M; Schats, Remko; Venepally, Pratap; Skinner, Jeff; Doumbo, Safiatou; Quinten, Edwin; Visser, Leo G; Whalen, Elizabeth; Presnell, Scott; O'Connell, Elise M; Kayentao, Kassoum; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Chaussabel, Damien; Lorenzi, Hernan; Nutman, Thomas B; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Haks, Mariëlle C; Traore, Boubacar; Kirkness, Ewen F; Sauerwein, Robert W; Crompton, Peter D

    2016-08-10

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective, proof-of-principle study, we compared whole-blood RNA-seq profiles at pre-and post-infection time points from Malian adults who were either asymptomatic (n = 5) or febrile (n = 3) during their first seasonal PCR-positive P. falciparum infection with those from malaria-naïve Dutch adults after a single controlled human malaria infection (n = 5). Our data show a graded activation of pathways downstream of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the highest activation in malaria-naïve Dutch individuals and significantly reduced activation in malaria-experienced Malians. Newly febrile and asymptomatic infections in Malians were statistically indistinguishable except for genes activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combined data provide a molecular basis for the development of a pyrogenic threshold as individuals acquire immunity to clinical malaria.

  8. Changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez; Lowe, Brett; Cole, Andrew O; Kowuondo, Ken; Newton, Charles R J C

    2002-12-01

    Little is known about the changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria in endemic areas. We measured the white cell count (WCC) and platelets of 230 healthy children from the community, 1369 children admitted to hospital with symptomatic malaria, and 1461 children with other medical conditions. Children with malaria had a higher WCC compared with community controls, and leucocytosis was strongly associated with younger age, deep breathing, severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia and death. The WCC was not associated with a positive blood culture. In children with malaria, high lymphocyte and low monocyte counts were independently associated with mortality. A platelet count of less than 150 x 109/l was found in 56.7% of children with malaria, and was associated with age, prostration and parasite density, but not with bleeding problems or mortality. The mean platelet volume was also higher in children with malaria compared with other medical conditions. This may reflect early release from the bone marrow in response to peripheral platelet destruction. Thus, leucocytosis was associated with both severity and mortality in children with falciparum malaria, irrespective of bacteraemia, whereas thrombocytopenia, although very common, was not associated with adverse outcome.

  9. High Levels of Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Papua New Guinea despite Variable Infection Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alyssa E.; Schultz, Lee; Senn, Nicholas; Nale, Joe; Kiniboro, Benson; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.

    2013-01-01

    High levels of genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum populations are an obstacle to malaria control. Here, we investigate the relationship between local variation in malaria epidemiology and parasite genetic diversity in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Cross-sectional malaria surveys were performed in 14 villages spanning four distinct malaria-endemic areas on the north coast, including one area that was sampled during the dry season. High-resolution msp2 genotyping of 2,147 blood samples identified 761 P. falciparum infections containing a total of 1,392 clones whose genotypes were used to measure genetic diversity. Considerable variability in infection prevalence and mean multiplicity of infection was observed at all of the study sites, with the area sampled during the dry season showing particularly striking local variability. Genetic diversity was strongly associated with multiplicity of infection but not with infection prevalence. In highly endemic areas, differences in infection prevalence may not translate into a decrease in parasite population diversity. PMID:23400571

  10. Vaccination with SPf66, a chemically synthesised vaccine, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Valero, M V; Amador, L R; Galindo, C; Figueroa, J; Bello, M S; Murillo, L A; Mora, A L; Patarroyo, G; Rocha, C L; Rojas, M

    1993-03-20

    Preclinical and clinical studies have established the safety and immunogenicity of the chemically synthesised SPf66 malaria vaccine. The present study is a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy trial completed in La Tola, Colombia. 1548 volunteers over one year of age received three doses of either the vaccine (n = 738) or placebo (n = 810). Active and passive case detection methods were used to document clinical episodes of malaria among the study population. The follow-up period began one month after the third dose and lasted for one year. 168 and 297 episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria were documented in the SPf66 group and the placebo group, respectively; this corresponds to a crude protective efficacy of 38.8%. Incidence rates for first or only P falciparum malarial episodes were 22.3% per annum among the vaccinee group and 33.5% among the placebo group (RR = 1.5; 95% Cl 1.23, 1.84). Therefore, the protective efficacy of SPf66 against first or only episodes was 33.6% (95% Cl 18.8, 45.7), being highest in children aged 1-4 years (77%) and adults older than 45 years (67%). The estimated protective efficacy against second episodes was 50.5% (95% Cl 12.9-71.9). Our study shows that the chemically synthesised SPf66 malaria vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and protective against P falciparum malaria in semi-immune populations subject to natural challenge.

  11. Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the intensive care unit: A 6-year experience in Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Antinori, Spinello; Corona, Alberto; Castelli, Antonio; Rech, Roberto; Borghi, Beatrice; Giannotti, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Fossali, Tommaso; Ballone, Elisabetta; Minari, Caterina; Perotti, Andrea; Bergomi, Paola; Galimberti, Laura; Milazzo, Laura; Ricaboni, Davide; Scorza, Daniele; Grande, Romualdo; Genderini, Francesco; Ieri, Marco; Raimondi, Ferdinando; Catena, Emanuele; Galli, Massimo; Corbellino, Mario

    Severe imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease with a reported mortality rate of 5-10% when patients are admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. To retrospectively review the clinical aspects, the value of severity predictive scores and the management of patients with severe P. falciparum malaria admitted to an ICU in Milano, Italy between January 2010 and December 2015. Twelve patients were included: seven were male and five female with a median age of 43 years. All were initially treated with intravenous quinine. Median parasitaemia upon admission was 14,5% (range 1-20%). At the time of ICU admission, 3 patients (25%) had 5 or more World Health Organization criteria for severe malaria while another 6 of them developed one or more of the latter during their stay in ICU. Five required mechanical ventilation because of respiratory failure due to ARDS. Four patients required renal replacement therapy. Three patients underwent blood exchange transfusion. All patients survived. Our retrospective evaluation of adults patients admitted to the ICU with severe imported P. falciparum malaria demonstrated a favourable outcome. Severity predictive scores currently in use probably overestimate the risk of malaria mortality in patients treated in health care systems of high income countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of two species of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Soedarto; Hidajati, Sri; Yotopranoto, Subagyo; Kusmartisnawati; Subekti, Sri; Ideham, Bariah; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kawabata, Masato; Takagi, Masahiro; Looareesuwan, Somchai

    2003-09-01

    Medical and entomological surveys were conducted to determine the risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections on Lombok Island, Indonesia, to find the risk factors and the main mosquito vectors for each malaria. Multivariate longitudinal analysis demonstrated two significant risk factors for infection with P. falciparum: disappearance of P. vivax parasitemia (p<0.001) and a specific study site (p<0.001). In contrast, younger age (p=0.024) and the interpolated virtual density of An. subpictus (p=0.041) were significantly associated with increased risk of infection with P. vivax. Thus, it seems that the distribution of P. vivax was determined largely by the presence of An. subpictus, whilst that of P. falciparum was influenced by antagonism with P. vivax. This result shows the importance of following-up treated P. vivax patients to identify recrudescence of P. falciparum in this area.

  13. High prevalence of co-factor independent anticardiolipin antibodies in malaria exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Consigny, P H; Cauquelin, B; Agnamey, P; Comby, E; Brasseur, P; Ballet, J J; Roussilhon, C

    2002-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were investigated in 137 individuals chronically exposed to malaria and living in Africa and Asia. They belonged to several groups according to parasite (Plasmodium falciparum or vivax) and clinical manifestations (i.e. asymptomatic parasite carriers, acute uncomplicated attack or severe malaria episodes). aCL were measured in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) performed in the presence of either goat serum (aCLs) or gelatin (aCLg). In a group of 53 patients with autoimmune manifestations (i.e. antiphospholipid syndrome and/or lupus), detection of IgG but not IgM aCL was markedly reduced in the presence of gelatin. In malaria donors, high prevalence of serum co-factor-independent IgG and IgM were detected, and the presence of goat serum in the assay consistently decreased their detection. aCLg levels were found to be related to the clinical/endemic status of donors. IgG aCLg were found to be higher in asymptomatic P. falciparum carriers than in patients with uncomplicated acute or cerebral malaria. IgM aCLg were higher in the cerebral malaria group than in groups with uncomplicated acute malaria patients or asymptomatic individuals. Data suggest that using a serum co-factor independent, sensitive ELISA, aCL are commonly detected during malarial infections and related to malarial infection status. PMID:11882047

  14. Contrasting Population Structures of the Genes Encoding Ten Leading Vaccine-Candidate Antigens of the Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Alyssa E.; Schultz, Lee; Buckee, Caroline O.; Reeder, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The extensive diversity of Plasmodium falciparum antigens is a major obstacle to a broadly effective malaria vaccine but population genetics has rarely been used to guide vaccine design. We have completed a meta-population genetic analysis of the genes encoding ten leading P. falciparum vaccine antigens, including the pre-erythrocytic antigens csp, trap, lsa1 and glurp; the merozoite antigens eba175, ama1, msp's 1, 3 and 4, and the gametocyte antigen pfs48/45. A total of 4553 antigen sequences were assembled from published data and we estimated the range and distribution of diversity worldwide using traditional population genetics, Bayesian clustering and network analysis. Although a large number of distinct haplotypes were identified for each antigen, they were organized into a limited number of discrete subgroups. While the non-merozoite antigens showed geographically variable levels of diversity and geographic restriction of specific subgroups, the merozoite antigens had high levels of diversity globally, and a worldwide distribution of each subgroup. This shows that the diversity of the non-merozoite antigens is organized by physical or other location-specific barriers to gene flow and that of merozoite antigens by features intrinsic to all populations, one important possibility being the immune response of the human host. We also show that current malaria vaccine formulations are based upon low prevalence haplotypes from a single subgroup and thus may represent only a small proportion of the global parasite population. This study demonstrates significant contrasts in the population structure of P. falciparum vaccine candidates that are consistent with the merozoite antigens being under stronger balancing selection than non-merozoite antigens and suggesting that unique approaches to vaccine design will be required. The results of this study also provide a realistic framework for the diversity of these antigens to be incorporated into the design of next

  15. The diminishing returns of atovaquone-proguanil for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: modelling mass drug administration and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Nguon, Chea; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Lisa J; White, Nicholas J

    2014-09-24

    Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to current efforts to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria which rely heavily on the continuing efficacy of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It has been suggested that ACT should not be used in mass drug administration (MDA) in areas where artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum is prevalent, and that atovaquone-proguanil (A-P) might be a preferable alternative. However, a single point mutation in the cytochrome b gene confers high level resistance to atovaquone, and such mutant parasites arise frequently during treatment making A-P a vulnerable tool for elimination. A deterministic, population level, mathematical model was developed based on data from Cambodia to explore the possible effects of large-scale use of A-P compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine ACT for mass drug administration and/or treatment of P. falciparum malaria, with and without adjunctive primaquine (PQ) and long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN). The aim was local elimination. The model showed the initial efficacy of ACT and A-P for MDA to be similar. However, each round of A-P MDA resulted in rapid acquisition and spread of atovaquone resistance. Even a single round of MDA could compromise efficacy sufficient to preclude its use for treatment or prophylaxis. A switch to A-P for treatment of symptomatic episodes resulted in a complete loss of efficacy in the population within four to five years of its introduction. The impact of MDA was temporary and a combination of maintained high coverage with ACT treatment for symptomatic individuals and LLIN was necessary for elimination. For malaria elimination, A-P for MDA or treatment of symptomatic cases should be avoided. A combined strategy of high coverage with ACT for treatment of symptomatic episodes, LLIN and ACT + P MDA would be preferable.

  16. TRALI Syndrome During the Treatment of a Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Case.

    PubMed

    Çaşkurlu, Hülya; Nurmuhammedov, Rahman; Htway, Zarni

    2016-12-01

    Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso. It developed immediately after the infusion of fresh frozen plasma during the treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The patient's condition improved on respiratory support treatment in the intensive care unit for 48 hours without the need of mechanical ventilation. This case indicated that TRALI syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis as an emerging acute lung disease during the treatment of malaria.

  17. Impact of climate variability on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan; Yu, Weiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yuming; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Tong, Shilu

    2013-12-17

    Malaria remains a public health problem in the remote and poor area of Yunnan Province, China. Yunnan faces an increasing risk of imported malaria infections from Mekong river neighboring countries. This study aimed to identify the high risk area of malaria transmission in Yunnan Province, and to estimate the effects of climatic variability on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in the identified area. We identified spatial clusters of malaria cases using spatial cluster analysis at a county level in Yunnan Province, 2005-2010, and estimated the weekly effects of climatic factors on P. vivax and P. falciparum based on a dataset of daily malaria cases and climatic variables. A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall up to 10-week lags on both types of malaria parasite after adjusting for seasonal and long-term effects. The primary cluster area was identified along the China-Myanmar border in western Yunnan. A 1°C increase in minimum temperature was associated with a lag 4 to 9 weeks relative risk (RR), with the highest effect at lag 7 weeks for P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.05) and 6 weeks for P. falciparum (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.11); a 10-mm increment in rainfall was associated with RRs of lags 2-4 weeks and 9-10 weeks, with the highest effect at 3 weeks for both P. vivax (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.04) and P. falciparum (RR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.06); and the RRs with a 10% rise in relative humidity were significant from lag 3 to 8 weeks with the highest RR of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10, 1.41) for P. vivax at 5-week lag. Our findings suggest that the China-Myanmar border is a high risk area for malaria transmission. Climatic factors appeared to be among major determinants of malaria transmission in this area. The estimated lag effects for the association between temperature and malaria are consistent with the life cycles of both mosquito vector and malaria

  18. Immunomodulation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria: experiments in nature and their conflicting implications for potential therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Anne EP; John, Chandy C

    2013-01-01

    Effective Plasmodium falciparum immunity requires a precisely timed and balanced response of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune regulators. These responses begin with innate immune effectors and are modulated over the course of an infection and between episodes to limit inflammation. To date, there are no effective immunomodulatory therapies for severe malaria. Some of the most potent immunomodulators are naturally occurring infections, including helminthic and chronic viral infections. This review examines malaria coinfection with these organisms, and their impact on malaria morbidity and immune responses. Overall, there is compelling evidence to suggest that chronic coinfections can modulate deleterious malaria-specific immune responses, suggesting that therapeutic agents may be effective if utilized early in infection. Examination of the mechanisms of these effects may serve as a platform to identify more targeted and effective malaria immunomodulatory therapeutics. PMID:23241191

  19. Disparities of Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity and access to malaria prevention and treatment among school-aged children: a national cross-sectional survey in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Houngbedji, Clarisse A; N'Dri, Prisca B; Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Soro, Gotianwa; Koudou, Benjamin G; Acka, Cinthia A; Assi, Serge-Brice; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Fantodji, Agathe; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-01-05

    There is limited knowledge on the malaria burden of school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to assess Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity, use of preventive measures and treatment against malaria, and physical access to health structures among school-aged children across Côte d'Ivoire. A national, cross-sectional study was designed, consisting of clinical and parasitological examinations and interviews with schoolchildren. More than 5,000 children from 93 schools in Côte d'Ivoire were interviewed to determine household socioeconomic status, self-reported morbidity and means of malaria prevention and treatment. Finger-prick blood samples were collected and Plasmodium infection and parasitaemia determined using Giemsa-stained blood films and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Haemoglobin levels and body temperature were measured. Children were classified into wealth quintiles using household assets and principal components analysis (PCA). The concentration index was employed to determine significant trends of health variables according to wealth quintiles. Logistic and binomial negative regression analyses were done to investigate for associations between P. falciparum prevalence and parasitaemia and any health-related variable. The prevalence of P. falciparum was 73.9% according to combined microscopy and RDT results with a geometric mean of parasitaemia among infected children of 499 parasites/μl of blood. Infection with P. falciparum was significantly associated with sex, socioeconomic status and study setting, while parasitaemia was associated with age. The rate of bed net use was low compared to the rate of bed net ownership. Preventive measures (bed net ownership, insecticide spray and the reported use of malaria treatment) were more frequently mentioned by children from wealthier households who were at lower risk of P. falciparum infection. Self-reported morbidity (headache) and clinical morbidity (anaemia) were

  20. Parasite Specific Antibody Increase Induced by an Episode of Acute P. falciparum Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Lwanira, Catherine; Lugaajju, Allan; Katabira, Elly; Persson, Kristina E. M.; Wahlgren, Mats; Kironde, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is no approved vaccine for malaria, and precisely how human antibody responses to malaria parasite components and potential vaccine molecules are developed and maintained remains poorly defined. In this study, antibody anamnestic or memory response elicited by a single episode of P. falciparum infection was investigated. Methods This study involved 362 malaria patients aged between 6 months to 60 years, of whom 19% were early-diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). On the day malaria was diagnosed and 42 days later, blood specimens were collected. Parasite density, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific to synthetic peptides representing antigenic regions of the P. falciparum proteins GLURP, MSP3 and HRPII were measured. Results On the day of malaria diagnosis, Immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies against GLURP, MSP3 and HRP II peptides were present in the blood of 75%, 41% and 60% of patients, respectively. 42 days later, the majority of patients had boosted their serum IgG antibody more than 1.2 fold. The increase in level of IgG antibody against the peptides was not affected by parasite density at diagnosis. The median CD4+ cell counts of PLWHAs and HIV negative individuals were not statistically different, and median post-infection increases in anti-peptide IgG were similar in both groups of patients. Conclusion In the majority (70%) of individuals, an infection of P. falciparum elicits at least 20% increase in level of anti-parasite IgG. This boost in anti-P. falciparum IgG is not affected by parasite density on the day of malaria diagnosis, or by HIV status. PMID:25906165

  1. High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W; Harris, Ivor; Koepfli, Cristian; Lodo, John; Vahi, Ventis; Piziki, David; Shanks, G Dennis; Barry, Alyssa E; Whittaker, Maxine; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Solomon Islands is intensifying national efforts to achieve malaria elimination. A long history of indoor spraying with residual insecticides, combined recently with distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets and artemether-lumefantrine therapy, has been implemented in Solomon Islands. The impact of these interventions on local endemicity of Plasmodium spp. is unknown. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 3501 residents of all ages was conducted in Ngella, Central Islands Province, Solomon Islands. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light microscopy (LM). Presence of gametocytes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). By qPCR, 468 Plasmodium spp. infections were detected (prevalence = 13.4%; 463 P. vivax, five mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax, no P. ovale or P. malariae) versus 130 by LM (prevalence = 3.7%; 126 P. vivax, three P. falciparum and one P. falciparum/P. vivax). The prevalence of P. vivax infection varied significantly among villages (range 3.0-38.5%, p<0.001) and across age groups (5.3-25.9%, p<0.001). Of 468 P. vivax infections, 72.9% were sub-microscopic, 84.5% afebrile and 60.0% were both sub-microscopic and afebrile. Local residency, low education level of the household head and living in a household with at least one other P. vivax infected individual increased the risk of P. vivax infection. Overall, 23.5% of P. vivax infections had concurrent gametocytaemia. Of all P. vivax positive samples, 29.2% were polyclonal by MS16 and msp1F3 genotyping. All five P. falciparum infections were detected in residents of the same village, carried the same msp2 allele and four were positive for P. falciparum gametocytes. P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of LM. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and outbreaks due to travel to nearby islands

  2. High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W.; Harris, Ivor; Koepfli, Cristian; Lodo, John; Vahi, Ventis; Piziki, David; Shanks, G. Dennis; Barry, Alyssa E.; Whittaker, Maxine; Kazura, James W.; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solomon Islands is intensifying national efforts to achieve malaria elimination. A long history of indoor spraying with residual insecticides, combined recently with distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets and artemether-lumefantrine therapy, has been implemented in Solomon Islands. The impact of these interventions on local endemicity of Plasmodium spp. is unknown. Methods In 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 3501 residents of all ages was conducted in Ngella, Central Islands Province, Solomon Islands. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light microscopy (LM). Presence of gametocytes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Results By qPCR, 468 Plasmodium spp. infections were detected (prevalence = 13.4%; 463 P. vivax, five mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax, no P. ovale or P. malariae) versus 130 by LM (prevalence = 3.7%; 126 P. vivax, three P. falciparum and one P. falciparum/P. vivax). The prevalence of P. vivax infection varied significantly among villages (range 3.0–38.5%, p<0.001) and across age groups (5.3–25.9%, p<0.001). Of 468 P. vivax infections, 72.9% were sub-microscopic, 84.5% afebrile and 60.0% were both sub-microscopic and afebrile. Local residency, low education level of the household head and living in a household with at least one other P. vivax infected individual increased the risk of P. vivax infection. Overall, 23.5% of P. vivax infections had concurrent gametocytaemia. Of all P. vivax positive samples, 29.2% were polyclonal by MS16 and msp1F3 genotyping. All five P. falciparum infections were detected in residents of the same village, carried the same msp2 allele and four were positive for P. falciparum gametocytes. Conclusion P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of LM. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and

  3. Invasive Aspergillus fumigatus infection after Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an immuno-competent host: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Ebinger, Damaris; Gotthardt, Daniel; Eberhardt, Ralf; Schnabel, Philipp A; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Junghanss, Thomas; Eisenbach, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection is rarely reported in association with malaria, even though malaria-associated inhibition of phagocyte function is a well-known condition. Invasive aspergillosis is frequently found in severely immuno-compromised patients but not in healthy individuals. Here, a case of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis in a previously healthy patient with severe P. falciparum malaria is presented, who was successfully treated with voriconazol and caspofungin. This is the first survival of malaria-associated invasive aspergillosis. PMID:19619319

  4. Correlation of interleukin-4 levels with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasitaemia in Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Elhussein, A B; Huneif, M A; Naeem, A; Fadlelseed, O E; Babiker, W G; Rahma, N E A A; Ahmed, S A M; Ayed, I A M; Shalayel, M H F

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the level of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the serum of children patients with falciparum malaria and to correlate the production of this cytokine with the severity of malaria parasitaemia. One hundred ten patients with malaria participated in this study (53 males and 57 females) and their results were compared with that of 60 healthy control subjects. Their ages ranged between 6 months and 15 years. For the detection of parasitaemia, a calibrated thick-smear technique was used with standard Giemsa staining. For designation of the relative parasite count, a simple code from one to four crosses is used according to the criteria mentioned by Gilles and Warrell. The blood samples were assessed for IL-4 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Thirty-three malaria patients (30.27%) had one cross (+) parasitaemia, 13 patients (11.93%) had (++) parasitaemia, 24 patients (22.02%) had (+++) parasitaemia and 39 patients (35.78%) had (++++) parasitaemia. There was a significant difference (P<0.009) in the concentration of IL-4 between malaria patients (160.74±25.5 pg/ml) and control group (62.136±18.16 pg/ml). Uncomplicated malaria patients showed the highest record of IL-4 level followed by cerebral malaria (CM) group and then severe malaria anaemia group (SMA) (255.8±54.13, 102.7±34.88 and 90.95±20.90 pg/ml respectively, P>0.0001). It was concluded that elevation of serum IL-4 in Sudanese children suffering from Plasmodium falciparum malaria is correlated with the severity of malaria hyperparasitaemia rather than with the severity of the disease.

  5. Detection of a substantial number of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections by polymerase chain reaction: a potential threat to malaria control and diagnosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prompt and effective malaria diagnosis not only alleviates individual suffering, but also decreases malaria transmission at the community level. The commonly used diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests, are usually insensitive at very low-density parasitaemia. Molecular techniques, on the other hand, allow the detection of low-level, sub-microscopic parasitaemia. This study aimed to explore the presence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR-based parasite prevalence was compared against microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Methods This study used 1,453 blood samples collected from clinical patients and sub-clinical subjects to determine the prevalence of sub-microscopic P. falciparum carriages. Subsets of RDT and microscopy negative blood samples were tested by PCR while all RDT and microscopically confirmed P. falciparum-infected samples were subjected to PCR. Finger-prick blood samples spotted on filter paper were used for parasite genomic DNA extraction. Results The prevalence of sub-microscopic P. falciparum carriage was 19.2% (77/400) (95% CI = 15. 4–23.1). Microscopy-based prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 3.7% (54/1,453) while the prevalence was 6.9% (100/1,453) using RDT alone. Using microscopy and PCR, the estimated parasite prevalence was 20.6% if PCR were performed in 1,453 blood samples. The prevalence was estimated to be 22.7% if RDT and PCR were used. Of 54 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum-infected subjects, PCR detected 90.7% (49/54). Out of 100 RDT-confirmed P. falciparum infections; PCR detected 80.0% (80/100). The sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy and RDT was, therefore, 90.7% and 80%, respectively. The sensitivity of microscopy and RDT relative to PCR was 16.5 (49/299) and 24.2% (80/330), respectively. The overall PCR-based prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 5.6- and 3.3 fold higher than that determined by

  6. Malaria parasite sequences from chimpanzee support the co-speciation hypothesis for the origin of virulent human malaria (Plasmodium falciparum).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Verra, Federica

    2010-10-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb), apicoplast caseinolytic protease C (clpC), and 18S rRNA sequences of Plasmodium isolates from chimpanzees along with those of the virulent human malaria parasite P. falciparum showed that the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) malaria parasites, assigned by Rich et al. (2009) to P. reichenowi, constitute a paraphyletic assemblage. The assumption that P. falciparum diverged from P. reichenowi as recently as 5000-50,000 years ago would require a rate of synonymous substitution/site/year in cytb and clpC on the order of 10(-5)-10(-6), several orders of magnitude higher than any known from eukaryotic organelle genomes, and would imply an unrealistically recent timing of the most recent common ancestor of P. falciparum mitochondrial genomes. The available data are thus most consistent with the hypothesis that P. reichenowi (in the strict sense) and P. falciparum co-speciated with their hosts about 5-7 million years ago.

  7. Efficacy of Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine versus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Under 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, W; Jiang, H; Xiong, Z; Jiang, Z; Chen, H

    2013-01-01

    The children aged under 5 years from vast African areas badly suffer from falciparum malaria and many of them die of this disease. Therapeutic efficacy of anti-malaria drugs, especially pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) and chloroquine (CQ) to falciparum malaria is frequently evaluated and reported in recent 10 years. Unfortunately, to date, these widespread materials and researches have not been systematically collected and analyzed. In our study, two investigators were employed to widely and independently gather researches on efficacy of PS vs. CQ mono-therapy of falciparum malaria in children aged below 5 years in unpublished and published databases. Meta-analyses were conducted in categories of PS group and CQ group respectively. Pooled OR of PS vs. CQ was 0.11 (95%CI, 0.05-0.24). PS showed higher therapeutic efficacy to falciparum malaria in less-than-5-year children than CQ. Random model was chosen to analyze for the heterogeneity existence between different studies. Subgroup analyses were performed, but heterogeneity was still presented. Heterogeneity might be caused by different resistance of falciparum malaria to PS and CQ in different settings. Malaria type associated with parasite species, basic information of PS and CQ, and PS & CQ resistant malaria control measures were demonstrated and discussed respectively in detail in this article. PMID:23682255

  8. The relationship between the Plasmodium falciparum parasite ratio in childhood and climate estimates of malaria transmission in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Omumbo, Judith A; Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Snow, Robert W

    2004-06-17

    Plasmodium falciparum morbid and fatal risks are considerably higher in areas supporting parasite prevalence > or =25%, when compared with low transmission areas supporting parasite prevalence below 25%. Recent descriptions of the health impacts of malaria in Africa are based upon categorical descriptions of a climate-driven fuzzy model of suitability (FCS) for stable transmission developed by the Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa collaboration (MARA). An electronic and national search was undertaken to identify community-based parasite prevalence surveys in Kenya. Data from these surveys were matched using ArcView 3.2 to extract spatially congruent estimates of the FCS values generated by the MARA model. Levels of agreement between three classes used during recent continental burden estimations of parasite prevalence (0%, >0-<25% and > or =25%) and three classes of FCS (0, >0-<0.75 and > or =0.75) were tested using the kappa (k) statistic and examined as continuous variables to define better levels of agreement. Two hundred and seventeen independent parasite prevalence surveys undertaken since 1980 were identified during the search. Overall agreement between the three classes of parasite prevalence and FCS was weak although significant (k = 0.367, p < 0.0001). The overall correlation between the FCS and the parasite ratio when considered as continuous variables was also positive (0.364, p < 0.001). The margins of error were in the stable, endemic (parasite ratio > or =25%) class with 42% of surveys represented by an FCS <0.75. Reducing the FCS value criterion to > or =0.6 improved the classification of stable, endemic parasite ratio surveys. Zero values of FCS were not adequate discriminators of zero parasite prevalence. Using the MARA model to categorically distinguish populations at differing intensities of malaria transmission in Kenya may under-represent those who are exposed to stable, endemic transmission and over-represent those at no risk. The MARA approach

  9. Multiple Adhesive Phenotypes Linked to Rosetting Binding of Erythrocytes in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Victor; Treutiger, Carl Johan; Nash, Gerard B.; Wahlgren, Mats

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral form of severe malaria is associated with excessive intravascular sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (PRBC). Retention and accumulation of PRBC may lead to occlusion of brain microvessels and direct the triggering of acute pathologic changes. Here we report that by selection, cloning, and subcloning, we have identified rare P. falciparum parasites expressing a pan-adhesive phenotype linked to erythrocyte rosetting, a previously identified correlate of cerebral malaria. Rosetting PRBC not only bound uninfected erythrocytes but also formed autoagglutinates, adhered to endothelial cells, and bound to CD36, immunoglobulins, and the blood group A antigen. The linkage of rosetting, autoagglutination, and cytoadherence involved the coexpression on a single PRBC of ligands with multiple specificities and the binding to two or more receptors on erythrocytes and to at least two other cell adhesion molecules, including a new endothelial cell receptor for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Limited proteolysis that differentially cleaved the rosetting ligand PfEMP1 from the PRBC surface abrogated all the binding phenotypes of these parasites, implicating the variant antigen PfEMP1 as a carrier of multiple ligand specificities. The results encourage the further study of pan-adhesion as a potentially important parasite phenotype in the pathogenesis of severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:9596774

  10. Evaluation of three parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Elizabeth A; Touabi, Malek; Ahrer, Margareta; Hutagalung, Robert; Htun, Khayae; Luchavez, Jennifer; Dureza, Christine; Proux, Stephane; Leimanis, Mara; Lwin, Myo Min; Koscalova, Alena; Comte, Eric; Hamade, Prudence; Page, Anne-Laure; Nosten, François; Guerin, Philippe J

    2009-01-01

    Background In areas where non-falciparum malaria is common rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) capable of distinguishing malaria species reliably are needed. Such tests are often based on the detection of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH). Methods In Dawei, southern Myanmar, three pLDH based RDTs (CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan), CareStart™ Malaria pLDH (Pan, Pf) and OptiMAL-IT®)were evaluated in patients presenting with clinically suspected malaria. Each RDT was read independently by two readers. A subset of patients with microscopically confirmed malaria had their RDTs repeated on days 2, 7 and then weekly until negative. At the end of the study, samples of study batches were sent for heat stability testing. Results Between August and November 2007, 1004 patients aged between 1 and 93 years were enrolled in the study. Slide microscopy (the reference standard) diagnosed 213 Plasmodium vivax (Pv) monoinfections, 98 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) mono-infections and no malaria in 650 cases. The sensitivities (sens) and specificities (spec), of the RDTs for the detection of malaria were- CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan) test: sens 89.1% [CI95 84.2-92.6], spec 97.6% [CI95 96.5-98.4] OptiMal-IT®: Pf+/- other species detection: sens 95.2% [CI95 87.5-98.2], spec 94.7% [CI95 93.3-95.8]; non-Pf detection alone: sens 89.6% [CI95 83.6-93.6], spec 96.5% [CI95 94.8-97.7] CareStart Malaria™ pLDH (Pan, Pf): Pf+/- other species: sens 93.5% [CI9585.4-97.3], spec 97.4% [95.9-98.3]; non-Pf: sens 78.5% [CI9571.1-84.4], spec 97.8% [CI95 96.3-98.7] Inter-observer agreement was excellent for all tests (kappa > 0.9). The median time for the RDTs to become negative was two days for the CareStart™ Malaria tests and seven days for OptiMAL-IT®. Tests were heat stable up to 90 days except for OptiMAL-IT® (Pf specific pLDH stable to day 20 at 35°C). Conclusion None of the pLDH-based RDTs evaluated was able to detect non-falciparum malaria with high sensitivity, particularly at low

  11. Influence of host factors and parasite biomass on the severity of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Argy, Nicolas; Kendjo, Eric; Augé-Courtoi, Claire; Cojean, Sandrine; Clain, Jérôme; Houzé, Pascal; Thellier, Marc; Hubert, Veronique; Deloron, Philippe; Houzé, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Imported malaria in France is characterized by various clinical manifestations observed in a heterogeneous population of patients such as travelers/expatriates and African migrants. In this population, host factors and parasite biomass associated with severe imported malaria are poorly known. From data collected by the Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, we identified epidemiological, demographic and biological features including parasite biomass and anti-plasmodial antibody levels (negative, positive and strongly positive serology) associated with different disease severity groups (very severe, moderately severe, and uncomplicated malaria) in 3 epidemiological groups (travelers/expatriates, first- and second-generation migrants). Age, ethnicity, absence of prior infection with P. falciparum, antibody levels, plasma PfHRP2 levels, total and circulating parasite biomass were related to severe malaria onset. Sequestered parasite biomass tended to be increased in very severe malaria, and was strongly correlated to the antibody level of the host. Prior exposure to P. falciparum is associated with high anti-plasmodial antibody levels which influence clinical presentation of imported malaria and its correlated circulating and sequestered parasite burden.

  12. Influence of host factors and parasite biomass on the severity of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kendjo, Eric; Augé-Courtoi, Claire; Cojean, Sandrine; Clain, Jérôme; Houzé, Pascal; Thellier, Marc; Hubert, Veronique; Deloron, Philippe; Houzé, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Imported malaria in France is characterized by various clinical manifestations observed in a heterogeneous population of patients such as travelers/expatriates and African migrants. In this population, host factors and parasite biomass associated with severe imported malaria are poorly known. Methods From data collected by the Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, we identified epidemiological, demographic and biological features including parasite biomass and anti-plasmodial antibody levels (negative, positive and strongly positive serology) associated with different disease severity groups (very severe, moderately severe, and uncomplicated malaria) in 3 epidemiological groups (travelers/expatriates, first- and second-generation migrants). Results Age, ethnicity, absence of prior infection with P. falciparum, antibody levels, plasma PfHRP2 levels, total and circulating parasite biomass were related to severe malaria onset. Sequestered parasite biomass tended to be increased in very severe malaria, and was strongly correlated to the antibody level of the host. Conclusions Prior exposure to P. falciparum is associated with high anti-plasmodial antibody levels which influence clinical presentation of imported malaria and its correlated circulating and sequestered parasite burden. PMID:28410415

  13. Functional genomic technologies applied to the control of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Carucci, D J

    2001-05-01

    Infection with any of the four species of Plasmodium single cell parasites that infects humans causes the clinical disease, malaria. Of these, it is Plasmodium falciparum that is responsible for the majority of the 1.5-2.3 million deaths due to this disease each year. Worldwide there are between 300-500 million cases of malaria annually. To date there is no licensed vaccine and resistance to most of the available drugs used to prevent and/or treat malaria is spreading. There is therefore an urgent need to develop new and effective drugs and vaccines against this devastating parasite. We have outlined a strategy using a combination of DNA-based vaccines and the data derived from the soon-to-be completed P. falciparum genome and the genomes of other species of Plasmodium to develop new vaccines against malaria. Much of the technology that we are developing for vaccine target identification is directly applicable to the identification of potential targets for drug discovery. The publicly available genome sequence data also provides a means for researchers whose focus may not be primarily malaria to leverage their research on cancer, yeast biology and other research areas to the biological problems of malaria.

  14. Reversibility of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Severe Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Richard J.; Kingston, Hugh W. F.; Joshi, Sonia; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K.; White, Nicholas J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2014-01-01

    Malarial retinopathy allows detailed study of central nervous system vascular pathology in living patients with severe malaria. An adult with cerebral malaria is described who had prominent retinal whitening with corresponding retinal microvascular obstruction, vessel dilatation, increased vascular tortuosity, and blood retinal barrier leakage with decreased visual acuity, all of which resolved on recovery. Additional study of these features and their potential role in elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is warranted. PMID:24935949

  15. Reversibility of retinal microvascular changes in severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Kingston, Hugh W F; Joshi, Sonia; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj K; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2014-09-01

    Malarial retinopathy allows detailed study of central nervous system vascular pathology in living patients with severe malaria. An adult with cerebral malaria is described who had prominent retinal whitening with corresponding retinal microvascular obstruction, vessel dilatation, increased vascular tortuosity, and blood retinal barrier leakage with decreased visual acuity, all of which resolved on recovery. Additional study of these features and their potential role in elucidating the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is warranted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. High frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance marker (pfcrt T76 mutation) in Yemen: an urgent need to re-examine malaria drug policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azazy, Ahmed A; Fong, Mun Yik

    2011-05-27

    Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 511 participants from four governorates in Yemen. Blood samples were screened using microscopic and species-specific nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene to detect and identify Plasmodium species. Blood samples positive for P. falciparum were used for detecting the pfcrt T76 mutation using nested-PCR. The prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation was 81.5% (66 of 81 isolates). Coastal areas/foothills had higher prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation compared to highland areas (90.5% vs 71.8%) (p = 0.031). The pfcrt T76 mutation had a significant association with parasitaemia (p = 0.045). Univariate analysis shows a significant association of pfcrt T76 mutation with people aged > 10 years (OR = 9, 95% CI = 2.3 - 36.2, p = 0.001), low household income (OR = 5, 95% CI = 1.3 - 19.5, p = 0.027), no insecticide spray (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.16 - 11.86, p = 0.025) and not sleeping under insecticide treated nets (ITNs) (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.38 - 16.78, p = 0.01). Logistic regression model confirmed age > 10 years and low household income as predictors of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen P. falciparum isolates. The high prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen could be a predictive marker for the prevalence of P. falciparum CQR. This finding shows the necessity for an in-vivo therapeutic efficacy test for CQ. P. falciparum CQR should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria.

  17. High frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance marker (pfcrt T76 mutation) in Yemen: An urgent need to re-examine malaria drug policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 511 participants from four governorates in Yemen. Blood samples were screened using microscopic and species-specific nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene to detect and identify Plasmodium species. Blood samples positive for P. falciparum were used for detecting the pfcrt T76 mutation using nested-PCR. Results The prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation was 81.5% (66 of 81 isolates). Coastal areas/foothills had higher prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation compared to highland areas (90.5% vs 71.8%) (p = 0.031). The pfcrt T76 mutation had a significant association with parasitaemia (p = 0.045). Univariate analysis shows a significant association of pfcrt T76 mutation with people aged > 10 years (OR = 9, 95% CI = 2.3 - 36.2, p = 0.001), low household income (OR = 5, 95% CI = 1.3 - 19.5, p = 0.027), no insecticide spray (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.16 - 11.86, p = 0.025) and not sleeping under insecticide treated nets (ITNs) (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.38 - 16.78, p = 0.01). Logistic regression model confirmed age > 10 years and low household income as predictors of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen P. falciparum isolates. Conclusions The high prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen could be a predictive marker for the prevalence of P. falciparum CQR. This finding shows the necessity for an in-vivo therapeutic efficacy test for CQ. P. falciparum CQR should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria. PMID:21619624

  18. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon River basin and non-endemic in the extra-Amazon region, which includes areas of São Paulo state. In this state, a number of autochthonous cases of malaria occur annually, and the prevalence of subclinical infection is unknown. Asymptomatic infections may remain undetected, maintaining transmission of the pathogen, including by blood transfusion. In these report it has been described subclinical Plasmodium infection in blood donors from a blood transfusion centre in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional study, representative samples of blood were obtained from 1,108 healthy blood donors at the Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro de São Paulo, the main blood transfusion centre in São Paulo. Malaria exposure was defined by the home region (exposed: forest region; non-exposed: non-forest region). Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Subclinical malaria cases were geo-referenced. Results Eighty-four (7.41%) blood donors tested positive for Plasmodium; 57 of these were infected by P. falciparum, 25 by P. vivax, and 2 by both. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 5.14 and 2.26, respectively. The overall prevalence ratio (PR) was 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03, 5.13); P. falciparum PR was 16.11 (95% CI 5.87, 44.21) and P. vivax PR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.2, 1.12). Plasmodium falciparum subclinical malaria infection in the Atlantic Forest domain was present in the mountain regions while P. vivax infection was observed in cities from forest-surrounded areas. Conclusions The presence of Plasmodium in healthy blood donors from a region known as non-endemic, which is important in the context of transfusion biosafety, was described. Infected recipients may become asymptomatic carriers and a reservoir for parasites, maintaining their transmission. Furthermore, P. falciparum PR was positively associated with the forest environment, and P. vivax was

  19. Nuclear factor kappa B in urine sediment: a useful indicator to detect acute kidney injury in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Punsawad, Chuchard; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen

    2014-03-07

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the major complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, especially among non-immune adults. It has recently been revealed that activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) induces pro-inflammatory gene expression involved in the development of progressive renal inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether urinary sediment NF-κB p65 can act as a biomarker for AKI in patients with P. falciparum malaria. Urinary sediments from malaria patients, including Plasmodium vivax malaria, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, complicated P. falciparum malaria without AKI (serum creatinine-Cr <3 mg/dl) and complicated P. falciparum malaria with AKI (Cr ≥3 mg/dl) were used to determine NF-κB p65 level by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urinary sediments obtained from healthy controls were used as a normal baseline. Correlations between levels of urinary sediment NF-κB p65 and pertinent clinical data were analysed. Urinary sediment NF-κB p65 levels were significantly increased on the day of admission (day 0) and on day 7 post-treatment in complicated P. falciparum malaria patients with AKI, compared with those without AKI (p=0.001, p <0.001, respectively), P. vivax patients (all p <0.001) and healthy controls (all p <0.001). NF-κB p65 levels in urinary sediment cells showed a significant positive correlation with serum Cr (Day 0: rs=0.792; p <0.001, Day 7: rs=0.605; p <0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (Day 0: rs=0.839; p <0.001, Day 7: rs=0.596; p <0.001). Urinary sediment NF-κB p65 level is a useful indicator for estimating renal tubular epithelial cell damage and subsequent development of AKI among patients with P. falciparum malaria.

  20. [Therapeutic efficacy of 3 treatment protocols for non-complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Antioquia, Colombia, 2002].

    PubMed

    Blair, Silvia; López, Mary Luz; Piñeros, Juan Gabriel; Alvarez, Tania; Tobón, Alberto; Carmona, Jaime

    2003-09-01

    High resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to chloroquine poses malaria as a major public health problem in Colombia. In this context, the therapeutic response of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients to chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine/pirymethamine (SDXP) and combined therapy (SDXP/CQ) was evaluated according to the WHO/PAHO protocols of 1998. The comparisons were based on a sample of 160 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Turbo and Zaragoza (Antioquia, Colombia). Patients were randomly assigned each of the treatment categories. The results were statistically similar in each municipality. In Turbo percentage of treatment failure was 87.5%, 22.2% and 22.6% for CQ, SDXP and SDXP/CQ, respectively, whereas in Zaragoza, the corresponding treatment failure was 77.7%, 26.5% and 12.1%. During follow up, 50% of subjects with late treatment failure were asymptomatic in Turbo, while 33.3% were asymptomatic in Zaragoza. A high level of treatment failure occurred with CQ monotherapy, while SDXP and SDXP/CQ had acceptable levels of failure, i.e., below 25%. The high percentage of late treatment failure in asymptomatic patients may contribute to increased risk of persistent transmission.

  1. The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in humans: insights from splenic physiology

    PubMed Central

    Safeukui, Innocent; Deplaine, Guillaume; Brousse, Valentine; Prendki, Virginie; Thellier, Marc; Turner, Gareth D.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2011-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum infection are induced by the asexual stages of the parasite that develop inside red blood cells (RBCs). Because splenic microcirculatory beds filter out altered RBCs, the spleen can innately clear subpopulations of infected or uninfected RBC modified during falciparum malaria. The spleen appears more protective against severe manifestations of malaria in naïve than in immune subjects. The spleen-specific pitting function accounts for a large fraction of parasite clearance in artemisinin-treated patients. RBC loss contributes to malarial anemia, a clinical form associated with subacute progression, frequent splenomegaly, and relatively low parasitemia. Stringent splenic clearance of ring-infected RBCs and uninfected, but parasite-altered, RBCs, may altogether exacerbate anemia and reduce the risks of severe complications associated with high parasite loads, such as cerebral malaria. The age of the patient directly influences the risk of severe manifestations. We hypothesize that coevolution resulting in increased splenic clearance of P. falciparum–altered RBCs in children favors the survival of the host and, ultimately, sustained parasite transmission. This analysis of the RBC–spleen dynamic interactions during P falciparum infection reflects both data and hypotheses, and provides a framework on which a more complete immunologic understanding of malaria pathogenesis may be elaborated. PMID:20852127

  2. Earth Observation, Geographic Information Systems and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.; Omumbo, J.A.; Craig, M.H.; Snow, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the progress and current status of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) as currently applied to the problem of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The burden of P. falciparum malaria in SSA is first summarized and then contrasted with the paucity of accurate and recent information on the nature and extent of the disease. This provides perspective on both the global importance of the pathogen and the potential for contribution of RS and GIS techniques. The ecology of P. falciparum malaria and its major anopheline vectors in SSA is then outlined, to provide the epidemiological background for considering disease transmission processes and their environmental correlates. Because RS and GIS are recent techniques in epidemiology, all mosquito-borne diseases are considered in this review in order to convey the range of ideas, insights and innovation provided. To conclude, the impact of these initial studies is assessed and suggestions provided on how these advances could be best used for malaria control in an appropriate and sustainable manner, with key areas for future research highlighted. PMID:10997207

  3. Randomized controlled trial of levamisole hydrochloride as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitemia.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard J; Silamut, Kamolrat; Plewes, Katherine; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Ho, May; Abul Faiz, M; Rahman, Ridwanur; Hossain, Md Amir; Hassan, Mahtab U; Bin Yunus, Emran; Hoque, Gofranul; Islam, Faridul; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hanson, Josh; Schlatter, Joel; Lacey, Rachel; Eastaugh, Alison; Tarning, Joel; Lee, Sue J; White, Nicholas J; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2014-01-01

    Cytoadherence and sequestration of erythrocytes containing mature stages of Plasmodium falciparum are central to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. The oral anthelminthic drug levamisole inhibits cytoadherence in vitro and reduces sequestration of late-stage parasites in uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with quinine. Fifty-six adult patients with severe malaria and high parasitemia admitted to a referral hospital in Bangladesh were randomized to receive a single dose of levamisole hydrochloride (150 mg) or no adjuvant to antimalarial treatment with intravenous artesunate. Circulating late-stage parasites measured as the median area under the parasite clearance curves were 2150 (interquartile range [IQR], 0-28 025) parasites/µL × hour in patients treated with levamisole and 5489 (IQR, 192-25 848) parasites/µL × hour in controls (P = .25). The "sequestration ratios" at 6 and 12 hours for all parasite stages and changes in microvascular blood flow did not differ between treatment groups (all P > .40). The median time to normalization of plasma lactate (<2 mmol/L) was 24 (IQR, 12-30) hours with levamisole vs 28 (IQR, 12-36) hours without levamisole (P = .15). There was no benefit of a single-dose of levamisole hydrochloride as adjuvant to intravenous artesunate in the treatment of adults with severe falciparum malaria. Rapid parasite killing by intravenous artesunate might obscure the effects of levamisole.

  4. Earth observation, geographic information systems and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I; Omumbo, J A; Craig, M H; Snow, R W

    2000-01-01

    This review highlights the progress and current status of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) as currently applied to the problem of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The burden of P. falciparum malaria in SSA is first summarized and then contrasted with the paucity of accurate and recent information on the nature and extent of the disease. This provides perspective on both the global importance of the pathogen and the potential for contribution of RS and GIS techniques. The ecology of P. falciparum malaria and its major anopheline vectors in SSA in then outlined, to provide the epidemiological background for considering disease transmission processes and their environmental correlates. Because RS and GIS are recent techniques in epidemiology, all mosquito-borne diseases are considered in this review in order to convey the range of ideas, insights and innovation provided. To conclude, the impact of these initial studies is assessed and suggestions provided on how these advances could be best used for malaria control in an appropriate and sustainable manner, with key areas for future research highlighted.

  5. Relationship of regulatory T cells to Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptomatology in a hypoendemic region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous data have suggested that regulatory T cells (Tregs) balance protective immune responses with immune mediated pathology in malaria. This study aimed to determine to test the hypothesis that Treg proportions or absolute levels are associated with parasitaemia and malaria symptoms. Methods Treg cells were quantified by flow cytometry as CD4+ CD25+, Foxp3+, CD127low T cells. Three patient groups were assessed: patients with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria (S), subjects with asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia (AS) and uninfected control individuals (C). Results S, AS and C groups had similar absolute numbers and percentage of Tregs (3.9%, 3.5% and 3.5% respectively). Levels of parasitaemia were not associated with Treg percentage (p = 0.47). Conclusion Neither relative nor absolute regulatory T cell numbers were found to be associated with malaria-related symptomatology in this study. Immune mechanisms other than Tregs are likely to be responsible for the state of asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia in the Peruvian Amazon; but further study to explore these mechanisms is needed. PMID:24642188

  6. [Erythrocyte polymorphism in Mali: epidemiology and resistance mechanisms against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria].

    PubMed

    Doumbo, Ogobara

    2007-01-01

    Homo sapiens and Plasmodium falciparum have co-evolved since the beginning of agriculture, 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. By domesticating plants and animals, humans linked their destiny to one of the main vectors of malaria, Anopheles gambiae sl complex. The biological interaction between these three species led to exchanges of genes and biochemical processes with significant mutual influence. Humans acquired mutations with selective protective advantages against serious and fatal forms of this hemosporidiosis. This is the case of hemoglobin S, hemoglobin C, hemoglobin E, thalassemias, ovalocytosis and G6PD deficiency, among others. Many epidemiological studies published since 1949 have shown a geographic link between malaria and certain erythrocyte polymorphisms. The link with hemoglobin C was discovered only recently, in 2000, initially in Mali in the Dogon population, then in Burkina Faso. Epidemiological and molecular and cellular biology studies done in Mali and elsewhere showed that the C and S alleles, and G6PD deficiency [A-], conferred significant protection against lethal forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Molecular genetic studies, based on functional genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, provided possible explanations. Advances in molecular biology and a better understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying this protection will hopefully lead to the development of effective second- and third-generation malaria vaccines. Epidemiological and fundamental research efforts have identified some of the mechanisms by which these erythrocyte polymorphisms protect against the most lethal hematozoan parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurring four years after leaving an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Vantomme, B; Van Acker, J; Rogge, S; Ommeslag, D; Donck, J; Callens, S

    2016-04-01

    We present a case of a 52-year-old woman of Ghanaian origin who developed Plasmodium falciparum malaria 4 years after leaving Africa. She had not returned to an endemic area since. We hypothesize several possible scenarios to explain this infection, of which we believe recrudescence of P. falciparum is the most plausible. This occurred most likely as a consequence of waning immunity several years after leaving a high-transmission area. She recovered after a 3-day treatment with atovaquone/proguanil.

  8. Lactate retards the development of erythrocytic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Kenji; Hirai, Makoto; Komatsuya, Keisuke; Ono, Yasuo; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on glycolysis for its energy requirements. In glycolysis, lactate is an end product. It is therefore known that lactate accumulates in in vitro culture; however, its influence on parasite growth remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of lactate on the development of P. falciparum during in vitro culture under lactate supplementation in detail. Results revealed that lactate retarded parasite development and reduced the number of merozoites in the schizont stage. These findings suggest that lactate has the potential to affect parasite development.

  9. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites on haematological parameters in Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Squire, D S; Asmah, R H; Brown, C A; Adjei, D N; Obeng-Nkrumah, N; Ayeh-Kumi, P F

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is hyper-endemic in Ghana. Haematological alterations in the disease pathology may offer complimentary criteria to improve clinical and microscopy diagnosis. Our primary outcome was to evaluate haematological parameters in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections and report their predictive risk and diagnostic performance for malaria infections in Ghana. Haematological data, including thin and thick blood films were examined for children less than 12 years of age in a multicenter-based active case finding approach. Haematological changes were common in P. falciparum infected children and more pronounced in severe malaria cases. More so, a unit increase in parasiteamia increased the odds for severe malaria infection by 93 % [OR, 95 % CI: 1.93 (1.28-2.91); P value = 0.02]. In multivariate regression, low haemoglobin was a significant haematological change in predicting P. falciparum infections [OR, 95 % CI: 3.20 (1.26-7.09); P value = 0.001]. Low haemoglobin levels <11 g/dl was the most reliable indicator for P. falciparum infections [with a sensitivity of (64 %), specificity (71 %), positive predictive value (83 %) and likelihood ratio (2.2)]-even when evaluated in combination with leucocytosis, lymphocytopaenia and high neutrophil counts >7,500 µL. In malaria endemic settings, low haemoglobin concentration (<11 g/dl) in children with febrile illness should prompt a more diligent search for the malarial parasite to limit the misuse and abuse of anti-malarial drugs.

  10. Sterile Protective Immunity to Malaria is Associated with a Panel of Novel P. falciparum Antigens*

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Angela; Kayala, Matthew A.; Burk, Chad; Molina, Douglas M.; Freilich, Daniel A.; Richie, Thomas L.; Baldi, Pierre; Felgner, Philip L.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of an effective malaria vaccine remains a global public health priority. Less than 0.5% of the Plasmodium falciparum genome has been assessed as potential vaccine targets and candidate vaccines have been based almost exclusively on single antigens. It is possible that the failure to develop a malaria vaccine despite decades of effort might be attributed to this historic focus. To advance malaria vaccine development, we have fabricated protein microarrays representing 23% of the entire P. falciparum proteome and have probed these arrays with plasma from subjects with sterile protection or no protection after experimental immunization with radiation attenuated P. falciparum sporozoites. A panel of 19 pre-erythrocytic stage antigens was identified as strongly associated with sporozoite-induced protective immunity; 16 of these antigens were novel and 85% have been independently identified in sporozoite and/or liver stage proteomic or transcriptomic data sets. Reactivity to any individual antigen did not correlate with protection but there was a highly significant difference in the cumulative signal intensity between protected and not protected individuals. Functional annotation indicates that most of these signature proteins are involved in cell cycle/DNA processing and protein synthesis. In addition, 21 novel blood-stage specific antigens were identified. Our data provide the first evidence that sterile protective immunity against malaria is directed against a panel of novel P. falciparum antigens rather than one antigen in isolation. These results have important implications for vaccine development, suggesting that an efficacious malaria vaccine should be multivalent and targeted at a select panel of key antigens, many of which have not been previously characterized. PMID:21628511

  11. DNA Prime/Adenovirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Encoding P. falciparum CSP and AMA1 Induces Sterile Protection Associated with Cell-Mediated Immunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    Vaccination of monkeys with recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 confers protection against blood-stage malaria . Infect Immun...circumsporozoite protein partially protects healthy malaria -naive adults against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge. Infect Immun 74: 5933–5942...Ballou WR, et al. (1986) Malaria transmitted to humans by mosquitoes infected from cultured Plasmodium falciparum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 66–68. 37

  12. Role of mass drug administration in elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a consensus modelling study.

    PubMed

    Brady, Oliver J; Slater, Hannah C; Pemberton-Ross, Peter; Wenger, Edward; Maude, Richard J; Ghani, Azra C; Penny, Melissa A; Gerardin, Jaline; White, Lisa J; Chitnis, Nakul; Aguas, Ricardo; Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Stuckey, Erin M; Okiro, Emelda A; Smith, Thomas A; Okell, Lucy C

    2017-07-01

    Mass drug administration for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is recommended by WHO in some settings. We used consensus modelling to understand how to optimise the effects of mass drug administration in areas with low malaria transmission. We collaborated with researchers doing field trials to establish a standard intervention scenario and standard transmission setting, and we input these parameters into four previously published models. We then varied the number of rounds of mass drug administration, coverage, duration, timing, importation of infection, and pre-administration transmission levels. The outcome of interest was the percentage reduction in annual mean prevalence of P falciparum parasite rate as measured by PCR in the third year after the final round of mass drug administration. The models predicted differing magnitude of the effects of mass drug administration, but consensus answers were reached for several factors. Mass drug administration was predicted to reduce transmission over a longer timescale than accounted for by the prophylactic effect alone. Percentage reduction in transmission was predicted to be higher and last longer at lower baseline transmission levels. Reduction in transmission resulting from mass drug administration was predicted to be temporary, and in the absence of scale-up of other interventions, such as vector control, transmission would return to pre-administration levels. The proportion of the population treated in a year was a key determinant of simulated effectiveness, irrespective of whether people are treated through high coverage in a single round or new individuals are reached by implementation of several rounds. Mass drug administration was predicted to be more effective if continued over 2 years rather than 1 year, and if done at the time of year when transmission is lowest. Mass drug administration has the potential to reduce transmission for a limited time, but is not an effective replacement for existing

  13. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, prevalence of malaria and nutritional status of school going children in honduras.

    PubMed

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.

  14. Anti-malaria antibody-producing B cell frequencies in adults after a Plasmodium falciparum outbreak in Madagascar.

    PubMed Central

    Migot, F; Chougnet, C; Henzel, D; Dubois, B; Jambou, R; Fievet, N; Deloron, P

    1995-01-01

    The central highlands of Madagascar offer a unique opportunity to explore the malaria immune memory, as the last murderous epidemic in the study area occurred 8 years ago. Quantification of the circulating memory B lymphocytes reacting to Plasmodium falciparum was assessed among 14 Madagascans by using a limiting dilution assay, applied to the EL4 culture system, which leads to activation, proliferation and differentiation into antibody-secreting cells (ASC) of most peripheral B cells. This system allowed us to observe, without any malaria-specific restimulation, a geometric mean frequency of one anti-P. falciparum ASC among 2992 circulating B cells, except for one Madagascan who did not have any detectable ASC. A geometric mean frequency of one anti-P. falciparum ASC among 1403 was obtained for six malaria hyperimmune Cameroonians, but conversely, no anti-malaria ASC was detected in the blood of six malaria non-immune French control subjects. Anti-P. falciparum ASC frequencies and serum specific antibodies were strongly related. Our results indicate that anti-malaria ASC are still present in peripheral blood of Madagascan subjects, who have not been exposed to P. falciparum for several years. These responder B cells reflect the malaria B cell memory acquired during the last epidemic. PMID:8536368

  15. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in human malaria cases in Mali.

    PubMed

    Nabet, Cécile; Doumbo, Safiatou; Jeddi, Fakhri; Konaté, Salimata; Manciulli, Tommaso; Fofana, Bakary; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Camara, Aminata; Moore, Sandra; Ranque, Stéphane; Théra, Mahamadou A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-07-11

    In Mali, Plasmodium falciparum malaria is highly endemic and remains stable despite the implementation of various malaria control measures. Understanding P. falciparum population structure variations across the country could provide new insights to guide malaria control programmes. In this study, P. falciparum genetic diversity and population structure in regions of varying patterns of malaria transmission in Mali were analysed. A total of 648 blood isolates adsorbed onto filter papers during population surveillance surveys (December 2012-March 2013, October 2013) in four distinct sites of Mali were screened for the presence of P. falciparum via quantitative PCR (qPCR). Multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) using eight microsatellite markers was then performed on positive qPCR samples. Complete genotypes were then analysed for genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium. Of 156 qPCR-positive samples, complete genotyping of 112 samples was achieved. The parasite populations displayed high genetic diversity (mean He = 0.77), which was consistent with a high level of malaria transmission in Mali. Genetic differentiation was low (FST < 0.02), even between sites located approximately 900 km apart, thereby illustrating marked gene flux amongst parasite populations. The lack of linkage disequilibrium further revealed an absence of local clonal expansion, which was corroborated by the genotype relationship results. In contrast to the stable genetic diversity level observed throughout the country, mean multiplicity of infection increased from north to south (from 1.4 to 2.06) and paralleled malaria transmission levels observed locally. In Mali, the high level of genetic diversity and the pronounced gene flux amongst P. falciparum populations may represent an obstacle to control malaria. Indeed, results suggest that parasite populations are polymorphic enough to adapt to their host and to counteract interventions, such

  16. Evaluation of the NOW Malaria Immunochromatographic Test for Quantitative Diagnosis of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria Parasite Density

    PubMed Central

    Katakai, Yuko; Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Wilairatana, Polrat; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kano, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    The NOW® Malaria Test, an immunochromatographic test (ICT), was evaluated to determine its ability to quantitatively detect malaria parasites using 100 blood samples from Thailand, including 50 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and 50 P. vivax (Pv) infections. Intensities of the thickness of the visible bands of the positive ICT were compared with the parasite densities. In cases of Pf infection, the intensities of both HRP-2 bands (T1 bands: Pf specific bands) and aldolase bands (T2 bands: pan-Plasmodium bands) correlated with the parasite densities. The intensities of T2 bands in Pf positive samples showed better correlation with the parasite densities than the T1 bands. In the cases of Pv infection, the intensities of T2 bands were also well correlated with parasite density. These results suggest that the ICT is useful not only for rapid detection of malaria parasites but also for estimating parasite density. PMID:22438699

  17. Evaluation of the NOW Malaria Immunochromatographic Test for Quantitative Diagnosis of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria Parasite Density.

    PubMed

    Katakai, Yuko; Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Wilairatana, Polrat; Krudsood, Srivicha; Kano, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-01

    The NOW® Malaria Test, an immunochromatographic test (ICT), was evaluated to determine its ability to quantitatively detect malaria parasites using 100 blood samples from Thailand, including 50 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and 50 P. vivax (Pv) infections. Intensities of the thickness of the visible bands of the positive ICT were compared with the parasite densities. In cases of Pf infection, the intensities of both HRP-2 bands (T1 bands: Pf specific bands) and aldolase bands (T2 bands: pan-Plasmodium bands) correlated with the parasite densities. The intensities of T2 bands in Pf positive samples showed better correlation with the parasite densities than the T1 bands. In the cases of Pv infection, the intensities of T2 bands were also well correlated with parasite density. These results suggest that the ICT is useful not only for rapid detection of malaria parasites but also for estimating parasite density.

  18. Development of cultured Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage malaria cell banks for early phase in vivo clinical trial assessment of anti-malaria drugs and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, Danielle I; Liu, Xue Q; De, Sai Lata; Batzloff, Michael R; Forbes, Tanya; Davis, Christopher B; Sekuloski, Silvana; Chavchich, Marina; Chung, Wendy; Trenholme, Katharine; McCarthy, James S; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Good, Michael F

    2015-04-07

    The ability to undertake controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies for preliminary evaluation of malaria vaccine candidates and anti-malaria drug efficacy has been limited by the need for access to sporozoite infected mosquitoes, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved sporozoites or blood-stage malaria parasites derived ex vivo from malaria infected individuals. Three different strategies are described for the manufacture of clinical grade cultured malaria cell banks suitable for use in CHMI studies. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-grade Plasmodium falciparum NF54, clinically isolated 3D7, and research-grade P. falciparum 7G8 blood-stage malaria parasites were cultured separately in GMP-compliant facilities using screened blood components and then cryopreserved to produce three P. falciparum blood-stage malaria cell banks. These cell banks were evaluated according to specific criteria (parasitaemia, identity, viability, sterility, presence of endotoxin, presence of mycoplasma or other viral agents and in vitro anti-malarial drug sensitivity of the cell bank malaria parasites) to ensure they met the criteria to permit product release according to GMP requirements. The P. falciparum NF54, 3D7 and 7G8 cell banks consisted of >78% ring stage parasites with a ring stage parasitaemia of >1.4%. Parasites were viable in vitro following thawing. The cell banks were free from contamination with bacteria, mycoplasma and a broad panel of viruses. The P. falciparum NF54, 3D7 and 7G8 parasites exhibited differential anti-malarial drug susceptibilities. The P. falciparum NF54 and 3D7 parasites were susceptible to all anti-malaria compounds tested, whereas the P. falciparum 7G8 parasites were resistant/had decreased susceptibility to four compounds. Following testing, all defined release criteria were met and the P. falciparum cell banks were deemed suitable for release. Ethical approval has been obtained for administration to human volunteers. The production of cultured P

  19. Leukogram Profile and Clinical Status in vivax and falciparum Malaria Patients from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Tobón-Castaño, Alberto; Mesa-Echeverry, Esteban; Miranda-Arboleda, Andrés Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hematological alterations are frequent in malaria patients; the relationship between alterations in white blood cell counts and clinical status in malaria is not well understood. In Colombia, with low endemicity and unstable transmission for malaria, with malaria vivax predominance, the hematologic profile in malaria patients is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the leukogram in malaria patients and to analyze its alterations in relation to the clinical status. Methods. 888 leukogram profiles of malaria patients from different Colombian regions were studied: 556 with P. falciparum infection (62.6%), 313 with P. vivax infection (35.2%), and 19 with mixed infection by these species (2.1%). Results. Leukocyte counts at diagnosis were within normal range in 79% of patients and 18% had leucopenia; the most frequent alteration was lymphopenia (54%) followed by monocytosis (11%); the differential granulocyte count in 298 patients revealed eosinophilia (15%) and high basophil counts (8%). Leukocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutrophilia were associated with clinical complications. The utility of changes in leukocyte counts as markers of severity should be explored in depth. A better understanding of these hematological parameters will allow their use in prompt diagnosis of malaria complications and monitoring treatment response. PMID:26664413

  20. Leukogram Profile and Clinical Status in vivax and falciparum Malaria Patients from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Tobón-Castaño, Alberto; Mesa-Echeverry, Esteban; Miranda-Arboleda, Andrés Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hematological alterations are frequent in malaria patients; the relationship between alterations in white blood cell counts and clinical status in malaria is not well understood. In Colombia, with low endemicity and unstable transmission for malaria, with malaria vivax predominance, the hematologic profile in malaria patients is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the leukogram in malaria patients and to analyze its alterations in relation to the clinical status. Methods. 888 leukogram profiles of malaria patients from different Colombian regions were studied: 556 with P. falciparum infection (62.6%), 313 with P. vivax infection (35.2%), and 19 with mixed infection by these species (2.1%). Results. Leukocyte counts at diagnosis were within normal range in 79% of patients and 18% had leucopenia; the most frequent alteration was lymphopenia (54%) followed by monocytosis (11%); the differential granulocyte count in 298 patients revealed eosinophilia (15%) and high basophil counts (8%). Leukocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutrophilia were associated with clinical complications. The utility of changes in leukocyte counts as markers of severity should be explored in depth. A better understanding of these hematological parameters will allow their use in prompt diagnosis of malaria complications and monitoring treatment response.

  1. Identification of a Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein as a Falciparum Malaria Sequestration Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Tandon, Narendra N.; Magowan, Cathleen; Jamieson, G. A.; Chulay, Jeffrey D.

    1989-03-01

    Infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are characterized by sequestration of erythrocytes infected with mature forms of the parasite. Sequestration of infected erythrocytes appears to be critical for survival of the parasite and to mediate immunopathological abnormalities in severe malaria. A leukocyte differentiation antigen (CD36) was previously suggested to have a role in sequestration of malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 was purified from platelets, where it is known as GPIV, and was shown to be a receptor for binding of infected erythrocytes. Infected erythrocytes adhered to CD36 immobilized on plastic; purified CD36 exhibited saturable, specific binding to infected erythrocytes; and purified CD36 or antibodies to CD36 inhibited and reversed binding of infected erythrocytes to cultured endothelial cells and melanoma cells in vitro. The portion of the CD36 molecule that reverses cytoadherence may be useful therapeutically for rapid reversal of sequestration in cerebral malaria.

  2. Defining the protein interaction network of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Pain, Arnab; Ravasi, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Malaria, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, affects around 225 million people yearly and a huge international effort is directed towards combating this grave threat to world health and economic development. Considerable advances have been made in malaria research triggered by the sequencing of its genome in 2002, followed by several high-throughput studies defining the malaria transcriptome and proteome. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network seeks to trace the dynamic interactions between proteins, thereby elucidating their local and global functional relationships. Experimentally derived PPI network from high-throughput methods such as yeast two hybrid (Y2H) screens are inherently noisy, but combining these independent datasets by computational methods tends to give a greater accuracy and coverage. This review aims to discuss the computational approaches used till date to construct a malaria protein interaction network and to catalog the functional predictions and biological inferences made from analysis of the PPI network.

  3. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Parasite Survival in P. Falciparum Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-26

    falciparum. Nature 315, 347-350. 3. Van der Ploeg, L.H.T., Smits, M., Ponnudurai, T., Vermeulen, A., Meuwissen, LH.E.T., and Langsley , G . (1985...prepared by the Plasmodium cynomolgi complex Cell 48. 311-319 method of ",an der Ploeg et at (1984) Total genomic DNA was briefly Goman, M , Langsley , G ...an erythrocyte receptor Meuwissen, J H E T, and Langsley , G (1985). Chromosome-sized binding protein of P falciparum Cell 44, 689-696 DNA molecules

  4. DEFECTIVE ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION AND RETICULOCYTE RESPONSE IN ACUTE PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA-ASSOCIATED ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leowattana, Wattana; Krudsood, Srivicha; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Brittenham, Gary; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between falciparum malaria-associated anemia and serum erythropoietin (Epo) levels and reticulocyte response during acute malaria infection, 87 adults aged 18-65 years presenting with acute, uncomplicated malaria were examined on enrollment and for 28 days of follow-up. The 87 patients were divided into 2 groups: those with anemia (n = 45) and those without (n = 42). Serum samples were taken on admission (Day 0), then on Days 7, 21, and 28, to measure the reticulocyte count, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, and erythropoietin level (Epo). The absolute reticulocyte counts for the anemic patients were significantly higher than for those without anemia on Days 0, 7, 21, and 28. The serum Epo levels for the anemic patients were significantly higher than the non-anemic group only on Day 0 (44.39 ± 4.06 vs 25.91 ± 4.86 mIU/ml, p < 0.001). Inadequate Epo production was found in 31.03% (27/87) of patients on Day 0, 37.93% (33/87) on Day 7, 43.67% (38/87) on Day 21, and 39.08% (34/87) on Day 28. These results indicate defective Epo production and reticulocyte response in adult patients suffering from acute P. falciparum malaria, which differs from pediatric patients. Our findings may provide the basis for further study into the choice of therapeutic strategies to treat acute P. falciparum malaria-associated anemia with recombinant human Epo to correct refractory anemia due to malaria. PMID:19058593

  5. Multiple clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a low transmission intensity setting: exposure versus immunity.

    PubMed

    Rono, Josea; Färnert, Anna; Murungi, Linda; Ojal, John; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Guleid, Fatuma; Nyangweso, George; Wambua, Juliana; Kitsao, Barnes; Olotu, Ally; Marsh, Kevin; Osier, Faith Ha

    2015-05-13

    Epidemiological studies indicate that some children experience many more episodes of clinical malaria than their age mates in a given location. Whether this is as a result of the micro-heterogeneity of malaria transmission with some children effectively getting more exposure to infectious mosquitoes than others, or reflects a failure in the acquisition of immunity needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the determinants of increased susceptibility to clinical malaria by comparing the intensity of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and the acquisition of immunity in children at the extreme ends of the over-dispersed distribution of the incidence of clinical malaria. The study was nested within a larger cohort in an area where the intensity of malaria transmission was low. We identified children who over a five-year period experienced 5 to 16 clinical malaria episodes (children at the tail-end of the over-dispersed distribution, n = 35), remained malaria-free (n = 12) or had a single episode (n = 26). We quantified antibodies against seven Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens in plasma obtained at six cross-sectional surveys spanning these five years. We analyzed the antibody responses to identify temporal dynamics that associate with disease susceptibility. Children experiencing multiple episodes of malaria were more likely to be parasite positive by microscopy at cross-sectional surveys (X (2) test for trend 14.72 P = 0.001) and had a significantly higher malaria exposure index, than those in the malaria-free or single episode groups (Kruskal-Wallis test P = 0.009). In contrast, the five-year temporal dynamics of anti-merozoite antibodies were similar in the three groups. Importantly in all groups, antibody levels were below the threshold concentrations previously observed to be correlated with protective immunity. We conclude that in the context of a low malaria transmission setting, susceptibility to clinical malaria is not accounted

  6. Genetic diversity and gene flow of humans, Plasmodium falciparum, and Anopheles farauti s.s. of Vanuatu: inferred malaria dispersal and implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Lum, J K; Kaneko, A; Taleo, G; Amos, M; Reiff, D M

    2007-08-01

    A comparison of the patterns of gene flow within and between islands and the genetic diversities of the three species required for malaria transmission (humans, Plasmodium falciparum, and Anopheles farauti s.s.) within the model island system of Vanuatu, shows that the active dispersal of An. farauti s.s. is responsible for within island movement of parasites. In contrast, since both P. falciparum and An. farauti s.s. populations are largely restricted to islands, movement of parasites between islands is likely due to human transport. Thus, control of vectors is crucial for controlling malaria within islands, while control of human movement is essential to control malaria transmission across the archipelago.

  7. Fingerprinting the Substrate Specificity of M1 and M17 Aminopeptidases of Human Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Poreba, Marcin; McGowan, Sheena; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.; Trenholme, Katharine R.; Gardiner, Donald L.; Whisstock, James C.; To, Joyce; Salvesen, Guy S.; Dalton, John P.; Drag, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, expresses two aminopeptidases, PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP, critical to generating a free amino acid pool used by the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite for proteins synthesis, growth and development. These exopeptidases are potential targets for the development of a new class of anti-malaria drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings To define the substrate specificity of recombinant forms of these two malaria aminopeptidases we used a new library consisting of 61 fluorogenic substrates derived both from natural and unnatural amino acids. We obtained a detailed substrate fingerprint for recombinant forms of the enzymes revealing that PfM1AAP exhibits a very broad substrate tolerance, capable of efficiently hydrolyzing neutral and basic amino acids, while PfM17LAP has narrower substrate specificity and preferentially cleaves bulky, hydrophobic amino acids. The substrate library was also exploited to profile the activity of the native aminopeptidases in soluble cell lysates of P. falciparum malaria. Conclusions/Significance This data showed that PfM1AAP and PfM17LAP are responsible for majority of the aminopeptidase activity in these extracts. These studies provide specific substrate and mechanistic information important for understanding the function of these aminopeptidases and could be exploited in the design of new inhibitors to specifically target these for anti-malaria treatment. PMID:22359643

  8. Plasmodium falciparum--malaria in pregnant African immigrants often goes unrecognized.

    PubMed

    Kantele, Anu; Siikamäki, Heli; Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Laitinen, Kalevi; Rombo, Lars

    2012-12-01

    We report four cases of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant African women. They had immigrated to Finland 3 to 13 months earlier. The disease was revealed only by anemia. The diagnosis relied on blood smear which showed a parasitemia <0.2% in three cases. Medical personnel should be informed about the possibility of afebrile forms of malaria in pregnant women even months after immigration. Very low levels of parasitemia may call for a more sensitive diagnostic approach such as polymerase chain reaction. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. Non-falciparum malaria in Dakar: a confirmed case of Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Mamadou A; Badiane, Aida S; Diongue, Khadim; Deme, Awa; Lucchi, Naomi W; Gaye, Marie; Ndiaye, Tolla; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Sene, Louise K; Diop, Abdoulaye; Gaye, Amy; Ndiaye, Yaye D; Samb, Diama; Yade, Mamadou S; Ndir, Omar; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2016-08-24

    Plasmodium ovale is rarely described in Senegal. A case of clinical malaria due to P. ovale wallikeri in West Central of Senegal is reported. A 34-year-old male baker in Dakar, with no significant previous medical history, was admitted to a health clinic with fever and vomiting. Fever had been lasting for 4 days with peaks every 48 h. As monospecific Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 RDT was negative, he was treated with antibiotics. However, owing to persisting symptoms, he was referred to the emergency unit of the Youssou Mbargane Diop Hospital, Dakar, Senegal. Clinical examination found impaired general condition. All other physical examinations were normal. Laboratory tests showed anaemia (haemoglobin 11.4 g/dl), severe thrombocytopaenia (platelets 30 × 10(9)/mm(3)), leukopenia (3650/mm(3)), lymphocytopenia (650/mm(3)). Renal function was normal as indicated by creatininaemia and uraemia (11 mg/l and 0.25 g/l, respectively) and liver enzymes were slightly elevated (aspartate aminotransferase 77 UI/l and alanine aminotransferase 82 UI/l). Blood smear evaluations in Parasitology Laboratory of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital showed malaria parasites of the species P. ovale with a 0.08 % parasitaemia. Molecular confirmation was done by real time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The P. ovale infection was further analysed to species level targeting the potra gene and was identified as P. ovale wallikeri. According to the hospital's malaria treatment guidelines for severe malaria, treatment consisted of intravenous quinine at hour 0 (start of treatment) and 24 h after initial treatment, followed by artemether-lumefantrine 24 h later. A negative microscopy was noted on day 3 post-treatment and the patient reported no further symptoms. Malaria due to non-falciparum species is probably underestimated in Senegal. RDTs specific to non-falciparum species and/or pan specific RDTs should be included as tools of diagnosis to fight against malaria in Senegal. In addition

  10. Malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the northern coast of Ecuador: high prevalence of asymptomatic infections.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Fabián E; Arévalo-Cortés, Andrea; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Vallejo, Andrés F; Castellanos, Angélica; Poveda-Loayza, Andrea C; Gutierrez, Juan B; Alvarez, Alvaro; Yan, Yi Heng; Benavides, Yoldy; Castro, Luis Enrique; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-07-26

    The recent scale-up in malaria control measures in Latin America has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of reported cases in several countries including Ecuador, where it presented a low malaria incidence in recent years (558 reported cases in 2015) with occasional outbreaks of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the coastal and Amazonian regions. This success in malaria control in recent years has led Ecuador to transition its malaria policy from control to elimination. This study evaluated the general knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) about malaria, as well as its prevalence in four communities of an endemic area in northwest Ecuador. A total of 258 interviews to assess KAP in the community indicated that most people in the study area have a basic knowledge about the disease but did not use to contribute to its control. Six hundred and forty-eight blood samples were collected and analysed by thick blood smear and real-time PCR. In addition, the distribution of the infections was mapped in the study communities. Although, no parasites were found by microscopy, by PCR the total malaria prevalence was 7.5% (6.9% P. vivax and 0.6% P. falciparum), much higher than expected and comparable to that reported in endemic areas of neighbouring countries with higher malaria transmission. Serology using ELISA and immunofluorescence indicated 27% respondents for P. vivax and 22% respondents for P. falciparum. Results suggest that despite a great malaria reduction in Ecuador, transition from control to elimination would demand further improvement in malaria diagnostics, including active case detection to identify and treat parasite asymptomatic carriers, as well as community participation in its elimination.

  11. Optimization of Potent Inhibitors of P. falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase for the Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) for P. falciparum potentially represents a new treatment option for malaria, since DHODH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and P. falciparum is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. We report herein the synthesis and structure–activity relationship of a series of 5-(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-N-alkylthiophene-2-carboxamides that are potent inhibitors against PfDHODH but do not inhibit the human enzyme. On the basis of efficacy observed in three mouse models of malaria, acceptable safety pharmacology risk assessment and safety toxicology profile in rodents, lack of potential drug–drug interactions, acceptable ADME/pharmacokinetic profile, and projected human dose, 5-(4-cyano-2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-N-cyclopropylthiophene-2-carboxamide 2q was identified as a potential drug development candidate. PMID:24900364

  12. Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13: a potential molecular marker for tackling artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Mita, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Hirai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Although artemisinin combination therapies have been deployed as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in almost all endemic countries, artemisinin-resistant parasites have emerged and have gradually spread across the Greater Mekong subregions. There is growing concern that the resistant parasites may migrate to or emerge indigenously in sub-Saharan Africa, which might provoke a global increase in malaria-associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, development of molecular markers that enable identification of artemisinin resistance with high sensitivity is urgently required to combat this issue. In 2014, a potential artemisinin-resistance responsible gene, Plasmodium falciparum kelch13, was discovered. Here, we review the genetic features of P. falciparum kelch13 and discuss its related resistant mechanisms and potential as a molecular marker.

  13. NF135.C10: A New Plasmodium falciparum Clone for Controlled Human Malaria Infections

    PubMed Central

    Teirlinck, Anne C.; Roestenberg, Meta; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Scholzen, Anja; Heinrichs, Moniek J. L.; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Teelen, Karina; Vos, Martijn W.; Nganou-Makamdop, Krystelle; Borrmann, Steffen; Rozier, Yolanda P. A.; Erkens, Marianne A. A.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Sim, B. Kim Lee; van Lieshout, Lisette; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Visser, Leo G.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    We established a new field clone of Plasmodium falciparum for use in controlled human malaria infections and vaccine studies to complement the current small portfolio of P. falciparum strains, primarily based on NF54. The Cambodian clone NF135.C10 consistently produced gametocytes and generated substantial numbers of sporozoites in Anopheles mosquitoes and diverged from NF54 parasites by genetic markers. In a controlled human malaria infection trial, 3 of 5 volunteers challenged by mosquitoes infected with NF135.C10 and 4 of 5 challenged with NF54 developed parasitemia as detected with microscopy. The 2 strains induced similar clinical signs and symptoms as well as cellular immunological responses. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01002833. PMID:23186785

  14. Differences in Gene Transcriptomic Pattern of Plasmodium falciparum in Children with Cerebral Malaria and Asymptomatic Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum. PMID:25479608

  15. Differences in gene transcriptomic pattern of Plasmodium falciparum in children with cerebral malaria and asymptomatic carriers.

    PubMed

    Almelli, Talleh; Nuel, Grégory; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Aubouy, Agnès; Elati, Mohamed; Wang, Christian William; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ayissi, Georges Nko; Basco, Leonardo Kishi; Rogier, Christophe; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Deloron, Philippe; Tahar, Rachida

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of clinical malaria remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that differential gene expression contributes to phenotypic variation of parasites which results in a specific interaction with the host, leading to different clinical features of malaria. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of isolates obtained from asymptomatic carriers and patients with uncomplicated or cerebral malaria. We also investigated the transcriptomes of 3D7 clone and 3D7-Lib that expresses severe malaria associated-variant surface antigen. Our findings revealed a specific up-regulation of genes involved in pathogenesis, adhesion to host cell, and erythrocyte aggregation in parasites from patients with cerebral malaria and 3D7-Lib, compared to parasites from asymptomatic carriers and 3D7, respectively. However, we did not find any significant difference between the transcriptomes of parasites from cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria, suggesting similar transcriptomic pattern in these two parasite populations. The difference between isolates from asymptomatic children and cerebral malaria concerned genes coding for exported proteins, Maurer's cleft proteins, transcriptional factor proteins, proteins implicated in protein transport, as well as Plasmodium conserved and hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, UPs A1, A2, A3 and UPs B1 of var genes were predominantly found in cerebral malaria-associated isolates and those containing architectural domains of DC4, DC5, DC13 and their neighboring rif genes in 3D7-lib. Therefore, more investigations are needed to analyze the effective role of these genes during malaria infection to provide with new knowledge on malaria pathology. In addition, concomitant regulation of genes within the chromosomal neighborhood suggests a common mechanism of gene regulation in P. falciparum.

  16. Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Parasite Survival In P. Falciparum Malaria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-03

    DNA from (Van Der Ploeg et al., 1985: Wellems et aL, 1987). Strik- the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial ing poiymorphisms have been...and exposed Burke.D F , Carle.G.F. and Olson, MV . 1 19871 .Siucnic. 23.% 806v-812, isernilitl at 70) C with an intensifying screen. ChomnczynskiP. and

  17. Protection of Humans against Malaria by Immunization with Radiation-Attenuated Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-15

    departments of the Navy or Army. a Present affiliations: Celera Genomics , Rockville, Maryland (S.L.H.); Pe- diatric Specialty Center, Monroe, Louisiana...Stephen L. Hoffman, Biologics, Celera Genomics , 45 W. Gude Dr., Rockville, MD 20850 (stephen.hoffman@celera.com). Received 1 August 2001; revised 19...Protection of Humans against Malaria by Immunization with Radiation-Attenuated Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites Stephen L. Hoffman,1,a Lucy M. L

  18. Rapid clinical assessment to facilitate the triage of adults with falciparum malaria, a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Josh; Lee, Sue J; Mohanty, Sanjib; Faiz, M Abul; Anstey, Nicholas M; Price, Ric N; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Yunus, Emran Bin; Mishra, Saroj K; Tjitra, Emiliana; Rahman, Ridwanur; Nosten, Francois; Htut, Ye; Maude, Richard J; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2014-01-01

    Most adults dying from falciparum malaria will die within 48 hours of their hospitalisation. An essential component of early supportive care is the rapid identification of patients at greatest risk. In resource-poor settings, where most patients with falciparum malaria are managed, decisions regarding patient care must frequently be made using clinical evaluation alone. We retrospectively analysed 4 studies of 1801 adults with severe falciparum malaria to determine whether the presence of simple clinical findings might assist patient triage. If present on admission, shock, oligo-anuria, hypo- or hyperglycaemia, an increased respiratory rate, a decreased Glasgow Coma Score and an absence of fever were independently predictive of death. The variables were used to construct a simple clinical algorithm. When applied to the 1801 patients, this algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 99.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 97.8-99.9) and for survival to discharge 96.9% (95% CI 94.3-98.5). In the 712 patients receiving artesunate, the algorithm's positive predictive value for survival to 48 hours was 100% (95% CI 97.3-100) and to discharge was 98.5% (95% CI 94.8-99.8). Simple clinical findings are closely linked to the pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria in adults. A basic algorithm employing these indices can facilitate the triage of patients in settings where intensive care services are limited. Patients classified as low-risk by this algorithm can be safely managed initially on a general ward whilst awaiting senior clinical review and laboratory data.

  19. An Outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in U.S. Marines Deployed to Liberia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    falciparum malaria: World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Cluster. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 (Suppl 1) : S1 – S90 . 30. U.S. Centers...Hygiene “Good doctors are of no use without good discipline. More than half the battle against disease is not fought by doctors, but by regimental...Campaign, 1943 INTRODUCTION Military personnel frequently deploy to regions of the world endemic for tropical infectious diseases . One of the

  20. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Declining Areas of Sabah, East Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Abdul-Karim, Abass; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Jelip, Jenarun; Rundi, Christina; Imwong, Mallika; Mudin, Rose Nani; Abdullah, Noor Rain

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets. This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity level of P. falciparum isolates in malaria residual foci areas of Sabah. Malaria active case detection was conducted in Kalabakan and Kota Marudu. All individuals in the study sites were screened for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test. Blood from P. falciparum-infected individuals were collected on filter paper prior to DNA extraction. Genotyping was performed using merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2), glutamate rich protein (GLURP) and 10 neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI), mean number of alleles (Na), expected heterozygosity (He), linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genetic differentiation (FST) were determined. In Kalabakan, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly K1 and FC27 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype VI (751–800 bp) was predominant. The MOI for MSP-1 and MSP-2 were 1.65 and 1.20, respectively. The Na per microsatellite locus was 1.70. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.17, 0.37, 0.70 and 0.33, respectively. In Kota Marudu, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly MAD20 and 3D7 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype IV (651–700 bp) was predominant. The MOI for both MSP-1 and MSP-2 was 1.05. The Na per microsatellite locus was 3.60. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.24, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.30, respectively. A significant LD was observed in Kalabakan (0.495, p<0.01) and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations (0.601, p<0.01). High genetic differentiation between Kalabakan and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations was observed (FST = 0

  1. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum Populations in Malaria Declining Areas of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Sastu, Umi Rubiah; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Abdul-Karim, Abass; Muhammad, Amirrudin; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Jelip, Jenarun; Rundi, Christina; Imwong, Mallika; Mudin, Rose Nani; Abdullah, Noor Rain

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2020. Understanding the genetic diversity of malaria parasites in residual transmission foci can provide invaluable information which may inform the intervention strategies used to reach elimination targets. This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity level of P. falciparum isolates in malaria residual foci areas of Sabah. Malaria active case detection was conducted in Kalabakan and Kota Marudu. All individuals in the study sites were screened for malaria infection by rapid diagnostic test. Blood from P. falciparum-infected individuals were collected on filter paper prior to DNA extraction. Genotyping was performed using merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2), glutamate rich protein (GLURP) and 10 neutral microsatellite loci markers. The size of alleles, multiplicity of infection (MOI), mean number of alleles (Na), expected heterozygosity (He), linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genetic differentiation (FST) were determined. In Kalabakan, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly K1 and FC27 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype VI (751-800 bp) was predominant. The MOI for MSP-1 and MSP-2 were 1.65 and 1.20, respectively. The Na per microsatellite locus was 1.70. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.17, 0.37, 0.70 and 0.33, respectively. In Kota Marudu, the MSP-1 and MSP-2 alleles were predominantly MAD20 and 3D7 family types, respectively. The GLURP genotype IV (651-700 bp) was predominant. The MOI for both MSP-1 and MSP-2 was 1.05. The Na per microsatellite locus was 3.60. The He values for MSP-1, MSP-2, GLURP and neutral microsatellites were 0.24, 0.25, 0.69 and 0.30, respectively. A significant LD was observed in Kalabakan (0.495, p<0.01) and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations (0.601, p<0.01). High genetic differentiation between Kalabakan and Kota Marudu P. falciparum populations was observed (FST = 0

  2. Mass screening and treatment on the basis of results of a Plasmodium falciparum-specific rapid diagnostic test did not reduce malaria incidence in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jackie; Xu, Weiping; Msellem, Mwinyi; Vonk, Marlotte; Bergström, Beatrice; Gosling, Roly; Al-Mafazy, Abdul-Wahid; McElroy, Peter; Molteni, Fabrizio; Abass, Ali K; Garimo, Issa; Ramsan, Mahdi; Ali, Abdullah; Mårtensson, Andreas; Björkman, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal increases in malaria continue in hot spots in Zanzibar. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) may help reduce the reservoir of infection; however, it is unclear whether rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect a sufficient proportion of low-density infections to influence subsequent transmission. Two rounds of MSAT using Plasmodium falciparum-specific RDT were conducted in 5 hot spots (population, 12 000) in Zanzibar in 2012. In parallel, blood samples were collected on filter paper for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Data on confirmed malarial parasite infections from health facilities in intervention and hot spot control areas were monitored as proxy for malaria transmission. Approximately 64% of the population (7859) were screened at least once. P. falciparum prevalence, as measured by RDT, was 0.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], .1%-.3%) in both rounds, compared with PCR measured prevalences (for all species) of 2.5% (95% CI, 2.1%-2.9%) and 3.8% (95% CI, 3.2%-4.4%) in rounds 1 and 2, respectively. Two fifths (40%) of infections detected by PCR included non-falciparum species. Treatment of RDT-positive individuals (4% of the PCR-detected parasite carriers) did not reduce subsequent malaria incidence, compared with control areas. Highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tools for detection of all human malaria species are needed to make MSAT an effective strategy in settings where malaria elimination programs are in the pre-elimination phase. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Continuous peritoneal dialysis in acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Indraprasit, S; Charoenpan, P; Suvachittanont, O; Mavichak, V; Kiatboonsri, S; Tanomsup, S

    1988-03-01

    Severe falciparum malaria complicated by acute renal failure resulted in very high mortality. Ten patients with acute renal failure from falciparum malaria (infected rbc up to 80%) were continuously dialysed using Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. Five were oliguric and BUN was maintained between 60 to 80 mg/dl (21.4 to 28.6 mmol/l) by hourly 1 to 1.5 liter dialysate exchange during the acute phase. The peritoneal urea clearance (mean +/- SD) was 12.1 +/- 1.2 ml/min with urea nitrogen removal of 13.4 +/- 2.3 g/day. In nonoliguric cases dialysis was also needed for additional removal of waste products since the remaining renal function could not cope with the hypercatabolic state. Peritoneal glucose absorption (135 to 565 g/day) gave considerable caloric supply without volume load and also contributed to the prevention of hypoglycemia. Varying degree of acute respiratory failure developed in all patients with 5 cases (2 oliguric and 3 nonoliguric) progressing to pulmonary edema. Swan-Ganz catheterization and hemodynamic study suggested the role of increased capillary permeability and volume overload from endogenous water formation in the development of pulmonary complication. Continuous removal of fluid and waste products minimized these problems and may prevent the progression of respiratory failure. One patient died of severe sepsis and the other nine survived. This study showed the beneficial contribution of continuous peritoneal dialysis in the management of acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.

  4. Molecular Profile of Malaria Drug Resistance Markers of Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Chenet, Stella M; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Kelley, Julia; Lucchi, Naomi; Huber, Curtis S; Vreden, Stephen; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Adhin, Malti R

    2017-07-01

    In Suriname, an artesunate monotherapy therapeutic efficacy trial was recently conducted to evaluate partial artemisinin resistance emerging in Plasmodium falciparum We genotyped the PfK13 propeller domain of P. falciparum in 40 samples as well as other mutations proposed to be associated with artemisinin-resistant mutants. We did not find any mutations previously associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia, but we found fixed resistance mutations for chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Additionally, the PfCRT C350R mutation, associated with reversal of CQ resistance and piperaquine-selective pressure, was present in 62% of the samples. Our results from neutral microsatellite data also confirmed a high parasite gene flow in the Guiana Shield. Although recruiting participants for therapeutic efficacy studies is challenging in areas where malaria endemicity is very low due to the low number of malaria cases reported, conducting these studies along with molecular surveillance remains essential for the monitoring of artemisinin-resistant alleles and for the characterization of the population structure of P. falciparum in areas targeted for malaria elimination. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Evidence of non-Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Kédougou, Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Rachel F; Deme, Awa Bineta; Gomis, Jules F; Dieye, Baba; Durfee, Katelyn; Thwing, Julie I; Fall, Fatou B; Ba, Mady; Ndiop, Medoune; Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Yaye Die; Wirth, Dyann F; Volkman, Sarah K; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-01-03

    Expanded malaria control efforts in Sénégal have resulted in increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to identify the primary disease-causing Plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum. However, the type of RDT utilized in Sénégal does not detect other malaria-causing species such as Plasmodium ovale spp., Plasmodium malariae, or Plasmodium vivax. Consequently, there is a lack of information about the frequency and types of malaria infections occurring in Sénégal. This study set out to better determine whether species other than P. falciparum were evident among patients evaluated for possible malaria infection in Kédougou, Sénégal. Real-time polymerase chain reaction speciation assays for P. vivax, P. ovale spp., and P. malariae were developed and validated by sequencing and DNA extracted from 475 Plasmodium falciparum-specific HRP2-based RDT collected between 2013 and 2014 from a facility-based sample of symptomatic patients from two health clinics in Kédougou, a hyper-endemic region in southeastern Sénégal, were analysed. Plasmodium malariae (n = 3) and P. ovale wallikeri (n = 2) were observed as co-infections with P. falciparum among patients with positive RDT results (n = 187), including one patient positive for all three species. Among 288 negative RDT samples, samples positive for P. falciparum (n = 24), P. ovale curtisi (n = 3), P. ovale wallikeri (n = 1), and P. malariae (n = 3) were identified, corresponding to a non-falciparum positivity rate of 2.5%. These findings emphasize the limitations of the RDT used for malaria diagnosis and demonstrate that non-P. falciparum malaria infections occur in Sénégal. Current RDT used for routine clinical diagnosis do not necessarily provide an accurate reflection of malaria transmission in Kédougou, Sénégal, and more sensitive and specific methods are required for diagnosis and patient care, as well as surveillance and elimination activities. These findings have implications for other

  6. Increased Carboxyhemoglobin in Adult Falciparum Malaria is Associated With Disease Severity and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Tsin W.; Lampah, Daniel A.; Kenangalem, Enny; Tjitra, Emiliana; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 expression is increased in pediatric patients with malaria. The carboxyhemoglobin level (a measure of heme oxygenase 1 activity) has not been assessed in adult patients with malaria. Results of pulse co-oximetry revealed that the mean carboxyhemoglobin level was elevated in 29 Indonesian adults with severe falciparum malaria (10%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–13%) and in 20 with severe sepsis (8%; 95% CI, 5%–12%), compared with the mean levels in 32 patients with moderately severe malaria (7%; 95% CI, 5%–8%) and 36 controls (3.6%; 95% CI, 3%–5%; P < .001). An increased carboxyhemoglobin level was associated with an increased odds of death among patients with severe malaria (odds ratio, 1.2 per percentage point increase; 95% CI, 1.02–1.5). While also associated with severity and fatality, methemoglobin was only modestly increased in patients with severe malaria. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels during severe malaria and sepsis may exacerbate organ dysfunction by reducing oxygen carriage and cautions against the use of adjunctive CO therapy, which was proposed on the basis of mouse models. PMID:23852587

  7. Effect of meteorological variables on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in outbreak prone districts of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mercy A L

    2017-03-09

    Malaria is a public health problem caused by Plasmodium parasite and transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. Arid and semi-arid regions of western India are prone to malaria outbreaks. Malaria outbreak prone districts viz. Bikaner, Barmer and Jodhpur were selected to study the effect of meteorological variables on Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreaks for the period of 2009-2012. The data of monthly malaria cases and meteorological variables was analysed using SPSS 20v. Spearman correlation analysis was conducted to examine the strength of the relationship between meteorological variables, P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases. Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out among the meteorological variables to observe the independent effect of each independent variable on the outcome. Results indicate that malaria outbreaks have occurred in Bikaner and Barmer due to continuous rains for more than two months. Rainfall has shown to be an important predictor of malaria outbreaks in Rajasthan. P. vivax is more significantly correlated with rainfall, minimum temperature (P<0.01) and less significantly with relative humidity (P<0.05); whereas P. falciparum is significantly correlated with rainfall, relative humidity (P<0.01) and less significantly with temperature (P<0.05). The determination of the lag period for P. vivax is relative humidity and for P. falciparum is temperature. The lag period between malaria cases and rainfall is shorter for P. vivax than P. falciparum. In conclusion, the knowledge generated is not only useful to take prompt malaria control interventions but also helpful to develop better forecasting model in outbreak prone regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II causes vascular leakage and exacerbates experimental cerebral malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Priya; Balaban, Amanda E; Diamond, Michael S; Sinnis, Photini; Klein, Robyn S; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    A devastating complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria, in which vascular leakage and cerebral swelling lead to coma and often death. P. falciparum produces a protein called histidine-rich protein II (HRPII) that accumulates to high levels in the bloodstream of patients and serves as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for falciparum malaria. Using a human cerebral microvascular endothelial barrier model, we previously found that HRPII activates the endothelial cell inflammasome, resulting in decreased integrity of tight junctions and increased endothelial barrier permeability. Here, we report that intravenous administration of HRPII induced blood-brain barrier leakage in uninfected mice. Furthermore, HRPII infusion in P. berghei-infected mice increased early mortality from experimental cerebral malaria. These data support the hypothesis that HRPII is a virulence factor that contributes to cerebral malaria by compromising the integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

  9. PfEMP1-DBL1alpha amino acid motifs in severe disease states of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Normark, Johan; Nilsson, Daniel; Ribacke, Ulf; Winter, Gerhard; Moll, Kirsten; Wheelock, Craig E; Bayarugaba, Justus; Kironde, Fred; Egwang, Thomas G; Chen, Qijun; Andersson, Björn; Wahlgren, Mats

    2007-10-02

    An infection with Plasmodium falciparum may lead to severe malaria as a result of excessive binding of infected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. Vascular adhesion is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1), which is encoded for by highly polymorphic members of the var-gene family. Here, we profile var gene transcription in fresh P. falciparum trophozoites from Ugandan children with malaria through var-specific DBL1alpha-PCR amplification and sequencing. A method for subsectioning region alignments into homology areas (MOTIFF) was developed to examine collected sequences. Specific PfEMP1-DBL1alpha amino acid motifs correlated with rosetting and severe malaria, with motif location corresponding to distinct regions of receptor interaction. The method is potentially applicable to other families of variant proteins and may be useful in identifying sequence-phenotype relationships. The results suggest that certain PfEMP1 sequences are predisposed to inducing severe malaria.

  10. Proteomic Investigation of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria for Identification of Surrogate Protein Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sandipan; Renu, Durairaj; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Gollapalli, Kishore; Taur, Santosh; Jhaveri, Tulip; Dhali, Snigdha; Chennareddy, Srinivasarao; Potla, Ankit; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Srikanth, Rapole; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze alterations in the human serum proteome as a consequence of infection by malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to obtain mechanistic insights about disease pathogenesis, host immune response, and identification of potential protein markers. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with falciparum malaria (FM) (n = 20), vivax malaria (VM) (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 20) were investigated using multiple proteomic techniques and results were validated by employing immunoassay-based approaches. Specificity of the identified malaria related serum markers was evaluated by means of analysis of leptospirosis as a febrile control (FC). Compared to HC, 30 and 31 differentially expressed and statistically significant (p<0.05) serum proteins were identified in FM and VM respectively, and almost half (46.2%) of these proteins were commonly modulated due to both of the plasmodial infections. 13 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in FM compared to VM. Functional pathway analysis involving the identified proteins revealed the modulation of different vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling, complement cascades and blood coagulation in malaria. A panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models. By employing PLS-DA and other classification methods the clinical phenotypic classes (FM, VM, FC and HC) were predicted with over 95% prediction accuracy. Individual performance of three classifier proteins; haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and retinol-binding protein in diagnosis of malaria was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The discrimination of FM, VM, FC and HC groups on the basis of differentially expressed serum proteins demonstrates

  11. Proteomic investigation of falciparum and vivax malaria for identification of surrogate protein markers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandipan; Renu, Durairaj; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Gollapalli, Kishore; Taur, Santosh; Jhaveri, Tulip; Dhali, Snigdha; Chennareddy, Srinivasarao; Potla, Ankit; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Srikanth, Rapole; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze alterations in the human serum proteome as a consequence of infection by malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to obtain mechanistic insights about disease pathogenesis, host immune response, and identification of potential protein markers. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with falciparum malaria (FM) (n = 20), vivax malaria (VM) (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 20) were investigated using multiple proteomic techniques and results were validated by employing immunoassay-based approaches. Specificity of the identified malaria related serum markers was evaluated by means of analysis of leptospirosis as a febrile control (FC). Compared to HC, 30 and 31 differentially expressed and statistically significant (p<0.05) serum proteins were identified in FM and VM respectively, and almost half (46.2%) of these proteins were commonly modulated due to both of the plasmodial infections. 13 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in FM compared to VM. Functional pathway analysis involving the identified proteins revealed the modulation of different vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling, complement cascades and blood coagulation in malaria. A panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models. By employing PLS-DA and other classification methods the clinical phenotypic classes (FM, VM, FC and HC) were predicted with over 95% prediction accuracy. Individual performance of three classifier proteins; haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and retinol-binding protein in diagnosis of malaria was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The discrimination of FM, VM, FC and HC groups on the basis of differentially expressed serum proteins demonstrates the

  12. In silico identification of promiscuous scaffolds as potential inhibitors of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase for treatment of Falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Wadood, Abdul; Ghufran, Mehreen; Hassan, Syed Fahad; Khan, Huma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Rashid, Umer

    2017-12-01

    Malaria remains one of the prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PfDXR) plays a role in isoprenoid biosynthesis in the malaria parasite, making this parasite enzyme an attractive target for antimalarial drug design. Fosmidomycin is a promising DXR inhibitor, which showed safety as well as efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in clinical trials. However, due to its poor oral bioavailability and non-drug-like properties, the focus of medicinal chemists is to develop inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. This study described the computational design of new and potent inhibitors for deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and the prediction of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A complex-based pharmacophore model was generated from the complex X-ray crystallographic structure of PfDXR using MOE (Molecular Operating Environment). Furthermore, MOE-Dock was used as docking software to predict the binding modes of hits and target enzyme. Finally, 14 compounds were selected as new and potent inhibitors of PfDXR on the basis of pharmacophore mapping, docking score, binding energy and binding interactions with the active site residues of the target protein. The predicted pharmacokinetic properties showed improved permeability by efficiently crossing blood-brain barrier. While, in silico promiscuity binding data revealed that these hits also have the ability to bind with other P. falciparum drug targets. In conclusion, innovative scaffolds with novel modes of action, improved efficacy and acceptable physiochemical/pharmacokinetic properties were computationally identified.

  13. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587

  14. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study's results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species' distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures.

  15. [Establishment of early warning system of malaria in Jiangsu Province V Es- tablishment of prevention and control system of imported falciparum malaria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhou, Hua-yun; Liu, Yao-bao; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2015-08-01

    To establish a system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria in Jiangsu Prov- ince and provide the new scientific basis for the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria. The data- bases for overseas labor companies and labors in Jiangsu Province were built and the health education was conducted to the overseas labors. The "1-3-7" elimination strategy was established. A weekly reporting system for malaria case details was es- tablished. A system for screening accompanies of imported malaria patients was established. At the end of 2013, the database of companies engaged in labor export was built and1 405 companies were incorporated into the database. The time interval between the symptom onset and the first health facility visit was reduced to 3.07 days in 2013. The time interval be- tween the first health facility visit to malaria diagnosis was reduced to 1.57 days in 2013. The rate of laboratory confirmation was increased to 100% in 2013, and there was a statistically significant difference among the rates of laboratory confirmation from 2009 to 2013 (χ2 = 36.35, P < 0.05). The proportion of severe imported falciparum malaria cases was decreased to 3.15% in 2013 and there was a statistically significant difference among the proportions of severe cases from 2009 to 2013 (χ2 = 301.16, P < 0.05). No death malaria case was reported in the whole province in 2013. Jiangsu Province has built a preliminary system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of overseas imported falciparum malaria.

  16. High Antibody Responses against Plasmodium falciparum in Immigrants after Extended Periods of Interrupted Exposure to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Alfons; Nhabomba, Augusto; Casas-Vila, Núria; Puyol, Laura; Campo, Joseph J.; Manaca, Maria Nelia; Aguilar, Ruth; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Almirall, Mercè; Soler, Cristina; Muñoz, José; Bardají, Azucena; Angov, Evelina; Dutta, Sheetij; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Gascón, Joaquim; Dobaño, Carlota

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria immunity is commonly believed to wane in the absence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure, based on limited epidemiological data and short-lived antibody responses in some longitudinal studies in endemic areas. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among sub-Saharan African adults residing in Spain for 1 up to 38 years (immigrants) with clinical malaria (n=55) or without malaria (n=37), naïve adults (travelers) with a first clinical malaria episode (n=20) and life-long malaria exposed adults from Mozambique (semi-immune adults) without malaria (n=27) or with clinical malaria (n=50). Blood samples were collected and IgG levels against the erythrocytic antigens AMA-1 and MSP-142 (3D7 and FVO strains), EBA-175 and DBL-α were determined by Luminex. IgG levels against antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) were measured by flow cytometry. Results Immigrants without malaria had lower IgG levels than healthy semi-immune adults regardless of the antigen tested (P≤0.026), but no correlation was found between IgG levels and time since migration. Upon reinfection, immigrants with malaria had higher levels of IgG against all antigens than immigrants without malaria. However, the magnitude of the response compared to semi-immune adults with malaria depended on the antigen tested. Thus, immigrants had higher IgG levels against AMA-1 and MSP-142 (P≤0.015), similar levels against EBA-175 and DBL-α, and lower levels against IEs (P≤0.016). Immigrants had higher IgG levels against all antigens tested compared to travelers (P≤0.001), both with malaria. Conclusions Upon cessation of malaria exposure, IgG responses to malaria-specific antigens were maintained to a large extent, although the conservation and the magnitude of the recall response depended on the nature of the antigen. Studies on immigrant populations can shed light on the factors that determine the duration of malaria specific antibody responses and its effect on

  17. Fate of haem iron in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Timothy J; Combrinck, Jill M; Egan, Joanne; Hearne, Giovanni R; Marques, Helder M; Ntenteni, Skhumbuzo; Sewell, B Trevor; Smith, Peter J; Taylor, Dale; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Walden, Jason C

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analysis has shown that Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites contain 61+/-2% of the iron within parasitized erythrocytes, of which 92+/-6% is located within the food vacuole. Of this, 88+/-9% is in the form of haemozoin. (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that haemozoin is the only detectable iron species in trophozoites. Electron spectroscopic imaging confirms this conclusion. PMID:12033986

  18. A potential role for plasma uric acid in the endothelial pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Mita-Mendoza, Neida K; van de Hoef, Diana L; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Anderson, Jennifer M; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P; Diakite, Mahamadou; Long, Carole A; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokinemia and systemic activation of the microvascular endothelium are central to the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recently, 'parasite-derived' uric acid (UA) was shown to activate human immune cells in vitro, and plasma UA levels were associated with inflammatory cytokine levels and disease severity in Malian children with malaria. Since UA is associated with endothelial inflammation in non-malaria diseases, we hypothesized that elevated UA levels contribute to the endothelial pathology of P. falciparum malaria. We measured levels of UA and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-Selectin), thrombomodulin (sTM), tissue factor (sTF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the plasma of Malian children aged 0.5-17 years with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 487) and non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM, n = 68). In 69 of these children, we measured these same factors once when they experienced a malaria episode and twice when they were healthy (i.e., before and after the malaria transmission season). We found that levels of UA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin and sTM increase during a malaria episode and return to basal levels at the end of the transmission season (p<0.0001). Plasma levels of UA and these four endothelial biomarkers correlate with parasite density and disease severity. In children with UM, UA levels correlate with parasite density (r = 0.092, p = 0.043), sICAM-1 (r = 0.255, p<0.0001) and sTM (r = 0.175, p = 0.0001) levels. After adjusting for parasite density, UA levels predict sTM levels. Elevated UA levels may contribute to malaria pathogenesis by damaging endothelium and promoting a procoagulant state. The correlation between UA levels and parasite densities suggests that parasitized erythrocytes are one possible source of excess UA. UA-induced shedding of endothelial TM may represent a novel mechanism of malaria pathogenesis, in

  19. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum invasion ligand antibodies in a low malaria transmission region, Loreto, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is a complex process that involves two families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins. Antibodies that inhibit merozoite attachment and invasion are believed to be important in mediating naturally acquired immunity and immunity generated by parasite blood stage vaccine candidates. The hypotheses tested in this study were 1) that antibody responses against specific P. falciparum invasion ligands (EBL and PfRh) differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals living in the low-transmission region of the Peruvian Amazon and 2), such antibody responses might have an association, either direct or indirect, with clinical immunity observed in asymptomatically parasitaemic individuals. Methods ELISA was used to assess antibody responses (IgG, IgG1 and IgG3) against recombinant P. falciparum invasion ligands of the EBL (EBA-175, EBA-181, EBA-140) and PfRh families (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4 and PfRh5) in 45 individuals infected with P. falciparum from Peruvian Amazon. Individuals were classified as having symptomatic malaria (N=37) or asymptomatic infection (N=8). Results Antibody responses against both EBL and PfRh family proteins were significantly higher in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic individuals, demonstrating an association with clinical immunity. Significant differences in the total IgG responses were observed with EBA-175, EBA-181, PfRh2b, and MSP119 (as a control). IgG1 responses against EBA-181, PfRh2a and PfRh2b were significantly higher in the asymptomatic individuals. Total IgG antibody responses against PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh5, EBA-175, EBA-181 and MSP119 proteins were negatively correlated with level of parasitaemia. IgG1 responses against EBA-181, PfRh2a and PfRh2b and IgG3 response for PfRh2a were also negatively correlated with parasitaemia. Conclusions These data suggest that falciparum malaria patients who develop clinical immunity

  20. Model variations in predicting incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using 1998-2007 morbidity and meteorological data from south Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission is complex and is believed to be associated with local climate changes. However, simple attempts to extrapolate malaria incidence rates from averaged regional meteorological conditions have proven unsuccessful. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if variations in specific meteorological factors are able to consistently predict P. falciparum malaria incidence at different locations in south Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective data from 42 locations were collected including P. falciparum malaria incidence for the period of 1998-2007 and meteorological variables such as monthly rainfall (all locations), temperature (17 locations), and relative humidity (three locations). Thirty-five data sets qualified for the analysis. Ljung-Box Q statistics was used for model diagnosis, and R squared or stationary R squared was taken as goodness of fit measure. Time series modelling was carried out using Transfer Function (TF) models and univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) when there was no significant predictor meteorological variable. Results Of 35 models, five were discarded because of the significant value of Ljung-Box Q statistics. Past P. falciparum malaria incidence alone (17 locations) or when coupled with meteorological variables (four locations) was able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence within statistical significance. All seasonal AIRMA orders were from locations at altitudes above 1742 m. Monthly rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature was able to predict incidence at four, five and two locations, respectively. In contrast, relative humidity was not able to predict P. falciparum malaria incidence. The R squared values for the models ranged from 16% to 97%, with the exception of one model which had a negative value. Models with seasonal ARIMA orders were found to perform better. However, the models for predicting P. falciparum malaria incidence varied from location to location, and among

  1. Standardization of the antibody-dependent respiratory burst assay with human neutrophils and Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, David; Miura, Kazutoyo; Fay, Michael P; Williams, Andrew R; Murungi, Linda M; Shi, Jianguo; Hodgson, Susanne H; Douglas, Alexander D; Osier, Faith H; Fairhurst, Rick M; Diakite, Mahamadou; Pleass, Richard J; Long, Carole A; Draper, Simon J

    2015-09-16

    The assessment of naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria is of long-standing interest. However, the field has suffered from a paucity of in vitro assays that reproducibly measure the anti-parasitic activity induced by antibodies in conjunction with immune cells. Here we optimize the antibody-dependent respiratory burst (ADRB) assay, which assesses the ability of antibodies to activate the release of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils in response to P. falciparum blood-stage parasites. We focus particularly on assay parameters affecting serum preparation and concentration, and importantly assess reproducibility. Our standardized protocol involves testing each serum sample in singlicate with three independent neutrophil donors, and indexing responses against a standard positive control of pooled hyper-immune Kenyan sera. The protocol can be used to quickly screen large cohorts of samples from individuals enrolled in immuno-epidemiological studies or clinical vaccine trials, and requires only 6 μL of serum per sample. Using a cohort of 86 samples, we show that malaria-exposed individuals induce higher ADRB activity than malaria-naïve individuals. The development of the ADRB assay complements the use of cell-independent assays in blood-stage malaria, such as the assay of growth inhibitory activity, and provides an important standardized cell-based assay in the field.

  2. Falciparum malaria molecular drug resistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Kayembe, Jean-Marie; Situakibanza, Hippolyte; Bobanga, Thierry L; Nsibu, Célestin N; Mvumbi, Georges L; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2015-09-17

    Malaria cases were estimated to 207 million in 2013. One of the problems of malaria control is the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains that become resistant to almost all drugs available. Monitoring drug resistance is essential for early detection and subsequent prevention of the spread of drug resistance by timely changes of treatment policy. This review was performed to gather all data available on P. falciparum molecular resistance in DR Congo, as baseline for future assessments. The search for this review was undertaken using the electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar using the terms "malaria", "Congo", "resistance", "molecular", "antimalarial", "efficacy". Articles were classified based on year of collecting, year of publication, sample size and characteristics, molecular markers analysed and polymorphisms detected. Thirteen articles were included and five genes have been analysed in these studies: pfcrt, pfdhps, pfdhfr, pfmdr1 and K13-propeller. The majority of studies included were not representative of the whole country. This systematic review demonstrates the lack of molecular resistance studies in DRC. Only 13 studies were identified in almost 15 years. The MOH must implement a national surveillance system for monitoring malaria drug resistance and this surveillance should be conducted frequently and country-representative.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1(st)-2(nd) century CE southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stephanie; Prowse, Tracy L; Herring, D Ann; Klunk, Jennifer; Kuch, Melanie; Duggan, Ana T; Bondioli, Luca; Holmes, Edward C; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2016-12-05

    The historical record attests to the devastation malaria exacted on ancient civilizations, particularly the Roman Empire [1]. However, evidence for the presence of malaria during the Imperial period in Italy (1st-5th century CE) is based on indirect sources, such as historical, epigraphic, or skeletal evidence. Although these sources are crucial for revealing the context of this disease, they cannot establish the causative species of Plasmodium. Importantly, definitive evidence for the presence of malaria is now possible through the implementation of ancient DNA technology. As malaria is presumed to have been at its zenith during the Imperial period [1], we selected first or second molars from 58 adults from three cemeteries from this time: Isola Sacra (associated with Portus Romae, 1st-3rd century CE), Velia (1st-2nd century CE), and Vagnari (1st-4th century CE). We performed hybridization capture using baits designed from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of Plasmodium spp. on a prioritized subset of 11 adults (informed by metagenomic sequencing). The mtDNA sequences generated provided compelling phylogenetic evidence for the presence of P. falciparum in two individuals. This is the first genomic data directly implicating P. falciparum in Imperial period southern Italy in adults.

  4. Prevalence and clinical manifestations of malaria in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Asma, Umm-e; Taufiq, Farha; Khan, Wajihullah

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of tropical countries with an estimated 207 million cases globally. In India, there are endemic pockets of this disease, including Aligarh. Hundreds of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases with severe pathological conditions are recorded every year in this district. The aim of this study is to find out changes in liver enzymes and kidney markers. Specific diagnosis for P. falciparum and P. vivax was made by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides. Clinical symptoms were observed in both of these infections. Liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and kidney function markers, such as creatinine and urea, were estimated by standard biochemical techniques. In Aligarh district, P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections were 64%, 34%, and 2%, respectively. In case of P. falciparum infection, the incidences of anemia, splenomegaly, renal failure, jaundice, and neurological sequelae were higher compared to those in P. vivax infection. Recrudescence and relapse rates were 18% and 20% in P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, respectively. Liver dysfunctions and renal failures were more common in P. falciparum patients, particularly in elderly patients. Artesunate derivatives must, therefore, be introduced for the treatment of P. falciparum as they resist to chloroquine as well as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations.

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Manifestations of Malaria in Aligarh, India

    PubMed Central

    Asma, Umm-e; Taufiq, Farha

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of tropical countries with an estimated 207 million cases globally. In India, there are endemic pockets of this disease, including Aligarh. Hundreds of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases with severe pathological conditions are recorded every year in this district. The aim of this study is to find out changes in liver enzymes and kidney markers. Specific diagnosis for P. falciparum and P. vivax was made by microscopic examination of Giemsa stained slides. Clinical symptoms were observed in both of these infections. Liver enzymes, such as AST, ALT, and ALP, and kidney function markers, such as creatinine and urea, were estimated by standard biochemical techniques. In Aligarh district, P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections were 64%, 34%, and 2%, respectively. In case of P. falciparum infection, the incidences of anemia, splenomegaly, renal failure, jaundice, and neurological sequelae were higher compared to those in P. vivax infection. Recrudescence and relapse rates were 18% and 20% in P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, respectively. Liver dysfunctions and renal failures were more common in P. falciparum patients, particularly in elderly patients. Artesunate derivatives must, therefore, be introduced for the treatment of P. falciparum as they resist to chloroquine as well as sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combinations. PMID:25548413

  6. The spatial and temporal patterns of falciparum and vivax malaria in Perú: 1994–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Munayco, Cesar V; Escalante, Ananias A; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is the direct cause of approximately one million deaths worldwide each year, though it is both preventable and curable. Increasing the understanding of the transmission dynamics of falciparum and vivax malaria and their relationship could suggest improvements for malaria control efforts. Here the weekly number of malaria cases due to Plasmodium falciparum (1994–2006) and Plasmodium vivax (1999–2006) in Perú at different spatial scales in conjunction with associated demographic, geographic and climatological data are analysed. Methods Malaria periodicity patterns were analysed through wavelet spectral analysis, studied patterns of persistence as a function of community size and assessed spatial heterogeneity via the Lorenz curve and the summary Gini index. Results Wavelet time series analyses identified annual cycles in the incidence of both malaria species as the dominant pattern. However, significant spatial heterogeneity was observed across jungle, mountain and coastal regions with slightly higher levels of spatial heterogeneity for P. vivax than P. falciparum. While the incidence of P. falciparum has been declining in recent years across geographic regions, P. vivax incidence has remained relatively steady in jungle and mountain regions with a slight decline in coastal regions. Factors that may be contributing to this decline are discussed. The time series of both malaria species were significantly synchronized in coastal (ρ = 0.9, P < 0.0001) and jungle regions (ρ = 0.76, P < 0.0001) but not in mountain regions. Community size was significantly associated with malaria persistence due to both species in jungle regions, but not in coastal and mountain regions. Conclusion Overall, findings highlight the importance of highly refined spatial and temporal data on malaria incidence together with demographic and geographic information in improving the understanding of malaria persistence patterns associated with multiple malaria species in

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Baldeviano, G Christian; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Arrospide, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rommell V; Sánchez, Juan F; Macedo, Silvia; Conde, Silvia; Tapia, L Lorena; Salas, Carola; Gamboa, Dionicia; Herrera, Yeni; Edgel, Kimberly A; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lescano, Andrés G

    2015-05-01

    During 2010-2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998-2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Outbreak, Tumbes, Peru, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Arrospide, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rommell V.; Sánchez, Juan F.; Macedo, Silvia; Conde, Silvia; Tapia, L. Lorena; Salas, Carola; Gamboa, Dionicia; Herrera, Yeni; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2015-01-01

    During 2010–2012, an outbreak of 210 cases of malaria occurred in Tumbes, in the northern coast of Peru, where no Plasmodium falciparum malaria case had been reported since 2006. To identify the source of the parasite causing this outbreak, we conducted a molecular epidemiology investigation. Microsatellite typing showed an identical genotype in all 54 available isolates. This genotype was also identical to that of parasites isolated in 2010 in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon and closely related to clonet B, a parasite lineage previously reported in the Amazon during 1998–2000. These findings are consistent with travel history of index case-patients. DNA sequencing revealed mutations in the Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 loci, which are strongly associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and deletion of the Pfhrp2 gene. These results highlight the need for timely molecular epidemiology investigations to trace the parasite source during malaria reintroduction events. PMID:25897626

  9. [Descriptive analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an expatriate community in Yaounde-Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Nguimfack, R Ndi Kweti; Berry, A; Marchou, B

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease in Cameroon. Expatriate population is also affected by malaria risk. Many studies are published on malaria, but few are focused on the expatriate population. The objective was to describe epidemiological characteristics andmanagement ofmalaria at Plasmodium falciparum in Yaounde expatriate population. This is a retrospective analysis of all patients treated at health center of the French Embassy in Yaounde in 2013 with a diagnosis of malaria. 103 cases were recruited. Out of them, 32.7% came from the outskirts of Yaounde, 25.2% from the coastal area of Cameroon, and 20.4% from the center of Yaounde. 22 patients were hospitalized, including 6 in Emergency department. 3 deaths were reported during this period. Severe malaria cases are regularly detected in expatriate population inYaounde and preferentially patients, who are over 50 years old, long stay residents in Cameroon and they paid less attention on prevention and vector control. This study confirms the presence of urban malaria in Yaounde and the need to adopt measures including prophylaxis. To the ignorance of risk and the poor adherence to prophylactic measures, it appears important that the various embassies in northern countries have specific information to their expatriates living in endemic areas.

  10. A histological method for quantifying Plasmodium falciparum in the brain in fatal paediatric cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Milner, Danny A; Valim, Clarissa; Carr, Richard A; Chandak, Pankaj B; Fosiko, Nedson G; Whitten, Richard; Playforth, Krupa B; Seydel, Karl B; Kamiza, Steve; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E

    2013-06-07

    The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in brain microvasculature through cytoadherence to endothelium, is the hallmark of the definitive diagnosis of cerebral malaria and plays a critical role in malaria pathogenesis. The complex pathophysiology, which leads each patient to the final outcome of cerebral malaria, is multifaceted and thus, metrics to delineate specific patterns within cerebral malaria are needed to further parse patients. A method was developed for quantification utilizing counts of capillary contents (early-stage parasites, late-stage parasites and fibrin) from histological preparations of brain tissue after death, and compared it to the standard approach, in which the percentage of parasitized vessels in cross-section is determined. Within the initial cohort of 50 patients, two different observers agreed closely on the percentage of vessels parasitized, pigmented parasites and pigment globules (ICC = 0.795-0.970). Correlations between observers for correct diagnostic classification were high (Kendall's tau-b = 0.8779, Kappa = 0.8413). When these methods were applied prospectively to a second set of 50 autopsy samples, they revealed a heterogeneous distribution of sequestered parasites in the brain with pigmented parasites and pigment globules present in the cerebellum > cortex > brainstem. There was no difference in the distribution of early stages of parasites or in the percentage of vessels parasitized across the same sites. The second cohort of cases was also used to test a previously published classification and regression tree (CART) analysis; the quantitative data alone were able to accurately classify and distinguish cerebral malaria from non-cerebral malaria. Classification errors occurred within a subclassification of cerebral malaria (CM1 vs CM2). A repeat CART analysis for the second cohort generated slightly different classification rules with more accurate subclassification, although

  11. A histological method for quantifying Plasmodium falciparum in the brain in fatal paediatric cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in brain microvasculature through cytoadherence to endothelium, is the hallmark of the definitive diagnosis of cerebral malaria and plays a critical role in malaria pathogenesis. The complex pathophysiology, which leads each patient to the final outcome of cerebral malaria, is multifaceted and thus, metrics to delineate specific patterns within cerebral malaria are needed to further parse patients. Methods A method was developed for quantification utilizing counts of capillary contents (early-stage parasites, late-stage parasites and fibrin) from histological preparations of brain tissue after death, and compared it to the standard approach, in which the percentage of parasitized vessels in cross-section is determined. Results Within the initial cohort of 50 patients, two different observers agreed closely on the percentage of vessels parasitized, pigmented parasites and pigment globules (ICC = 0.795-0.970). Correlations between observers for correct diagnostic classification were high (Kendall’s tau-b = 0.8779, Kappa = 0.8413). When these methods were applied prospectively to a second set of 50 autopsy samples, they revealed a heterogeneous distribution of sequestered parasites in the brain with pigmented parasites and pigment globules present in the cerebellum > cortex > brainstem. There was no difference in the distribution of early stages of parasites or in the percentage of vessels parasitized across the same sites. The second cohort of cases was also used to test a previously published classification and regression tree (CART) analysis; the quantitative data alone were able to accurately classify and distinguish cerebral malaria from non-cerebral malaria. Classification errors occurred within a subclassification of cerebral malaria (CM1 vs CM2). A repeat CART analysis for the second cohort generated slightly different classification rules with more accurate

  12. Interferon-γ responses to Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens decrease in the absence of malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ochola, Lyticia; Ngwena, Gideon A.M.; Ayodo, George; Hodges, James S.; Noland, Gregory S.; John, Chandy C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Malaria elimination campaigns are planned or active in many countries. The effects of malaria elimination on immune responses such as antigen-specific IFN- γ responses are not well characterized. Methods IFN- γ responses to the P. falciparum antigens circumsporozoite protein, liver stage antigen-1, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein, apical membrane antigen-1, MB2, and merozoite surface protein-1 were tested by ELISA in 243 individuals in highland Kenya in April 2008, October 2008, and April 2009, after a one-year period of interrupted malaria transmission from April 2007 to March 2008. Results While one individual (0.4%) tested positive for P. falciparum by PCR inOctober 2008 and another two (0.9%) tested positive in April 2009, no clinical malaria cases were detected during weekly visits. Levels of IFN-γ to all antigens decreased significantly from April 2008 to April 2009 (all P < 0.001). Discussion Naturally acquired IFN- γ responses to P. falciparum antigensare short-lived in the absence of repeated P. falciparum infection. Even short periods of malaria interruption may significantly decrease IFN-γ responses to P. falciparum antigens. PMID:28097063

  13. Spleen volume and clinical disease manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Simon; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Moore, Christopher L; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is common in African children. Severe disease manifestations include severe malarial anemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM). In vitro studies suggest that splenic sequestration is associated with SMA and protective against CM. We sought to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographically derived spleen volume (SV), clinical manifestations and outcome. We conducted a prospective observational study of severe malaria and SV in children aged 3 months to 12 years in Eastern Uganda. An SV normogram was generated from 186 healthy controls and adjusted for total body surface area (TBSA). Children with severe P. falciparum malaria were classified according to disease phenotype, and SV z-scores were compared for cases and controls to assess the degree of spleen enlargement. One hundred and four children with severe malaria, median age 19.2 months, were enrolled; 54 were classified as having SMA and 15 with CM. Mortality was 27% in the CM group vs 1.9% in the SMA group. TBSA-adjusted SV z-scores were lower in children with CM compared to SMA (1.98 [95% CI 1.38-2.57] vs 2.73 [95% CI 2.41-3.04]; p=0.028). Mean SV z-scores were lower in children who died (1.20 [95% CI 0.14-2.25]) compared to survivors (2.58 [95% CI 2.35-2.81]); p=0.004. SV is lower in CM compared to SMA. Severe malaria with no increase in SV z-score may be associated with mortality.

  14. Alternative Protein Secretion in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Thavayogarajah, Thuvaraka; Gangopadhyay, Preetish; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja; Lingelbach, Klaus; Przyborski, Jude M.; Holder, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells, residing in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), with a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) separating the PV from the host cell cytoplasm. Here we have investigated the role of N-myristoylation and two other N-terminal motifs, a cysteine potential S-palmitoylation site and a stretch of basic residues, as the driving force for protein targeting to the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and subsequent translocation across this membrane. Plasmodium falciparum adenylate kinase 2 (Pf AK2) contains these three motifs, and was previously proposed to be targeted beyond the parasite to the PVM, despite the absence of a signal peptide for entry into the classical secretory pathway. Biochemical and microscopy analyses of PfAK2 variants tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed that these three motifs are involved in targeting the protein to the PPM and translocation across the PPM to the PV. It was shown that the N-terminal 37 amino acids of PfAK2 alone are sufficient to target and translocate GFP across the PPM. As a control we examined the N-myristoylated P. falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (PfARF1). PfARF1 was found to co-localise with a Golgi marker. To determine whether or not the putative palmitoylation and the cluster of lysine residues from the N-terminus of PfAK2 would modulate the subcellular localization of PfARF1, a chimeric fusion protein containing the N-terminus of PfARF1 and the two additional PfAK2 motifs was analysed. This chimeric protein was targeted to the PPM, but not translocated across the membrane into the PV, indicating that other features of the N-terminus of PfAK2 also play a role in the secretion process. PMID:25909331

  15. [Imported severe falciparum malaria in France in 2000-2011: epidemiological trends and the need for new treatments].

    PubMed

    Danis, Martin; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Bricaire, François; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In France malaria is monitored by the Centre National de Référence (CNR) du Paludisme (French National Malaria Reference Centre). The annual incidence of imported malaria currently ranges from 4 800 to 3 500 cases and has fallen gradually since 2000. However, the proportion of patients with severe P. falciparum malaria is increasing (2.5% in 2000, 7% in 2011), particularly among French residents from sub-Saharan Africa who neglect preventive measures. Overall mortality remains stable at 0.4%, but survival is improving in severe cases. The survival rate is higher among patients of African origin than among Europeans. Nonetheless, between 10 and 20 patients die of malaria every year in France. Two large controlled trials published in 2005 and 2010 showed that IV artesunate, a new treatment for severe falciparum malaria, is associated with a 22-38% absolute reduction in mortality relative to quinine. Artesunate is not licensed in Europe but has been available in France since May 2011 through a named-patient program controlled by the French Agency for Drug Safety [ANSM]. The first 99 patients treated with artesunate up to September 2012 experienced satisfactory efficacy and tolerability. Delayed, sometimes persistent anemia was observed in 13 patients, a rate similar to that noted in recent reports on imported malaria in Europe. This unexpected adverse effect requires further investigation. IV artesunate is now recommended as the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria in France.

  16. Randomised Trial of Chloroquine/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Gambian Children with Malaria: Impact against Multidrug-Resistant P. falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Dunyo, Samuel; Ord, Rosalynn; Hallett, Rachel; Jawara, Musa; Walraven, Gijs; Mesa, Eduardo; Coleman, Rosalind; Sowe, Maimuna; Alexander, Neal; Targett, Geoffrey A. T; Pinder, Margaret; Sutherland, Colin J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: In the Gambia, the combination of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has replaced CQ monotherapy for treatment of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. We measured the efficacy of the combination CQ/SP, and the prevalence of parasites carrying alleles associated with resistance to CQ or SP. Design: We conducted a single-blind, randomised, controlled trial to compare the efficacy of CQ/SP to that of SP or CQ alone. Setting: The study took place in the town of Farafenni and surrounding villages in the Gambia. Participants: Participants were children aged 12 mo to 10 y presenting as outpatients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Interventions: 500 children were randomised to receive CQ, SP, or CQ/SP as supervised treatment and actively followed over 28 d. Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was parasitaemia at any time during follow-up. Secondary outcomes were PCR-confirmed recrudescent infections among treatment failures, and clinical failure requiring rescue medication by day 28. Pretreatment parasite isolates from 161 patients were tested for the presence of resistance-associated genetic markers. Results: The prevalence of parasitological failure by day 28 for the CQ group was 60.3%, compared to 17.6% for SP (odds ratio [OR], 0.106; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.057–0.194; p < 0.001) and 13.9% for CQ/SP (OR versus CQ, 0.140; 95% CI, 0.078–0.250; p < 0.001). There was no difference between the SP and CQ/SP groups (OR, 1.324; 95% CI, 0.705–2.50). The projected prevalence of PCR-corrected treatment failure was 30.2, 6.06, and 3.94% in the CQ, SP, and CQ/SP groups, respectively. The pfdhfr-triple mutant and pfdhps-437G mutation were common, with prevalences of 67.4 and 51.2%, respectively. Pretreatment carriage of pfdhps-437G and of multidrug-resistant parasite genotypes was associated with treatment failure in the SP group, but not in the CQ or CQ/SP groups. Conclusions: The combination of CQ/SP was an efficacious

  17. [Evaluation of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases: the use of polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Demiraslan, Hayati; Erdoğan, Emrah; Türe, Zeynep; Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Süleyman; Metan, Gökhan

    2013-10-01

    Malaria affecting almost half of the world population continues to be an important health problem. Although domestic malaria cases have been decreasing in Turkey recently, cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum have increased due to the frequent travelling to Africa. The aims of this study were to evaluate demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings in cases with falciparum malaria who attended to our clinic in 2012-2013 period, and the impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis. Nine patients evaluated were all male with a mean age of 34.3 (age range: 18-48) years, with the history of travel to Africa. Six cases did not take prophylaxis against malaria and other three cases used insufficient time. Mean duration of symptoms after return was 18.4 (range: 1-75) days, and the patients were admitted to the clinic within a mean of 5.2 (range: 1-15) days. Two patients had leucopenia, two patients had anemia, and eight patients had thrombocytopenia on admission. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in four cases and total bilirubin levels of six cases were over upper normal limits. Definitive diagnosis of cases was performed with the detection of ring and/or gametocytes forms of the parasite in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Furthermore, samples from seven patients were studied by nested PCR by using genus (Plasmodium rPLU 1 and 5) and species (rFAL 1 and 2, rVIV 1 and 2, rMAL 1 and 2, rOVA 1 and 2) specific primers. All of these seven samples yielded positive results with primers specific for P.falciparum ssrRNA. In the treatment, arthemeter/lumefantrin and doxycycline combination was used in seven patients, while intravenous artesunate and doxycycline combination was given to two patients, resulting with complete cure. Mean duration for the resolving of fever was 3.3 days, and mean duration for clearing the parasitemia from peripheral blood was 4.9 days. Initial ALT values and the duration of fever resolution (-796; p= 0.010), as

  18. The establishment of a WHO Reference Reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Donna; Silva, Nilupa; Rigsby, Peter; Dougall, Thomas; Corran, Patrick; Bowyer, Paul W; Ho, Mei Mei

    2017-08-05

    At a World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored meeting it was concluded that there is an urgent need for a reference preparation that contains antibodies against malaria antigens in order to support serology studies and vaccine development. It was proposed that this reference would take the form of a lyophilized serum or plasma pool from a malaria-endemic area. In response, an immunoassay standard, comprising defibrinated human plasma has been prepared and evaluated in a collaborative study. A pool of human plasma from a malaria endemic region was collected from 140 single plasma donations selected for reactivity to Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite surface proteins (MSP-119, MSP-142, MSP-2 and MSP-3). This pool was defibrinated, filled and freeze dried into a single batch of ampoules to yield a stable source of naturally occurring antibodies to P. falciparum. The preparation was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a collaborative study with sixteen participants from twelve different countries. This anti-malaria human serum preparation (NIBSC Code: 10/198) was adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in October 2014, as the first WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum with an assigned arbitrary unitage of 100 units (U) per ampoule. Analysis of the reference reagent in a collaborative study has demonstrated the benefit of this preparation for the reduction in inter- and intra-laboratory variability in ELISA. Whilst locally sourced pools are regularly use for harmonization both within and between a few laboratories, the presence of a WHO-endorsed reference reagent should enable optimal harmonization of malaria serological assays either by direct use of the reference reagent or calibration of local standards against this WHO reference. The intended uses of this reference reagent, a multivalent preparation, are (1) to allow cross

  19. Malaria (Part 1): Lessons from Somalia and General Slim

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    Plasmodiumfalciparum, 1993 C h oroquine-resistant P falciparum * Chioroquine-sensitive malaria Widespread Threat most malarious areas except Africa, A Complex...in both the human host and the falciparum , P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. as attested to by the large number of mosquito. Within the human, there malariae...with P. ovale is found mainly in Africa, taking a blood meal. Sporozoites falciparum malaria, with much lower prevalence in other enter the circulation

  20. Increased Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Independent of Body Adiposity in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Controls in falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Samuel; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Eghan Jnr, Benjamin Ackon

    2016-01-01

    Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana. Also, body adiposity index, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were computed. Before and during falciparum malaria, diabetes patients exhibited higher (P < 0.05) levels of CRP and peroxides than controls but TAP and BAI were comparable (P > 0.05) between the two groups. Baseline CRP correlated positively (r = 0.341, P = 0.002) with peroxide only in the diabetic group. During malaria, TAP level in both study groups declined (P < 0.05) by 80% of their baseline levels. CRP correlated negatively (r = −0.352, P = 0.011) with TAP in the control but not the diabetic group. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria elevated inflammation and peroxidation but decreased antioxidant power independent of adiposity. This finding may have implication on cardiovascular health. PMID:27298824

  1. Molecular Investigation into a Malaria Outbreak in Cusco, Peru: Plasmodium falciparum BV1 Lineage is Linked to a Second Outbreak in Recent Times

    PubMed Central

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Chenet, Stella M.; Arrospide, Nancy; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas, Cesar; Matta, Jose Antonio; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes. PMID:26483121

  2. Deformability based sorting of red blood cells improves diagnostic sensitivity for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan; Duffy, Simon P; Matthews, Kerryn; Deng, Xiaoyan; Santoso, Aline T; Islamzada, Emel; Ma, Hongshen

    2016-02-21

    The loss of red blood cell (RBC) deformability is part of the pathology of many diseases. In malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, metabolism of hemoglobin by the parasite results in progressive reduction in RBC deformability that is directly correlated with the growth and development of the parasite. The ability to sort RBCs based on deformability therefore provides a means to isolate pathological cells and to study biochemical events associated with disease progression. Existing methods have not been able to sort RBCs based on deformability or to effectively enrich for P. falciparum infected RBCs at clinically relevant concentrations. Here, we develop a method to sort RBCs based on deformability and demonstrate the ability to enrich the concentration of ring-stage P. falciparum infected RBCs (Pf-iRBCs) by >100× from clinically relevant parasitemia (<0.01%). Deformability based sorting of RBCs is accomplished using ratchet transport through asymmetrical constrictions using oscillatory flow. This mechanism provides dramatically improved selectivity over previous biophysical methods by preventing the accumulation of cells in the filter microstructure to ensure that consistent filtration forces are applied to each cell. We show that our approach dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis performed using both microscopy and rapid diagnostic test by converting samples with difficult-to-detect parasitemia (<0.01%) into samples with easily detectable parasitemia (>0.1%).

  3. Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0034 TITLE: Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum...Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...personnel. 2. Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. cynomolgi, asexual blood stages, liver stages, high-throughput screen, drug assays

  4. Genetic and epigenetic changes in host ABCB1 influences malaria susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Sima; Rai, Ayushi; Bhat, Smitha; Sahu, Pratima K; Hande, Manjunath H; D'Souza, Sydney C; Shashikiran, Umakanth; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms such as genetic and epigenetic variations within a key gene may play a role in malarial susceptibility and response to anti-malarial drugs in the population. ABCB1 is one of the well-studied membrane transporter genes that code for the P-glycoprotein (an efflux protein) and whose effect on malaria disease predisposition and susceptibility to drugs remains to be understood. We studied the association of single nucleotide variations in human ABCB1 that influences its function in subjects with uncomplicated and complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Global DNA methylation and ABCB1 DNA promoter methylation levels were performed along with transcriptional response and protein expression in subjects with malaria and healthy controls. The rs2032582 locus was significantly associated with complicated and combined malaria groups when compared to controls (p < 0.05). Significant DNA methylation difference was noticed between case and control (p < 0.05). In addition, global DNA methylation levels of the host DNA were inversely proportional to parasitemia in individuals with Pf infection. Our study also revealed the correlation between ABCB1 DNA promoter methylation with rs1128503 and rs2032582 polymorphisms in malaria and was related to increased expression of ABCB1 protein levels in complicated malaria group (p < 0.05) when compared to uncomplicated malaria and control groups. The study provides evidence for multiple mechanisms that may regulate the role of host ABCB1 function to mediate aetiology of malaria susceptibility, prognosis and drug response. These may have clinical implications and therapeutic application for various malarial conditions.

  5. Malaria prevalence and morbidity among children reporting at health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Basco, Leonardo K; Salem, Mohamed Salem O Ahmedou; Hafid, Jamal Eddine; Marin-Jauffre, Adeline; Weddih, Abdallahi O; Briolant, Sébastien; Bogreau, Hervé; Pradines, Bruno; Rogier, Christophe; Trape, Jean-François; Boukhary, Ali O Mohamed Salem O

    2011-12-01

    Although malaria has become a serious public health problem in Mauritania since the late 1990s, few documented data on its epidemiology exist. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity of clinical malaria among children in Nouakchott. Three hundred and one febrile children, consulting at three health facilities of Nouakchott, were screened for malaria in 2009 (n=216) and 2010 (n=85). Plasmodium species identification and parasite density were determined by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and thick films and confirmed by rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR. Of 301 febrile children, 105 (34.9%) were malaria-positive by nested PCR and 87 (28.9%) by microscopy. Plasmodium vivax represented 97.1% (102/105) and P. falciparum accounted for 2.9% (3/105) of positive cases. All positive children under five years old were infected with P. vivax. The highest numbers of malaria positives were found during or shortly after the rainy season and the lowest during the dry season. Fifty-four of 105 (51.4%) malaria cases, all with P. vivax, had never travelled outside Nouakchott. Individuals belonging to the Moors ethnic group represented 97.0% of P. vivax cases. Results of the present study indicate that malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and that P. vivax is the principal causative agent. Regular surveillance is required to monitor malaria prevalence and incidence, and further measures are needed to counter the possible spread of malaria in the country. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spleen enlargement and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in two ethnic groups with different malaria susceptibility in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bereczky, S; Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Hayano, M; Granath, F; Montgomery, S M; Daou, M; Arama, C; Troye-Blomberg, M; Doumbo, O K; Färnert, A

    2006-03-01

    The high resistance to malaria in the nomadic Fulani population needs further understanding. The ability to cope with multiclonal Plasmodium falciparum infections was assessed in a cross-sectional survey in the Fulani and the Dogon, their sympatric ethnic group in Mali. The Fulani had lower parasite prevalence and densities and more prominent spleen enlargement. Spleen rates in children aged 2-9 years were 75% in the Fulani and 44% in the Dogon (P<0.001). There was no difference in number of P. falciparum genotypes, defined by merozoite surface protein 2 polymorphism, with mean values of 2.25 and 2.11 (P=0.503) in the Dogon and Fulani, respectively. Spleen rate increased with parasite prevalence, density and number of co-infecting clones in asymptomatic Dogon. Moreover, splenomegaly was increased in individuals with clinical malaria in the Dogon, odds ratio 3.67 (95% CI 1.65-8.15, P=0.003), but not found in the Fulani, 1.36 (95% CI 0.53-3.48, P=0.633). The more susceptible Dogon population thus appear to respond with pronounced spleen enlargement to asymptomatic multiclonal infections and acute disease whereas the Fulani have generally enlarged spleens already functional for protection. The results emphasize the importance of spleen function in protective immunity to the polymorphic malaria parasite.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Transcriptional Control in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Richard M.R.; Hall, Neil; Ouzounis, Christos A.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, responsible for the most deadly form of human malaria, requires specialized protein expression for survival in the mammalian host and insect vector. To identify components of processes controlling gene expression during its life cycle, the malarial genome—along with seven crown eukaryote group genomes—was queried with a reference set of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs). Following clustering on the basis of sequence similarity of the TAPs with their homologs, and together with hidden Markov model profile searches, 156 P. falciparum TAPs were identified. This represents about a third of the number of TAPs usually found in the genome of a free-living eukaryote. Furthermore, the P. falciparum genome appears to contain a low number of sequences, which are highly conserved and abundant within the kingdoms of free-living eukaryotes, that contribute to gene-specific transcriptional regulation. However, in comparison with these other eukaryotic genomes, the CCCH-type zinc finger (common in proteins modulating mRNA decay and translation rates) was found to be the most abundant in the P. falciparum genome. This observation, together with the paucity of malarial transcriptional regulators identified, suggests Plasmodium protein levels are primarily determined by posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:15256513

  8. Contrasting Transmission Dynamics of Co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum: Implications for Malaria Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Noviyanti, Rintis; Coutrier, Farah; Utami, Retno A. S.; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Tirta, Yusrifar K.; Trianty, Leily; Kusuma, Andreas; Sutanto, Inge; Kosasih, Ayleen; Kusriastuti, Rita; Hawley, William A.; Laihad, Ferdinand; Lobo, Neil; Marfurt, Jutta; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Outside of Africa, P. falciparum and P. vivax usually coexist. In such co-endemic regions, successful malaria control programs have a greater impact on reducing falciparum malaria, resulting in P. vivax becoming the predominant species of infection. Adding to the challenges of elimination, the dormant liver stage complicates efforts to monitor the impact of ongoing interventions against P. vivax. We investigated molecular approaches to inform the respective transmission dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax and how these could help to prioritize public health interventions. Methodology/ Principal Findings Genotype data generated at 8 and 9 microsatellite loci were analysed in 168 P. falciparum and 166 P. vivax isolates, respectively, from four co-endemic sites in Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Sumba and West Timor). Measures of diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure were used to gauge the transmission dynamics of each species in each setting. Marked differences were observed in the diversity and population structure of P. vivax versus P. falciparum. In Bangka, Kalimantan and Timor, P. falciparum diversity was low, and LD patterns were consistent with unstable, epidemic transmission, amenable to targeted intervention. In contrast, P. vivax diversity was higher and transmission appeared more stable. Population differentiation was lower in P. vivax versus P. falciparum, suggesting that the hypnozoite reservoir might play an important role in sustaining local transmission and facilitating the spread of P. vivax infections in different endemic settings. P. vivax polyclonality varied with local endemicity, demonstrating potential utility in informing on transmission intensity in this species. Conclusions/ Significance Molecular approaches can provide important information on malaria transmission that is not readily available from traditional epidemiological measures. Elucidation of the transmission dynamics circulating in a given

  9. In Vitro Activity of Riboflavin against the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Akompong, Thomas; Ghori, Nafisa; Haldar, Kasturi

    2000-01-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum digests hemoglobin and polymerizes the released free heme into hemozoin. This activity occurs in an acidic organelle called the food vacuole and is essential for survival of the parasite in erythrocytes. Since acidic conditions are known to enhance the auto-oxidation of hemoglobin, we investigated whether hemoglobin ingested by the parasite was oxidized and whether the oxidation process could be a target for chemotherapy against malaria. We released parasites from their host cells and separately analyzed hemoglobin ingested by the parasites from that remaining in the erythrocytes. Isolated parasites contained elevated amounts (38.5% ± 3.5%) of oxidized hemoglobin (methemoglobin) compared to levels (0.8% ± 0.2%) found in normal, uninfected erythrocytes. Further, treatment of infected cells with the reducing agent riboflavin for 24 h decreased the parasite methemoglobin level by 55%. It also inhibited hemozoin production by 50% and decreased the average size of the food vacuole by 47%. Administration of riboflavin for 48 h resulted in a 65% decrease in food vacuole size and inhibited asexual parasite growth in cultures. High doses of riboflavin are used clinically to treat congenital methemoglobinemia without any adverse side effects. This activity, in conjunction with its impressive antimalarial activity, makes riboflavin attractive as a safe and inexpensive drug for treating malaria caused by P. falciparum. PMID:10602728

  10. Within-host competition and drug resistance in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Mary; Morton, Lindsay; Duah, Nancy; Quashie, Neils; Abuaku, Benjamin; Koram, Kwadwo A; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Plucinski, Mateusz; Gutman, Julie; Lyaruu, Peter; Kachur, S Patrick; de Roode, Jacobus C; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-03-16

    Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum typically comprise multiple strains, especially in high-transmission areas where infectious mosquito bites occur frequently. However, little is known about the dynamics of mixed-strain infections, particularly whether strains sharing a host compete or grow independently. Competition between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, if it occurs, could be a crucial determinant of the spread of resistance. We analysed 1341 P. falciparum infections in children from Angola, Ghana and Tanzania and found compelling evidence for competition in mixed-strain infections: overall parasite density did not increase with additional strains, and densities of individual chloroquine-sensitive (CQS) and chloroquine-resistant (CQR) strains were reduced in the presence of competitors. We also found that CQR strains exhibited low densities compared with CQS strains (in the absence of chloroquine), which may underlie observed declines of chloroquine resistance in many countries following retirement of chloroquine as a first-line therapy. Our observations support a key role for within-host competition in the evolution of drug-resistant malaria. Malaria control and resistance-management efforts in high-transmission regions may be significantly aided or hindered by the effects of competition in mixed-strain infections. Consideration of within-host dynamics may spur development of novel strategies to minimize resistance while maximizing the benefits of control measures. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in adults with severe falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Maude, Richard James; Barkhof, Frederik; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hossain, Amir; Abul Faiz, M; Choudhury, Ehsan; Rashid, Rehnuma; Abu Sayeed, Abdullah; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Plewes, Katherine; Kingston, Hugh; Maude, Rapeephan Rattanawongnara; Silamut, Kamolrat; Day, Nicholas Philip John; White, Nicholas John; Dondorp, Arjen Mattheus

    2014-05-09

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detailed study of structural and functional changes in the brain in patients with cerebral malaria. In a prospective observational study in adult Bangladeshi patients with severe falciparum malaria, MRI findings in the brain were correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters, retinal photography and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) ultrasound (a marker of intracranial pressure). Of 43 enrolled patients, 31 (72%) had coma and 12 (28%) died. MRI abnormalities were present in 79% overall with mostly mild changes in a wide range of anatomical sites. There were no differences in MRI findings between patients with cerebral and non-cerebral or fatal and non-fatal disease. Subtle diffuse cerebral swelling was common (n = 22/43), but mostly without vasogenic oedema or raised intracranial pressure (ONSD). Also seen were focal extracellular oedema (n = 11/43), cytotoxic oedema (n = 8/23) and mildly raised brain lactate on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5/14). Abnormalities were much less prominent than previously described in Malawian children. Retinal whitening was present in 36/43 (84%) patients and was more common and severe in patients with coma. Cerebral swelling is mild and not specific to coma or death in adult severe falciparum malaria. This differs markedly from African children. Retinal whitening, reflecting heterogeneous obstruction of the central nervous system microcirculation by sequestered parasites resulting in small patches of ischemia, is associated with coma and this process is likely important in the pathogenesis.

  12. Therapy of Falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa: from Molecule to Policy

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Peter; Ward, Stephen; Snow, Robert; Breckenridge, Alasdair

    2004-01-01

    The burden of falciparum malaria remains as great as ever, and, as has probably always been the case, it is carried mainly by tropical Africa. Of the various means available for the control of malaria, the use of effective drugs remains the most important and is likely to remain so for a considerable time to come. Unfortunately, the extensive development of resistance by the parasite threatens the utility of most of the affordable classes of drug: the development of novel antimalarials has never been more urgently needed. Any attempt to understand the vast complexities of falciparum malaria in Africa requires an ability to think “from molecule to policy.” In consequence, the review ambitiously tries to examine the current pharmacopeia, the process by which new drugs are developed and the ways in which drugs are actually used, in both the formal and informal health sectors. The informal sector is particularly important in Africa, where around half of all antimalarial treatments are bought from informal outlets and taken at home without supervision by health care professionals: the potential impact of adherence on clinical outcome is discussed. Given that the full costs are carried by the patient in a large proportion of cases, the importance of drug affordability is explored. The review also discusses the splicing of new drugs into national policy. The various parameters that feed into deliberations on changes in drug policy are discussed. PMID:15258096

  13. Mitochondrial genes support a common origin of rodent malaria parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes.

    PubMed

    Blanquart, Samuel; Gascuel, Olivier

    2011-03-15

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute form of human malaria. Most recent studies demonstrate that it belongs to a monophyletic lineage specialized in the infection of great ape hosts. Several other Plasmodium species cause human malaria. They all belong to another distinct lineage of parasites which infect a wider range of primate species. All known mammalian malaria parasites appear to be monophyletic. Their clade includes the two previous distinct lineages of parasites of primates and great apes, one lineage of rodent parasites, and presumably Hepatocystis species. Plasmodium falciparum and great ape parasites are commonly thought to be the sister-group of all other mammal-infecting malaria parasites. However, some studies supported contradictory origins and found parasites of great apes to be closer to those of rodents, or to those of other primates. To distinguish between these mutually exclusive hypotheses on the origin of Plasmodium falciparum and its great ape infecting relatives, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on a data set of three mitochondrial genes from 33 to 84 malaria parasites. We showed that malarial mitochondrial genes have evolved slowly and are compositionally homogeneous. We estimated their phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. Inferred trees were checked for their robustness to the (i) site selection, (ii) assumptions of various probabilistic models, and (iii) taxon sampling. Our results robustly support a common ancestry of rodent parasites and Plasmodium falciparum's relatives infecting great apes. Our results refute the most common view of the origin of great ape malaria parasites, and instead demonstrate the robustness of a less well-established phylogenetic hypothesis, under which Plasmodium falciparum and its relatives infecting great apes are closely related to rodent parasites. This study sheds light on the evolutionary history of Plasmodium falciparum, a

  14. Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria endemic in northern Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Hoffmann, Ralf; Fazilat, Khair M; Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-12-01

    In 2002, the total malaria burden in Afghanistan was estimated to be 3 million cases annually, mainly from Takhar and Kunduz Provinces. Field investigations from 2001 to 2007 revealed a rapid resurgence of Plasmodium falciparum & P. vivax malaria, with annual incidence rates between 0.0026 & 4.39, and between 0.88 & 13.37 episodes/1,000 person years, respectively. Both diseases peaked during 2002, and then declined independently, indicating two differing modes of transmission and epidemiology. Although control campaigns against malaria tropica, transmitted by the freshwater breeder Anopheles superpictus, were successful, malaria tertiana remained endemic and associated with rice-growing areas, transmitted by the anthropophilic, endophilic or exophilic rice-field breeder, A. pulcherrimus and A. hyrcanus. P. vivax polymorph VK 247 prevailed in 90% of infected mosquito pools. Data documented anthropogenically induced increases in rice-field malaria tertiana in the rice-growing areas of northern Afghanistan and the need for further control strategies, including large-scale larval mosquito eradication in rice-growing areas.

  15. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)--a rare complication of falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Rachita, Sarangi; Satyasundar, Mahapatra; Mrutunjaya, Dash; Birakishore, Rath

    2013-06-01

    A 4-y-old girl was admitted with fever and altered sensorium. Peripheral blood smear and quantified buffy coat test showed Plasmodium falciparum infection. She received antimalarial therapy and got discharged on seventh day without any neurological deficit. Seven days later she was readmitted with fever and disorientation. Neurological examination revealed coma and decerebration. The deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated and babiniski response was positive in the right lower limb. MRI of brain revealed multifocal asymmetrical T2W/FLAIR hyperintensities in cerebral hemispheres, sub cortical white matter and midbrain. There was minimal patchy enhancement on contrast study. Any feature of grey matter involvement was not observed. The child improved remarkably after the treatment with methyl prednisolone. A follow up MRI after one year showed a complete resolution of demyelinating lesions. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) as a complication of falciparum malaria was made based on sudden onset of neurological events, MRI findings and prompt response to corticosteroid therapy.

  16. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of falciparum malaria: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif; Zia, Afaf; Gupta, N D; Bey, Afshan

    2012-05-01

    Acute gingival bleeding can occasionally be the only sign of systemic bleeding problems. The diagnosis and management of such conditions may challenge the skills of the dentist. The present report describes a case of severe, prolonged gingival bleeding in a 54-year-old woman as a consequence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. Specific highlights are focused on the management of the patient with emphasis on early diagnosis of the disease so as to improve the prognosis. This case report also stresses that medical intervention to correct the underlying aberration of hemostasis is necessary for local dental measures to successfully stop bleeding. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of systemic disease can be challenging to manage unless the underlying systemic cause is diagnosed. Therefore, the dentist must be aware of various systemic conditions that can lead to gingival bleeding. The present case report describes a patient with acute gingival bleeding secondary to Plasmodium falciparum infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Haemoglobin-E in the presence of oxidative substances from fava bean may be protective against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Kitayaporn, D; Nelson, K E; Charoenlarp, P; Pholpothi, T

    1992-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out at a community hospital in eastern Thailand in order to study the association between haemoglobin E and Plasmodium falciparum malaria; 271 P. falciparum cases and 271 controls were enrolled. After adjusting for age, sex, time since last malaria attack, history of mosquito net use, and history of fava bean consumption in the previous month, neither heterozygous nor homozygous haemoglobin E provided significant protection against P. falciparum infection, with odds ratios (OR) = 0.91 (95% confidence limits = 0.61, 1.36) and 0.78 (0.34, 1.82) respectively when compared to persons with haemoglobin A who were not consumers of fava beans. However, haemoglobin E carriers who ate fava beans were significantly protected against P. falciparum malaria with OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.76) and OR = 0.001 (0.00, 1120.59) for subjects with heterozygous and homozygous haemoglobin E, respectively. The study suggests a possible synergistic protective effect of haemoglobin E on the risk of P. falciparum malaria in subjects who have consumed fava beans.

  18. Comparative Study on Antenatal and Perinatal Outcome of Vivax and Falciparum Malaria in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Mousumi; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Banerjee, Kaushik; Choudhury, Subhendu; Sengupta, Sandip Kumar; Das, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Malaria occurring in pregnancy is associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity. In India, the problem is compounded by dual parasitological aetiology of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) and Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Aim To compare the outcome of infections by P. vivax and P. falciparum species among pregnant women in a hospital setting. Materials and Methods Pregnant women who tested positive for malaria either by microscopy of peripheral blood smear or ELISA test for double antigen were enrolled in the study. They were followed up till their delivery and discharge from hospital. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data was collected at enrolment, on event of complication and at delivery. Data was analyzed for univariate and multivariate associations. Results There were 64 pregnant women diagnosed with malaria. A total of 76.6% study subjects had vivax infection rest were infected with p. falciparum. Anaemia (84%) was the commonest complication. A total of 60.9% women had pathological placenta. Preterm delivery, low birth weight and Apgar score <7 were the adverse pregnancy outcomes which were more frequent with falciparum infection. There were three perinatal deaths. Multigravidas were at significantly higher risk for low birth weight and low Apgar score of newborn. Infection in later trimester was associated with low Apgar score. Conclusion Both types of malaria cause considerable morbidity in pregnant women. More cases occurred among primigravida but multigravida and later trimester of pregnancy had more severe disease. PMID:28274003

  19. Chloroquine/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Gambian Children with Malaria: Transmission to Mosquitoes of Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Rachel L; Dunyo, Samuel; Ord, Rosalynn; Jawara, Musa; Pinder, Margaret; Randall, Anna; Alloueche, Ali; Walraven, Gijs; Targett, Geoffrey A. T; Alexander, Neal; Sutherland, Colin J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: In the Gambia, chloroquine (CQ) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the first-line antimalarial treatment. Plasmodium falciparum parasites carrying mutations associated with resistance to each of these drugs were present in 2001 but did not cause a significant loss of therapeutic efficacy among children receiving the combination CQ/SP. We measured their effect on parasite transmission to Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Design: We conducted a single-blind, randomised, controlled trial with follow-up over 28 d. Mosquito feeding experiments were carried out 7, 10, or 14 d after treatment. Setting: The study took place in the town of Farafenni and surrounding villages in the Gambia. Participants: Participants were 500 children aged 6 mo to 10 y with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Interventions: Children were randomised to receive CQ, SP, or CQ/SP. Outcome Measures: Outcomes related to transmission were determined, including posttreatment gametocyte prevalence and density. Infectiousness was assessed by membrane-feeding A. gambiae mosquitoes with blood from 70 gametocyte-positive patients. Mutations at seven loci in four genes associated with drug resistance were measured pre- and posttreatment and in the midguts of infected mosquitoes. Results: After SP treatment, the infectiousness of gametocytes was delayed, compared to the other two treatment groups, despite comparable gametocyte densities. Among bloodmeal gametocytes and the midguts of infected mosquitoes, the presence of the four-locus multidrug-resistant haplotype TYRG (consisting of mutations pfcrt-76T, pfmdr1-86Y, pfdhfr-59R, and pfdhps-437G) was associated with significantly higher oocyst burdens after treatment with the combination CQ/SP. Conclusions: Parasites with a multidrug-resistant genotype had a substantial transmission advantage after CQ/SP treatment but did not have a significant impact on in vivo efficacy of this drug combination. Protocols that include measuring transmission

  20. Imputation-based population genetics analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Samad, Hanif; Coll, Francesc; Preston, Mark D; Ocholla, Harold; Fairhurst, Rick M; Clark, Taane G

    2015-04-01

    Whole-genome sequencing technologies are being increasingly applied to Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to identify genetic determinants of malaria pathogenesis. However, genome-wide discovery methods, such as haplotype scans for signatures of natural selection, are hindered by missing genotypes in sequence data. Poor correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum genome complicates efforts to apply established missing-genotype imputation methods that leverage off patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The accuracy of state-of-the-art, LD-based imputation methods (IMPUTE, Beagle) was assessed by measuring allelic r2 for 459 P. falciparum samples from malaria patients in 4 countries: Thailand, Cambodia, Gambia, and Malawi. In restricting our analysis to 86 k high-quality SNPs across the populations, we found that the complete-case analysis was restricted to 21k SNPs (24.5%), despite no single SNP having more than 10% missing genotypes. The accuracy of Beagle in filling in missing genotypes was consistently high across all populations (allelic r2, 0.87-0.96), but the performance of IMPUTE was mixed (allelic r2, 0.34-0.99) depending on reference haplotypes and population. Positive selection analysis using Beagle-imputed haplotypes identified loci involved in resistance to chloroquine (crt) in Thailand, Cambodia, and Gambia, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (dhfr, dhps) in Cambodia, and artemisinin (kelch13) in Cambodia. Tajima's D-based analysis identified genes under balancing selection that encode well-characterized vaccine candidates: apical merozoite antigen 1 (ama1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1). In contrast, the complete-case analysis failed to identify any well-validated drug resistance or candidate vaccine loci, except kelch13. In a setting of low LD and modest levels of missing genotypes, using Beagle to impute P. falciparum genotypes is a viable strategy for conducting accurate large-scale population genetics and

  1. Protein kinases of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: the kinome of a divergent eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Pauline; Equinet, Leila; Packer, Jeremy; Doerig, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Background Malaria, caused by the parasitic protist Plasmodium falciparum, represents a major public health problem in the developing world. The P. falciparum genome has been sequenced, which provides new opportunities for the identification of novel drug targets. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) form a large family of enzymes with crucial roles in most cellular processes; hence malarial ePKS represent potential drug targets. We report an exhaustive analysis of the P. falciparum genomic database (PlasmoDB) aimed at identifying and classifying all ePKs in this organism. Results Using a variety of bioinformatics tools, we identified 65 malarial ePK sequences and constructed a phylogenetic tree to position these sequences relative to the seven established ePK groups. Predominant features of the tree were: (i) that several malarial sequences did not cluster within any of the known ePK groups; (ii) that the CMGC group, whose members are usually involved in the control of cell proliferation, had the highest number of malarial ePKs; and (iii) that no malarial ePK clustered with the tyrosine kinase (TyrK) or STE groups, pointing to the absence of three-component MAPK modules in the parasite. A novel family of 20 ePK-related sequences was identified and called FIKK, on the basis of a conserved amino acid motif. The FIKK family seems restricted to Apicomplexa, with 20 members in P. falciparum and just one member in some other Apicomplexan species. Conclusion The considerable phylogenetic distance between Apicomplexa and other Eukaryotes is reflected by profound divergences between the kinome of malaria parasites and that of yeast or mammalian cells. PMID:15479470

  2. An open randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of two fixed dose combinations of artemesinin based combinations for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Samad, R; Rahman, M R; Yunus, E B; Hussain, M A; Arif, S M; Islam, M N; Hafiz, S A M M A; Hossain, M M; Faiz, M A

    2013-12-01

    National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) of Bangladesh has introduced Artemisinin Based Combination (ACT), Coartem(R) (Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), fixed dose combination, in the confirmed cases of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2004. Despite the reduction of mortality due to malaria, the development and spread of anti-malarial drug resistance wordwide posing a threat to the health services and will make it difficult to control malaria in Bangladesh in future. We need to have an alternative to Coartem which could be Artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) in a fixed dose combination (FDC), a cheaper altenative not yet evidenced to be effective and safe to our population. In this study we compared the efficacy and safety of Artemether + Lumefantrene (FDC, Coartem) with Artesunate +Amodiaquine tablets (100/270 mg FDC) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in three high risk multi-drug resistant malaria prevalent areas of Bangladesh. It was an open label randomized controlled trial conducted between December 2008 and November 2009 in 4 upazillas in patients over the age 12 to 60 years diagnosed as a case of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. The outcome of the cases were measured as clinical response, parasitological response, defervescence time and parasite clearance time. Drug safety was assessed by comparing the adverse events. A total of 252 cases were randomized to receive Artesunate + Amodiaquine (AA group, 147 cases) and Artemether + Lumefantrene (AL group, 106 cases), one lost to follow up at day 28 in AA group. The distribution of the cases was comparable by age, sex and study sites. Treatment success' response was observed 100% in the AL group and AA group had 99%, two failures with AA were late treatment failures and the difference was not statistically significant (p > .1). The parasitological sensitive (S) response was observed in 97% of cases in AL group and 95% in the AA group, and was not a statistically significant difference

  3. Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Determinants for Mortality.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajniti; Mishra, Om P

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Acute kidney injury (AKI) in P. falciparum malaria infection is an important morbidity in children. The purpose of the present study was done to observe the renal involvement, associated morbidities and outcome. ♦ Out of 156 patients with severe P. falciparum malaria, diagnosed on the basis of compatible clinical presentations and positive malarial parasites in the peripheral blood smear and/or histidine rich protein 2 antigen, 31 had AKI at presentation and were analyzed. ♦ Of 31 (19.9%) patients with AKI, 4 were classified at risk, 11 injury, and 16 failure stage, as per pRIFLE criteria (pediatric version of RIFLE [R = risk, I = injury, F = failure, L = loss E = end-stage kidney disease]). Mean age of children with AKI was 7.7 ± 3.2 years. A significantly higher proportion of patients with AKI had hypoglycemia (41.9%), pulmonary edema (32.2%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (29.0%) compared to those without AKI (18.4%, 4.8%, and 3.2%, respectively). Twelve patients (38.7%) required peritoneal dialysis (PD), 8 (25.8%) died, and all were in failure stage. The non-survivors had significantly higher blood urea (p = 0.005) and serum creatinine levels (p = 0.042), lower glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001), longer duration of illness (p = 0.003), and oliguria/anuria (p = 0.001) than survivors at admission. On logistic regression analysis, the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), jaundice and parasite density (≥ 3+) were found to be significant factors contributing to mortality in children with AKI. ♦ Acute kidney injury in falciparum malaria is one of the severe systemic complications. Duration of illness and presence of comorbidities adversely affected the outcome. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F.; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V.; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J.; Kim Lee Sim, B.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18–45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 104 versus 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 104 PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 104 PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes. PMID:26416102

  5. Optimizing Intradermal Administration of Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Controlled Human Malaria Infection.

    PubMed

    Lyke, Kirsten E; Laurens, Matthew B; Strauss, Kathy; Adams, Matthew; Billingsley, Peter F; James, Eric; Manoj, Anita; Chakravarty, Sumana; Plowe, Christopher V; Li, Ming Lin; Ruben, Adam; Edelman, Robert; Green, Michael; Dube, Tina J; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2015-12-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a powerful tool to evaluate malaria vaccine and prophylactic drug efficacy. Until recently CHMI was only carried out by the bite of infected mosquitoes. A parenteral method of CHMI would standardize Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) administration, eliminate the need for expensive challenge facility infrastructure, and allow for use of many P. falciparum strains. Recently, intradermal (ID) injection of aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ was shown to induce P. falciparum malaria; however, 100% infection rates were not achieved by ID injection. To optimize ID PfSPZ dosing so as to achieve 100% infection, 30 adults aged 18-45 years were randomized to one of six groups composed of five volunteers each. The parameters of dose (1 × 10(4) versus 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose per volunteer), number of injections (two versus eight), and aliquot volume per ID injection (10 μL versus 50 μL) were studied. Three groups attained 100% infection: 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 50 μL/2 doses, 1 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/2 doses, and 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ in 10 μL/8 doses. The group that received 5 × 10(4) PfSPZ total dose in eight 10 μL injections had a 100% infection rate and the shortest prepatent period (mean of 12.7 days), approaching the prepatent period for the current CHMI standard of five infected mosquitoes.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein II Compromises Brain Endothelial Barriers and May Promote Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Priya; Daniels, Brian P; Oskman, Anna; Diamond, Michael S; Klein, Robyn S; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2016-06-07

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a disease of the vascular endothelium caused by Plasmodium falciparum It is characterized by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production, and vascular leakage. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is parasite production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). Plasma HRPII is a diagnostic and prognostic marker for falciparum malaria. We demonstrate that disruption of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial barrier by P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes depends on expression of HRPII. Purified recombinant or native HRPII can recapitulate these effects. HRPII action occurs via activation of the inflammasome, resulting in decreased integrity of tight junctions and increased endothelial permeability. We propose that HRPII is a virulence factor that may contribute to cerebral malaria by compromising endothelial barrier integrity within the central nervous system. Cerebral malaria is a devastating disease. Patients have high levels of the protein HRPII in their blood. We have found that endothelial cell barriers become leaky when treated with concentrations of HRPII similar to those found in patients. This result suggests that HRPII may be important in cerebral malaria. Our finding that HRPII functions by causing inflammation suggests points of intervention for therapy or vaccination against this disease. Copyright © 2016 Pal et al.

  7. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens predict a higher risk of malaria but protection from symptoms once parasitemic.

    PubMed

    Greenhouse, Bryan; Ho, Benjamin; Hubbard, Alan; Njama-Meya, Denise; Narum, David L; Lanar, David E; Dutta, Sheetij; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; John, Chandy C

    2011-07-01

    Associations between antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens and protection against symptomatic malaria have been difficult to ascertain, in part because antibodies are potential markers of both exposure to P. falciparum and protection against disease. We measured IgG responses to P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, liver-stage antigen 1, apical-membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and merozoite surface proteins (MSP) 1 and 3, in children in Kampala, Uganda, and measured incidence of malaria before and after antibody measurement. Stronger responses to all 5 antigens were associated with an increased risk of clinical malaria (P < .01) because of confounding with prior exposure to P. falciparum. However, with use of another assessment, risk of clinical malaria once parasitemic, stronger responses to AMA-1, MSP-1, and MSP-3 were associated with protection (odds ratios, 0.34, 0.36, and 0.31, respectively, per 10-fold increase; P < .01). Analyses assessing antibodies in combination suggested that any protective effect of antibodies was overestimated by associations between individual responses and protection. Using the risk of symptomatic malaria once parasitemic as an outcome may improve detection of associations between immune responses and protection from disease. Immunoepidemiology studies designed to detect mechanisms of immune protection should integrate prior exposure into the analysis and evaluate multiple immune responses.

  8. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Antigens Predict a Higher Risk of Malaria But Protection From Symptoms Once Parasitemic

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Alan; Njama-Meya, Denise; Narum, David L.; Lanar, David E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; John, Chandy C.

    2011-01-01

    (See the article by Bejon et al, on pages 9–18, and Bousema et al, on pages 1–3.) Background. Associations between antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens and protection against symptomatic malaria have been difficult to ascertain, in part because antibodies are potential markers of both exposure to P. falciparum and protection against disease. Methods. We measured IgG responses to P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein, liver-stage antigen 1, apical-membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and merozoite surface proteins (MSP) 1 and 3, in children in Kampala, Uganda, and measured incidence of malaria before and after antibody measurement. Results. Stronger responses to all 5 antigens were associated with an increased risk of clinical malaria (P < .01) because of confounding with prior exposure to P. falciparum. However, with use of another assessment, risk of clinical malaria once parasitemic, stronger responses to AMA-1, MSP-1, and MSP-3 were associated with protection (odds ratios, 0.34, 0.36, and 0.31, respectively, per 10-fold increase; P < .01). Analyses assessing antibodies in combination suggested that any protective effect of antibodies was overestimated by associations between individual responses and protection. Conclusions. Using the risk of symptomatic malaria once parasitemic as an outcome may improve detection of associations between immune responses and protection from disease. Immunoepidemiology studies designed to detect mechanisms of immune protection should integrate prior exposure into the analysis and evaluate multiple immune responses. PMID:21628654

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Band 3 as a Possible Receptor during Invasion of Human Erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoye, Vincent C. N.; Bennett, Vann

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocyte band 3, a major membrane-spanning protein, was purified and incorporated into liposomes. These liposomes, at nanomolar concentrations of protein, inhibited invasion of human erythrocytes in vitro by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Liposomes containing human band 3 were ten times more effective in inhibiting invasion than those with pig band 3 and six times more effective than liposomes containing human erythrocyte glycophorin. Liposomes alone or liposomes containing erythrocyte glycolipids did not inhibit invasion. These results suggest that band 3 participates in the invasion process in a step involving a specific, high-affinity interaction between band 3 and some component of the parasite.

  10. Transport of lactate and pyruvate in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J L; Saliba, K J; Kirk, K

    2001-01-01

    The mature, intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is reliant on glycolysis for its energetic requirements. It produces large quantities of lactic acid, which have to be removed from the parasite's cytosol to maintain the cell's integrity and metabolic viability. Here we show that the monocarboxylates lactate and pyruvate are both transported across the parasite's plasma membrane via a H(+)/monocarboxylate symport process that is saturable and inhibited by the bioflavonoid phloretin. The results provide direct evidence for the presence at the parasite surface of a H(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter with features in common with members of the MCT (monocarboxylate transporter) family of higher eukaryotes. PMID:11311136

  11. Changing Malaria Prevalence on the Kenyan Coast since 1974: Climate, Drugs and Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Snow, Robert W; Kibuchi, Eliud; Karuri, Stella W; Sang, Gilbert; Gitonga, Caroline W; Mwandawiro, Charles; Bejon, Philip; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2015-01-01

    Progress toward reducing the malaria burden in Africa has been measured, or modeled, using datasets with relatively short time-windows. These restricted temporal analyses may miss the wider context of longer-term cycles of malaria risk and hence may lead to incorrect inferences regarding the impact of intervention. 1147 age-corrected Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence (PfPR2-10) surveys among rural communities along the Kenyan coast were assembled from 1974 to 2014. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive generalized linear mixed model was used to interpolate to 279 small areas for each of the 41 years since 1974. Best-fit polynomial splined curves of changing PfPR2-10 were compared to a sequence of plausible explanatory variables related to rainfall, drug resistance and insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use. P. falciparum parasite prevalence initially rose from 1974 to 1987, dipped in 1991-92 but remained high until 1998. From 1998 onwards prevalence began to decline until 2011, then began to rise through to 2014. This major decline occurred before ITNs were widely distributed and variation in rainfall coincided with some, but not all, short-term transmission cycles. Emerging resistance to chloroquine and introduction of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine provided plausible explanations for the rise and fall of malaria transmission along the Kenyan coast. Progress towards elimination might not be as predictable as we would like, where natural and extrinsic cycles of transmission confound evaluations of the effect of interventions. Deciding where a country lies on an elimination pathway requires careful empiric observation of the long-term epidemiology of malaria transmission.

  12. Changing Malaria Prevalence on the Kenyan Coast since 1974: Climate, Drugs and Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Robert W.; Kibuchi, Eliud; Karuri, Stella W.; Sang, Gilbert; Gitonga, Caroline W.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Bejon, Philip; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Progress toward reducing the malaria burden in Africa has been measured, or modeled, using datasets with relatively short time-windows. These restricted temporal analyses may miss the wider context of longer-term cycles of malaria risk and hence may lead to incorrect inferences regarding the impact of intervention. Methods 1147 age-corrected Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence (PfPR2-10) surveys among rural communities along the Kenyan coast were assembled from 1974 to 2014. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive generalized linear mixed model was used to interpolate to 279 small areas for each of the 41 years since 1974. Best-fit polynomial splined curves of changing PfPR2-10 were compared to a sequence of plausible explanatory variables related to rainfall, drug resistance and insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use. Results P. falciparum parasite prevalence initially rose from 1974 to 1987, dipped in 1991–92 but remained high until 1998. From 1998 onwards prevalence began to decline until 2011, then began to rise through to 2014. This major decline occurred before ITNs were widely distributed and variation in rainfall coincided with some, but not all, short-term transmission cycles. Emerging resistance to chloroquine and introduction of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine provided plausible explanations for the rise and fall of malaria transmission along the Kenyan coast. Conclusions Progress towards elimination might not be as predictable as we would like, where natural and extrinsic cycles of transmission confound evaluations of the effect of interventions. Deciding where a country lies on an elimination pathway requires careful empiric observation of the long-term epidemiology of malaria transmission. PMID:26107772

  13. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in infants under 5 kg: retrospective surveillance of hospital records in five sub-saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Alao, Maroufou J; Gbadoé, Adama D; Meremikwu, Martin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Tiono, Alfred B; Cousin, Marc; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the disease burden, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in neonates and infants weighing <5 kg in five sub-Saharan African countries. Pediatric hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for relevant cases. Details of clinical features, treatment and clinical outcomes were collected, and a descriptive analysis of data was carried out. The annual number of malaria cases ranged from 12 to 120 cases across hospitals and calendar years. The most frequent reason for seeking care was fever. Parasite density was low. Quinine was the most common treatment, followed by artemisinin-based combination therapy. The majority of patients recovered from their illness following treatment. Plasmodium falciparum malaria exists in this subpopulation. Further epidemiological data are needed to estimate malaria morbidity and mortality in young infants. Moreover, clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this subpopulation is warranted.

  14. Estimating Individual Exposure to Malaria Using Local Prevalence of Malaria Infection in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Olotu, Ally; Fegan, Gregory; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Ogada, Edna; Drakeley, Chris; Marsh, Kevin; Bejon, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity in malaria exposure complicates survival analyses of vaccine efficacy trials and confounds the association between immune correlates of protection and malaria infection in longitudinal studies. Analysis may be facilitated by taking into account the variability in individual exposure levels, but it is unclear how exposure can be estimated at an individual level. Method and Findings We studied three cohorts (Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya) in Kilifi District, Kenya to assess measures of malaria exposure. Prospective data were available on malaria episodes, geospatial coordinates, proximity to infected and uninfected individuals and residence in predefined malaria hotspots for 2,425 individuals. Antibody levels to the malaria antigens AMA1 and MSP1142 were available for 291 children from Junju. We calculated distance-weighted local prevalence of malaria infection within 1 km radius as a marker of individual's malaria exposure. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression model to assess the discriminatory power of these markers for malaria infection (i.e. asymptomatic parasitaemia or clinical malaria). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the discriminatory power of the models. Local malaria prevalence within 1 km radius and AMA1 and MSP1142 antibodies levels were independently associated with malaria infection. Weighted local malaria prevalence had an area under ROC curve of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66–0.73), 0.71 (95%CI: 0.69–0.73) and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.80–0.83) among cohorts in Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya respectively. In a small subset of children from Junju, a model incorporating weighted local malaria prevalence with AMA1 and MSP1142 antibody levels provided an AUC of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79–0.88). Conclusion We have proposed an approach to estimating the intensity of an individual's malaria exposure in the field. The weighted local malaria prevalence can be used as individual marker of malaria

  15. High-Dose Chloroquine for Treatment of Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Bergqvist, Yngve; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2016-04-15

    Due to development of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum new antimalarial therapies are needed. In Guinea-Bissau, routinely used triple standard-dose chloroquine remained effective for decades despite the existence of "chloroquine-resistant" P. falciparum. This study aimed to determine the in vivo efficacy of higher chloroquine concentrations against P. falciparum with resistance-conferring genotypes. Standard or double-dose chloroquine was given to 892 children aged <15 years with uncomplicated malaria during 3 clinical trials (2001-2008) with ≥ 35 days follow-up. The P. falciparum resistance-conferring genotype (pfcrt 76T) and day 7 chloroquine concentrations were determined. Data were divided into age groups (<5, 5-9, and 10-14 years) because concentrations increase with age when chloroquine is prescribed according to body weight. Adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 14%, 38%, and 39% after standard-dose and 66%, 84%, and 91% after double-dose chloroquine in children aged <5, 5-9, and 10-14 years, respectively, and infected with P. falciparum genotypes conferring chloroquine resistance (n = 195, P < .001). In parallel, median chloroquine concentrations were 471, 688, and 809 nmol/L for standard-dose and 1040, 1494, and 1585 nmol/L for double-dose chloroquine. Chloroquine resistance is dose dependent and can be overcome by higher, still well-tolerated doses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Artemether–lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meyer, Christian G

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization strongly recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in endemic areas. Among the combinations of compounds that are available at present, excellent results have been obtained for the artemisinin derivative artemether, in a combination galenic preparation with lumefantrine (artemether–lumefantrine, AL). Here, the pharmacological properties and the therapeutic options of both substances are briefly reviewed and a cursory overview is given on recent trials that have compared the therapeutic effects of AL in the standard 6-dose regimen with other antimalarials and combinations. In order to ensure the most achievable and reliable adherence and compliance of children in the treatment of malaria, a dispersible formulation of AL is now attainable. Recent reports on the emergence of resistance to ACT regimens in Asia, however, are alarming. PMID:19851528

  18. Epidemiology of seasonal falciparum malaria in an urban area of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, J.; Jancloes, M.; Van de Velden, L.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-month longitudinal survey was carried out to examine entomological and parasitological aspects of human malaria transmission in Pikine, a city located in the Sudan savanna zone on the Cap Vert peninsula in the west of Senegal. The anopheline population was sampled twice weekly indoors by night human bait capture. During the same period, thick and thin blood films were collected from 296 children at 2-month intervals. Anopheles arabiensis was the only species responsible for transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite rate showed a positive correlation with both the entomological inoculation rate and the vectorial capacity. In Pikine, malaria is epidemic and probably unstable, and the population enjoys a variable degree of immunity. PMID:6360402

  19. Associations Between Responses to the Rhoptry-Associated Membrane Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and Immunity to Malaria Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    measuring antibody responses were five recombinant RAMA fragments and the C-terminal region of RhopH3 (Ag44) (5), expressed as glutathione S - transferase ...Plasmodium falciparum malaria is responsible for 2 million deaths each year. With the increasing resistance of Plasmo- dium parasites to antimalarial drugs...would be valuable. The life cycle of malaria parasites is quite complex and provides a number of potential vaccine targets. Several proteins expressed

  20. Sustained High Cure Rate of Artemether-Lumefantrine against Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria after 8 Years of Its Wide-Scale Use in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwaiswelo, Richard; Ngasala, Billy; Gil, J Pedro; Malmberg, Maja; Jovel, Irina; Xu, Weiping; Premji, Zul; Mmbando, Bruno P; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the temporal trend of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) cure rate after 8 years of its wide-scale use for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from 2006 to 2014 in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. Trend analysis was performed for four studies conducted in 2006, 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014. Patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled, treated with standard AL regimen and followed-up for 3 (2006), 28 (2014), 42 (2012-2013), or 56 (2007-2008) days for clinical and laboratory evaluation. Primary outcome was day 28 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted cure rate across years from 2007 to 2014. Parasite clearance was slower for the 2006 and 2007-2008 cohorts with less than 50% of patients cleared of parasitemia on day 1, but was rapid for the 2012-2013 and 2014 cohorts. Day 28 PCR-adjusted cure rate was 168/170 (98.8%) (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.2-100), 122/127 (96.1%) (95% CI, 92.6-99.5), and 206/207 (99.5%) (95% CI, 98.6-100) in 2007-2008, 2012-2013, and 2014, respectively. There was no significant change in the trend of cure rate between 2007 and 2014 (χ(2)trend test = 0.06, P = 0.90). Pretreatment P. falciparum multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr1) N86 prevalence increased significantly across years from 13/48 (27.1%) in 2006 to 183/213 (85.9%) in 2014 (P < 0.001), and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) K76 prevalence increased significantly from 24/47 (51.1%) in 2006 to 198/205 (96.6%) in 2014 (P < 0.001). The AL cure rate remained high after 8 years of its wide-scale use in Bagamoyo district for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria despite an increase in prevalence of pretreatment Pfmdr1 N86 and Pfcrt K76 between 2006 and 2014.

  1. Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia on the imunohematological indices among school children and adolescents in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP) has been reported to be highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily burdened by malaria, yet, the impact of APFP on the immunological reference values have not yet been established. This study was aimed at i) determine the prevalence of APFP in children and adolescents living in a region highly endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and its impact on the immuno-hematological indices and ii) determine the factors independently associated with APFP. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique during the dry season. Apparently healthy children and adolescents were selected for the study. Results Blood samples were collected from 348 participants. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 56.5% (194/343) of study subjects. APFP was more frequent in males and was associated with lower values of hemoglobin and platelets measurements. Parasitized and not parasitized individuals were similar in terms of lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelet count was the parameter with strongest association with APFP (OR: 0.991, p= 0.000) in children and its performance in guiding clinical suspicion was moderate (AUC: 0.70, p=0.000). Contrarily, in adolescents, the predictive value of platelets counts was low (AUC: 0.55). Conclusion Overall, our finding demonstrated that APFP is highly prevalent in regions endemic for malaria in southern Mozambique and was associated with lower hematological parameters but unaltered lymphocyte counts, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts. Platelets count was of moderate performance in guiding clinical suspicion of APFP in children but not in adolescents. PMID:23710648

  2. The 'permeome' of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rowena E; Henry, Roselani I; Abbey, Janice L; Clements, John D; Kirk, Kiaran

    2005-01-01

    Background The uptake of nutrients, expulsion of metabolic wastes and maintenance of ion homeostasis by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is mediated by membrane transport proteins. Proteins of this type are also implicated in the phenomenon of antimalarial drug resistance. However, the initial annotation of the genome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum identified only a limited number of transporters, and no channels. In this study we have used a combination of bioinformatic approaches to identify and attribute putative functions to transporters and channels encoded by the malaria parasite, as well as comparing expression patterns for a subset of these. Results A computer program that searches a genome database on the basis of the hydropathy plots of the corresponding proteins was used to identify more than 100 transport proteins encoded by P. falciparum. These include all the transporters previously annotated as such, as well as a similar number of candidate transport proteins that had escaped detection. Detailed sequence analysis enabled the assignment of putative substrate specificities and/or transport mechanisms to all those putative transport proteins previously without. The newly-identified transport proteins include candidate transporters for a range of organic and inorganic nutrients (including sugars, amino acids, nucleosides and vitamins), and several putative ion channels. The stage-dependent expression of RNAs for 34 candidate transport proteins of particular interest are compared. Conclusion The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the analyses presented here provide a range of novel insights into the physiology of this important human pathogen. PMID:15774027

  3. Drug resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mbugi, Erasto V; Mutayoba, Benezeth M; Malisa, Allen L; Balthazary, Sakurani T; Nyambo, Thomas B; Mshinda, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Background Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been and is currently used for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many African countries. Nevertheless, the response of parasites to SP treatment has shown significant variation between individuals. Methods The genes for dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) were used as markers, to investigate parasite resistance to SP in 141 children aged less than 5 years. Parasite DNA was extracted by Chelex method from blood samples collected and preserved on filter papers. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were applied to detect the SP resistance-associated point mutations on dhfr and dhps. Commonly reported point mutations at codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 in the dhfr and codons 437, 540 and 581 in the dhps domains were examined. Results Children infected with parasites harbouring a range of single to quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations were erratically cured with SP. However, the quintuple dhfr/dhps mutant genotypes were mostly associated with treatment failures. High proportion of SP resistance-associated point mutations was detected in this study but the adequate clinical response (89.4%) observed clinically at day 14 of follow up reflects the role of semi-immunity protection and parasite clearance in the population. Conclusion In monitoring drug resistance to SP, concurrent studies on possible confounding factors pertaining to development of resistance in falciparum malaria should be considered. The SP resistance potential detected in this study, cautions on its useful therapeutic life as an interim first-line drug against malaria in Tanzania and other malaria-endemic countries. PMID:17076899

  4. Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase cleaves malaria heat shock protein 101 (HSP101). Implications for gametocytogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Michael; Russo, Crystal; Li, Xuerong; Chishti, Athar H.

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • PfSPP is an ER resident protease. • PfSPP is expressed both as a monomer and dimer. • The signal peptide of HSP101 is the first known substrate of PfSPP. • Reduced PfSPP activity may significantly affect ER homeostasis. - Abstract: Previously we described the identification of a Plasmodium falciparum signal peptide peptidase (PfSPP) functioning at the blood stage of malaria infection. Our studies also demonstrated that mammalian SPP inhibitors prevent malaria parasite growth at the late-ring/early trophozoite stage of intra-erythrocytic development. Consistent with its role in development, we tested the hypothesis that PfSPP functions at the endoplasmic reticulum of P.falciparum where it cleaves membrane-bound signal peptides generated following the enzyme activity of signal peptidase. The localization of PfSPP to the endoplasmic reticulum was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. Biochemical analysis indicated the existence of monomer and dimer forms of PfSPP in the parasite lysate. A comprehensive bioinformatics screen identified several candidate PfSPP substrates in the parasite genome. Using an established transfection based in vivo luminescence assay, malaria heat shock