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Sample records for fall chinook stranding

  1. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  6. Diel behavior of rearing fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Skalicky, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    In fisheries science, habitat use is often inferred when fish are sampled or observed in a particular location. Physical habitat is typically measured where fish are found, and thus deemed important to habitat use. Although less common, a more informative approach is to measure or observe fish behavior within given habitats to more thoroughly assess their use of those locations. While this approach better reflects how fish use habitat, fish behavior can be difficult to quantify, particularly at night. For example, Tiffan and others (2002, 2006) were able to quantify habitat availability and characteristics that were important for rearing juvenile fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The authors, however, could only speculate as to how juvenile salmon use habitat and respond to changes in water level fluctuations. Conversely, in this study we provide data on the diel activities of rearing juvenile wild fall Chinook Salmon which provides a better understanding of how fish “use” these rearing habitats. Diel behavior patterns are important because fish in the Hanford Reach are often stranded on shorelines when the water level rapidly recedes because of hydroelectric power generation at upriver dams (Nugent and others 2002; Anglin and others 2006). We hypothesize that juvenile salmon are at greater risk of stranding at night because they are less active and occupy habitat differently than during the day. We used underwater videography to collect behavioral information during the day and night to determine if juvenile fall Chinook Salmon are more susceptible to stranding when water level fluctuations occur at night.

  7. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  8. Behavioral thermoregulation by juvenile spring and fall chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during smoltification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Crawshaw, L.I.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Fall chinook salmon evolved to emigrate during the summer months. The shift in the temperature preference we observed in smolting fall chinook but not spring chinook salmon may reflect a phylogenetic adaptation to summer emigration by (1) providing directional orientation as fall chinook salmon move into the marine environment, (2) maintaining optimal gill function during emigration and seawater entry, and/or (3) resetting thermoregulatory set-points to support physiological homeostasis once smolted fish enter the marine environment. Phylogenetically determined temperature adaptations and responses to thermal stress may not protect fall chinook salmon from the recent higher summer water temperatures, altered annual thermal regimes, and degraded cold water refugia that result from hydropower regulation of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The long-term survival of fall chinook salmon will likely require restoration of normal annual thermographs and rigorous changes in land use practices to protect critical thermal refugia and control maximum summer water temperatures in reservoirs.

  9. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2000-04-01

    This report is separated into 2 chapters. The chapters are (1) Progress toward determining the spawning distribution of supplemented fall chinook salmon in the Snake River in 1999; and (2) Fall chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in the Snake River, 1999.

  10. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  11. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  12. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 a total of 364 adult fall chinook and 472 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 290 fall chinook and 403 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 214. The peak redd count for chum was 776. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 15 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 6 December. There were estimated to be a total of 1,881 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2002. The study area's 2002 chum population was estimated to be 4,232 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2002 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on February 3 2003 and ended 7 May 2003, with peak emergence occurring 20 April. 2002 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 27 January and continued through 6 April 2003. Peak chum emergence took place 1 March. A total of 10,925 juvenile chinook and 1,577 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 24 January and 21 July 2003 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2003 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2002 and 2003 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis

  13. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  14. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing

  15. Quantifying flow-dependent changes in subyearling fall chinook salmon rearing habitat using two-dimensional spatially explicit modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We used an analysis based on a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the amount of rearing habitat and stranding area for subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River at steady-state flows ranging from 1,416 to 11,328 m3/s. High-resolution river channel bathymetry was used in conjunction with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate water velocities, depths, and lateral slopes throughout our 33-km study area. To relate the probability of fish presence in nearshore habitats to measures of physical habitat, we developed a logistic regression model from point electrofishing data. We only considered variables that were compatible with a GIS and therefore excluded other variables known to be important to juvenile salmonids. Water velocity and lateral slope were the only two variables included in our final model. The amount of available rearing habitat generally decreased as flow increased, with the greatest decreases occurring between 1,416 and 4,814 m3/s. When river discharges were between 3,682 and 7,080 m3/s, flow fluctuations of 566 m3/s produced the smallest change in available rearing area (from -6.3% to +6.8% of the total). Stranding pool area was greatly reduced at steady-state flows exceeding 4,531 m3/s, but the highest net gain in stranding area was produced by 850 m3/s decreases in flow when river discharges were between 5,381 and 5,664 m3/s. Current measures to protect rearing fall chinook salmon include limiting flow fluctuations at Priest Rapids Dam to 850 m3/s when the dam is spilling water and when the weekly flows average less than 4,814 m3/s. We believe that limiting flow fluctuations at all discharges would further protect subyearling fall chinook salmon.

  16. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  17. Two alternative juvenile life history types for fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Sneva, J.G.; Tiffan, K.F.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Ross, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however, that some fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin spent their first winter in a reservoir and resumed seaward movement the following spring at age 1 (hereafter, reservoir-type juveniles). We collected wild and hatchery ocean-type fall Chinook salmon juveniles in 1997 and wild and hatchery reservoir-type juveniles in 1998 to assess the condition of the reservoir-type juveniles at the onset of seaward movement. The ocean-type juveniles averaged 112-139 mm fork length, and the reservoir-type juveniles averaged 222-224 mm fork length. The large size of the reservoir-type juveniles suggested a high potential for survival to salt water and subsequent return to freshwater. Scale pattern analyses of the fall Chinook salmon spawners we collected during 1998-2003 supported this point. Of the spawners sampled, an overall average of 41% of the wild fish and 51% of the hatchery fish had been reservoir-type juveniles. Males that had been reservoir-type juveniles often returned as small "minijacks" (wild, 16% of total; hatchery, 40% of total), but 84% of the wild males, 60% of the hatchery males, and 100% of the wild and hatchery females that had been reservoir-type juveniles returned at ages and fork lengths commonly observed in populations of Chinook salmon. We conclude that fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin exhibit two alternative juvenile life histories, namely ocean-type and reservoir-type. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    ; (9) Documentation of stranding and entrapment in low-lying areas of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; and (10) Investigation of feasibility of coded-wire tagging juvenile fall chinook captured in the area described in Task 6 to determine juvenile to adult survival rate.

  19. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River Reservoirs, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn , Theodore C.

    1998-05-01

    In 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service completed the second year of cooperative research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. In spring and early summer, we captured natural subyearling fall chinook salmon by beach seine, PIT tagged them, and released them in two reaches of the Snake River. Also, subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at Lyons Ferry Hatchery were PIT tagged at the hatchery, transported, and released weekly at Pittsburg Landing on the Snake River and Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River to collect data on survival detection probabilities, and travel time.

  20. Monitoring Tissue Concentrations of Chromium and Fish Condition in Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, Brett L.; Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Poston, Ted M.

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the collection of juvenile fall Chinook salmon and Columbia River water samples to assess whether fall Chinook salmon population are exposed to chromium that upwells into the river from contaminated groundwater.

  1. Early life history and survival of natural subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Bjornn, Theodore C.; Burge, Howard L.; Garcia, Aaron P.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this segment of our study were to (1) describe the early life history characteristics of naturally produced subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and (2) estimate survival for juvenile fall chinook salmon emigrating from the Snake and Clearwater rivers to the tail race of Lower Granite Dam.

  2. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  3. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1981-1986 Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-stock Program was to hatch eggs from upriver stocks, rear the fish to spawning maturity, and use the resulting eggs for stock restoration in the Snake River. Approximately 15,000 eyed Snake River fall chinook salmon eggs were obtained each winter in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 from various Columbia River hatcheries. Fish from these eggs were reared in dechlorinated City of Seattle water at the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center or in constant 10.5/degree/C groundwater at the University of Washington's Big Beef Creek Research Station. Seawater tolerance trials of 0+ age (3--5 months) juveniles in all four brood stocks were strongly suggestive of the 1+ age smoltification pattern of spring chinook salmon. Attempts to transfer 0+ age fish to marine net-pens at the Manchester Marine Experimental Station were unsuccessful during the four brood years. The only Snake River fall chinook salmon that demonstrated acceptable survival after 4 months residence in seawater were fish that were transferred as 1+ age smolts. After smolts were successfully transferred to seawater, losses were minimal for several months. However, in all Snake River chinook salmon stocks, mortality due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD) and a previously undescribed ''rosette disease'' resulted in very few maturing fish at 4 or 5 years of age. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Safe pre-release disease treatment with formalin for fall chinook salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.D.; Gould, R.W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Harrell, L.W.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1987-01-01

    Standard formalin treatment (167 μL/L for 1 h) applied to presmolts and smolts of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 80, 62, 52, 38, 24, and 10 d prior to seawater exposure did not affect freshwater growth or survival during a 20-d period in seawater. There was no consistent effect of treatment on gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity.

  5. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Broodstock Program, 1983. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, L.W.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Broodstock Program is to hatch eggs from upriver stocks, rear the fish to maturity and spawning, and use the eggs for restoration purposes in the Snake River. Approximately 15,000 eyed eggs for 1980- and 1981-brood Snake River fall chinook salmon were obtined each winter in 1980 and 1981. Approximately 13,000 ''button-up'' fry from the 1982 brood were received in March 1983. Since August 1983, the mortality in the 1980-brood fish in marine net-pens has been unusually high. These losses are related to a systematic infection with a previously unreported fungal pathogen. Also responsible for considerable mortality are the approximately 25% maturing males in the population. As of 16 December 1983, 1917 1980-brood Snake River fall chinook salmon, averaging 1050 g, are being maintained in marine net-pens at the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington. Currently, 4090 1981-brood chinook salmon with an average weight of 200 g are in net-pens at Manchester. The new fungal disease has also been observed in these fish, but it is causing minimal mortality. Approximately 6000 1982-brood fish (15 g average weight) are currently at the Big Beef Creek Research Station, Seabeck, Washington, or have been acclimated to seawater. All the fish will be in marine net-pens at Manchester by May 1984. 2 figs.

  6. Identification of juvenile fall versus spring chinook salmon migrating through the lower Snake River based on body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Garland, R.D.; Verhey, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the use of body morphology to distinguish among subyearling fall-run, subyearling spring-run, and yearling spring-run smolts of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at two lower Snake River dams during the summer emigration. Based on principal-components analysis, subyearling fall-run chinook salmon had smaller heads and eyes, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling spring-run chinook salmon had characteristics of both subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon. Subyearling fall-run and yearling spring-run chinook salmon were classified with more than 80% accuracy by means of discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy for subyearling spring-run chinook salmon was only 26%. We conclude that body morphology can be used to accurately identify the age of chinook salmon smolts but not the run. Therefore, genetic analyses are the only means of reliably determining the run composition of summer migrants in the lower Snake River.

  7. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  8. Genetic characterization of naturally spawned Snake River fall-run Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Connor, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    We sampled juvenile Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to genetically characterize the endangered Snake River fall-run population. Juveniles from fall and spring–summer lineages coexisted in our sampling areas but were differentiated by large allozyme allele frequency differences. We sorted juveniles by multilocus genotypes into putative fall and spring lineage subsamples and determined lineage composition using maximum likelihood estimation methods. Paired sMEP-1* and PGK-2* genotypes—encoding malic enzyme (NADP+) and phosphoglycerate kinase, respectively—were very effective for sorting juveniles by lineage, and subsamples estimated to be 100% fall lineage were obtained in four annual samples. We examined genetic relationships of these fall lineage juveniles with adjacent populations from the Columbia River and from Lyons Ferry Hatchery, which was established to perpetuate the Snake River fall-run population. Our samples of naturally produced Snake River fall lineage juveniles were most closely aligned with Lyons Ferry Hatchery samples. Although fall-run strays of Columbia River hatchery origin found on spawning grounds threaten the genetic integrity of the Snake River population, juvenile samples (a) showed distinctive patterns of allelic diversity, (b) were differentiated from Columbia River populations, and (c) substantiate earlier conclusions that this population is an important genetic resource. This first characterization of naturally produced Snake River fall chinook salmon provides a baseline for monitoring and recovery planning.

  9. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1984 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1985-02-01

    The objective is the enhancement of upriver stocks through research and development of an eggbank source. Viable gametes, produced from fish held to maturity in sea pens, will be made available for restoration purposes on the Snake River. Seawater entry trials with 0+-age and 1+-age fish have shown that 0+-age Snake River fall chinook salmon are not amenable to seawater entry and will either die or require up to 6 months to fully adapt to seawater. However, 1+-age smolts experience little problem at seawater entry; it is therefore suggested that Snake River fall chinook salmon be released as 1+ smolting fish in hatchery situations. Important marine mortalities occurring from osmoregulatory dysfunction, Bacterial Kidney Disease, and precocity at various life stages have been documented. Also, a previously unreported marine fungal pathogen has been identified. Mortality from this pathogen occurs from 3-years of age to maturity and can exceed 0.5% per day (resulting in losses to 90+%). At the end of December 1984, Snake River fall chinook salmon from 1980 (n = 67), 1981 (n = 876), 1982 (n = 4809), and 1983 (n = 7100) broods were under production. Because of the extensive mortality due to the marine fungal pathogen, only seven spawners were obtained from the 1980 stock in fall 1984. The 1980-brood spawners produced only minimal eggs and these will be used to investigate possible vertical transmission of the fungal pathogen. 4 figs.

  10. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Connor, William P.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1999-03-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Nez Perce Tribe completed the third year of research to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin.

  11. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Connor, William P.; Burge, Howard L.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted primarily in 1997 and 1998. This report communicates significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  12. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  13. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  14. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  15. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  16. Imaging fall Chinook salmon redds in the Columbia River with a dual-frequency identification sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for imaging and enumeration of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds in a spawning area below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The DIDSON uses sound to form near-video-quality images and has the advantages of imaging in zero-visibility water and possessing a greater detection range and field of view than underwater video cameras. We suspected that the large size and distinct morphology of a fall Chinook salmon redd would facilitate acoustic imaging if the DIDSON was towed near the river bottom so as to cast an acoustic shadow from the tailspill over the redd pocket. We tested this idea by observing 22 different redds with an underwater video camera, spatially referencing their locations, and then navigating to them while imaging them with the DIDSON. All 22 redds were successfully imaged with the DIDSON. We subsequently conducted redd searches along transects to compare the number of redds imaged by the DIDSON with the number observed using an underwater video camera. We counted 117 redds with the DIDSON and 81 redds with the underwater video camera. Only one of the redds observed with the underwater video camera was not also documented by the DIDSON. In spite of the DIDSON's high cost, it may serve as a useful tool for enumerating fall Chinook salmon redds in conditions that are not conducive to underwater videography.

  17. Thermal exposure of juvenile fall chinook salmon migrating through a lower Snake River Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Impoundment of the Snake River, Washington, has resulted in high water temperatures and late seaward migration of juvenile fall chinook salmon during summer months. To determine if juvenile fall chinook salmon are exposed to temperatures higher than the upper incipient lethal, we tagged groups of fish with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked them in Little Goose Reservoir on the Snake River during the summers of 1998 and 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns of the reservoir's thermal environment were described using a bathythermograph. Little Goose Reservoir was generally homothermic, and temperatures selected by fish were typically not significantly different from mean water temperatures. No areas of thermal refugia existed in Little Goose Reservoir. Thermal exposure was most influenced by fish residence time in the reservoir within each year and by temperature differences between years. Current augmentation of Snake River summer flows with cold-water releases from Dworshak Dam in Idaho reduces the thermal exposure of juvenile fall chinook salmon by lowering water temperatures up to 4??C and may therefore increase their survival. Continued flow augmentation using water from Dworshak Reservoir may be the only mechanism to meet the temperature standard for the lower Snake River.

  18. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  19. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  20. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon: The Importance of Geomorphic Features in Large Rivers

    PubMed

    Geist; Dauble

    1998-09-01

    / Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. We present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of our conceptual model. We suggest that traditional habitat models and our conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.KEY WORDS: Hyporheic zone; Geomorphology; Spawning habitat; Large rivers; Fall chinook salmon; Habitat management

  1. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 μg/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  2. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  3. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T. P.; Geist, D. R.; Arntzen, E. V.; Abernethy, C. S.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  4. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  5. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  6. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  7. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  8. Habitat quality of historic Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning locations and implications for incubation survival: part 1, substrate quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated substrate quality at two historic fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning sites in the Snake River, Idaho, USA. The primary objective of this evaluation was to measure sediment permeability within these areas to determine the potential quality of the habitat in the event that anadromous salmonids are reintroduced to the upper Snake River. Riverbed sediments within the two sites in the upper Snake River were sampled using freeze cores and hydraulic slug tests. Sediment grain size distributions at both sites were typical of gravel-bed rivers with the surface layer coarser than the underlying substrate, suggesting the riverbed surface was armored. Despite the armored nature of the bed, the size of the largest material present on the riverbed surface was well within the size limit of material capable of being excavated by spawning fall Chinook salmon. The percentage of fines was low, suggesting good quality substrate for incubating salmon embryos. Geometric mean particle sizes found in this study compared to a 55% to 80% survival to emergence based on literature values. Hydraulic slug tests showed moderate to high hydraulic conductivity and were comparable to values from current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach of the Snake River and the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Predicted estimates of mean egg survival at both sites (48% and 74%) equaled or exceeded estimates from fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hells Canyon Reach and the Hanford Reach.

  9. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  10. Redd site selection and spawning habitat use by fall chinook salmon: The importance of geomorphic features in large rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R. |; Dauble, D.D.

    1998-09-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional connectivity between rivers and groundwater within the hyporheic zone can be used to improve the definition of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat. Information exists on the microhabitat characteristics that define suitable salmon spawning habitat. However, traditional spawning habitat models that use these characteristics to predict available spawning habitat are restricted because they can not account for the heterogeneous nature of rivers. The authors present a conceptual spawning habitat model for fall chinook salmon that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Two case studies based on empirical data from fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River are presented to illustrate important aspects of the conceptual model. The authors suggest that traditional habitat models and the conceptual model be combined to predict the limits of suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. This approach can incorporate quantitative measures of river channel morphology, including general descriptors of geomorphic features at different spatial scales, in order to understand the processes influencing redd site selection and spawning habitat use. This information is needed in order to protect existing salmon spawning habitat in large rivers, as well as to recover habitat already lost.

  11. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from year to

  12. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Activity Versus Daylight and Flow in the Tailrace of a Large Hydroelectric Dam

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vucelick, Jessica A.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-05-01

    We deployed an acoustic system during the fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning season in 2001 to determine whether fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in a hydroelectric dam tailrace area was affected by daylight or river flow dynamics. The system was deployed following a randomized study design to record fall Chinook salmon spawning activity during day and night periods in two index areas downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington, USA. One index area was a deepwater spawning area located (river kilometer (rkm) 663) in 9 to 11 m of water. The other index site was a moderate depth mid-channel bar, where water depths ranged from 2.5 to 6 m. The acoustic system was used to collect spawning activity data during free-drifts in a boat through the index areas. Spawning activity was defined as digs per minute from underwater sound recordings. Fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in the Wanapum Dam tailrace was influenced by daylight and river discharge. Results showed there was a substantial amount of spawning activity occurring during both daylight and darkness. However, there was significantly more spawning activity during daylight than at night in both index areas. Spawning activity was also affected by flow. Project discharge had a pronounced non-linear effect on spawning activity. Spawning activity was generally highest at project discharges between 1,700 and 2266 m3 sec-1 in both spawning areas, with reduced activity as discharge increased to between 3,400 and 4,250 m3 sec-1. We concluded that fall Chinook salmon spawning activity in highly variable environments was affected more by flow (and velocity) than by daylight.

  13. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  14. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River During Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Richmond, Marshall C.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Titzler, P. Scott; Fu, Tao

    2006-01-30

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10°C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir’s epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four lower Snake reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water’s surface, and during periods of low river discharge, often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The depth of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may also be of key

  15. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations: Annual report 2011 (April 2011 - March 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Kock, Tobias J.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk; Christiansen, Helena E.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Ortega, Lori A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Klett, Katherine J.C.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; St John, Scott J.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Schmidt, Amanda; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2013-01-01

    Chapter Four – We conducted monthly beam trawling in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs to describe the seasonal abundance of benthic epifauna that are potentially important as prey to juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The predominant taxa collected were Siberian prawns, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis, and the amphipod Corophium sp. Prawns were relatively abundant at shallow sites in both reservoirs in June, but were more abundant at deep sites in lower and middle reservoir reaches in autumn. Prawn densities were commonly <0.2/m2. Prawn length-frequency data indicated that there were at least two size classes. Juvenile prawns present in shallow water more often than adult prawns, which were generally only found in deep water by autumn. Ovigerous prawns had an average of 171 eggs, which represented about 11.5% of their body weight. Limited diet analyses suggested that prawns consumed Corophium, Neomysis, and aquatic insects. Neomysis dominated all catches both in terms of abundance and biomass, and they were more abundant in Lower Granite compared to Little Goose reservoir. Neomysis were more abundant at shallow sites than at deep sites. Corophium were present in our collections but were never abundant, probably because our trawl was not effective at capturing them. The caloric content of prawns (4,782 Kcal), Neomysis (4,962 Kcal), and Corophium (4,926 Kcal) indicates that these prey would be energetically profitable for juvenile salmon. Subyearling fall Chinook salmon prey heavily on Neomysis and Corophium at times, but the importance of prawns as prey is uncertain.

  16. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn , Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  17. Water velocity, turbulence, and migration rate of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the free-flowing and impounded Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2009-01-01

    We studied the migratory behavior of subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Snake River to evaluate the hypothesis that velocity and turbulence are the primary causal mechanisms of downstream migration. The hypothesis states that impoundment reduces velocity and turbulence and alters the migratory behavior of juvenile Chinook salmon as a result of their reduced perception of these cues. At a constant flow (m3 /s), both velocity (km/d) and turbulence (the SD of velocity) decreased from riverine to impounded habitat as cross-sectional areas increased. We found evidence for the hypothesis that subyearling Chinook salmon perceive velocity and turbulence cues and respond to these cues by varying their behavior. The percentage of the subyearlings that moved faster than the average current speed decreased as fish made the transition from riverine reaches with high velocities and turbulence to upper reservoir reaches with low velocities and turbulence but increased to riverine levels again as the fish moved further down in the reservoir, where velocity and turbulence remained low. The migration rate (km/d) decreased in accordance with longitudinal reductions in velocity and turbulence, as predicted by the hypothesis. The variation in migration rate was better explained by a repeatedmeasures regression model containing velocity (Akaike’s information criterion ¼ 1,769.0) than a model containing flow (2,232.6). We conclude that subyearling fall Chinook salmon respond to changes in water velocity and turbulence, which work together to affect the migration rate.

  18. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  20. Influence of flow and temperature on survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Burge, H.L.; Yearsley, J.R.; Bjornn, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Summer flow augmentation to increase the survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is implemented annually to mitigate for the development of the hydropower system in the Snake River basin, but the efficacy of this practice has been disputed. We studied some of the factors affecting survival of wild subyearling fall chinook salmon from capture, tagging, and release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of the first dam encountered by smolts en route to the sea. We then assessed the effects of summer flow augmentation on survival to the tailrace of this dam. We tagged and released 5,030 wild juvenile fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River from 1998 to 2000. We separated these tagged fish into four sequential within-year release groups termed cohorts (N = 12). Survival probability estimates (mean ?? SE) to the tailrace of the dam for the 12 cohorts when summer flow augmentation was implemented ranged from 36% ?? 4% to 88% ?? 5%. We fit an ordinary least-squares multiple regression model from indices of flow and temperature that explained 92% (N = 12; P < 0.0001) of the observed variability in cohort survival. Survival generally increased with increasing flow and decreased with increasing temperature. We used the regression model to predict cohort survival for flow and temperature conditions observed when summer flow augmentation was implemented and for approximated flow and temperature conditions had the summer flow augmentation not been implemented. Survival of all cohorts was predicted to be higher when flow was augmented than when flow was not augmented because summer flow augmentation increased the flow levels and decreased the temperatures fish were exposed to as they moved seaward. We conclude that summer flow augmentation increases the survival of young fall chinook salmon.

  1. Estimated Fall Chinook Salmon Survival to Emergence in Dewatered Redds in a Shallow Side Channel of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; James, B B.; Lukas, Joe

    2005-08-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) often spawn in the tailraces of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Redds built in shallow habitats downstream of these dams may be periodically dewatered due to hydropower operations prior to the emergence of fry. To determine whether fall Chinook salmon redds were successful in a shallow area subjected to periodic dewatering downstream of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River, we installed 7 redd caps and monitored fry emergence. Large numbers of live fry were captured from the redds between March 9 and May 18, 2003. Estimated survival from egg to fry for these redds, which were all subjected to some degree of dewatering during the incubation and post-hatch intragravel rearing period, ranged from 16.1 to 63.2 percent and averaged 27.8 percent (assuming 4,500 eggs/redd). The peak emergence date ranged from April 1 to 29, with the average peak about April 14, 2003. Mean fork length of fall Chinook salmon emerging from individual redds ranged from 38.3 to 41.2 mm, and lengths of fish emerging from individual redds increased throughout the emergence period.

  2. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2003-04-01

    In 2001 a total of 309 adult fall chinook and 264 chum were sampled in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 48. The peak redd count for chum was 181. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 16 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 26 November. There were estimated to be a total of 721 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2001. The 2001 chum population below Bonneville Dam was estimated to be 532 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2001 brood chinook emergence began on 11 March 2002 and ended 18 May 2002, with peak emergence occurring 26 April. 2001 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 29 January and continued through 31 March 2002. Peak chum emergence took place 25 February. A total of 5,487 juvenile chinook and 678 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 22 January and 30 July 2002 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place from mid June through early July 2002 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2001 and 2002 the majority of fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning bright stock of fall chinook. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration

  3. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1984-02-01

    Backwaters and protected sites located along the Columbia River between John Day and Priest Rapids dams, and the lower reaches of the Umatilla, Yakima, and Snake rivers were surveyed to determine their suitability for experimental rearing of age-0 fall (upriver bright) chinook salmon. All but eight potential study sites observed were judged as unusable based on criteria which included depth, area, accessibility, potential water level and temperature fluctuations, entrance-access to the river, public use, and obvious water quality problems. These eight sites were then thoroughly evaluated to determine suitability for rearing studies, using water quality and biological data to supplement physical observations. The criteria used in the final selection of rearing sites included an assessment of water source, depth, temperature, and quality, proximity to natural spawning sites, ease of adult capture, and benthos and zooplankton abundance. Two sites were selected as satisfying the most criteria for experimental rearing studies: Rock Creek (river km 337) and Social Security Pond (river km 468). All other sites surveyed were ranked as either less desirable, or unusable for these studies.

  4. Variables influencing the presence of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in shoreline habitats of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Clark, L.O.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Little information currently exists on habitat use by subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha rearing in large, main-stem habitats. We collected habitat use information on subyearlings in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River during May 1994 and April-May 1995 using point abundance electrofishing. We analyzed measures of physical habitat using logistic regression to predict fish presence and absence in shoreline habitats. The difference between water temperature at the point of sampling and in the main river channel was the most important variable for predicting the presence and absence of subyearlings. Mean water velocities of 45 cm/s or less and habitats with low lateral bank slopes were also associated with a greater likelihood of subyearling presence. Intermediate-sized gravel and cobble substrates were significant predictors of fish presence, but small (<32-mm) and boulder-sized (>256-mm) substrates were not. Our rearing model was accurate at predicting fish presence and absence using jackknifing (80% correct) and classification of observations from an independent data set (76% correct). The habitat requirements of fall Chinook salmon in the Hanford Reach are similar to those reported for juvenile Chinook salmon in smaller systems but are met in functionally different ways in a large river.

  5. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  6. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of passing

  7. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  8. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  9. Behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Kock, T.J.; Connor, W.P.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated behavioural thermoregulation by subyearling fall (autumn) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a reservoir on the Snake River, Washington, U.S.A. During the summer, temperatures in the reservoir varied from 23?? C on the surface to 11?? C at 14 m depth. Subyearlings implanted with temperature-sensing radio transmitters were released at the surface at temperatures >20?? C during three blocks of time in summer 2004. Vertical profiles were taken to measure temperature and depth use as the fish moved downstream over an average of 5??6-7??2 h and 6??0-13??8 km. The majority of the subyearlings maintained average body temperatures that differed from average vertical profile temperatures during most of the time they were tracked. The mean proportion of the time subyearlings tracked within the 16-20?? C temperature range was larger than the proportion of time this range was available, which confirmed temperature selection opposed to random use. The subyearlings selected a depth and temperature combination that allowed them to increase their exposure to temperatures of 16-20?? C when temperatures 20?? C were available at lower and higher positions in the water column. A portion of the subyearlings that selected a temperature c. 17??0?? C during the day, moved into warmer water at night coincident with an increase in downstream movement rate. Though subyearlings used temperatures outside of the 16-20?? C range part of the time, behavioural thermoregulation probably reduced the effects of intermittent exposure to suboptimal temperatures. By doing so, it might enhance growth opportunity and life-history diversity in the population of subyearlings studied.

  10. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1990-02-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if thinning releases were used.

  11. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  12. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2001-10-01

    Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas included gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives Island. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997), and 554 fish in 1998 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). These estimates were based on carcass surveys and visual observation of redds by boat near the shoreline. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted underwater video surveys in the fall of 1999 and 2000 to determine the extent of the fall chinook salmon spawning and to estimate the number of redds occurring in deeper water. Estimates of redds occurring in water depths exceeding 2.2 m at 143,000 cubic feet per second (kcfs) were 499 in 1999 (Mueller and Dauble 1999) and 567 redds >2.2 m at 127 kcfs in 2000 (this study). The majority of the redds found were confined near the main river channel adjacent to Pierce Island. Chum salmon (O. keta) also have been documented using the mouth of Hamilton Creek and portions of Hamilton Slough for spawning. The majority of chum salmon were found to spawn in shallow water at the mouth of Hamilton Creek adjacent to Ives Island. Estimates of the natural chum salmon spawning population for 1998 were 226 (Van der Naald et al. 1999). Chum salmon spawning near Ives Island are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU), and are included in the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) listing in March 1999. Our main objective of this study was to locate deep water spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deep sections of

  13. A model of the effects of flow fluctuations on fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat availability in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Xie, YuLong

    2008-12-01

    Previously we reported that about 30% to 60% of the area predicted to be used by fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for spawning in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River did not contain redds. One explanation for the overprediction of habitat was that our model did not incorporate streamflow fluctuation. Daily fluctuation in flow caused by load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Priest Rapids Dam, situated at the upper end of the Hanford Reach, changes the hydraulic characteristics to which fish respond in selecting redd sites. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the effect of flow changes on spawning habitat modeling and, in particular, to look at the connection between spawning and the variability and persistence of habitat variables caused by rapid changes in flow resulting from load-following operations at Priest Rapids Dam. We found that spawning habitat use by fall Chinook salmon was consistent with previous fall Chinook salmon studies in the Reach. Dynamic variables that were based on hourly time series were used to account for the variability in habitat as a result of flow fluctuations. The analysis showed that the proportion of velocities that fell within the range of 1.0 to 2.5 m/s differed significantly between locations that were predicted to be spawning by the logistic regression model where spawning actually occurred and locations that were predicted to be spawning where spawning did not occur. However, the resulting sequential logistic regression model that incorporated the dynamic variables did not provide significant improvement in the percentage of errors for areas predicted to be spawning; the model’s overprediction errors still ranged from 63% to 78%. We suggest that while flow fluctuation may affect spawning habitat and individual fish behavior, the high correlation between time-averaged velocities and the proportion of hourly velocities that fell within the most

  14. Predation Susceptibility of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Sudden Temperature Changes and Slightly Supersaturated Dissolved Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abel, Tylor K.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2014-08-01

    High mortality of hatchery-reared juvenile fall Chinook salmon emigrating from the Clearwater River was previously measured at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers; however, the causative mechanism of mortality is unknown. To elucidate potential mechanisms, the predation susceptibility of juvenile fall Chinook salmon was assessed during simulated passage from the Clearwater River and through the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, with and without cool water flow augmentation. Emigrant-sized juvenile salmon were acclimated to temperatures typical of the Clearwater River when cool water augmentation is discharged from Dworshak Dam (10°C to 17°C) and during temperatures that would be present without augmentation (17°C to 24°C), and were then exposed to smallmouth bass within temperatures typical of the Snake River in summer (17°C to 24°C). Slightly supersaturated total dissolved gas concentrations of 105% were also simulated to more closely approximate gas conditions of both rivers in summer. Predation susceptibility of juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C or 17°C and exposed to predators at 17°C did not differ. However, for salmon exposed to predators at 24°C, predation susceptibility was arguably higher for juvenile salmon acclimated at 10°C (a 14°C increase) than for salmon acclimated at 17°C or 24°C (7°C and 0°C increases, respectively). These results indicate that predation susceptibility may be higher when a relatively large temperature difference exists between the Clearwater and Snake rivers; that is, when cool water flow augmentation is occurs in summer. However, further research is needed to determine if high confluence mortality measured in previous studies is related to cool water augmentation and, ultimately, whether or not this mortality has a population-level effect on the dynamics of wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon.

  15. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum salmon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Hanrahan, Timothy P. ); Arntzen, Evan V. ); McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Murray, Christopher J. ); Chien, Yi-Ju )

    2002-11-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned at different locations in the vicinity of Ives Island, Washington, a side channel to the Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate size, and water velocity alone would not explain the separation in spawning areas and began a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites where there was no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. Understanding the specific features that are important for chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful to resource managers attempting to maximize available spawning habitat for these species within the constraints imposed by other water resource needs.

  17. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    SciTech Connect

    RH Visser

    2000-03-16

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.

  18. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.

    1986-12-01

    Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and

  19. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2003-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 2002. This report documents the number and extent of chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River, and is the fourth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds located in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. There was a significant increase in the number of fall chinook salmon redds found in the locations surveyed during the 2002 surveys when compared to previous surveys by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A total of 192 redds were found in two general locations adjacent to Pierce Island (river km 228.5) encompassing an area of approximately 9.31 ha. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 15, 2002. An estimated 1,768 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding {approx}1.m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2002. This estimate is the expanded number based on the number of redds found within the pre-defined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 0.9 to 8.5 m and were constructed in gravel to large cobble ranging in size from 4.83 to 13.4 cm in diameter. No chum salmon redds were found in areas surveyed during 2002, although several carcasses were found at the mouth of Woodward Creek and in the deeper sections below Hamilton Creek.

  20. Seasonal use of shallow water habitat in the Lower Snake River reservoirs by juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is preparing a long term management plan for sediments that affect the authorized project purposes of the Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor reservoirs (hereafter, the lower Snake River reservoirs), and the area from the mouth of the Snake River to Ice Harbor Dam. We conducted a study from spring 2010 through winter 2011 to describe the habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon within a selected group of shallow water habitat complexes (< 6 m deep) in the lower Snake River reservoirs to help inform the long-term plan. Natural fry and parr were present within all four shallow water habitat complexes that we studied from early spring through early summer, and parr ( = 40,345 ± 18,800 [error bound]) were more abundant than fry ( = 24,615 ± 5,701). Water < 2 m deep was highly used for rearing by natural fall Chinook salmon subyearlings (fry and parr combined; hereafter natural subyearlings) based on duration of use and relative group abundances during spring and summer, whereas the 2–6 m depth interval was more highly used by migratory hatchery fall Chinook salmon subyearlings and spring, summer, and fall Chinook salmon yearlings. Overall mean spring-summer apparent density of natural subyearlings was 15.5 times higher within the < 2 m depth interval than within the 2–6 m depth interval. Density of natural subyearlings also decreased as the distance a given shallow water habitat complex was located from the riverine spawning areas increased. Reservoir-type juveniles (or fish likely destined to become reservoir-type juveniles) were present in the lower Snake River reservoirs from fall 2010 through winter 2011; however, use of shallow water habitat by reservoir-type juveniles was limited during our study. We only collected 38 reservoir-type juveniles in shallow water habitat sites in beach and lampara seines during the fall. Radiotelemetry data revealed that though many tagged fish passed shallow water

  1. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  2. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V.

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  4. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2013 – 12/31/2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Smallmouth bass predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon was examined in the upper portion of Lower Granite Reservoir during 2013. During the time subyearlings were present in the reservoir, smallmouth bass were collected, their stomach contents removed for diet analysis, and their abundance estimated with mark-recapture techniques. In 2013, the greatest consumption of subyearlings by smallmouth bass occurred in late May and early June—as much as 50% of their diet by weight. Sand rollers were the most common non-salmonid fish consumed by smallmouth bass. In the section of the reservoir above the confluence with the Clearwater River, the abundance of bass was higher in non-riprap habitat than in riprap, but the opposite was true in the section below the confluence. We estimated that over 168,000 subyearlings were lost to smallmouth bass predation in 2013. Given the predominance of sand rollers in the diet of smallmouth bass, we believe this species reduces predation on subyearling fall Chinook salmon. A complete report of our findings is provided in the Appendix.

  5. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  6. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    2001-08-01

    From 1997 to 2000, we collected data on the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon above Lower Granite Dam as part of a five-year evaluation of three acclimation/release facilities: Pittsburgh Landing, Captain John, and Big Canyon Creek. The use of multiple facilities is intended to distribute spawning throughout the habitat normally used in the Snake and Clearwater rivers, and our study was designed to determine if this is achieved. In the Snake River, spawning normally occurs throughout a 100 mile reach. Pittsburgh Landing is located within the upper half of this reach, and Captain John is located within the lower half. In the Clearwater River, most spawning occurs within the lower 41 miles and the Big Canyon Creek facility is located therein. Our approach for determining spawning distribution was to first trap returning fish at Lower Granite Dam, identify their origin (all yearling fish were externally marked before they were released), and use radio tags and redd searches to determine where they spawned. Thus far we radio tagged 203 adult fish that were initially released at the acclimation sites. We confirmed the spawning location of 74 of these fish, 42 from releases at Pittsburgh Landing, seven from Captain John, and 25 from releases at the Big Canyon Creek facility. All of the fish from Pittsburgh Landing spawned in the Snake River, 86% within the upper half of the Snake River study area, and 14% in the lower half. Of the adult fish from Captain John, roughly 71% spawned in the lower half of the Snake River study area, 14% spawned in the upper half, and 14% spawned in the Clearwater River. Of the adult fish from releases at Big Canyon Creek, 80% spawned in the Clearwater River and 20% spawned in the Snake River (four in the lower half and one in the upper half). To augment the study, we determined the spawning locations of 16 adult fish that were directly released as subyearlings at or near the three acclimation sites. Ten of the fish were from

  7. Survival, development, and growth of fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevin, and fry exposed to variable thermal and dissolved oxygen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Some fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam at temperatures that exceed 13?C and at intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations that are less than 8 mg O2/L. Although water temperature declines and dissolved oxygen increases soon after spawning, these temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet the water quality standards established by the states of Oregon and Idaho for salmonid spawning. Our objective was to determine if temperatures from 13 to 17 C and dissolved oxygen levels from 4 to greater than 8 mg O2/L during the first 40 days of incubation followed by declining temperature and rising dissolved oxygen affected survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevins, and fry. During the first 40 days of incubation, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day and oxygen was increased in increments of 2 mg O2/L to mimic the thermal and oxygen regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal and dissolved oxygen profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures equal to or greater than 17?C, and a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant difference in survival at temperatures less than or equal to 16.5 C. Initial dissolved oxygen levels as low as 4 mg O2/L over a range of initial temperatures from 15 to 16.5 C did not affect embryo survival to emergence. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature and dissolved oxygen; it took from 6 to 10 days longer to reach hatch at 4 mg O2/L than at saturation and up to

  8. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  9. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a field study by PNNL for Bonneville Power Administration in fall 2001 to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with surgically implanted electromyogram transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted to pass three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between and below the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat, 40% passed the first falls, 36% passed the second falls, and 20% reached Lyle Falls but were unable to leap over. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 cm/sec between falls to as high as 158.1 cm/sec at falls passage. Fish exhibited a higher percentage of occurrences of burst swimming while passing the falls than while between falls (58.9% versus 1.7%). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (52.3-236.2 kcals versus 0.3-1.1 kcals). Male-female and day-night differences in falls passage success were noted. PNNL also examined energy costs and swimming speeds for fish released above Lyle Falls as they migrated to upstream spawning areas. This journey averaged 15.93 days at a mean rate of 2.36 km/day to travel a mean maximum of 37.6 km upstream at a total energy cost of approx 4,492 kcals (32% anaerobic/68% aerobic). When the salmon have expended the estimated 968 kcals needed to get through Bonneville Dam and the three falls on the Lower Klickitat, plus this 4,492 kcals to reach the spawning grounds, they are left with approximately 8 to 12% (480 to 742 kcals) of their energy reserves for spawning. A delay of 4 to 7 days along the lower Klickitat River could deplete their remaining energy reserves (at a rate of about 103 kcals/day), resulting in death before spawning would occur.

  10. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2002-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated studies to identify potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and assess the extent of spawning in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in the fall of 1999. This report provides results from 2001, the third year of our effort. The main objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the area. The secondary objective was to map any chum salmon redds located in the deeper sections near Hamilton Slough. River flows during the spawning surveys in 2001 were lower than in 1999 and 2000. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 9, 2001. The location of the spawning area was similar to that of 1999 and 2000. One difference was the majority of redds were found in deeper water (>1.5 m) and closer to the shoreline adjacent to Pierce Island. Because of the low river flows during the fall of 2001, only a handful of redds were found using the boat-deployed video system within Hamilton Slough. No chum salmon (O. keta) redds were found in areas surveyed during 2000. (Note: surveys were limited to deeper sections of Hamilton Slough and near the main river channel.) An estimated 717 fall chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding 1.5 m ({approx} 125 kcfs) were documented in 2001. These estimates are expanded from the number of redds found within a predefined survey area. Fall chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.5-4.6 m and were located in a general area of {approx} 4.9 ha. Fall chinook salmon redds were constructed in gravels ranging from 3.2-13.4 cm in diameter and water velocities of 0.29-0.70 m/s.

  11. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys to identify fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas located in deep water (greater than 1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam in fall 2004. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce Islands of the Columbia River and is the sixth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The main objectives of this study were to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The primary search area was adjacent to the upper portion of Pierce Island, and the secondary search zone was downstream of this area near the lower portion of Pierce Island. A secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections downstream of Hamilton Creek (slough zone search area). Fall Chinook salmon redd numbers were down slightly from the record number found during 2003. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives-Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) during 2004 was 293, which does not include the number of shallow water redds found by visual observation by boat by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The redds encompassed an area of 14.6 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 16, 2004. An expanded redd count based on percentage video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,198 fall Chinook salmon redds at water depths exceeding approximately 1.0 m (approximately 125 kcfs) with an estimated spawning population of 10,800. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging in size from 7

  12. Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtscha) Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted video-based boat surveys in fall 2003 to identify spawning areas for fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in deep water (>1 m) downstream of Bonneville Dam. This report documents the number and extent of Chinook salmon spawning near Ives and Pierce islands of the Columbia River, and is the fifth in a series of reports prepared since 1999. The primary objective of this study was to find deepwater spawning locations of fall Chinook salmon in the main Columbia River channel, collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at spawning sites, and provide estimates of adult spawners in the surveyed area. The secondary objective was to document the occurrence of any chum salmon (O. keta) redds in the deeper sections near below Hamilton Creek. Results from the 2003 study show a continuing trend upward in the number of fall Chinook salmon redds found within the survey zones. The number of fall Chinook redds found in the Ives Pierce Island complex (river km 228.5) has increased by a factor of five since the surveys began in 1999. The total number of redds found during 2003 was 336, which compares to 192 in 2002, 43 in 2001, 76 in 2000, and 64 in 1999. The redds encompassed an area of 13.7 ha occurring adjacent to the lower part of Ives Island and Pierce Island. Peak spawning activity, based on redd counts and live fish seen near redds, was on or near November 24, 2003. An expanded redd count based on percentage of video coverage in the primary and secondary search zones was 3,218 fall Chinook salmon redds in water exceeding 1 m deep and flowing at about 125 kcfs. Fall Chinook salmon redds were found at water depths from 1.07 to 7.6 m and were constructed predominantly of medium cobbles ranging from 7.6 to 15.2 cm in diameter. Two chum salmon redds were found in a small location downstream from Hamilton Creek in water depths of approximately 1 m. No salmon redds were found in other areas searched, including near

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat near Ives and Pierce Islands in the Columbia River, Progress Report 1999-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, Rodney; Tiffan, Kenneth; Rondorf, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    The area around Ives Island below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River supports spawning populations of chum and fall chinook salmon. Because this area is sensitive to water level fluctuations caused by changes in discharge from Bonneville Dam and from tidal cycles, we initiated a study to quantify flow-dependent changes in available spawning habitat for chum and fall chinook salmon. We conducted surveys to characterize the substrates available in the Ives Island study area. Detailed bathymetry was also obtained to serve as a foundation for two-dimension hydrodynamic modeling, which was used to estimate water velocities, depths, and wetted area over a range of simulated flows. Habitat surveys were conducted and logistic regression was used to identify physical habitat variables that were important in determining the presence of chum and fall chinook salmon redds. The physical habitat data were analyzed using the logistic regression models to create probability coverages for the presence of redds in a Geographic Information System. There was generally good agreement between chum and fall chinook salmon redd locations and areas where we predicted suitable spawning habitat. We found that at Columbia River discharges less than 120 kcfs, an important chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek could only be supported by discharge from Hamilton Creek. Chum salmon did not appear to spawn in proportion to habitat availability, however our predictive model did not include all variables known to be important to chum salmon redd-site selection. Fall chinook salmon spawning habitat was less sensitive to flow and the main channel of the Columbia River along Pierce Island was predicted to contain sufficient habitat at all modeled flows.

  14. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  15. Downstream movement of fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the lower Snake River reservoirs during winter and early spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Steinhorst, R. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a 3-year radiotelemetry study in the lower Snake River to (1) determine whether juvenile fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha pass dams during winter, when bypass systems and structures designed to prevent mortality are not operated; (2) determine whether downstream movement rate varies annually, seasonally, and from reservoir to reservoir; and (3) identify some of the factors that contribute to annual, seasonal, and spatial variation in downstream movement rate. Fall Chinook salmon juveniles moved downstream up to 169 km and at a sufficiently fast rate (7.5 km/d) such that large percentages (up to 93%) of the fish passed one or more dams during the winter. Mean downstream movement rate varied annually (9.2–11.3 km/d), increased from winter (7.5 km/d) to spring (16.4 km/d), and increased (from 6.9 to 16.8 km/d) as fish moved downstream from reservoir to reservoir. Fish condition factor at tagging explained some of the annual variation in downstream movement rate, whereas water particle velocity and temperature explained portions of the seasonal variation. An increase in migrational disposition as fish moved downstream helped to explain the spatial variation. The potential cost of winter movement might be reduced survival due to turbine passage at a time when the bypass systems and spillway passage structures are not operated. Efforts to understand and increase passage survival of winter migrants in large impoundments might help to rehabilitate some imperiled anadromous salmonid populations.

  16. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2009-08-21

    In 2007, we used radio and acoustic telemetry to evaluate the migratory behavior, survival, mortality, and delay of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River and Lower Granite Reservoir. Monthly releases of radio-tagged fish ({approx}95/month) were made from May through October and releases of 122-149/month acoustic-tagged fish per month were made from August through October. We compared the size at release of our tagged fish to that which could have been obtained at the same time from in-river, beach seine collections made by the Nez Perce Tribe. Had we relied on in-river collections to obtain our fish, we would have obtained very few in June from the free-flowing river but by late July and August over 90% of collected fish in the transition zone were large enough for tagging. Detection probabilities of radio-tagged subyearlings were generally high ranging from 0.60 (SE=0.22) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the different study reaches and months. Lower detection probabilities were observed in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches where fewer fish were detected. Detection probabilities of acoustic-tagged subyearlings were also high and ranged from 0.86 (SE=0.09) to 1.0 (SE=0) in the confluence and upper reservoir reaches during August through October. Estimates of the joint probability of migration and survival generally declined in a downstream direction for fish released from June through August. Estimates were lowest in the transition zone (the lower 7 km of the Clearwater River) for the June release and lowest in the confluence area for July and August releases. The joint probability of migration and survival in these reaches was higher for the September and October releases, and were similar to those of fish released in May. Both fish weight and length at tagging were significantly correlated with the joint probability of migrating and surviving for both radio-tagged and acoustic-tagged fish. For both tag types, fish that were heavier at tagging had a

  18. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  19. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Spellman, Bryant; Clark, Roy

    2001-10-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1999 to 30 September 2000. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates.

  20. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Connor, William P.

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  1. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2004 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall Chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2004. Publication is a high priority of our staff. Publication provides our results to a wide audience, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 1991-02900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2005.

  2. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  3. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  4. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Evidence of Deepwater Spawning of Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) : Spawning Near Ives and Pierce Island of the Columbia River, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2000-04-01

    Fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in 1993 (Hymer 1997). Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and Ives island. Limited spawning ground surveys were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce Islands during 1994-1997 and based on these surveys it was believed that fall chinook salmon successfully spawned in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1,800 to 5,200 fish (Hymer 1997). Recently, chum salmon were also documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon O. kisutch were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999. There are several ongoing investigations to define the physical habitat characteristics associated with fall chinook and chum salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam. A major concern is to determine what flows (i.e. surface elevations) are necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Our objective was to locate deepwater spawning locations in the main Columbia River channel and to collect additional data on physical habitat parameters at the site. This objective is consistent with the high priority that the Northwest Power Planning Council's Independent Advisory Board and the salmon managers have placed on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

  6. Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Connor, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

  7. Comparison of subyearling fall chinook salmon's use of riprap revetments and unaltered habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, R.D.; Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Clark, L.O.

    2002-01-01

    Subyearling fall chinook salmon's Oncorhynchus tshawytscha use of unaltered and riprap habitats in Lake Wallula of the Columbia River was determined with point abundance data collected by electrofishing in May 1994 and 1995. We documented the presence or absence of subyearlings at 277 sample sites and collected physical habitat information at each site. Based on logistic regression, we found that the probability of fish presence was greater in unaltered shoreline habitats than in riprap habitats. Substrate size was the most important factor in determining fish presence, with dominant substrates larger than 256 mm having the lowest probability of fish presence. Water velocity, also included in our model due to its biological importance, was not a significant factor affecting presence or absence (P = 0.1102). The correct prediction rate of fish presence or absence in our sample sites using cross validation was 67%. Our model showed that substrate was the most important factor determining subyearling habitat use, but the model did not include other habitat variables known to be important to subyearlings in more diverse systems. We suggest that resource managers consider alternative methods of bank stabilization that are compatible with the habitat requirements of the fish that use them.

  8. Summary of Temperature Data Collected to Improve Emergence Timing Estimates for Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River, 1998-2004 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, E.; Geist, D.; Hanrahan, T.

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 through 2004, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected temperature data from within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning gravels and the overlying river at 21 locations in the Ives Island area approximately 5 km downstream from Bonneville Dam. Sample locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. The study objectives were to (1) collect riverbed and river temperature data each year from the onset of spawning (October) to the end of emergence (June) and (2) provide those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with fall Chinook and chum salmon emergence timing estimates. Three systems were used over the life of the study. The first consisted of temperature sensors deployed inside piezometers that were screened to the riverbed or the river within chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. These sensors required direct access by staff to download data and were difficult to recover during high river discharge. The second system consisted of a similar arrangement but with a wire connecting the thermistor to a data logger attached to a buoy at the water surface. This system allowed for data retrieval at high river discharge but proved relatively unreliable. The third system consisted of temperature sensors installed in piezometers such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely via radio telemetry. After being downloaded, data were posted hourly on the Internet. Several times during the emergence season of each year, temperature data were downloaded manually and provided to management agencies. During 2003 and 2004, the real-time data were made available on the Internet to assist with emergence timing estimates. Examination of temperature data reveals several important patterns. Piezometer sites differ in the direction of vertical flow between surface and subsurface water. Bed temperatures in upwelling areas are more stable during salmon

  9. Garfield County Habitat for Fall Chinook and Steelhead, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane

    2007-01-01

    The objectives and tasks outlined in detail in this project report were implemented during calendar year 2006 in all the watersheds of Garfield County. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). In the years since 1993, other watersheds in Garfield County have been designated as salmon bearing streams and have received numerous practices formerly just designated for the Pataha Creek Watershed. The following sections show the individual practices, quantity of practices implemented, total costs, BPA costs and tons of soil saved for all the BPA funds used to protect and enhance the natural resources in the salmon bearing watersheds of Garfield County. In the year 2006, 55% of the funding received from BPA went into cost share practices. Of all the cost share received in the county, 22% came from BPA. This is largely due to other funding programs becoming available to address livestock influenced water quality problems and riparian health improvement. Over 95% of the sediment entering the streams can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek, Deadman Creek, and Alpowa Creek have had steelhead runs in the past. The Pataha Creek has native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow, and shiners inhabit the lower portion of Pataha Creek because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat through the CREP, CCRP, and DOE grants has improved habitat for all the fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek is slowly developing into spawning and rearing habitat for Chinook salmon. With the future removal of some migration barriers on the lower portion of the Deadman and Pataha, more stream miles will become useful spawning and rearing habitat. The upland projects completed during 2006 were practices that significantly reduce

  10. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  11. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Groves, P.A.

    2008-11-25

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2007; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches counted upstream of Lower Granite Dam into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2007 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  12. Use of hydrogen peroxide during incubation of landlocked fall Chinook salmon eggs in vertical-flow incubators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, M.E.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Six different hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes were evaluated in a series of three trials with landlocked fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha eggs incubated in vertical-flow incubators. Six daily 15-min hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes (1,000 mg/L; 1,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,000 mg/L; 2,000 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation; 2,500 mg/L; and 2,500 mg/L with a decrease to 500 mg/L during estimated blastopore formation) were compared with daily 15-min treatments of 1,667 mg/L of formalin. Mortality at egg eye-up and fry hatch and from eye-up to hatch was significantly greater in eggs receiving the 2,500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatments throughout incubation and in those receiving 2,500 mg/L hydrogen peroxide with a decrease to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation than in either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment regimes or the formalin-treated eggs in the first trial. No significant differences in mortality were observed among any of the treatments in the subsequent two trials with maximum hydrogen peroxide concentrations of 2,000 mg/L. Fungal infestations were observed primarily in the incubation trays treated at either of the 1,000-mg/L hydrogen peroxide regimens, as well as in those trays whose treatment concentrations were dropped to 500 mg/L during blastopore formation. Infestations were not observed in any of the formalin-treated trays. If minor fungal infestation is acceptable, then daily hydrogen peroxide treatments of 1,000 mg/L for 15 min would probably provide adequate fungal control compared with formalin usage.

  13. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, Billy D.

    2003-09-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2001; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2002 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 1998-01-003 and 1994-03-400) and the Idaho Power Company.

  14. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

    2004-08-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  15. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2006-10-01

    Redd counts are routinely used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2005; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2005 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and Idaho Power Company.

  16. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.; Arnsberg, B.D.; Rocklage, S.J.; Groves, P.A.

    2005-10-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2004; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992), and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document, containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2004 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  17. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C.

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  18. The Use of PIT Tagging to Estimate Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration Time Through the Priest Rapids Project Area on the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R; McMichael, Geoffrey A. )

    2000-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating how the Priest Rapids Project (PRP, located north of the Hanford reach on the Columbia River) affects populations of wild, fall Chinook salmon that are produced. One part of this project involves using mark-recapture technique to monitor fall juvenile Chinook movement in the area. A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag technology was used to document migration timing out of the influence of the PRP, and track fish through downstream dams as they make their way to the ocean. On June 6 and 7, 2000, we tagged 1083 fall Chinook sub-yearlings above and below Wanapum Dam, subsequently detecting them as they began to pass through downstream dams. As of 9 August 2000, 122 fish had been detected in one or more of the dams downstream of the PRP. A mean migration time for tagged the fish of 5.5 km/day below the McNary dam and 4.5 km/day above the McNary Dam. The mean migration rate between McNary Dam and John Day Dam was 21.4 km/day. Back calculation, indicated the mean date of departure for juveniles tagged in the pool above Wanapum Dam was July 16, 2000, while juveniles tagged below Wanapum Dam was July 1, 2000. Because fish are still being detected at the dams only preliminary conclusions can be attempted. Since the peak of migration time for these fish seems to have passed, the time when these fish most likely left the PRP area can also be estimated. Data analysis will continue analysis, and hopefully some of the adult returns will be measured as they come through the dams throughout the duration of the project.

  19. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  20. Snake River fall Chinook salmon life history investigations, 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2012: Annual report 2002-032-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, Willam P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Chittaro, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Finally, we examined the role of different invasive invertebrates in lower Snake River reservoir food webs that are food, or competitors for food, for juvenile fall Chinook salmon. The Siberian prawn, a relatively new invader, is relatively abundant but its role on the food web is largely unexplored. Prawns are successfully reproducing and their diet is 81% Neomysis (an invasive opossum shrimp) which is heavily used at times by juvenile salmon for food. Neomysis has become very abundant in lower Snake River reservoirs in recent years and may be a profitable food item for many fish species.

  1. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  2. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  3. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  4. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2002. This was the seventh year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 479,358 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities exceeded the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,545 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,482 from Big Canyon and 2,487 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium to high with 43-62% of fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 146.7 mm (146.2-147.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.8 mm (163.5-166.1 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.14 at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 88.6% (86.0-91.1%) for Pittsburg Landing to 97.0% (92.4-101.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 54.3% (50.2-58.3%) for Big Canyon to 70.5% (65.4-75.5%) for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 8.1 river kilometers per

  5. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006, we continued a multi-year study to compare smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) ratios between two groups of Snake River Basin fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that reached the sea through a combination of either (1) transportation and inriver migration or (2) bypass and inriver migration. We captured natural subyearlings rearing along the Snake and Clearwater rivers and implanted them with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, but knew in advance that sample sizes of natural fish would not be large enough for precise comparisons of SAR ratios. To increase sample sizes, we also cultured Lyons Ferry Hatchery subyearlings under a surrogate rearing strategy, implanted them with PIT tags, and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers to migrate seaward. The surrogate rearing strategy involved slowing growth at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery to match natural subyearlings in size at release as closely as possible, while insuring that all of the surrogate subyearlings were large enough for tagging (i.e., 60-mm fork length). Surrogate subyearlings were released from late May to early July 2006 to coincide with the historical period of peak beach seine catch of natural parr in the Snake and Clearwater rivers. We also PIT tagged a large representative sample of hatchery subyearlings reared under a production rearing strategy and released them into the Snake and Clearwater rivers in 2006 as part of new research on dam passage experiences (i.e., transported from a dam, dam passage via bypass, dam passage via turbine intakes or spillways). The production rearing strategy involved accelerating growth at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, sometimes followed by a few weeks of acclimation at sites along the Snake and Clearwater rivers before release from May to June. Releasing production subyearlings has been suggested as a possible alternative for making inferences on the natural population if surrogate fish were not available. Smoltto-adult return rates are not

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume VIII; New Model for Estimating Survival Probabilities and Residualization from a Release-Recapture Study of Fall Chinook Salmon Smolts in the Snake River, 1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, Alan B.; Skalski, John R.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging.

  7. Survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon Embryos, Alevins, and Fry Exposed to Variable Thermal and Dissolved Oxygen Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-01

    Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Hells Canyon reach of the Snake River, Idaho (rkm 240-397), at water temperatures above 16 C. This temperature exceeds the states of Idaho and Oregon water quality standards for salmonid spawning. These standards are consistent with results from studies of embryos exposed to a constant thermal regime, while salmon eggs in the natural environment are rarely exposed to a constant temperature regime. The objective of this study was to assess whether variable temperatures (i.e., declining after spawning) affected embryo survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon alevins and fry. In 2003, fall Chinook salmon eggs were exposed to initial incubation temperatures ranging from 11-19 C in 2 C increments, and in 2004 eggs were exposed to initial temperatures of 13 C, 15 C, 16 C, 16.5 C, and 17 C. In both years, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day to mimic the thermal regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 37-40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures >17 C in both years. A logistic regression model estimated that a 50% reduction in survival from fertilization to emergence would occur at an initial incubation temperature of {approx}16 C. The laboratory results clearly showed a significant reduction in survival between 15 C and 17 C, which supported the model estimate. Results from 2004 showed a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant differences in survival at initial incubation temperatures <16.5 C. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. Differences in egg mass among females (notably 2003) most likely masked any

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2000. This was the fifth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 397,339 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,477 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,421 from Big Canyon and 2,488 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 980 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 157.7 mm (157.3-158.1 mm) at Big Canyon to 172.9 mm (172.2-173.6 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.12 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.0% (84.7-89.4%) for Pittsburg Landing to 95.2% (91.5-98.9%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1999. This was the fourth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 453,117 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities not only slightly exceeded the 450,000 fish quota, but a second release of 76,386 yearlings (hereafter called Surplus) were acclimated at the Big Canyon facility and released about two weeks after the primary releases. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 9,941 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 9,583 from Big Canyon, 2,511 Big Canyon Surplus and 2,494 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 983 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low and did not appear to increase after transport to the acclimation facilities. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery and relatively high at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the release groups ranged from 147.4 mm (146.7-148.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 163.7 mm (163.3-164.1 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.04 at

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S.

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2001. This was the sixth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 318,932 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,503 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,499 from Big Canyon and 2,518 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 991 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 155.4 mm (154.7-156.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 171.6 mm (170.7-172.5 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.02 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.4% (73.2-75.5%) for Big Canyon to 85.2% (83.5-87.0%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  13. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  14. Quantifying Upper Particle-size Limits of Salmonid Spawning Gravel: Analysis of Fall-run Chinook Salmon of the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.

    2008-12-01

    Reversing the decline of historically prolific runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) remains a high priority of river restoration along the US Pacific Coast. One routinely implemented strategy is gravel injection, to supplement spawning habitat which has been depleted by gravel mining and bed coarsening below dams. Gravel augmentation is generally designed around a qualitatively assessed "preferred" median particle size. Implementation sites are not always ecologically ideal, because there often is little quantitative basis for determining where added gravel would be most suitable. Although gravel augmentation may increase spawning habitat, a more mechanistic design basis could reduce costs, improve efficiency, and make results more predictable. One key to developing better designs is a better method for characterizing existing spawning gravel deposits. Here we propose a series of mechanistically oriented hypotheses about the spawning suitability of natural gravels. One hypothesis is that there is an upper size limit on particles that can be moved by salmon. We expect that this limit depends on salmon size, water velocity and the size (and embeddedness) of surrounding rocks. Another hypothesis is that spawning success is related to percent coverage by immovable particles. A corollary hypothesis is that redds become irregular (and less productive) as percent coverage by immovable particles increases. Another related hypothesis is that redd-building success should approach zero at an upper threshold of coverage by immovable particles. We explored our hypotheses for fall-run Chinook in the Sacramento River. We collected grain size data, constructed facies maps of the bed, and delineated boundaries of spawning use at the peak of spawning, prior to the run's recent population decline. Our observations suggest that particles with intermediate axes diameters bigger than about 130 mm are not generally movable by fall run Chinook. Moreover we observed no

  15. Movement of Fall Chinook Salmon Fry Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha : A Comparison of Approach Angles for Fish Bypass in a Modular Rotary Drum Fish Screen.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Blanton, S.L.; Abernethy, C. Scott; Daly, D.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed tests to determine whether a significant difference in fish passage existed between a 6-ft screening facility built perpendicularly to canal flow and an identical screening facility with the screen mounted at a 45-degree angle to the approach channel. A modular drum screen built by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife was installed at PNNL`s Aquatic Ecology research laboratory in Richland, Washington. Fall chinook salmon fry were introduced into the test system, and their movements were monitored. A total of 14 tests (400 fish per test) that lasted 20 hours were completed during April and May, 1996. There was no significant difference in fish passage rate through the two approach configurations. Attraction flow to the bypass across the face of the screen was more evident for the angled approach, although this did not appear to play a significant role in attracting fish to the bypass. Approach velocities at the face of the screen did not exceed the 0.4 fps criteria for either approach configuration and posed not threat to fish. No fish passed over, around, or through the drum screen during any test.

  16. Predicted changes in subyearling fall Chinook salmon rearing and migratory habitat under two drawdown scenarios for John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.D.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of two different drawdown scenarios on rearing and migration habitat of subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River. We compared habitats at normal operating pool elevation with habitats at drawdown to spillway crest elevation and drawdown to the historical natural river elevation for two flows (4,417 and 8,495 m3/s). Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and a predictive habitat model, we determined the quantity and spatial distribution of rearing habitat and predicted water velocities. We predicted that the most habitat area would occur under normal pool elevation, but 93% of habitat was located in the upper third of the reservoir. Although less habitat area was predicted under drawdown to the spillway crest and the natural river, it was distributed more homogeneously throughout the study area. Habitat connectivity, patch size, and percent of suitable shoreline were greatest under drawdown to the natural river elevation. Mean cross-sectional water velocity and the variation in velocity increased with increasing level of reservoir drawdown. Water velocities under drawdown to the natural river were about twice as high as those under drawdown to spillway crest and five times higher than those under normal pool. The variability in water velocity, which may provide cues to fish migration, was highest under drawdown to the natural river and lowest under normal pool elevation. The extent to which different drawdown scenarios would be effective in John Day Reservoir depends in part on restoring normative riverine processes.

  17. Diel activity patterns of juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon with implications for operation of a gated water diversion in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.; Perry, Russell W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Romine, Jason G.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out-migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night-time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night-time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night-time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta.

  18. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Carl W.; Miller, David R.

    1982-06-01

    Research was conducted by NMFS in 1981 to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, survival, and migrational behavior of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir. Fourteen groups (74,683 fish) of marked 0-age chinook salmon were wire-tagged, branded, and released into the tailrace at McNary Dam, fourteen groups (13,746 fish) were branded and released into the reservoir at River Kilometer 375, and 34 groups (14,273) were branded and released into the reservoir at various other sites. More than 55,000 0-age chinook salmon were sampled at the John Day Dam airlift facility. This sample included 623 mark recoveries. Four hundred and eight (408) additional marks were recovered from purse seine samples taken at various sites throughout the reservoir. The average passage time of marked 0-age chinook salmon released in the McNary trailrace was 22 days in 1981. There was no statistically significant evidence to indicate that instream flows affected either the rate of movement or residence time of 0-age chinook salmon in John Day Reservoir in 1981. 7 references, 1 figure, 12 tables.

  19. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2012 – 12/31/2013: Annual report, 1991-029-00

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2014-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  20. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir : Annual Report 1985. [Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1985-12-01

    As part of a study to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, migration behavior, and survival of phi age chinook salmon migrating through John Day Reservoir from June through August juvenile fish were tagged and released below McNary Dam in 1981. This report discusses adult returns through 1984. (ACR)

  1. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  2. Early life history attributes and run composition of PIT-tagged wild subyearling Chinook salmon recaptured after migrating downstream past Lower Granite Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Bjornn, T.C.; Burge, H.L.; Marshall, A.R.; Blankenship, H.L.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Tiffan, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    Seaward migration timing of Snake River fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts is indexed using subyearling chinook salmon passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam. However, not all of the subyearlings are fall chinook salmon. For six years, we recaptured wild subyearling chinook salmon smolts, which had been previously PIT tagged in the Snake River, to genetically determine if the fish were offspring of spring and summer (hereafter, spring/summer), or fall chinook salmon. Springfall chinook salmon comprised over 10% of the samples of recaptured smolts in five of six years. For these five years, we used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured (i.e., not sampled for genetic identification). Accuracy of the discriminant analysis models, based on genetically identified smolts, varied between 75 and 85%. After using discriminant analysis to classify run membership for each PIT-tagged smolt that was not genetically identified, we compared early life history attributes between fall and spring/summer chinook salmon and calculated annual run composition. The life history attributes we studied overlapped, but spring/summer chinook salmon reared along the shoreline of the free-flowing Snake River earlier, were larger, and began seaward migration earlier than fall chinook salmon. Spring/summer chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam. As a result, the presence of spring/summer chinook salmon makes migration timing for the fall chinook salmon seem earlier and more protracted than is the case. If wild subyearling spring/summer chinook salmon smolts are not considered, fall chinook salmon abundance at Lower Granite Dam will be overestimated.

  3. Habitat use by subyearling Chinook and coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1781 habitat observations were made on Chinook salmon (698) and coho salmon (1083). During both spring and fall, subyearling coho salmon used pool habitat with abundant cover. During spring, principal component analysis revealed that water depth was the most important variable governing subyearling Chinook salmon habitat use. Substrate materials used by Chinook salmon in the spring and coho salmon in the fall were significantly smaller than were present on average within the study reaches. When the two species occurred sympatrically during spring they exhibited similar habitat selection. Although the habitat used by coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries was consistent with observations of habitat use in their native range, higher water velocities were less important to Chinook salmon than has previously been reported.

  4. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at Mc

  5. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  6. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  7. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  8. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  9. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  10. Migratory Characteristics of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, John C.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na{sup +}/K{sup +} gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls.

  11. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  12. Otolith analysis of pre-restoration habitat use by Chinook salmon in the delta-flats and nearshore regions of the Nisqually River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 salmon stocks in the Puget Sound (Washington) evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Extensive restoration of the Nisqually River delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent on the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes the characterization of life history strategies, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and to determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected as a tool to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually River estuary. Previously funded work on samples collected in 2004 (marked and unmarked) and 2005 (unmarked only) partially established a juvenile baseline on growth rates and length of residence associated with various habitats (freshwater, forested riverine tidal, emergent forested transition, estuarine emergent marsh, delta-flats and nearshore). However, residence times and growth rates for the delta-flats (DF) and nearshore (NS) habitats have been minimally documented due to small sample sizes. The purpose of the current study is to incorporate otolith microstructural analysis using otoliths from fish collected within the DF and NS habitats during sampling years 2004-08 to increase sample size and further evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this analysis indicated the delta-flats check (DFCK) on unmarked and marked Chinook samples in 2005-08 varied slightly in appearance from that seen on samples previously analyzed only from 2004. A fry migrant life history was observed on otoliths of unmarked Chinook collected in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Generally, freshwater mean increment width of unmarked fish, on average, was smaller compared to marked

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  14. Biotic and abiotic influences on abundance and distribution of nonnative Chinook salmon and native ESA-listed steelhead in the Wind River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence fish populations and distributions. Concerns have been raised about the influence of hatchery fish on wild populations. Carson National Fish Hatchery produces spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Wind River, Washington, and some spawn in the river. Managers were concerned that Chinook salmon could negatively affect wild steelhead O. mykiss and that a self-sustaining population of Chinook salmon may develop. Our objectives were to assess: 1) the distribution and populations of juvenile spring Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead in the upper Wind River; 2) the influence of stream flow and of each population on the other; and 3) if Chinook salmon populations were self-sustaining. We snorkeled to determine distribution and abundance. Flow in the fall influenced upstream distribution and abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon. Juvenile Chinook salmon densities were consistently low (range 0.0 to 5.7 fish 100 m-2) and not influenced by number of spawners, winter flow magnitude, or steelhead abundance. Juvenile steelhead were distributed through the study section each year. Age-0 and age-1 steelhead densities (age-0 range: 0.04 to 37.0 fish 100 m-2; age-1 range: 0.02 to 6.21 fish 100 m-2) were consistently higher than for juvenile Chinook salmon. Steelhead spawner abundance positively influenced juvenile steelhead abundance. During this study, Chinook salmon in the Wind River appear to have had little effect on steelhead. Low juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and a lack of a spawner-to-juvenile relationship suggest Chinook salmon are not self-sustaining and potential for such a population is low under current conditions.

  15. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, Fisheries Resource Management, Yakima Indian Nation1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, Larry

    1984-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook to the Yakima River system. In January, 1983, 100,000 fish raised at Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery were transported to Nile Springs Rearing Ponds on the Naches River. These fish were allowed a volitional release as smolts in April. An additional 100,000 smolts were transported from Leavenworth Hatchery in April and immediately released to the Upper Yakima River. Relative survival of smolts from their points of release to a trap at Prosser (RM48) was 1.69:1 for fish from Nile Springs, versus the trucked smolts. The fish from Nile Springs arrived at Prosser and McNary Dam approximately 1 week earlier than the transported fish. To better determine the magnitude and location of releases, distribution and abundance studies were undertaken. There is a decrease in abundance from upstream areas over time, indicating a general downstream movement. In the Naches System, the lower Naches River is heavily utilized by juvenile spring chinook during the early summer. A preliminary study evaluated physical limitations of production. On a single evening 67 fish were killed on diversion screens at Chandler Canal. This constituted 5.7% of the wild spring chinook entering the canal and 8.2% of the fall chinook. The larger hatchery spring chinook sustained a 2.3% loss. Adult returns resulted in 443 redds in the Yakima System, with 360 in the Yakima River and 83 in the Naches System.

  16. Climate variability and the collapse of a Chinook salmon stock (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S.; Mohr, M.; Peterson, W. T.; Grimes, C.; Stein, J.; Anderson, J.; Botsford, L. W.; Bottom, D.; Busack, C.; Collier, T.; Ferguson, J.; Garza, C.; Grover, A.; Hankin, D.; Kope, R.; Lawson, P.; Low, A.; Macfarlane, B.; Moore, K.; Palmer-Zwahlen, M.; Schwing, F. B.; Smith, J.; Tracy, C.; Webb, R. S.; Wells, B.; Williams, T.

    2009-12-01

    As recently as 2002, nearly 1.5 million Sacrament River fall Chinook (SRFC) were caught in fisheries or returned to the Sacramento River basin to spawn. Only 66,000 spawners returned to natural areas and hatcheries in 2008. As a result of this dramatic decline, fisheries for Chinook salmon off California and Oregon were closed to protect SRFC in 2008 and 2009. In this paper, we show that the proximate cause of this unprecedented collapse was unusual but perhaps not unprecedented oceanographic conditions in the coastal ocean that created poor feeding conditions for juvenile salmon. The ultimate cause of the collapse may be the declining resilience of the Central Valley chinook complex that has been driven by a century and a half of land and water development. A simple conceptual model illustrates how the dynamics of a salmon population supplemented by hatchery production are influenced by trends in freshwater environmental quality, hatchery production, fitness, and climate. The model predicts that SRFC will recover to higher levels of abundance when ocean conditions improve (which may already be happening), only to decline sharply when ocean conditions again turn poor. Improving the sustainability of the Chinook salmon fishery depends on reversing trends in freshwater and estuarine habitat quality and quantity, which should also benefit runs of Chinook protected by the Endangered Species Act. Ecosystem-based management and ecological risk assessment will be required to make progress on these challenging problems, which are being exacerbated by climate change and human development.

  17. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Time-Varying Hydrodynamics and Juvenile Chinook Salmon Habitat in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2007-10-10

    The Hanford Reach is the only remaining unimpounded reach of the Columbia River in the United States above Bonneville Dam. Discharge in the Hanford Reach is regulated by several dams and is often subject to rapid changes. Sharp flow reductions have led to the stranding or entrapment, and subsequent mortality, of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and other important fish species within the Hanford Reach. A multi-block two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model was used to simulate time-varying river velocity and stage in a 37~km portion of the Hanford Reach. Simulation results were used to estimate time-varying juvenile chinook salmon habitat area, and the part of that habitat affected by discharge fluctuations. Affected habitat area estimates were made for the chinook salmon rearing period of four years. These estimates were used, along with other important factors, to establish a statistical relationship between discharge fluctuation and juvenile chinook salmon mortality.

  18. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s {+-} 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s {+-} 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the greatest

  19. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994-1995 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing.

  20. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  1. Dam breaching and Chinook salmon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Rossignol, Philippe A.; Li, Hiram W.; Emlen, John M.; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Michelle M. McClure,

    2001-01-01

    The Report by Kareiva et al. on recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon (1) has the potential to have a major impact in deciding whether to breach dams on the Snake River. Based on interpretation of their model results, they argue that dam breaching would be insufficient to reverse the decline of salmon. An examination of the specifics of their model, however, suggests that, despire their argument, dam breaching remains a viable recovery option for chinook salmon.

  2. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1986-12-01

    FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.

  3. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  4. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angela; Larsen, Kimberly; Reisenbichler, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. The preservation of the Nisqually delta ecosystem coupled with extensive restoration of approximately 1,000 acres of diked estuarine habitat is identified as the highest priority action for the recovery of naturally spawning Nisqually River Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nisqually Chinook Recovery Plan. In order to evaluate the response of Chinook salmon to restoration, a pre-restoration baseline of life history diversity and estuary utilization must be established. Otolith analysis has been proposed as a means to measure Chinook salmon life history diversity, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: (1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, (2) compare pre and post restoration residence times and growth rates, and (3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile Chinook salmon can exhibit a variety of life history trajectories ? some enter the sea (or Puget Sound) as fry, some rear in the estuary before entering the sea, and some rear in the river and then move rapidly through the estuary into the sea as smolts. The

  5. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  6. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  7. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  8. 50 CFR 679.65 - Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). 679.65 Section 679.65 Wildlife and... and Aleutian Island Directed Pollock Fishery Management Measures § 679.65 Bering Sea Chinook...

  9. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  10. Falling chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  11. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  12. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  13. Characterization of Estuary Use by Nisqually Hatchery Chinook Based on Otolith Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie M.; Larsen, Kim A.; Reisenbichler, Reg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem are planned to assist in recovery of the stock. A pre-restoration baseline including life history types, estuary residence time, growth rates, and habitat use are needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon to restoration. Otolith analysis has been selected as a means to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: 1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, 2) compare pre- and post- restoration residence times and growth rates, 3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon through (1) and (2), and 4) compare differences in habitat use between hatchery and wild Chinook to further protect ESA listed stock. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile hatchery Chinook salmon are generally released as smolts that move quickly through the delta with much shorter residence times than for many wild fish and are not dependent on the delta as nursery habitat (Myers and Horton 1982; Mace 1983; Levings et al. 1986). The purpose of this study is to use and

  14. Effects of surgically implanted acoustic transmitters >2% of body mass on the swimming performance, survival, and growth of juvenile sockeye and Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Grassel, Mark A.

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the influence of surgical implantation of an acoustic transmitter on the swimming performance, growth, and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). The transmitter weighed 0.72g in air and the fish weighed 6 to 23 g. Mean critical swimming speeds for fall Chinook salmon ranged from 47.5 to 51.2 cm s-1 (4.34 to 4.69 body lengths [BL] s-1) and did not differ among tagged, untagged and sham-tagged groups. Tagged sockeye salmon, however, did have lower Ucrit than control or sham fish. The mean Ucrit for tagged sockeye salmon was 46.1 cm s-1 (4.1 BL s-1) which was approximately 5% less than the mean Ucrit for control and sham fish (both groups were 48.6 cm s-1 or 4.3 BL s-1). There was no difference in length or weight among treatments (control, sham, tag) either at the start or the end of the test period suggesting that implantation did not negatively influence the growth of either species. None of the sockeye salmon died from the influence of surgical implantation of transmitters. In contrast, we did find that the 21-d survival differed between tagged and control groups of fall Chinook salmon although this result was confounded by the poor health of fall Chinook salmon treatment groups.

  15. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    Dalbaere K, Sherrington C, Lord SR. Falls prevention interventions. In: Marchus R, Feldman D, Depmster DW, Luckey M, Cauley JA, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Rubenstein ...

  16. The effect of food provisioning on persistent organic pollutant bioamplification in Chinook salmon larvae.

    PubMed

    Daley, Jennifer M; Leadley, Todd A; Pitcher, Trevor E; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-06-01

    Fall spawning pacific salmon provision large amounts of yolk to their eggs to allow survival of larvae during under the ice winter conditions. This yolk provisioning leads to maternal offloading of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to eggs and larvae. Previous research has shown that Chinook salmon larvae exhibit limited capacity to eliminate POPs during the cold water period resulting in bioamplification of POP residues. This study compared POPs bioamplification in Chinook salmon larvae under a high food provisioning treatment and a non-fed treatment to test whether or not food availability attenuates POPs bioamplification via growth dilution. Results demonstrate that larvae in the food provisioning treatment did not gain weight until after day 129. Between hatching and day 129, fed and non-fed treatments exhibited similar decreases in whole body lipid content, negligible POPs elimination and POPs bioamplification factors approaching 1.6. By day 184 of the study, POPs bioamplification factors in the non-fed treatment were as high as 5.3 across chemicals but ranged from non-detectable to approaching 1 in the fed group. This study demonstrates that POPs bioamplification occurs in Chinook salmon larvae even under ideal rearing conditions but peaks after day 129, following which growth dilution can attenuate bioamplification relative to starved individuals.

  17. Physiological status of naturally reared juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River: Seasonal dynamics and changes associated with smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Larsen, D.A.; Sharpe, C.; Lee-Pawlak, B.; Schreck, C.B.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    Two year-classes of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Yakima River, Washington, were sampled from July (3-4 months postemergence) through May (yearling smolt out-migration). Physiological characters measured included liver glycogen, body lipid, gill Na+-K+ ATPase, plasma thyroxine (T4), and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Distinct physiological changes were found that corresponded to season. Summer and fall were characterized by relatively high body lipid and condition factor. Winter was characterized by decreases in body lipid, condition factor, and plasma hormones. An increase in condition factor and body lipid was found in February and March. Finally, April and May were characterized by dramatic changes characteristic of smolting, including increased gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity, plasma T4, and IGF-I and decreased condition factor, body lipid, and liver glycogen. These results create a physiological template for juvenile spring chinook salmon in the drainage that provides a baseline for comparison with other years, populations, and life history types. In addition, this baseline provides a standard for controlled laboratory experiments and a target for fish culturists who rear juvenile spring chinook salmon for release from conservation hatcheries. The implications of these results for juvenile chinook salmon ecology and life history are discussed.

  18. Identification of a genetic marker that discriminates ocean-type and stream-type chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, C.; Ostberg, C.O.; Clifton, D.R.; Holloway, J.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A marker based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), OT-38, was discovered that nonlethally discriminates between stream-type and ocean-type populations of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin, including the threatened fall-run (ocean-type) and spring-run (stream-type) Snake River populations. This marker was developed by amplifying chinook salmon genomic DNA with a single RAPD primer, sequencing the termini of the polymorphic products, and designing primer pairs for allele-specific amplification. It was used to assay 18-80 individuals from several wild and hatchery populations differing in year-class, freshwater life history, and location along the Columbia River OT-38 unambiguously distinguished ocean-type from stream-type populations in 93.1% of the chinook salmon sampled.

  19. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  20. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  1. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  2. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  3. Falling Sticks and Falling Balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, M. E.; Harpst, Michael R.; Nakazawa, Ryohei

    2002-09-01

    The behavior of a falling stick, pivoted at one end, and a ball released from the same height as the end of the stick, is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The study is made possible through the use of the computer to perform the numerical computations and analysis of the experimental data. The study provides undergraduates with an opportunity to carry out a relatively simple project with interesting results.

  4. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis: An Additional Year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie; Larsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem is currently taking place to assist in recovery of the stock as juvenile Fall Chinook salmon are dependent upon the estuary. A pre-restoration baseline that includes characterization of life history types, estuary residence times, growth rates, and habitat use is needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and natural origin Chinook salmon to restoration efforts and determine restoration success. Otolith analysis was selected to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually Estuary. Previously funded work on wild samples collected in 2004 established the growth rate and length of residence associated with various habitats. The purpose of the current study is to build on the previous work by incorporating otolith microstructure analysis from 2005 (second sampling year), to verify findings from 2004, and to evaluate between-year variation in otolith microstructure. Our results from this second year of analysis indicated no inter-annual variation in the appearance of the tidal delta check (TDCK) and delta-flats check (DFCK). However, a new life history type (fry migrant) was observed on samples collected in 2005. Fish caught in the tidal delta regardless of capture date spent an average of 17 days in the tidal delta. There was a corresponding increase in growth rate as the fish migrated from freshwater (FW) to tidal delta to nearshore (NS) habitats. Fish grew 33 percent faster in the tidal delta than in FW habitat and slightly faster (14 percent) in the delta flats (DF) habitat compared to the tidal delta.

  5. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  7. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  8. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  9. Stressed Kevlar strand test

    SciTech Connect

    Golopol, H.; Clarkson, J.; Moore, R.; Hetherington, N.

    1981-09-10

    Kevlar is a polyaramid fiber used in fiber composites. In order to characterize this material, we determined the effect of time, temperature, and chemical environment on the strength retention of stressed Kevlar strands. In this work, we applied a stress load of 20% of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Strands were hung with a suitable weight in a closed container. Each container was then provided with its own heater and chemical environment. No significant loss of strength retention was found on these stressed strands. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  10. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's physical and mental well-being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, Marja J.; Rose, M. Sarah; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between chinook conditions and physical and psychological symptoms in women aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. The evidence for this relationship is at present merely anecdotal. The study carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary comprises the secondary analysis of a large survey of various health and health-related factors, including different symptoms, of urban women aged 20 49 years. The interview date was used to link these data to days on which pre-chinook, chinook, post-chinook and non-chinook conditions occurred. Between November 1, 1985 and February 28, 1986, 182 women were interviewed on pre-chinook days, 74 on chinook days, 229 on post-chinook days and 886 on non-chinook days. Autonomic reactions and skin disorders were found to be significantly related to chinook conditions. None of the psychological symptoms was related to chinook conditions. However, a significant relationship was found between symptoms and chinook conditions in women with a history of emotional disorders. This type of information is important to educate chinook-sensitive women and health professionals as well as for hospital emergency departments in order to be able to prepare for potential increases in workload.

  11. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Annual Report 2000 : Project Period 1 October 1999 to 30 November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Monzyk, Fred R.

    2002-06-01

    The authors determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout O. mykiss from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O.mykiss could be distinguished. An early migrant group left upper rearing areas from July through January with a peak in the fall. A late migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from February through June with a peak in the spring.

  12. Kidney disease postorbital lesions in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendricks, Jerry D.; Leek, Steve L.

    1975-01-01

    Gross exophthalmos in one or both eyes of yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was caused by postorbital, granulomatous inflammatory tissue that developed in response to invasion of the site by Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease.

  13. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-05-01

    . 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2002 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Hatchery reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  14. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  15. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  16. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  17. Release of persistent organic contaminants from carcasses of Lake Ontario Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Shaun; Metcalfe, Chris; Craine, Ian; Gross, Mart

    2006-03-01

    About 20,000 Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Lake Ontario enter the Credit River, Ontario, Canada every fall to spawn and die. In this study, samples of muscle and eggs collected from female Chinook salmon entering the Credit River contained total PCBs, DDT compounds and other organochlorine (OC) compounds at mug/kg concentrations. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at a reference site above the spawning grounds and at two downstream sites at intervals over a 14-month period that spanned two spawning runs. There was an increase in the concentrations of total PCBs, total DDT and other classes of OCs in the SPMDs deployed at the two downstream sites during and after both spawning runs; indicating that the decay of salmon releases contaminants into the river. Based upon the concentrations of contaminants in the salmon tissues, approximately 75 g of total PCBs and 35 g of total DDT compounds would be transported annually into the Credit River from this source.

  18. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin, Annual Report 2008 : Project Period 1 February 2008 to 31 January 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Yanke, Jeffrey A.; Alfonse, Brian M.; Bratcher, Kyle W.

    2009-07-31

    This study was designed to document and describe the status and life history strategies of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Subbasin. We determined migration timing, abundance, and life-stage survival rates for juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and summer steelhead O. mykiss in four streams during migratory year 2008 from 1 July 2007 through 30 June 2008. As observed in previous years of this study, spring Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibited fall and spring movements out of natal rearing areas, but did not begin their smolt migration through the Snake and lower Columbia River hydrosystem until spring. In this report we provide estimates of migrant abundance and migration timing for each study stream, and their survival and timing to Lower Granite Dam. We also document aquatic habitat conditions using water temperature and stream flow in four study streams in the subbasin.

  19. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  20. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  1. 75 FR 32378 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Data Collection; Workshop for Industry Review of Data Forms AGENCY... Bering Sea pollock trawl industry on data forms for evaluating the Bering Sea Chinook salmon bycatch... knowledgeable about industry plans and operations for avoiding Chinook salmon bycatch. DATES: The...

  2. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1985-10-01

    FY 1985 was the seventh year of an eight-year study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1985 as planned. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of September 30, 1985 are 85,222. This return is already larger than three of the past five years. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1983 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1983. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .41, .34, .07, 0, and .17 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brook fish caught are .05, .63, .30, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined are 2.7 and 3.6 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Four years (1980 to 1983) are included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and three years (1981 to 1983) for the 1970 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery has the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.3 and 12.8 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution is followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.5, 4.2, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 8.4, 6.7 and 4.7 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities have contributions per 1000 releases of approximately 2 or less. These contributions are minimums since all possible fisheries and catch years are not yet included.

  3. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  4. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than 1. ... and injury deaths. Fractures caused by falls can lead to hospital stays and disability. Most often, fall- ...

  5. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  6. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during the evaluation of a behavioral guidance structure at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Turbine passage was the most common passage route for tagged fish at Cowlitz Falls Dam during 2011. We found that 40 percent of the steelhead, 52 percent of the coho salmon, and 33 percent of the Chinook salmon passed through turbines. An additional 22 percent of the steelhead and 32 percent of the coho salmon passed through turbines or spillways when both passage routes were available. Fish collection numbers were relatively low during 2011 compared to long-term averages. In total, 37 percent of the steelhead, 14 percent of the coho salmon, and 23 percent of the Chinook salmon that entered the forebay were collected, primarily through collection flumes. The FSC collected a single radio-tagged fish (a Chinook salmon) in 2011.

  7. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate enhancement methodologies that can be used to rebuild runs of spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River basin. The objectives were to: (1) determine the abundance, distribution and survival of naturally produced fry and smolts in the Yakima River; (2) evaluate different methods of fry and smolt supplementation into the natural rearing environment while maintaining as much as possible the gentic integrity of naturally produced stocks; (3) locate and define areas in the watershed which may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; (4) define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and (5) determine physical and biological limitations for production within the system.

  8. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1989-12-01

    Smolt outmigration was monitored at Wapatox on the Naches River and Prosser on the lower Yakima. The survival from egg to smolt was calculated using the 1987 redd counts and the 1989 smolt outmigration at Prosser. Spring chinook were counted at Roza Dam from April 1 to September 29, 1989. The smolt to adult (S{sub sa}) survival will be calculated when scale analysis from spawner surveys is complete. Spring chinook adults from ten different experimental release groups were recovered in 1989. A total of 143 coded wire tags were recovered. This project is a multi-year undertaking that will evaluate different management and enhancement strategies. At the conclusion of this study, a series of alternatives will be developed that can be used to determine how best to enhance the runs of spring chinook in the Yakima Basin. 13 refs., 3 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. The relationship between chinook conditions and women's illness-related behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. Sarah; Verhoef, Marja J.; Ramcharan, Savitri

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to (1) to describe the relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviour in women, aged 20 49 years, and (2) to examine the possibility of the existence of subgroups of chinook-sensitive women. At present no empirical evidence is available regarding a relationship between chinook conditions and illness related behaviours. This study comprises the secondary analysis of a large survery of various health and health-related factors of urban women aged 20 49 years, carried out in 1985 1986 in Calgary. The interview date was used to link behaviours to chinook conditions. We found no evidence of a significant relationship between the behaviours investigated and chinook conditions in the general population. However, the data strongly supported the concept of chinook sensitivity. Women with a history of chronic health problems were more likely to visit a health care professional on chinook days than healthy women and women in the subgroup aged less than 35 years cut down their usual daily activities during chinook conditions. Women with a history of recurring migraine headaches were less likely to take prescription medication on chinook days, and women with a history of emotional disorders were more likely to have higher scores on the accident scale and to report bursts of energy or excitement during chinook days. More research is needed to identify subgroups of susceptible persons, as well as to determine whether chinook sensitive persons are equally susceptible to weather changer of other types.

  10. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  11. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with approximately 14

  12. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B.

    2005-05-01

    interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Topics of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocious male salmon monitoring (abundance); (4) performance of growth modulation in reducing precocious males during spawning; (5) incidence of predation by residualized chinook salmon; and (6) benefits of salmon carcasses to juvenile salmonids. This report is organized into six chapters to represent these topics of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2004 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003; 2004). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  13. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of endemic fish stocks

  14. The Fall and Fall of Gary Hart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    The fall of Gary Hart, brought about because of his indiscretions during the 1988 presidential campaign, should not be treated exclusively as a consequence of Hart's moral failings. Rather, the fall of Hart can be traced to a complex of factors including bad judgment, the near total control that the press exercises over the political agenda, and…

  15. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  16. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  17. Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Redd Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2014-02-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in outmigrant juvenile chinook salmon from the Lower Columbia Estuary, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lyndal L; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Kagley, Anna N; Arkoosh, Mary R; Lundrigan, Tricia A; Larson, Kim; Siipola, Mark; Collier, Tracy K

    2007-03-15

    Although chemical contaminants are recognized as a potential factor contributing to the salmon declines in the Pacific Northwest, United States, information on contaminant concentrations in threatened and endangered salmon from the Columbia Estuary is limited. In this study we monitored exposure to several persistent organic pollutants [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and other organochlorine pesticides] in outmigrant juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Lower Columbia River, and evaluated the potential for adverse effects on salmon and the estuarine food web. Contaminants were measured in whole bodies and stomach contents of subyearling to yearling chinook collected in 2001 and 2002 from sites near the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Longview, and within the lower Estuary. The contaminants detected at highest concentrations in salmon whole bodies were PCBs and DDTs. Average concentrations of PCBs in salmon from the sampling sites ranged from 1300 to 14,000 ng/g lipid, in some cases exceeding the recently estimated threshold for adverse health effects in juvenile salmonids of 2400 ng/g lipid. Average DDT concentrations ranged from 1800 to 27,000 ng/g lipid. These levels are among the highest measured in juvenile salmon from Pacific Northwest estuaries to date. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in salmon whole bodies showed no clear spatial gradient from the Willamette/Columbia Confluence to the mouth of the Columbia, but tended to be higher in larger fish and older fish, suggesting a correlation with estuarine residence time. PCBs, DDTs, and PAHs were all found in salmon stomach contents, indicating that prey is a source of exposure. Hatchery feed may have contributed to contaminant body burdens in those fish that were of hatchery origin. Contaminant body burdens in salmon were poorly correlated with contaminant concentrations previously

  19. Effects of Acoustic Transmitters on the Swimming Performance and Predator Avoidance of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Anglea, Steven M.; Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Mcdonald, Robert D.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were negatively influenced by the implantation of acoustic transmitters. The critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of tagged fish, sham (surgery but no tag), and control fish was measured in a respirometer to determine tag effects on swimming performance. Predator avoidance was evaluated by comparing the proportion of each treatment group eaten: active tag, inactive tag, sham, and control after being exposed to piscivorous adult rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Results from this study demonstrated that the surgical implantation of acoustic tags in juvenile fall chinook salmon does not significantly affect swimming performance. Swimming performance was similar between treatment groups (control, sham, and inactive tag) at 1- and 21-day post-surgery intervals. Critical swimming speeds for all treatment groups were similar to values reported in the literature. Implantation of acoustic transmitters (active and inactive) did not result in tagged fish being more susceptible to predation over untagged fish. Percentages of each prey group consumed in each of the four trials were highly variable and demonstrated no obvious selection preference by adult rainbow trout. In summary, measurable differences were not found between tagged and un-tagged fish, however, trends were consistent in the two experiments with tagged fish consistently performing slightly worse than un-tagged fish. We conclude that based on the current body of knowledge and findings of the present study, fish implanted with an acoustic tag perform and/or behave similarly to the population-at-large recognizing that subtle differences exist in the behavior of tagged fish.

  20. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  1. 78 FR 18967 - Walla Walla Basin Spring Chinook Hatchery Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), BPA intends to prepare an EIS on its decision whether to fund the Confederated... spring Chinook population. With this Notice of Intent, BPA is initiating the public scoping process...

  2. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The smelt outmigration was monitored at wapatox on the Naches River and Prosser on the lower Yakima. The spring outmigration at Wapatox was estimated to be 16,141 smolts. The 1987 spring outmigration of wild spring chinook from the Yakima Basin was estimated to be 251,975 smolts at Prosser. The survival from egg to smelt was calculated using the 1985 redd counts and the 1987 smolt outmigration at Prosser. The estimated survival was 4.16%, which gives a mean egg to smolt survival over four years of 6.32%. In 1987 a total of 3,683 adult and 335 jack spring chinook salmon returning to the Yakima River were counted at Prosser fish ladder. This gives a total of 4,018 salmon returning to Prosser Dam. The median dates of passage were May 12 and May 16 for adults and jacks respectively. An additional 372 fish were estimated to have been caught in the Yakima River subsistence dipnet fishery below Horn Rapids and Prosser Dams. Therefore, total return to the Yakima system was 4,390 spring chinook salmon. Spring chinook were counted at Roza Dam from May 1 to September 30, 1987. Passage at Roza Dam was 1,610 adult and 67 jack spring chinook for a total of 1,677 wild fish. The median dates of passage at Roza Dam were May 29 and May 26 for spring chinook adults and jacks respectively. The smolt to adult (S{sub sa}) survival was calculated based on the 1983 smelt outmigration estimated at Prosser and the 1984 return of jacks (3 year old fish) the 1985 return of four year old adults, and the 1986 return of five year old fish to the Yakima River. It was estimated that 6,012 wild three, four, and five year old fish returned from an estimated smolt outmigration of 135,548 fish in 1983. This gives an estimated survival from smolt to adult of 4.4%. The smolt to adult survival for the 1984 smolt outmigration was 5.3% with 423 jacks returning in 1985, 5,163 four year old adults returning in 1986, and 983 five year old fish returning in 1987 fran an estimated 123,732 smolts in 1984. Spring

  3. Meteorite Falls in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.

    2016-08-01

    The number of meteorite falls reported in Morocco since 2000 is highest than any other place compared to the other countries in the world, that call into question the efficiency of the randomly meteorite falls on Earth.

  4. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  5. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 5 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B.

    2004-05-01

    is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2003 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  6. Comparisons of spawning areas and times for two runs of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Kenai River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Wilmot, R.L.; Wangaard, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982,188 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were tagged with radio transmitters to locate spawning areas in the glacial Kenai River, southcentral Alaska. Results confirmed that an early run entered the river in May and June and spawned in tributaries, and a late run entered the river from late June through August and spawned in the main stem. Spawning peaked during August in tributaries influenced by lakes, but during July in other tributaries. Lakes may have increased fall and winter temperatures of downstream waters, enabling successful reproduction for later spawning fish within these tributaries. This hypothesis assumes that hatching and emergence can be completed in a shorter time in lake-influenced waters. The time of upstream migration and spawning (mid- to late August) of the late run is unique among chinook stocks in Cook Inlet. This behavior may have developed only because two large lakes (Kenai and Skilak) directly influence the main-stem Kenai River. If run timing is genetically controlled, and if the various components of the two runs are isolated stocks that have adapted to predictable stream temperatures, there are implications for stock transplantation programs and for any activities of man that alter stream temperatures.

  7. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  8. 75 FR 20815 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and to Conduct San Joaquin River Chinook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... the potential impacts of the proposed reintroduction of spring-run Chinook salmon to the mainstem of... proposed action is to reintroduce spring-run Chinook salmon into the mainstem of the San Joaquin River... population for spring-run Chinook salmon within the San Joaquin River from below the confluence with...

  9. 2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A.

    2006-01-01

    During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of

  10. Manchester Spring Chinook Broodstock Project : Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Wastel, Michael R.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2000-11-01

    In spring 1995 the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) initiated captive broodstocks as part of conservation efforts for ESA-listed stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The need for this captive broodstock strategy was identified as critical in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Proposed Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon. These captive broodstock programs are being coordinated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Chinook Salmon Captive Propagation Technical Oversight Committee (CSCPTOC). Oregon's Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstock program currently focuses on three stocks captured as juveniles from the Grande Ronde River Basin: the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and the Lostine River. Idaho's Snake River program includes three stocks captured as eggs and juveniles from the Salmon River Basin: the Lemhi River, East Fork Salmon River, and West Fork Yankee Fork. The majority of captive fish from each stock of the Grande Ronde Basin will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the ODFW Bonneville Hatchery. A minority of the Salmon River Basin stocks will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the IDFG Eagle Hatchery. However, the IDFG and ODFW requested that a portion of each group also be reared in protective culture in seawater. In August 1996, NMFS began a BPA funded project (Project 96-067-00) to rear Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstocks in seawater at the NMFS Manchester Research Station. During 1997-1999, facilities modifications were undertaken at Manchester to provide secure facilities for rearing of these ESA-listed fish. This included construction of a building housing a total of twenty 6.1-m diameter fiberglass rearing tanks, upgrade of the Manchester salt water pumping and filtration/sterilization systems to a total capacity of 5,670 L/min (1,500 gpm), and installation

  11. Fall Enrollment Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Every year Iowa's 15 community college districts submit data on students enrolled on the 10th day of the fall semester. Highlights include: (1) Enrollment grew at its fastest pace since 1975 to a record high of 100,736 students; (2) Year-to-year growth was 14.3 percent, which is…

  12. Experiments in Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Albert

    2006-01-01

    A model lift containing a figure of Albert Einstein is released from the side of a tall building and its free fall is arrested by elastic ropes. This arrangement allows four simple experiments to be conducted in the lift to demonstrate the effects of free fall and show how they can lead to the concept of the equivalence of inertial and…

  13. Learning From Falling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joh, Amy, S.; Adolph, Karen, E.

    2006-01-01

    Walkers fall frequently, especially during infancy. Children (15, 21, 27, 33, and 39 month-olds) and adults were tested in a novel foam pit paradigm to examine age-related changes in the relationship between falling and prospective control of locomotion. In trial 1, participants walked and fell into a deformable foam pit marked with distinct…

  14. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  15. Fall Leaf Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  16. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... selecting these PSC limits, the Council considered the trade-offs between the potential Chinook salmon saved... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and... when the limits were reached (60 FR 31215; November 29, 1995). In 2000, the Council and...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  2. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  3. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  4. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  5. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  6. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  7. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  8. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  9. 50 CFR Table 47b to Part 679 - Percent of the AFA Mothership Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual... Sector's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and... of Chinook salmon for the opt-out allocation (2,220) Column F Number of Chinook salmon for the...

  10. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  11. Migratory behavior of Chinook salmon microjacks reared in artificial and natural environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Emigration was evaluated for hatchery Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) microjacks (age-1 mature males) and immature parr (age-1 juveniles, both sexes) released from both a hatchery and a natural stream (fish released as fry). In the hatchery, volitional releases (∼14 to 15 months post-fertilization) to an adjacent river occurred during October–November. The hatchery release was monitored by using an experimental volitional release that diverted fish to a neighboring raceway. Fish captured during the experimental release (range 361–4,321 volitional migrants) were made up of microjacks and immature parr. Microjacks were found only in the migrant samples, averaged 18% (range 0–52%) of all migrants, and were rarely found in non-migrant samples. In comparison, immature parr were common in both the migrant and non-migrant samples. Microjacks were significantly longer (9%), heavier (36%), and had a greater condition factor (16%) than migrant immature parr (P<0.01). In addition, they differed significantly (P<0.01) from non-migrant immature parr; 10% longer, 44% heavier and 14% greater condition factor. In natural streams, microjacks were captured significantly earlier (P<0.01) than immature parr during the late-summer/fall migration and comprised 9–89% of all fish captured. Microjacks have the potential to contribute to natural spawning populations but can also represent a loss of productivity to hatchery programs or create negative effects by introducing non-native genes to wild populations and should be monitored by fishery managers.

  12. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-06-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field.

  13. Pre-impact fall detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  14. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  15. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012-February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.

    2014-01-01

    The in-reservoir movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were studied at Detroit Reservoir and Dam, near Detroit, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. The goal of the study was to provide data to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives and factors affecting downstream passage rates with the existing dam configuration. In 2012, 468 juvenile Chinook salmon and 200 juvenile steelhead were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 514 juvenile Chinook salmon were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the fall. The fish were surgically implanted with a small acoustic transmitter with an expected life of about 3 months and a passive integrated transponder tag with an indefinite life, and were released into the two main tributaries several kilometers upstream of the reservoir. Juvenile Chinook salmon migrated from the release sites to the reservoir in a greater proportion than juvenile steelhead, but once in the reservoir, juvenile steelhead migrated to the forebay faster and had a higher dam passage rate than juvenile Chinook salmon. The routes available for passing water and fish varied throughout the year, with low reservoir elevations in winter and high reservoir elevations in summer in accordance with the flood-control purpose of the dam. Most dam passage was through the spillway during the spring and summer, when the reservoir elevation was high and the spillway and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation, and via the powerhouse during the fall and winter period, when the reservoir elevation was low and the regulating outlet and powerhouse were the most common routes in operation. Few tagged fish passed when the powerhouse was the only route in operation. Dam passage rates during the spring and summer were greatest at night, increased with dam discharge, and were greater when water was passed freely over the

  16. Seneca Falls. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balantic, Jeannette; Libresco, Andrea S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a secondary school lesson based on the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Provides lesson objectives and step-by-step instructional procedures. Includes quoted sections of the Declaration of Sentiments. (CFR)

  17. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara; Heilbrun, Margaret; Kuzyk, Raya; Kim, Ann; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Burns, Ann; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    From the fall's cascade of great new books, "Library Journal's" editors select their favorites--a dark rendition of Afghan life, a look at the "self-esteem trap," a celebration of Brooklyn activism, and much more.

  18. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  19. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  20. 6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NARADA FALLS, WITH FIRST CROSSING BRIDGE SHOWN ABOVE FALLS, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  1. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  2. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  3. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    PubMed

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  4. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  5. Impact of stressors on transmission potential of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Winton, James R.

    2014-01-01

    DNA in fish dually-infected with R. salmoninarum. Overall, results in Aim 1 indicated: 1) that the experimental diets impacted bacterial but not parasitic infection patterns, 2) that low thiamine levels may reduce the severity of R. salmoninarum infection, and 3) that fish infected with R. salmoninarum may be less able to clear a secondary infection with a parasite. The second study (Aim 2) focused on the role that temperature plays in the progression of BKD from the asymptomatic infected state to a diseased state. Lake Michigan Chinook salmon were infected with R. salmoninarum at a common intermediate water temperature and, at 2 weeks post-infection, were split into three temperature groups (cool, intermediate and warm). Fish held at the cool temperature (8°C) had significantly greater mortality following challenge, significantly higher levels of bacteria in the kidney, and shed significantly greater amounts of bacteria into the water relative to fish held at the intermediate (12°C) and warm (15°C) temperatures. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that, for BKD, warm temperature stress does not contribute to greater disease progression and increased bacterial shedding. Our laboratory results are consistent with field epidemiological observations that BKD mortality in the Great Lakes is commonly associated with declining water temperatures in the fall or when water temperatures begin to increase but are still cool after over-wintering. 

  6. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOEpatents

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  7. Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?

    PubMed

    Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts.

  8. Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?

    PubMed

    Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts. PMID:24924389

  9. Behavior and passage of juvenile salmonids during the evaluation of a behavioral guidance structure at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Tagged fish that arrived at Cowlitz Falls Dam were distributed across the dam face but a high percentage of each species (65 percent of steelhead; 61 percent of coho salmon; 71 percent of Chinook salmon) arrived on the northern side of the dam. Movement probabilities near spillbays 1 and 4 showed a strong preference for tagged fish to move from the outer edges of the dam towards the center of the dam where they were detected at the debris barrier (range of probabilities = 0.690–0.841). We found that 76 percent of the steelhead, 61 percent of the coho salmon, and 92 percent of the Chinook salmon were detected at spillbays 2 or 3 during the study. This

  10. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  11. Maneuver of juvenile chinook salmon during feeding in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jifeng

    2010-11-01

    Before they head to the ocean, juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha habitat in freshwater rivers and feed on small invertebrates drifting in streams. During drift-feeding, these fish hold fairly steady positions in the flow facing upstream, and maneuver to intercept drifting prey as it passes. They have a large arsenal of maneuver modes, which presumably enable them to maximize prey encounter while keeping energy expense low. Moreover, because these fish often gather in schools, they utilize their maneuvers so that they do not invade others' territories. In this study, we measured three-dimensional motion of juvenile chinook salmon in situ during feeding. The kinematics of some of the widely-used maneuvers, including slow lateral motion, sharp U-shaped turn and fast S-shaped turn, were analyzed. A computational model based on ideal fluid theory was developed to estimate the dynamics of these maneuvers. Energetics of the maneuvers was evaluated, together with effects on prey encounter, in order to compare and explain the choices of maneuvers in different situations. The effects of neighbors in a fish school on individual maneuvers were also studied.

  12. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P Mark; Gemmell, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  13. Assimilation efficiency of PBDE congeners in Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Joseph P; Strickland, Stacy A; Hutchinson, Greg P; Van Gaest, Ahna L; Krupkin, Alex B; Ylitalo, Gina M; Arkoosh, Mary R

    2015-03-17

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are environmental contaminants that can accumulate in biota. PBDE accumulation in an organism depends on exposure, assimilation efficiency, and elimination/metabolism. Net assimilation efficiency represents the fraction of the contaminant that is retained in the organism after exposure. In the present study, congener-specific estimates of net PBDE assimilation efficiencies were calculated from dietary exposures of juvenile Chinook salmon. The fish were exposed to one to eight PBDE congeners up to 1500 ng total PBDEs/g food. Mean assimilation efficiencies varied from 0.32 to 0.50 for BDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154. The assimilation efficiency of BDE49 was significantly greater than 100%, suggesting biotransformation from higher brominated congeners. Whole body concentrations of BDE49 significantly increased with both exposure to increasing concentrations of BDE99 and decreasing fish lipid levels, implying lipid-influenced debromination of BDE99 to BDE49. Excluding BDE49, PBDE assimilation efficiency was not significantly related to the numbers of congeners in the diets, or congener hydrophobicity, but was greater in foods with higher lipid levels. Estimates of PBDE assimilation efficiency can be used in bioaccumulation models to assess threats from PBDE exposure to Chinook salmon health and recovery efforts, as well as to their predators. PMID:25692390

  14. Oxidative stress in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welker, T.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), were held in 8-11??C freshwater, starved for 3 days and subjected to a low-water stressor to determine the relationship between the general stress response and oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels (lipid hydroperoxides) were measured in kidney, liver and brain samples taken at the beginning of the experiment (0-h unstressed controls) and at 6, 24 and 48 h after application of a continuous low-water stressor. Tissue samples were also taken at 48 h from fish that had not been exposed to the stressor (48-h unstressed controls). Exposure to the low-water stressor affected LPO in kidney and brain tissues. In kidney, LPO decreased 6 h after imposition of the stressor; similar but less pronounced decreases also occurred in the liver and brain. At 48 h, LPO increased (in comparison with 6-h stressed tissues) in the kidney and brain. In comparison with 48-h unstressed controls, LPO levels were higher in the kidney and brain of stressed fish. Although preliminary, results suggest that stress can cause oxidative tissue damage in juvenile chinook salmon. Measures of oxidative stress have shown similar responses to stress in mammals; however, further research is needed to determine the extent of the stress-oxidative stress relationship and the underlying physiological mechanisms in fish.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Ovarian Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Villarroel, Marsha; Rosengrave, Patrice; Carne, Alan; Kleffmann, Torsten; Lokman, P. Mark; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species. PMID:25089903

  16. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Ontogeny of the stress response in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Whole body concentrations of cortisol were determined via radioimmunoassay in chinook salmon, Onchorynchus tshawytscha, during early development in both stressed and non-stressed fish to determine when the corticosteroidogenic stress response first appeared. Progeny from both pooled and individual females were examined to determine if differences existed in offspring from different females. Levels of cortisol were low in eyed eggs, increased at hatch, decreased 2 weeks later and then remained constant thereafter. Differences in cortisol between stressed and control fish were found 1 week after hatch and persisted for the remainder of the study. The magnitude of the stress response, or relative amount of cortisol produced, generally increased from the time when it was first detected, but a decrease in the ability to elicit cortisol was seen 4 weeks after hatching. Cortisol content of separate progeny from two individual females showed a similar pattern to that seen in pooled eggs. Our results indicate that chinook salmon are capable of producing cortisol following a stressful event approximately 1 week after the time of hatching. The decrease in endogenous cortisol content seen 2 weeks after hatching, and the decrease in the magnitude of the stress response seen 4 weeks after hatching may be comparable to developmental events documented in mammals where corticosteroid synthesis is inhibited to neutralize possible detrimental effects of these hormones during critical periods of development.

  18. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Weldert, Rey F.; Crump, Carrie A.

    2003-03-01

    This is the fifth annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation techniques are being used to restore spring chinook salmon fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2002: (1) Plan for, administer, coordinate and assist comanagers in GRESCP M&E activities. (2) Evaluate performance of supplemented juvenile spring chinook salmon. (3) Evaluate life history differences between wild and hatchery-origin (F{sub 1}) adult spring chinook salmon. (4) Describe life history characteristics and genetics of adult summer steelhead collected at weirs.

  20. Falling into Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that connects art, science, and nature in which elementary school students learn about deciduous trees. Explains that students create a torn-tissue collage, using fall colors for a background and drawing a silhouette of a tree without leaves on top of the background with black crayon. (CMK)

  1. Education and Falling Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurow, Lester C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses why today's American workforce is experiencing falling wages and suggests that the answer to reversing this trend lies in improving the American education system to world class levels. Suggests the need to develop a postsecondary training system for those who do not go on to college, and highlights ways this might be implemented. (GR)

  2. Fall 2013 International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Fall report is an aggregated statistical analysis of Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) data from international schools. The report provides a consistent means of comparisons of specific sub-groups by subject and grade, which allows partners to compare their MAP® results with other schools within their region or membership organization.…

  3. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  4. The News, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This fall 2002 newsletter from the Community College League of California contains several articles, news stories, and the brochure from the 2002 Annual Convention, "Celebrating the Way California LEARNS." Articles include: (1) "Nursing Shortage Poses Dilemma for Colleges: Access vs. Efficiency," a discussion of the debate over how to increase the…

  5. Editors' Fall Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  6. Precision Falling Body Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.; Koenig, R.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a simple apparatus to determine acceleration due to gravity. It utilizes direct contact switches in lieu of conventional photocells to time the fall of a ball bearing. Accuracies to better than one part in a thousand were obtained. (SL)

  7. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may

  8. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  9. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  10. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  11. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  12. Investigations into the Early History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period September 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Johasson, Brian C.; Tranquilli, J. Vincent; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1998-10-28

    We have documented two general life history strategies utilized by juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin: (1) juveniles migrate downstream out of summer rearing areas in the fall, overwinter in river valley habitats, and begin their seaward migration in the spring, and (2) juveniles remain in summer rearing areas through the winter and begin seaward migration in the spring. In migration year 96-97, the patterns evident from migrant trap data were similar for the three Grande Ronde River populations studied, with 42% of the Lostine River migrants and 76% of the Catherine Creek migrants leaving upper rearing areas in the fall. Contrary to past years, the majority (98%) of upper Grande Ronde River migrants moved out in the fall. Total trap catch for the upper Grande Ronde River was exceedingly low (29 salmon), indicating that patterns seen this year may be equivocal. As in previous years, approximately 99% of chinook salmon juveniles moved past our trap at the lower end of the Grande Ronde River valley in the spring, reiterating that juvenile chinook salmon overwinter within the Grande Ronde valley section of the river. PIT-tagged fish were recaptured at Grande Ronde River traps and mainstem dams. Recapture data showed that fish that overwintered in valley habitats left as smolts and arrived at Lower Granite Dam earlier than fish that overwintered in upstream rearing areas. Fish from Catherine Creek that overwintered in valley habitats were recaptured at the dams at a higher rate than fish that overwintered upstream. In this first year of data for the Lostine River, fish tagged during the fall migration were detected at a similar rate to fish that overwintered upstream. Abundance estimates for migration year 96-97 were 70 for the upper Grande Ronde River, 4,316 for the Catherine Creek, and 4,323 for the Lostine River populations. Although present in most habitats, juvenile spring chinook salmon were found in the greatest abundance in pool

  13. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24.9 grams

  14. Reduction in falling after a falls-assessment.

    PubMed

    Hansma, A H G; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this single-center retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary falls-assessment, consisting of identification and possible modification of risk factors for falls, on the frequency of falls among elderly individuals attending the geriatric outpatient department of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht, the Netherlands. The characteristics of 70 elderly people who visited the outpatient department because of a fall in the period from May 2005 till February 2007 were evaluated. The effectiveness of the falls-assessment was evaluated by telephone interview of those individuals who had attended the falls-assessment. Fifty-three patients (mean age=79.8 years) were interviewed after a mean+/-S.D. of 1.47+/-0.41 years (ranging 0.72-2.34 years) subsequent to the falls-assessment. Falls-assessment led to significantly fewer falls, from 3.78+/-4.66 at the time of the assessment at baseline to 1.10+/-1.86 at the time of the interview (p=0.000041). Fear of falling was also significantly diminished. In conclusion, falls-assessment leads to fewer falls and less fear of falling among elderly individuals.

  15. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1984-1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron; Li, Hiram W.

    1985-09-21

    Fish were collected from 60 stocks of chinook salmon and 62 stocks of steelhead trout. Electrophoretic analyses were completed on 43 stocks of chinook salmon and 41 stocks of steelhead trout and meristic counts were completed on 43 stocks of chinook and 41 stocks of steelhead. Statistical comparisons between year classes of our electrophoretic data indicate that most enzyme systems are stable over time but some may be dynamic and should be used with caution in our analyses. We also compared neighboring stocks of both spring chinook and steelhead trout. These comparisons were between stocks of the same race from adjacent stream systems and/or hatcheries. Differences in isozyme gene frequencies can be used to estimate genetic segregation between pairs of stocks. Analysis of the chinook data suggests that, as expected, the number of statistically significant differences in isozyme gene frequencies increases as the geographic distance between stocks increases. The results from comparisons between adjacent steelhead stocks were inconclusive and must await final analysis with more data. Cluster analyses using either isozyme gene frequencies or meristic characters both tended to group the chinook and steelhead stocks by geographic areas and by race and both methods resulted in generally similar grouping patterns. However, cluster analyses using isozyme gene frequencies produced more clusters than the analyses using meristic characters probably because of the greater number of electrophoretic characters compared to the number of meristic characters. Heterozygosity values for each stock were computed using the isozyme gene frequencies. The highest heterozygosity values for chinook were observed in summer chinook and the hatchery stocks while the lowest values were observed in the spring chinook and wild stocks. The results of comparisons of heterozygosity values among areas were inconclusive. The steelhead heterozygosity values were higher in the winter stocks than in the

  16. Synchronous cycling of Ichthyophoniasis with Chinook salmon density revealed during the annual Yukon River spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuray, Stanley; Kocan, Richard; Hershberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Yukon River declined by more than 57% between 2003 and 2010, probably the result of a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors. One possible contributor to this decline is Ichthyophonus, a mesomycetozoan parasite that has previously been implicated in significant losses of fish, including Chinook salmon. A multiyear epidemiological study of ichthyophoniasis in the Yukon River revealed that disease prevalence and Chinook salmon population abundance increased and decreased simultaneously (i.e., were concordant) from 1999 to 2010. The two values rose and fell synchronously 91% of the time for female Chinook salmon and 82% of the time for males; however, there was no significant correlation between Ichthyophonus prevalence and population abundance. This synchronicity might be explained by a single factor, such as a prey item that is critical to Chinook salmon survival as well as a source of Ichthyophonus infection. The host–parasite relationship between Ichthyophonus and migrating Chinook salmon from 2004 to 2010 was similar to that reported for the previous 5 years. During 2004–2010, overall disease prevalence was significantly higher among females (21%) than among males (8%), increased linearly with fish length for both males and females, and increased in both sexes as the fish progressed upriver. These regularly occurring features of host–parasite dynamics confirm a stable base of transmission for Ichthyophonus. However, from 2003 to 2010, disease prevalence decreased from 30% to just 8% in males and from 45% to 9% in females, paralleling a similar decline in Chinook salmon abundance during the same period. These findings may help clarify questions regarding the complex host–parasite dynamics that occur in marine species such as herrings Clupea spp., which have less well-defined population structures.

  17. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  18. `In free fall'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Physicists in the lead of a fiction book or a play, that's a rare event! Writers in general do not understand physics, while physicists seldom have the talent of writing for a large audience. So when it happens, we should rejoice. The up-and-coming German author Juli Zeh [1] (1974), who studied law, has succeeded in combining beautiful prose, psychological drama, crime and physics in a challenging book `In free fall' [2]. A good friend of hers, Bettina Bruinier, has put the core message of the book into a compelling play in the `Volkstheater' in Munich [1]. Yes, it can be done.

  19. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  20. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  1. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  2. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  3. 50 CFR Table 47d to Part 679 - Percent of the CDQ Program's Pollock Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount... Allocation, Numbers of Chinook Salmon Used To Calculate the Opt-Out Allocation and Annual Threshold Amount...) Column A Column B Percent ofCDQ Program pollock Column C Number ofChinook salmon for the...

  4. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  5. 76 FR 72384 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Gulf of Alaska Pollock Fishery... Alaska (GOA) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). NMFS would close the directed pollock fishery... salmon in the Central and Western GOA pollock fisheries until an observer is provided the opportunity...

  6. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... undermining the conservation and management objectives of the fishery management plans. Moreover, the public... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic... Off Alaska; Chinook ] Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic...

  7. 76 FR 20302 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... FR ] 11482, 11493; March 9, 1998), and we use it exclusively for defining distinct population... coast Chinook salmon populations that defined the Upper Klamath and Trinity Rivers Chinook salmon ESU as... West Ocean Blvd., Suite 4200, Long Beach, CA 90802-4213. Instructions: All comments received are a...

  8. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  9. Spatial consistency of chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Katherine J.C.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Henning, Julie A.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale temporal and spatial data collected during biweekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991–2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008–2009 (100–500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held GPS synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook Salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, 5 years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years. Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations. On a finer temporal scale, we observed that Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week. Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009. Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook Salmon spawning surveys.

  10. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  11. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead).

  12. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  13. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass Creek, an

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of an emergent strand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.; Witte, L. C.; Hedgcoxe, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the heat transfer characteristics of a hot strand emerging into a surrounding coolant. A stable strand of constant efflux velocity is analyzed, with a constant (average) heat transfer coefficient on the sides and leading surface of the strand. After developing a suitable governing equation to provide an adequate description of the physical system, the dimensionless governing equation is solved with Laplace transform methods. The solution yields the temperature within the strand as a function of axial distance and time. Generalized results for a wide range of parameters are presented, and the relationship of the results and experimental observations is discussed.

  16. High incidence of a male-specific genetic marker in phenotypic female chinook salmon from the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Nagler, J J; Bouma, J; Thorgaard, G H; Dauble, D D

    2001-01-01

    Numerous populations of anadromous salmonids in the northwestern United States have been declining for many years, resulting in Endangered Species Act listings and in some cases extinction. The degradation of river ecosystems has been proposed as one of the major reasons for the inability of salmon to maintain their populations. However, the specific factors interfering with the reproduction and survival of salmon during the freshwater phase of their life cycle have not been fully described. This study was initiated to determine the incidence of phenotypic sex reversal in wild, fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) that returned to spawn in the Columbia River. Fish were sampled at different locations within this watershed to determine whether they were faithfully expressing their genotype. We report a high incidence (84%) of a genetic marker for the Y chromosome in phenotypic females sampled from the wild, which was not observed in female fish raised in hatcheries. It appears likely that female salmon with a male genotype have been sex reversed, creating the potential for an abnormal YY genotype in the wild that would produce all-male offspring and alter sex ratios significantly.

  17. Prey availability, consumption, and quality contribute to variation in growth of subyearling Chinook Salmon rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; St. John, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined prey availability, prey consumed, and diet energy content as sources of variation in growth of natural fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings rearing in riverine and reservoir habitats in the Snake River. Subyearlings in riverine habitat primarily consumed aquatic insects (e.g., Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera), of which a high proportion was represented by adult, terrestrial forms. In the reservoir, subyearlings also consumed aquatic insects but also preyed heavily at times on nonnative lentic amphipods Corophium spp. and the mysid Neomysis mercedis, which were absent in riverine habitats. The availability of prey was typically much higher in the reservoir due to N. mercedis often composing over 90% of the biomass, but when this taxon was removed from consideration, biomass estimates were more often higher in the riverine habitat. Subyearling diets during 2009–2011 were generally 17–40% higher in energy in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Observed growth in both length and weight were significantly higher in the riverine habitat than in the reservoir. Little is known about how temporal and spatial changes in the food web in large river landscapes influence populations of native anadromous fishes. Our results provide a glimpse of how the spread and establishment of nonnative prey species can reduce juvenile salmon growth in a large river impoundment, which in turn can affect migration timing and survival.

  18. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  19. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  20. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  1. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  2. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  3. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.205 Critical habitat...

  4. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  5. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  6. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2012 - February 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Evans, Scott D.; Haner, Philip V.; Hatton, Tyson; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin

    2014-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon, during 2012 and 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control reservoir with a temperature control tower as its outlet enabling selective withdrawals of water at various depths to control the temperature of water passed downstream. This report describes the second year of a 2-year study with the goal of providing information to inform decisions about future downstream passage alternatives. Inferences were based on the behavior of yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters. The fish were released near the head of the reservoir during the spring (March, April, and May) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2012. Most tagged fish were of hatchery origin (468 spring, 449 fall) because of the low number of wild fish captured from within the reservoir (0 spring, 65 fall). Detections at hydrophones placed in several lines across the reservoir and within a collective system used to estimate three-dimensional positions near the temperature control tower were used to determine fish behavior and factors affecting dam passage rates. Most tagged fish made repeated non-random migrations from one end of the reservoir to the other and took a median of 3.7–11.7 days to travel about 7 kilometers from the release site to within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, depending on season and origin. Reservoir passage efficiency (percentage of tagged fish detected at the head of the forebay) was 97.8 percent for hatchery fish and 74.2 percent for wild fish. Tagged fish commonly were within about 100 meters of the temperature control tower, and often spent considerable time near the entrance to the tower; however, the dam passage efficiency (percentage of dam passage of fish detected at the head of the forebay) was low for fish released during the spring (11.1 percent) and

  7. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  8. Multigenerational outbreeding effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Love, Oliver P; Pitcher, Trevor E; Higgs, Dennis M; Heath, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Outbreeding, mating between genetically divergent individuals, may result in negative fitness consequences for offspring via outbreeding depression. Outbreeding effects are of notable concern in salmonid research as outbreeding can have major implications for salmon aquaculture and conservation management. We therefore quantified outbreeding effects in two generations (F1 hybrids and F2 backcrossed hybrids) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) derived from captively-reared purebred lines that had been selectively bred for differential performance based on disease resistance and growth rate. Parental lines were crossed in 2009 to create purebred and reciprocal hybrid crosses (n = 53 families), and in 2010 parental and hybrid crosses were crossed to create purebred and backcrossed hybrid crosses (n = 66 families). Although we found significant genetic divergence between the parental lines (FST = 0.130), reciprocal F1 hybrids showed no evidence of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown) or favorable heterosis for weight, length, condition or survival. The F2 backcrossed hybrids showed no outbreeding depression for a suite of fitness related traits measured from egg to sexually mature adult life stages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of outbreeding effects in salmonids and supports the need for more research to better comprehend the mechanisms driving outbreeding depression. PMID:24952720

  9. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  10. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  11. Modeling population responses of Chinook and coho salmon to suspended sediment using a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Araujo, H Andres; Cooper, Andrew B; MacIsaac, Erland A; Knowler, Duncan; Velez-Espino, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    This study develops a quantitative framework for estimating the effects of extreme suspended-sediment events (SSC>25 mg L(-1)) on virtual populations of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon in a coastal watershed of British Columbia, Canada. We used a life history model coupled with a dose-response model to evaluate the populations' responses to a set of simulated suspended sediments scenarios. Our results indicate that a linear increase in SSC produces non-linear declining trajectories in both Chinook and coho populations, but this decline was more evident for Chinook salmon despite their shorter fresh-water residence. The model presented here can provide insights into SSC impacts on population responses of salmonids and potentially assist resource managers when planning conservation or remediation strategies. PMID:25963631

  12. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  13. Preventing falls and fall-related injuries in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David; Healey, Frances; Haines, Terry P

    2010-11-01

    Falls are a widespread concern in hospitals settings, with whole hospital rates of between 3 and 5 falls per 1000 bed-days representing around a million inpatient falls occurring in the United States each year. Between 1% and 3% of falls in hospitals result in fracture, but even minor injuries can cause distress and delay rehabilitation. Risk factors most consistently found in the inpatient population include a history of falling, muscle weakness, agitation and confusion, urinary incontinence or frequency, sedative medication, and postural hypotension. Based on systematic reviews, recent research, and clinical and ethical considerations, the most appropriate approach to fall prevention in the hospital environment includes multifactorial interventions with multiprofessional input. There is also some evidence that delirium avoidance programs, reducing sedative and hypnotic medication, in-depth patient education, and sustained exercise programs may reduce falls as single interventions. There is no convincing evidence that hip protectors, movement alarms, or low-low beds reduce falls or injury in the hospital setting. International approaches to developing and maintaining a fall prevention program suggest that commitment of management and a range of clinical and support staff is crucial to success.

  14. Unraveling the strands of Saturn's F ring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, C.D.; Gordon, M.K.; Giuliatti, Winter S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Several high-resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's F ring show that it is composed of at least four separate, non-intersecting strands extending ~45?? in longitude. Voyager 1 images show that the two brightest strands appear to intersect, giving rise to a "braided" morphology. From a study of all available Voyager images the detectable radial structure is cataloged and reviewed. Previous indications that there is fine material interior to the orbit of the F ring are confirmed. Evidence is presented that a model of four strands with comparable eccentricities and nearly aligned perichrones is consistent with all the Voyager observations. The observed perichrone offset of the two brightest strands suggests a minimum radial separation of ~20 km, which implies intersection of these strands when their finite radial widths are taken into account. The longitude range of such an intersection includes that observed in the Voyager 1 "braid" images. The proximity of these two strands at some longitudes may account for the apparent differences in the ring between the Voyager encounters, as well as provide a source for the short-lived features detected in the Hubble Space Telescope images of the F ring. There is no evidence that the locations of the individual strands are determined by resonant perturbations with known satellites. It is proposed that the radial structure is formed by the localized action of small satellites orbiting within the strand region. ?? 1997 Academic Press.

  15. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  18. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. 1991 Fall Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1991 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 9-13, was the largest national AGU meeting ever held. Meeting participation continued the steady growth trend set throughout the previous decade. A total of 4,037 papers and posters were presented, and by Friday noon of the meeting over 5,500 members had registered.Several special events were scheduled to inform and engage members on societal and programmatic aspects of our science. AGU's Committee on Education and Human Resources sponsored an open forum that addressed opportunities and problems associated with dual-career couples. A discussion of NASA's strategic plan by Berrien Moore and Joseph Alexander drew a large audience, and a special session on societal aspects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption drew an overflow crowd. Two special lectures— “Plumes, Plates, and Deep Earth Structure” by Don L. Anderson and “New Frontiers in Aeronomy: Effects of Global Atmospheric Change” by P. M. Banks-also drew overflow crowds.

  20. Field estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan chinook salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Stewart, Donald J.; Miller, Michael A.; Masnado, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has been the predominant piscivore in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario since the 1970s, and therefore accurate quantification of its energy budget is needed for effective management of Great Lakes fisheries. A new approach of evaluating a fish bioenergetics model in the field involves field estimation of the efficiency with which the fish retains PCBs from its food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both chinook salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to generate a field estimate of the efficiency with which Lake Michigan chinook salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our field estimate is the most reliable field estimate to date because (a) the estimate was based on a relatively high number (N = 142) of PCB determinations for chinook salmon from Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan in 1985, (b) a relatively long time series (1978−1988) of detailed observations on chinook salmon diet in Lake Michigan was available, and (c) the estimate incorporated new information from analyses of chinook salmon age and growth during the 1980s and 1990s in Lake Michigan. We estimated that chinook salmon from Lake Michigan retain 53% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  1. Wheeling and stranded investment-is there a better way

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.

    1994-03-25

    Under current franchise law, retail wheeling must be addressed on a state-by-state basis, and (therefore) it will not sweep the electric power industry as deregulation has been visited upon the telecommunications, airline, natural gas and other industries. Nevertheless, many industry observers remain concerned that retail competition will create a significant stranded investment problem. That is, broadened competition among power generators for customers will result in the market value of some existing (previously market-protected) generation assets falling below book value. The significance of such asset revaluations, and the time required for adjustment, increases with the capital intensity of the industry; this is the reason for the heightened concern regarding the introduction of retail wheeling into the electric power industry. One policy direction that may be worthy of further debate and losses during the power market's transition to a more competitive equilibrium - i.e., until regulation-induced differentials between market and book values are mitigated. A two-part policy proposal is offered for consideration. First, the use of intra-pool transfer payments; second, if stranded investment continues to exist, a temporary uniform pool-wide wheeling surcharge.

  2. NOVA Fall 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Wayne; Karlan, James W.; Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements five programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Fall of the Leaning Tower"; (2) "Everest: The Mystery of Mallory and Irvine"; (3) "Time Travel, Decoding Nazi Secrets"; (3) "Voyage of Doom"; and (5) "Barely Breathing". It provides activity set-ups related…

  3. Not Just a Fall Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Hewes, Kathy A.

    2004-01-01

    Trees burst with color in the northern states. Autumn leaves dust the ground. Painting the fall landscape is nothing new. Teachers have been doing it in classrooms for decades. The approach, however, can make the difference between whether the fall landscape is simply painting for fun, or a real learning experience. Students learn best when they…

  4. Project Profile Report. Fall 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport.

    Pennsylvania College of Technology's Project Profile seeks to provide a portrait of all students entering each fall by collecting and analyzing surveys completed at the time of admission and comparing them to previous years. This report presents data on the 4,942 students who applied and matriculated in fall 1993 and includes comparisons by…

  5. [FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA].

    PubMed

    Aizen, Efraim

    2015-05-01

    Older people with dementia are at increased risk of falls and their consequences. Patients with dementia fall twice as often as elderly cognitively intact people and are at greater risk of injurious falls. Falls in older people with dementia cause higher rates of morbidity, mortality and institutionalization. There is limited literature attempting to show specific risk factors for falls in this population, mainly: Lewy body dementia, dementia related to Parkinson's disease and depression, psychotropic medication, functional disability and behavioral disturbances. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPAJ has been found to be a good fall risk screening tool in this population. There are few trials that have shown limited effectiveness of targeted fall prevention programs in community-dwelling cognitively impaired elderly. The evidence from hospitals and residential care is not conclusive. However, it has been demonstrated that some interventions, primarily exercise interventions, can modify certain risk factors in patients with dementia. Further research is required in specifically targeting fall prevention in older people with dementia. PMID:26168645

  6. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannurat, Natthapon; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit

    2014-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address. PMID:25046016

  7. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  8. Stranded investment and non-utility generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, D.E. . Center for Energy Studies); Maloney, M.T. )

    1999-06-01

    Stranded cost recovery continues to be a focal point of electricity deregulation. Restructuring has ground to a halt in many places largely due to the contentiousness of the issue, and even where there has been action states have granted substantial stranded cost recovery to utilities, vitiating much of the price reductions that competition is forecast to bring. While a surprisingly large amount of non-utility generation capacity already has been shut down due to obsolescence, this has not choked off capital investment. The example suggests that stranded-cost recovery is neither warranted nor necessary.

  9. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  10. Development of a Willingness to Pay Survey for Willamette Basin Spring Chinook and Winter Steelhead Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon fisheries are a high-profile icon of the Pacific Northwest. Spring Chinook and winter-run steelhead are both listed as federally endangered species in the Willamette basin, the most populated and developed watershed in Oregon. Despite being a high profile issue, there are ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of a New Zealand Rickettsia-Like Organism Isolated from Farmed Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Jenny; Brosnahan, Cara L.; Orr, Della; McFadden, Andrew; Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a rickettsia-like organism, isolated from a New Zealand Chinook salmon farm experiencing high mortality. The genome is approximately 3 Mb in size, has a G+C content of approximately 39.2%, and is predicted to contain 2,870 coding sequences. PMID:27365345

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of a New Zealand Rickettsia-Like Organism Isolated from Farmed Chinook Salmon.

    PubMed

    Gias, Edna; Draper, Jenny; Brosnahan, Cara L; Orr, Della; McFadden, Andrew; Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a rickettsia-like organism, isolated from a New Zealand Chinook salmon farm experiencing high mortality. The genome is approximately 3 Mb in size, has a G+C content of approximately 39.2%, and is predicted to contain 2,870 coding sequences. PMID:27365345

  13. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  14. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next years work.

  16. Water Temperature, Invertebrate Drift, and the Scope for Growth for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovtang, J. C.; Li, H. W.

    2005-05-01

    We present a bioenergetic assessment of habitat quality based on the concept of the scope for growth for juvenile Chinook salmon. Growth of juvenile salmonids during the freshwater phase of their life history depends on a balance between two main factors: energy intake and metabolic costs. The metabolic demands of temperature and the availability of food play integral roles in determining the scope for growth of juvenile salmonids in stream systems. We investigated differences in size of juvenile spring Chinook salmon in relation to water temperature and invertebrate drift density in six unique study reaches in the Metolius River Basin, a tributary of the Deschutes River in Central Oregon. This project was initiated to determine the relative quality and potential productivity of habitat in the Metolius Basin prior to the reintroduction of spring Chinook salmon, which were extirpated from the middle Deschutes basin in the early 1970's due to the construction of a hydroelectric dam. Variations in the growth of juvenile Chinook salmon can be described using a multiple regression model of water temperature and invertebrate drift density. We also discuss the relationships between our bioenergetic model, variations of the ideal free distribution model, and physiological growth models.

  17. Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-02-01

    A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

  18. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  19. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-08-01

    This report details the 2000 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1997-07-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1995 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during spring and summer 1996.

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    This report details the 1999 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989.

  2. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Kamikawa, Daniel J.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing.

  3. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Marsh, Douglas M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1994-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring and summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1991, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, and McNary Dams during spring and summer 1992. This report details our findings.

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorized ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek and the Lostine and Grande Ronde rivers for scientific research and enhancement purposes. Special condition 2a specified the need for an annual report prior to initiation of next year's work.

  5. Defenses of Susceptible and Resistant Chinook Salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) Against the Myxozoan Parasite Ceratomyxa shasta

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, Sarah J.; Zhang, Yong-An; Hurst, Charlene N.; Alonso-Naveiro, Maria E.; Alexander, Julie D.; Sunyer, J. Oriol; Bartholomew, Jerri L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated intra-specific variation in the response of salmon to infection with the myxozoan Ceratomyxa shasta by comparing the progress of parasite infection and measures of host immune response in susceptible and resistant Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at days 12, 25 and 90 post exposure. There were no differences in invasion of the gills indicating that resistance does not occur at the site of entry. In the intestine on day 12, infection intensity and Ig+ cell numbers were higher in susceptible than resistant fish, but histological examination that timepoint showed more severe inflammation in resistant fish This suggests a role for the immune response in resistant fish that eliminates some parasites prior to or soon after reaching the intestine. Susceptible fish had a higher IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 response at day 12, but all died fatal enteronecrosis by day 25. The greatest fold change in IFNγ expression was detected at day 25 in resistant Chinook. In addition, the number of Ig+ cells in resistant Chinook also increased by day 25. By day 90, resistant Chinook had resolved the inflammation, cytokine expression had decreased and Ig+ cell numbers were similar to uninfected controls. Thus, it appears that the susceptible strain was incapable of containing or eliminating C. shasta but resistant fish: 1) reduced infection intensity during early intestinal infection 2) elicited an effective inflammatory response in the intestine that eliminated C. shasta 3) resolved the inflammation and recovered from infection. PMID:24412163

  6. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  7. Antimicrobials & cholera: are we stranded?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Ramamurthy, T

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a major threat in the treatment of infectious diseases. Though significant progress in the management of diarrhoeal diseases has been achieved by improved hygiene, development of new antimicrobials and vaccines, the burden remains the same, especially in children below 5 yr of age. In the case of cholera, though oral rehydration treatment is the mainstay, antimicrobial therapy is mandatory at times to reduce the volume of stool and shorten the duration of the disease. Though for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance emerged soon after the introduction of antibiotics, Vibrio cholerae remained sensitive to most of the antibiotics for quite a long period. However, the scenario changed over the years and today, V. cholerae strains isolated world over are resistant to multiple antibiotics. A myriad number of mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, enhanced multi-drug efflux pump activity, plasmid-mediated quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance, and chromosomal mutations. Horizontal transfer of resistance determinants with mobile genetic elements like integrons and the integrating conjugative elements (ICEs), SXTs help in the dissemination of drug resistance. Though all strains isolated are not resistant to all antibiotics and we are not as yet "stranded", expanding spectrum of drug resistance is a definite cause for concern. Pipelines of discovery of new antibiotics are drying up as major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in investing money in this endeavour, mainly due to the short shelf-life of the antibiotics and also due to the fast emergence of drug resistance. To address this issue, attempts are now being made to discover drugs which are pathogen specific and target their "virulence mechanisms". It is expected that development of resistance against such antibiotics would take much longer. This review briefly focuses on all these issues.

  8. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula.

  9. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. PMID:24211259

  10. Falls in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, E M; Turgut, F; Turkmen, K; Balogun, R A

    2011-10-01

    The elderly, (age ≥ 65 years) hemodialysis (HD) patient population is growing rapidly across the world. The risk of accidental falls is very high in this patient population due to multiple factors which include aging, underlying renal disease and adverse events associated with HD treatments. Falls, the most common cause of fatal injury among elderly, not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also increase costs to the health system. Prediction of falls and interventions to prevent or minimize fall risk and associated complications will be a major step in helping these patients as well as decreasing financial and social burdens. Thus, it is vital to learn how to approach this important problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology and complications of falls in elderly HD patients. We will also focus on available methods to assess and predict the patients at higher risk of falling and will provide recommendations for interventions to reduce the occurrence of falls in this population.

  11. Radar fall detectors: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Baris; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of accidents in elderly people. Even simple falls can lead to severe injuries, and sometimes result in death. Doppler fall detection has drawn much attention in recent years. Micro-Doppler signatures play an important role for the Doppler-based radar systems. Numerous studies have demonstrated the offerings of micro-Doppler characteristics for fall detection. In this respect, a plethora of micro-Doppler signature features have been proposed, including those stemming from speech recognition and wavelet decomposition. In this work, we consider four different sets of features for fall detection. These can be categorized as spectrogram based features, wavelet based features, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients, and power burst curve features. Support vector machine is employed as the classifier. Performance of the respective fall detectors is investigated using real data obtained with the same radar operating resources and under identical sensing conditions. For the considered data, the spectrogram based feature set is shown to provide superior fall detection performance.

  12. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    facility to the Imnaha River juvenile migration trap. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine spring emigration timing of Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolts collected at the Imnaha River juvenile migration trap. (5) Compare emigration characteristics and survival rates of natural fall and spring tagged juvenile Naco x (Chinook salmon). (6) Determine arrival timing, travel time and estimated survival of PIT tagged natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and natural and hatchery Heeyey (steelhead) smolts from the Imnaha River to Snake and Columbia River dams.

  13. Partial migration in introduced wild chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel; Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, Dave H.; Piccoli, Philip M.

    2014-08-01

    Partial migration, the incidence of opposing migration behaviors within the same population, has been a key factor in the invasive ecology of Pacific salmon within South America. Here, we examined such life-cycle variation in of an introduced chinook salmon population in the Aysén watershed, one of the largest fjord systems in NW Patagonia. The chinook salmon is the most successful invasive salmonid species in Patagonia and has recently colonized numerous Patagonian watersheds of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Using analyses of fish scales and otolith strontium:calcium ratios, our results suggest the presence of two distinct ecotypes in the chinook population, an ocean type and a stream type, in a 3:2 ratio. The distribution of back-calculated length at the time of emigration from river to marine habitats showed a mode of 14 cm for the ocean ecotype and 30 cm for the stream ecotype. River residence time for the ocean ecotype ranged from 1 to 10 months, while that of the stream ecotype varied between 14 and 20 months. Returning adults reproduced in riverine habitats between August and March, but reproduction by the stream ecotype was limited to the period between October and February. Our results show that exotic chinook salmon populations established in NW Patagonia present a diversity of life-history strategies, which seems to be as large as the ones exhibited by the species in its native distribution range and in other invaded ecosystems. Chinook salmon have successfully invaded most major rivers in Patagonia, placing priority on science and conservation related to their ecological impact.

  14. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  15. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  16. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  17. Injuries due to falling coconuts.

    PubMed

    Barss, P

    1984-11-01

    Falling coconuts can cause injury to the head, back, and shoulders. A 4-year review of trauma admissions to the Provincial Hospital, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, revealed that 2.5% of such admissions were due to being struck by falling coconuts. Since mature coconut palms may have a height of 24 up to 35 meters and an unhusked coconut may weigh 1 to 4 kg, blows to the head of a force exceeding 1 metric ton are possible. Four patients with head injuries due to falling coconuts are described. Two required craniotomy. Two others died instantly in the village after being struck by dropping nuts.

  18. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S

    2012-04-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  19. Correlation Between Strand Stability and Magnet Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, D.R.; Bartlett, S.E.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Higley, H.C.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2005-06-01

    Magnet programs at BNL, LBNL and FNAL have observed instabilities in high J{sub c} Nb{sub 3}Sn strands and magnets made from these strands. This paper correlates the strand stability determined from a short sample-strand test to the observed magnet performance. It has been observed that strands that carry high currents at high fields (greater than 10 T) cannot sustain these same currents at low fields (1-3 T) when the sample current is fixed and the magnetic field is ramped. This suggests that the present generation of strand is susceptible to flux jumps (FJ). To prevent flux jumps from limiting stand performance, one must accommodate the energy released during a flux jump. To better understand FJ this work has focused on wire with a given sub-element diameter and shows that one can significantly improve stability by increasing the copper conductivity (higher residual resistivity ratio, RRR, of the Cu). This increased stability significantly improves the conductor performance and permits it to carry more current.

  20. Correlation between Strand Stability and Magnet Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, Daniel R.; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo; G ourlay, Stephen A.; Higley, Hugh C.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Sabbi, GianLuca L.; Scanlan,Ronald M.

    2005-04-16

    Magnet programs at BNL, LBNL and FNAL have observed instabilities in high J{sub c} Nb{sub 3}Sn strands and magnets made from these strands. This paper correlates the strand stability determined from a short sample-strand test to the observed magnet performance. It has been observed that strands that carry high currents at high fields (greater than 10T) cannot sustain these same currents at low fields (1-3T) when the sample current is fixed and the magnetic field is ramped. This suggests that the present generation of strand is susceptible to flux jumps (FJ). To prevent flux jumps from limiting stand performance, one must accommodate the energy released during a flux jump. To better understand FJ this work has focused on wire with a given sub-element diameter and shows that one can significantly improve stability by increasing the copper conductivity (higher residual resistivity ratio, RRR, of the Cu). This increased stability significantly improves the conductor performance and permits it to carry more current.

  1. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, S.; Moore, M. J.; Fahlman, A.; Moore, K.; Sharp, S.; Harry, C. T.; Hoppe, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Lentell, B.; Wells, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber–muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness. PMID:21993505

  2. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV : Evaluation of the 1998 Predictions of the Run-timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook and Steelhead, and Hatchery Salmon in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1997-01-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1998 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook. These stocks were from eight release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Lake Creek, Imnaha River, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling and subyearling chinook salmon, and steelhead. The 1998 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years for the whole-season evaluations for every stock tracked. Relative to 1997, performance improved for the yearling chinook run-at-large, and for predictions for last-half of the season for every other stock. Performance compared poorly with 1997 predictions for the first half of the runs of PIT-tagged yearling spring/summer chinook stocks and the run-at-large of fall subyearling chinook, and was slightly worse for the first half of the Redfish Lake sockeye run and the steelhead run-at-large. Poor first-half performance was likely due to the unusually large (and in some cases short) outmigrations in 1998. Utilization in 1998 of a different method of adjusting smolt counts at Lower Granite Dam compared to previous years produced slightly better first-half performance than pre-1998 adjustments would have, but slightly worse last-half performance, for all the PIT-tagged stocks, prompting a return to the pre-1998 adjustment formula for the 1999 outmigration. An Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) experiment during April and May of 1998 involving the installation of two new components to existing structures at Lower Granite Dam did not appear to affect RealTime performance. A comparison of run-timing predictions based on FPC passage indices and Battelle hydroacoustic counts showed the two independent data sources produced very

  3. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage.

  4. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  5. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  6. 75 FR 39207 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment and Conduct San Joaquin River Chinook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Register of April 21, 2010 (FR Doc. 2010-9188), on page 20815 in the second column, correct the e-mail... the potential impacts of the proposed reintroduction of spring-run Chinook salmon to the mainstem...

  7. Comparative diets of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have established naturalized populations throughout the Great Lakes. Young-of-year of these species occur sympatrically for about one month in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined the diets of subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to available food in the Salmon River, New York. Terrestrial invertebrates and trichopterans were the major prey of Chinook salmon, whereas steelhead fed primarily on baetid nymphs and chironomid larvae. Diet overlap was low (0.45) between the species. The diet of Chinook was closely associated to the composition of the drift (0.88). Steelhead diet drew equally from the drift and benthos during the first year of the study, but more closely matched the benthos during the second year. Differences in prey selection, perhaps associated with differences in fish size, in addition to apparent differences in feeding mode (drift versus benthic), likely reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  8. Highlights of 2012 Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This past December the streets of San Francisco, Calif., surrounding the Moscone Center were awash with a sea of Earth and space scientists attending the 45th consecutive AGU Fall Meeting, eager to share and expand their knowledge "for the benefit of humanity." As it has for many years, attendance at AGU's Fall Meeting—the largest gathering of Earth and space scientists in the world—continued to increase, this year passing the 24,000 mark. Attendees at the meeting, which took place on 3-7 December 2012, hailed from 97 countries; nearly 7000 of them were students. News from the Fall Meeting was carried in newspapers and on Web sites around the world, and the social media sphere lit up with talk of AGU and the Fall Meeting. It's even reported that for a short time we were a trending topic on Twitter.

  9. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Dempster DW, Luckey M, Cauley J, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Donath L, van Dieen J, Faude O. Exercise-based fall prevention in the elderly: what about ...

  10. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  11. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  12. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-08-03

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The

  13. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington – Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.

    2006-01-01

    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding anddrainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The

  14. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  18. Monitoring steel strands via ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    Steel strands are widely used in civil structures as pre- stressing tendons and stay-cables. The structural criticality of strands has led to an increasing interest in developing methods able to monitor applied loads as well as detect potential defects. In this paper ultrasonic guided waves, generated and detected via magnetostrictive sensors, are exploited to address this need. The sensors were developed in collaboration with the US Federal Highway Administration NDE Validation Center. An acousto elastic formulation of the Pochhammer-Chree longitudinal vibrations in cylindrical waveguides is proposed to predict the change of ultrasonic velocity as a function of applied stress. Results from acousto elastic experiments performed on seven- wire strands and on single wires are presented and compared to the theoretical predictions. Ways to enhance the inhernetly-low sensitivity of the acousto elastic measurements are proposed and investigated. The different behavior exhibited by the strand when compared to the single wire suggests the need for widening the theory governing the acousto elastic phenomenon in multi-wire members. The role of the strand anchorages is examined in the context of wave attenuation. The suitability of the guided wave method for the detection of defects is demonstrated including the possibility of inspecting the critical anchored regions.

  19. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Catching a Falling Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  1. Convergent strand array liquid pumping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A surface-tension liquid pumping system is provided by one or more arrays of converging solid monofilament fibers or metal wires (strands) spaced apart at an input end to gather liquid, and gathered close together at the opposite end where menisci forms between wetted strands to force liquid in the direction of convergence of the strands. The liquid pumping system is independent of gravity. It is illustrated as being used in a heat pump having a heating box to vaporize the liquid and a condensing chamber. Condensed liquid is returned by the pumping system to the heating box where it is again vaporized. A vapor tube carries the vapor to the condensing chamber. In that way, a closed system pumps heat from the heating box to the evaporating chamber and from there radiated to the atmosphere.

  2. Lack of Protection following Re-Exposure of Chinook Salmon to Ceratonova shasta (Myxozoa).

    PubMed

    Hurst, C N; Bartholomew, J L

    2015-03-01

    The recent identification of multiple genotypes of the salmonid parasite Ceratonova shasta with different virulence levels in Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha suggests that it is possible to immunize fish against subsequent infection and disease. We hypothesized that exposure of Chinook Salmon to the less-virulent parasite genotype (II) prior to the more virulent parasite genotype (I) would decrease disease and/or result in fewer mature parasites compared with fish only infected with the more virulent genotype. To test this hypothesis, fish were challenged in a combination of field and laboratory exposures, and we measured infection prevalence, percent morbidity, and mature parasite production. Neither mortality nor mature parasite production were reduced when fish were exposed to genotype II prior to genotype I compared with fish exposed only to genotype I, suggesting that protection against C. shasta using a less-virulent genotype of the parasite does not occur. PMID:25494609

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, John R.

    2010-12-21

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon smolts at The Dalles Dam during summer 2010. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (BiOp), dam passage survival should be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal 0.015. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 2 km below the dam The forebay-to-tailrace survival estimate satisfies the “BRZ-to-BRZ” survival estimate called for in the Fish Accords. , as well as the forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The estimate of dam survival for subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles in 2010 was 0.9404 with an associated standard error of 0.0091.

  4. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Fall prevention in hospitals: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Given, Barbara A; Given, Charles W

    2012-02-01

    This article summarizes research and draws overall conclusions from the body of literature on fall prevention interventions to provide nurse administrators with a basis for developing evidence-based fall prevention programs in the hospital setting. Data are obtained from published studies. Thirteen articles are retrieved that focused on fall interventions in the hospital setting. An analysis is performed based on levels of evidence using an integrative review process. Multifactoral fall prevention intervention programs that included fall-risk assessments, door/bed/patient fall-risk alerts, environmental and equipment modifications, staff and patient safety education, medication management targeted to specific types, and additional assistance with transfer and toileting demonstrate reduction in both falls and fall injuries in hospitalized patients. Hospitals need to reduce falls by using multifactoral fall prevention programs using evidence-based interventions to reduce falls and injuries.

  6. Fall Enrollment Report: University of Hawaii, Community Colleges, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Data are presented on a series of tables summarizing enrollment trends and the academic and personal characteristics of the 20,087 regular students enrolled in credit programs at six University of Hawaii community colleges during Fall, 1981. The tables cover: (1) headcount enrollment in regular credit and special programs; (2) headcount enrollment…

  7. Applications, Acceptances and Registrations, Fall 1975-Fall 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    Patterns in student progression from application to acceptance and registration were analyzed for the fall semesters from 1975 to 1979 at six Hawaii community colleges. The data, compiled from the Coordinated Admissions Program Information System and from the Student Information System, indicate, with regard to applications, that: (1) a total of…

  8. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  9. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  10. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  11. Studies of certain sulfonamide drugs for use in juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1969-01-01

    In the work described in this paper, the efficacies of sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were compared to the efficacy of sulfamethazine. Experiments were designed to determine the rate of intestinal absorption, the rate of elimination from the blood, the effect on growth, and the toxicity of each drug in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The comparative bacteriostatic activity against two common fish pathogens was also determined for each drug. 

  12. Using a Genetic mixture model to study Phenotypic traits: Differential fecundity among Yukon river Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, J.F.; Evenson, D.F.; McLain, T.H.; Flannery, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecundity is a vital population characteristic that is directly linked to the productivity of fish populations. Historic data from Yukon River (Alaska) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha suggest that length-adjusted fecundity differs among populations within the drainage and either is temporally variable or has declined. Yukon River Chinook salmon have been harvested in large-mesh gill-net fisheries for decades, and a decline in fecundity was considered a potential evolutionary response to size-selective exploitation. The implications for fishery conservation and management led us to further investigate the fecundity of Yukon River Chinook salmon populations. Matched observations of fecundity, length, and genotype were collected from a sample of adult females captured from the multipopulation spawning migration near the mouth of the Yukon River in 2008. These data were modeled by using a new mixture model, which was developed by extending the conditional maximum likelihood mixture model that is commonly used to estimate the composition of multipopulation mixtures based on genetic data. The new model facilitates maximum likelihood estimation of stock-specific fecundity parameters without first using individual assignment to a putative population of origin, thus avoiding potential biases caused by assignment error.The hypothesis that fecundity of Chinook salmon has declined was not supported; this result implies that fecundity exhibits high interannual variability. However, length-adjusted fecundity estimates decreased as migratory distance increased, and fecundity was more strongly dependent on fish size for populations spawning in the middle and upper portions of the drainage. These findings provide insights into potential constraints on reproductive investment imposed by long migrations and warrant consideration in fisheries management and conservation. The new mixture model extends the utility of genetic markers to new applications and can be easily adapted

  13. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  15. BURDEN FALLS ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The Burden Falls Roadless Area lies in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois, about 5 mi west of the western edge of the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. Geologic mapping and geochemical surveys indicate that the area has little promise for the occurrence of fluorspar and associated minerals; other special studies also indicate little promise for oil and gas and construction materials. Traces of gold and silver were detected in some geochemical samples but follow-up studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of resources of these metals within the Burden Falls Roadless Area.

  16. Re-estimating temperature-dependent consumption parameters in bioenergetics models for juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, John M.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have cautioned against the borrowing of consumption and growth parameters from other species and life stages in bioenergetics growth models. In particular, the function that dictates temperature dependence in maximum consumption (Cmax) within the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha produces estimates that are lower than those measured in published laboratory feeding trials. We used published and unpublished data from laboratory feeding trials with subyearling Chinook Salmon from three stocks (Snake, Nechako, and Big Qualicum rivers) to estimate and adjust the model parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax. The data included growth measures in fish ranging from 1.5 to 7.2 g that were held at temperatures from 14°C to 26°C. Parameters for temperature dependence in Cmax were estimated based on relative differences in food consumption, and bootstrapping techniques were then used to estimate the error about the parameters. We found that at temperatures between 17°C and 25°C, the current parameter values did not match the observed data, indicating that Cmax should be shifted by about 4°C relative to the current implementation under the bioenergetics model. We conclude that the adjusted parameters for Cmax should produce more accurate predictions from the bioenergetics model for subyearling Chinook Salmon.

  17. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  18. Self-reporting bias in Chinook salmon sport fisheries in Idaho: implications for roving creel surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-reporting bias in sport fisheries of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho was quantified by comparing observed and angler-reported data. A total of 164 observed anglers fished for 541 h and caught 74 Chinook Salmon. Fifty-eight fish were harvested and 16 were released. Anglers reported fishing for 604 h, an overestimate of 63 h. Anglers reported catching 66 fish; four less harvested and four less released fish were reported than observed. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that when angler-reported data were used, total catch was underestimated by 14–15 fish (19–20%) using the ratio-of-means estimator to calculate mean catch rate. Negative bias was reduced to six fish (8%) when the means-of-ratio estimator was used. Multiple linear regression models to predict reporting bias in time fished had poor predictive value. However, actual time fished and a categorical covariate indicating whether the angler fished continuously during their fishing trip were two variables that were present in all of the top a priori models evaluated. Underreporting of catch and overreporting of time fished by anglers present challenges when managing Chinook Salmon sport fisheries. However, confidence intervals were near target levels and using more liberal definitions of angling when estimating effort in creel surveys may decrease sensitivity to bias in angler-reported data.

  19. Epizootic ameloblastomas in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Grim, K C; Wolfe, M J; Edwards, M; Kaufman, J; Onjukka, S; Moran, P; Wolf, J C

    2009-07-01

    Abnormal growths were observed on the lips and in the oral cavities of 2- and 3-year-old Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) maintained in one freshwater and one saltwater captive fish-rearing facility in the Columbia River (Pacific Northwest). Initially presenting as bilaterally symmetrical, red, irregular plaques on oral mucosal surfaces, the lesions developed progressively into large, disfiguring masses. Of the 502 natural parr collected for captive broodstock, 432 (86%) displayed these tumors, whereas cohort salmon (i.e., same year classes) in these same facilities remained unaffected. Morphologically similar neoplasms were collected occasionally from adult Chinook salmon that had returned to their natal streams. Histologic features of the tumors suggested that they were derived from the portion of dental lamina destined to form tooth root sulci; therefore, these neoplasms were diagnosed as ameloblastomas. The lesions also resembled archived specimens of Chinook salmon oral tumors, which had been described decades earlier. Etiologic investigations performed during the current outbreak included bacteriologic, virologic, genetic, ultrastructural analyses, and cohabitation exposure studies. Results of these efforts did not indicate an obvious genetic basis for this syndrome, attempts to isolate potentially causative viruses or bacteria were negative, and disease transmission to naïve fish was unsuccessful. A few intracytoplasmic hexagonal structures, possibly consistent with viral particles (approximately 100 nm), were observed ultrastructurally in a tumor cell from 1 of 6 specimens submitted for transmission electron microscopy. Although the presence of these particles does not constitute sufficient evidence for causality, an infectious or multifactorial etiology seems plausible.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  1. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  2. Bacterial infections of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to gamete collecting weirs in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Loch, T P; Scribner, K; Tempelman, R; Whelan, G; Faisal, M

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe the prevalence of bacterial infections in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to spawn in two tributaries within the Lake Michigan watershed. Ten bacterial genera, including Renibacterium, Aeromonas, Carnobacterium, Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Salmonella, Shewanella and Morganella, were detected in the kidneys of Chinook salmon (n = 480) using culture, serological and molecular analyses. Among these, Aeromonas salmonicida was detected at a prevalence of ∼15%. Analyses revealed significant interactions between location/time of collection and gender for these infections, whereby overall infection prevalence increased greatly later in the spawning run and was significantly higher in females. Renibacterium salmoninarum was detected in fish kidneys at an overall prevalence of >25%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that R. salmoninarum prevalence differed significantly by location/time of collection and gender, with a higher likelihood of infection later in the spawning season and in females vs. males. Chi-square analyses quantifying non-independence of infection by multiple pathogens revealed a significant association between R. salmoninarum and motile aeromonad infections. Additionally, greater numbers of fish were found to be co-infected by multiple bacterial species than would be expected by chance alone. The findings of this study suggest a potential synergism between bacteria infecting spawning Chinook salmon.

  3. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning. PMID:26581919

  4. Effect of Nanophyetus salmincola and Bacterial Co-Infection on Mortality of Juvenile Chinook Salmon.

    PubMed

    Roon, Sean R; Alexander, Julie D; Jacobson, Kym C; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater trematode Nanophyetus salmincola has been demonstrated to impair salmonid immune function and resistance to the marine pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, potentially resulting in ocean mortality. We examined whether infection by the parasite N. salmincola similarly increases mortality of juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha when they are exposed to the freshwater pathogens Flavobacterium columnare or Aeromonas salmonicida, two bacteria that juvenile salmonids might encounter during their migration to the marine environment. We used a two-part experimental design where juvenile Chinook Salmon were first infected with N. salmincola through cohabitation with infected freshwater snails, Juga spp., and then challenged with either F. columnare or A. salmonicida. Cumulative percent mortality from F. columnare infection was higher in N. salmincola-parasitized fish than in nonparasitized fish. In contrast, cumulative percent mortality from A. salmonicida infection did not differ between N. salmincola-parasitized and nonparasitized groups. No mortalities were observed in the N. salmincola-parasitized-only and control groups from either challenge. Our study demonstrates that a relatively high mean intensity (>200 metacercariae per posterior kidney) of encysted N. salmincola metacercariae can alter the outcomes of bacterial infection in juvenile Chinook Salmon, which might have implications for disease in wild fish populations. PMID:26671546

  5. Effects of pyrethroid insecticides in urban runoff on Chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and their invertebrate prey.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Schlenk, Daniel; Riar, Navneet; Lydy, Michael J; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2015-03-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides can affect salmonids either indirectly through toxicity to their prey or directly by toxicity to the fish themselves. In support of a study on pyrethroid impacts to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the American River (Sacramento, California, USA), 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) and median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the pyrethroid bifenthrin were determined for taxa not traditionally used for toxicity testing but of interest as salmonid prey, including a chironomid, caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies. A laboratory was constructed on the banks of the American River to expose macroinvertebrates, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout to flow-through river water containing urban runoff during storm events. Bifenthrin from urban runoff was found in river water following 5 rain events, reaching 14.6 ng/L. Mortality to the exposed salmonids was not observed, and sublethal effects were not seen in vitellogenin or sex steroid levels. Indirect effects via toxicity to salmonid prey are possible. Mortality to Hyalella azteca, a potential prey, was observed in every event tested, and peak bifenthrin concentrations were comparable to the 96-h EC50 of the caddisfly, Hydropsyche sp., the most important prey species on a biomass basis for American River Chinook salmon. The other invertebrates tested had EC50s exceeding bifenthrin concentrations seen in the American River, though could potentially be at risk at concentrations previously reported in smaller urban tributaries. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:649-657. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25545717

  6. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, David C.; Elliott, Diane G.; Wargo, Andrew; Park, Linda K.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  8. Quantitative threat analysis for management of an imperiled species: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jonathan M; Bartz, Krista K; Ruckelshaus, Mary H; Moslemi, Jennifer M; Harms, Tamara K

    2007-10-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have declined dramatically across the Pacific Northwest because of multiple human impacts colloquially characterized as the four "H's": habitat degradation, harvest, hydroelectric and other dams, and hatchery production. We use this conceptual framework to quantify the relative importance of major threats to the current status of 201 Chinook populations. Current status is characterized by two demographic indices: population density and trend. We employ path analytic models and information theoretic methods for multi-model inference. Our results indicate that dams most strongly affect variation in population density, while harvest and hatchery production most strongly affect variation in population trend. Comparable results arise when the sample size of the analysis is reduced to 22 Chinook populations within a smaller region typical of the scale at which salmon recovery planning is conducted. Results from these threat analyses suggest that recovery strategies targeting specific demographic indices, and those considering natural and human-mediated interdependencies of major threats, are most likely to succeed. PMID:17974341

  9. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  10. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  11. Strand displacement and duplex invasion into double-stranded DNA by pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Bohländer, Peggy R; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-09-21

    The so-called acpcPNA system bears a peptide backbone consisting of 4'-substituted proline units with (2'R,4'R) configuration in an alternating combination with (2S)-amino-cyclopentane-(1S)-carboxylic acids. acpcPNA forms exceptionally stable hybrids with complementary DNA. We demonstrate herein (i) strand displacements by single-stranded DNA from acpcPNA-DNA hybrids, and by acpcPNA strands from DNA duplexes, and (ii) strand invasions by acpcPNA into double-stranded DNA. These processes were studied in vitro using synthetic oligonucleotides and by means of our concept of wavelength-shifting fluorescent nucleic acid probes, including fluorescence lifetime measurements that allow quantifying energy transfer efficiencies. The strand displacements of preannealed 14mer acpcPNA-7mer DNA hybrids consecutively by 10mer and 14mer DNA strands occur with rather slow kinetics but yield high fluorescence color ratios (blue : yellow or blue : red), fluorescence intensity enhancements, and energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, 14mer acpcPNA strands are able to invade into 30mer double-stranded DNA, remarkably with quantitative efficiency in all studied cases. These processes can also be quantified by means of fluorescence. This remarkable behavior corroborates the extraordinary versatile properties of acpcPNA. In contrast to conventional PNA systems which require 3 or more equivalents PNA, only 1.5 equivalents acpcPNA are sufficient to get efficient double duplex invasion. Invasions also take place even in the presence of 250 mM NaCl which represents an ionic strength nearly twice as high as the physiological ion concentration. These remarkable results corroborate the extraordinary properties of acpcPNA, and thus acpcPNA represents an eligible tool for biological analytics and antigene applications.

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  13. [Violence Profiles for Fall Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This document presented by the National Citizens' Committee for Broadcasting at a 1976 press conference provides an assortment of materials concerned with violence in television. Among the materials included are "Who Sponsors the New Fall Violence?" by Nicholas Johnson, a description of and rationale for the study of advertisers who sponsor…

  14. Fall 1984 Community Services Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann A.

    In fall 1984, students who enrolled in credit-free courses at Dutchess Community College (DCC) were asked to provide demographic information as part of their registration process. Approximately 2,000 students, from almost all of the credit-free courses offered both on-campus and at off-campus sites, completed the student data form. Findings…

  15. [A study on fall accident].

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Kim, M J

    1997-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized X2-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245 (59.5%) were men and 167 (40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79 (19.2%), 15-44 years 125 (30.4%), 45-64 years 104 (25.2%), over 65 years 104 (25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes (X2 = 39.17, P = 0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls (X2 = 44.41, P = .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis (X2 = 140.66, P = .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension (34), diabetes mellitus (22), arthritis (11), stroke (8), fracture (7), pulmonary tuberculosis (6), dementia (5) and cataract (5). 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives, antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness (X2 = 2.87, P = .41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips (35

  16. Fellows Celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 15 December 2010. President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  17. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 14 December 2011, during which President-Elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  18. Fellows celebrated at Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 2012 AGU Fellows will be presented during the Fall Meeting Honors Tribute in San Francisco, Calif. The formal ceremony will be held on Wednesday, 5 December 2012, during which President-elect Carol Finn will introduce each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each has been selected.

  19. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  20. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret Garden". It provides activity set-ups related to the programs…

  1. Fall Armyworm in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate experiments testing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration patterns were set up in the southeastern U.S. in 2012. Previous results showed that moths from progeny of overwintering populations from south Texas were found west of the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola river basin, ...

  2. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    Comprised primarily of data matrices, this report provides information on students transferring from Oklahoma public and private post-secondary institutions to other public and private post-secondary institutions in the state in fall 1992. The report consists of nine sections. Section I provides an aggregate flow of all students in the state,…

  3. Low-residue euthanasia of stranded mysticetes.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; McLellan, William A; Moore, Michael J; Barco, Susan G; Clarke, Elsburgh O; Thayer, Victoria G; Rowles, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Euthanasia of stranded large whales poses logistic, safety, pharmaceutical, delivery, public relations, and disposal challenges. Reasonable arguments may be made for allowing a stranded whale to expire naturally. However, slow cardiovascular collapse from gravitational effects outside of neutral buoyancy, often combined with severely debilitating conditions, motivate humane efforts to end the animal's suffering. The size of the animal and prevailing environmental conditions often pose safety concerns for stranding personnel, which take priority over other considerations. When considering chemical euthanasia, the size of the animal also necessitates large quantities of euthanasia agents. Drug residues are a concern for relay toxicity to scavengers, particularly for pentobarbital-containing euthanasia solutions. Pentobarbital is also an environmental concern because of its stability and long persistence in aquatic environments. We describe a euthanasia technique for stranded mysticetes using readily available, relatively inexpensive, preanesthetic and anesthetic drugs (midazolam, acepromazine, xylazine) followed by saturated KCl delivered via custom-made needles and a low-cost, basic, pressurized canister. This method provides effective euthanasia while moderating personnel exposure to hazardous situations and minimizing drug residues of concern for relay toxicity.

  4. Rescue Your Campus from "Stranded" Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadamus, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to deal with the pressures to defer maintenance on campus buildings, including the issue of accelerated cycles of obsolescence, which "stranded" costs to avoid and to accept, and specific strategies to gain control of the physical asset portfolio. (EV)

  5. Untangling the Strands of the Fourteenth Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupu, Ira C.

    1979-01-01

    Explores trends in the Court's interpretation of the libertarian and egalitarian dimensions of the Fourteenth Amendment and offers a theory of the two strands. Available from Michigan Law Review, Hutchins Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; single issues $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  6. Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; De-Miguel, María-Jesús; Marín, Clara-María; Blasco, José-María

    2008-01-01

    Ten striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Costa Rican Pacific coast, had meningoencephalitis and antibodies against Brucella spp. Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible host and a potential reservoir for B. ceti transmission. PMID:18760012

  7. Chinook Salmon Spawning Requires More Than Just Velocity, Depth, and Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Tu, D.; Wyrick, J. R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Everyone knows that Chinook salmon spawn on porous coarse gravel and fine cobble where velocities are moderate and depths are low, and that these local conditions predominate in riffles in river reaches with a slope of 0.01-0.03. In any river network there can be vast areas meeting these multi-scalar criteria and yet spawners are not equally or randomly distributed throughout, but are commonly clustered in a small fraction of the total available physical microhabitat. The purpose of this study was to investigate numerous heterogeneous physical variables that can further explain Chinook spawner behavior. Tested variables included morphological unit size, flow-dependent optimal microhabitat patch size, distance from water's edge, local decadal topographic change magnitude, dominant decadal topographic change process, and spatial scale of statistically significant temporal persistence of returns to past spawning sites. For all but the last variable, the performance metric was the forage ratio (FR) comparing % occurrence to % availability for each test variable. When FR < 0.5 or > 2, then occurrence is half of and more than double the random expectation, respectively. The testbed for the study was the 37.5-km lower Yuba River in California for which there exists a 1-m resolution 2D model of the whole river at discharges ranging from 0.2-22 times bankfull, a morphological unit map, a substrate map, a 1.524-m resolution topographic change map (adjusted for uncertainty), a map of the spatial pattern of topographic change processes, bioverified habitat suitability curves for velocity, depth, and substrate, and two years of river-long observations of Chinook redds (>6700 redds total). Chinook spawners were found to prefer and avoid specific sizes of riffles, runs, and riffle transition as well as specific sizes of flow-dependent optimal mesohabitat patches. They also preferred areas that had eroded 0.3-0.6 m in the last decade. There was no association with distance from

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume V : Evaluation of the 1999 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 1999 inseason outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from sixteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, South Fork Salmon River, and Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for a stock of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake and for the runs-at-large of Snake River wild yearling chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The 1999 RealTime project began making forecasts for a new stock of PIT-tagged wild fall subyearling chinook salmon, as a substitute for forecasts of the wild run-at-large, discontinued June 6. Forecasts for the run-at-large were discontinued when a large release of unmarked hatchery fish into the Snake River made identification of wild fish impossible. The 1999 Program RealTime performance was comparable to its performance in previous years with respect to the run-at-large of yearling chinook salmon (whole season MAD=3.7%), and the run of hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon (whole season MAD=6.7%). Season-wide performance of program RealTime predictions for wild Snake River yearling chinook salmon ESUs improved in 1999, with mean MADs from the first half of the outmigrations down from 15.1% in 1998 to 4.5% in 1999. RealTime performance was somewhat worse for the run-at-large of steelhead trout in 1999, compared to 1998, particularly during the last half of the outmigration when the MAD increased from 2.7% in 1998 to 6.1% in 1999. A pattern of over-predictions was observed in half of the yearling chinook salmon ESUs and the steelhead run-at-large during the month of May. Lower-than-average outflows were observed at Lower Granite dam during the first half of May, the only

  9. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  10. Susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to isolates of the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Daniel G; Purcell, Maureen K; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kurath, Gael

    2016-08-31

    This study examined the susceptibility of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) present in western North America. The goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of L, U, and M IHNV. The L IHNV strain tested here was highly infectious and virulent in both Chinook salmon populations, following patterns previously reported for Chinook salmon. Furthermore, ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon fry at 1 g can also become subclinically infected with U and M strains of IHNV without experiencing significant mortality. The stream-type life history phenotype was generally more susceptible to infection and suffered greater mortality than the ocean-type phenotype. Between the U and M genogroup strains tested, the U group strains were generally more infectious than the M group strains in both Chinook salmon types. Substantial viral clearance occurred by 30 d post exposure, but persistent viral infection was observed with L, U, and M strains in both host populations. While mortality decreased with increased host size in stream-type Chinook salmon, infection prevalence was not lower for all strains at a greater size. These results suggest that Chinook salmon may serve as reservoirs and/or vectors of U and M genogroup IHNV. PMID:27596856

  11. Susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to isolates of the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Daniel G; Purcell, Maureen K; Friedman, Carolyn S; Kurath, Gael

    2016-08-31

    This study examined the susceptibility of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to viral strains from the L, U, and M genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) present in western North America. The goal of this investigation was to establish a baseline understanding of the susceptibility of ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon to infection and mortality caused by exposure to commonly detected strains of L, U, and M IHNV. The L IHNV strain tested here was highly infectious and virulent in both Chinook salmon populations, following patterns previously reported for Chinook salmon. Furthermore, ocean- and stream-type Chinook salmon fry at 1 g can also become subclinically infected with U and M strains of IHNV without experiencing significant mortality. The stream-type life history phenotype was generally more susceptible to infection and suffered greater mortality than the ocean-type phenotype. Between the U and M genogroup strains tested, the U group strains were generally more infectious than the M group strains in both Chinook salmon types. Substantial viral clearance occurred by 30 d post exposure, but persistent viral infection was observed with L, U, and M strains in both host populations. While mortality decreased with increased host size in stream-type Chinook salmon, infection prevalence was not lower for all strains at a greater size. These results suggest that Chinook salmon may serve as reservoirs and/or vectors of U and M genogroup IHNV.

  12. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper: Neurophysiological and histological effects on the olfactory system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Rose, J.D.; Jenkins, R.A.; Gerow, K.G.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Olfactory epithelial structure and olfactory bulb neurophysiological responses were measured in chinook salmon and rainbow trout in response to 25 to 300 {micro}g copper (Cu)/L. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the number of olfactory receptors was significantly reduced in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g cu/L for 1 h. The number of receptors was significantly reduced in both species following exposure to 25 {micro}g Cu/L for 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of olfactory epithelial tissue indicated that the loss of receptors was from cellular necrosis. Olfactory bulk electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to 10{sup {minus}3} M L-serine were initially reduced by all Cu concentrations but were virtually eliminated in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g Cu/L within 1 h of exposure. Following Cu exposure, EEG response recovery rates were slower in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The higher sensitivity of the chinook salmon olfactory system to Cu-induced histological damage and neurophysiological impairment parallels the relative species sensitivity observed in behavioral avoidance experiments. This difference in species sensitivity may reduce the survival and reproductive potential of chinook salmon compared with that of rainbow trout in Cu-contaminated waters.

  13. RNA-catalysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Szostak, Jack W.

    1989-06-01

    The Tetrahymena ribozyme can splice together multiple oligonucleotides aligned on a template strand to yield a fully complementary product strand. This reaction demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-catalysed RNA replications.

  14. Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, Alexander; Raby, Graham D; Hasler, Caleb T; Taylor, Mark K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-07-30

    Fish can become stranded when water levels decrease, often rapidly, as a result of anthropogenic (e.g., canal drawdown, hydropeaking, vessel wakes) and natural (e.g., floods, drought, winter ice dynamics) events. We summarize existing research on stranding of fish in freshwater, discuss the sources, consequences, and mitigation options for stranding, and report current knowledge gaps. Our literature review revealed that ∼65.5% of relevant peer-reviewed articles were found to focus on stranding associated with hydropower operations and irrigation projects. In fact, anthropogenic sources of fish stranding represented 81.8% of available literature compared to only 19.9% attributed to natural fish stranding events. While fish mortality as a result of stranding is well documented, our analysis revealed that little is known about the sublethal and long-term consequences of stranding on growth and population dynamics. Furthermore, the contribution of stranding to annual mortality rates is poorly understood as are the potential ecosystem-scale impacts. Mitigation strategies available to deal with stranding include fish salvage, ramping rate limitations, and physical habitat works (e.g., to contour substrate to minimize stranding). However, a greater knowledge of the factors that cause fish stranding would promote the development and refinement of mitigation strategies that are economically and ecologically sustainable. PMID:22481278

  15. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry.

  16. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

  17. Inertial sensing-based pre-impact detection of falls involving near-fall scenarios.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Keun; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Park, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    Although near-falls (or recoverable imbalances) are common episodes for many older adults, they have received a little attention and were not considered in the previous laboratory-based fall assessments. Hence, this paper addresses near-fall scenarios in addition to the typical falls and activities of daily living (ADLs). First, a novel vertical velocity-based pre-impact fall detection method using a wearable inertial sensor is proposed. Second, to investigate the effect of near-fall conditions on the detection performance and feasibility of the vertical velocity as a fall detection parameter, the detection performance of the proposed method (Method 1) is evaluated by comparing it to that of an acceleration-based method (Method 2) for the following two different discrimination cases: falls versus ADLs (i.e., excluding near-falls) and falls versus non-falls (i.e., including near-falls). Our experiment results show that both methods produce similar accuracies for the fall versus ADL detection case; however, Method 1 exhibits a much higher accuracy than Method 2 for the fall versus non-fall detection case. This result demonstrates the superiority of the vertical velocity over the peak acceleration as a fall detection parameter when the near-fall conditions are included in the non-fall category, in addition to its capability of detecting pre-impact falls.

  18. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    PubMed

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  19. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  20. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L’Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S.; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  1. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  2. Linkages between life history type and migration pathways in freshwater and marine environments for Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rishi; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2012-05-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, are commonly categorized as ocean-type (migrating to the ocean in their first year of life) or stream-type (migrating after a full year in freshwater). These two forms have been hypothesized to display different ocean migration pathways; the former are hypothesized to migrate primarily on the continental shelf whereas the latter are hypothesized to migrate off the shelf to the open ocean. These differences in migration patterns have important implications for management, as fishing mortality rates are strongly influenced by ocean migration. Ocean-type Chinook salmon predominate in coastal rivers in the southern part of the species' range, whereas stream-type predominate in the interior and northerly rivers. This latitudinal gradient has confounded previous efforts to test the hypothesis regarding ocean migration pathways. To address this problem, we used a pair-wise design based on coded wire tagging data to compare the marine distributions of stream- and ocean-type Chinook salmon from a suite of rivers producing both forms. Both forms of Chinook salmon from the lower Columbia River, Oregon coast, lower Fraser River, and northern British Columbia rivers followed similar migration paths, contradicting the hypothesis. In contrast, recoveries of tagged Chinook salmon from the upper Columbia River, Snake River, and the upper Fraser River revealed migration patterns consistent with the hypothesis. These findings have important implications for our understanding of these life history types, and also for the conservation and management of declining, threatened, or endangered stream-type Chinook salmon populations in the US and Canada.

  3. Evaluation of Head-of-Reservoir Conditions for Downstream Migration of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at Shasta Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancey, K. M.; Saito, L.; Svoboda, C.; Bender, M. D.; Hannon, J.; Hellmann, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since completion of Shasta Dam, migration of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Sacramento River has been blocked, causing loss of spawning and rearing habitat. This has been a factor leading to population declines of these fish species over several decades. Winter-run Chinook salmon, spring-run Chinook salmon and steelhead trout are now listed under the Endangered Species Act. A habitat assessment of the tributaries upstream of Shasta Dam showed that the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries have suitable habitat for reintroduction of adult salmon and steelhead for spawning. Such reintroduction would require downstream passage of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam. To evaluate the possibility of collecting and transporting juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead past Shasta Dam, a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Shasta Lake and the Sacramento River, McCloud River, Pit River and Squaw Creek tributaries was used to assess where and when conditions were favorable at head-of-reservoir locations upstream of proposed temperature curtains to collect juvenile fish. Head-of-reservoir is the zone of transition between the river and the upstream end of the reservoir. Criteria for evaluating locations suitable to collect these fish included water temperature and velocities in the Sacramento and McCloud tributaries. Model output was analyzed during months of downstream migration under dry, median and wet year conditions. Potential for proposed temperature curtains, anchored and floating, to improve conditions for fish migration was also evaluated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Use of temperature curtains to assist fish migration is a novel approach that to our knowledge has not previously been assessed for recovery of Chinook salmon and steelhead populations. Providing safe passage conditions is challenging, however the study findings may assist in formulation of a juvenile fish passage alternative that is suitable for Shasta Lake.

  4. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Albaladejo, Victor D.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest naturally-produced populations of spring chinook in the mid-Columbia River basin. The study of life history and natural escapement conducted from 1978 to 1985 (Lindsay et al. 1986) provided valuable information on production and productivity of the John Day River spring chinook. With the exception of two years since completion of the study in 1985 (1989 and 1995), spring chinook spawning surveys were conducted in index areas only and have not provided adequate information to assess age composition, progeny-to-parent production values, and estimate natural spawning escapement. The PATH project (Marmorek and Peters 1996) has identified the John Day basin spring chinook as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin. To meet the data needs as an index stock, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age composition, and smolt-to-adult survival are essential. There is need to determine the annual spawner escapement and age composition for the John Day basin spring chinook to provide us the ability to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. This need can be met by expanding the annual chinook spawning surveys, estimating the annual escapement, and determining age composition by scale pattern analyses. This project provides information as directed under two measures of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 4.3C specifies that the key indicator populations should be monitored to provide detailed stock status information. In addition, measure 7.1C identifies the need for collection of population status, life history, and other data on wild and naturally spawning populations. This project was developed in direct response to recommendations and needs of the PATH project, the Fish and Wildlife Program, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Multi-Year Implementation Plan.

  5. Survival and migration route probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the winter of 2009-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Romine, Jason G.; Brewer, Scott J.; LaCivita, Peter E.; Brostoff, William N.; Chapman, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) emigrating from natal tributaries of the Sacramento River may use a number of migration routes to negotiate the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter, "the Delta"), each of which may influence their probability of surviving. We applied a mark-recapture model to data from acoustically tagged juvenile late-fall Chinook salmon that migrated through the Delta during the winter of 2009-10 (hereafter, 2010). This report presents findings from our fourth year of research. We estimated route-specific survival for four release groups: two release groups that migrated through the Delta in December 2009 and January 2010, and two release groups that migrated during February 2010. Population-level survival through the Delta (SDelta) ranged from 0.374 (SE = 0.040) to 0.524 (SE = 0.034) among releases. Although river flows for the February release groups were substantially higher (20,000-40,000 ft3/s at Freeport) than for the December release groups (about 10,000 ft3/s), SDelta did not differ considerably between release groups. Among migration routes, fish migrating through the Sacramento River exhibited the highest survival, and fish entering the interior Delta exhibited the lowest survival. Fish entering Sutter and Steamboat Sloughs had lower survival than fish entering the Sacramento River during December, but similar survival during February. These patterns were consistent among release groups, and strikingly similar to patterns observed in previous years. Migration routing varied among release groups partly because of differences in river discharge between releases. For the two December release groups, 26.5 and 28.9 percent of fish entered the interior Delta; for the two February release groups, 10.4 and 17.9 percent of fish entered the interior Delta. Differences in routing probabilities between December and February are partly related to the inverse relationship between flow and the fraction of discharge entering

  6. Validating a multifactorial falls risk assessment.

    PubMed

    James, Michele B; Kimmons, Nancy J; Schasberger, Britta; Lefkowitz, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Reducing risk of falls has been identified as a national safety goal by The Joint Commission (TJC). The purpose was to determine if the total score on the multifactorial Falls Risk Assessment accurately identifies the risk of falls in a homebound client. In addition, the study examined if any individual item had a higher predictive power with the incidence of falls. One hundred clients (> 65 years old) who sustained an avoidable fall during a home care episode of care, plus 25 home care clients in the same age range and time period, who did not fall. A retrospective chart review, including Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) performed at start of care, demographic information, specific physical therapy (PT) evaluation, and visit notes if necessary to determine if the fall met the inclusion criteria. Scores for each individual area of the assessment were collected for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by a biostatistician using simple linear regression, t-tests, and regression of variable combinations. The total score on the multifactorial risk assessment tool was shown to have a strong relationship with incidence of falls. The average scores of individuals who fell after assessment were significantly higher than those of individuals who did not fall. No single factors were found to be highly predictive. A single approach to decreasing falls is likely to be less effective than a multipronged approach. Caregivers and providers are advised to consider the entirety of the falls risk and direct comprehensive interventions to address the multiple factors that lead to falls.

  7. Replication of mitochondrial DNA occurs by strand displacement with alternative light-strand origins, not via a strand-coupled mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy A.; Cecconi, Ciro; Tkachuk, Ariana N.; Bustamante, Carlos; Clayton, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The established strand-displacement model for mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication has recently been questioned in light of new data using two-dimensional (2D) agarose gel electrophoresis. It has been proposed that a synchronous, strand-coupled mode of replication occurs in tissues, thereby casting doubt on the general validity of the “orthodox,” or strand-displacement model. We have examined mtDNA replicative intermediates from mouse liver using atomic force microscopy and 2D agarose gel electrophoresis in order to resolve this issue. The data provide evidence for only the orthodox, strand-displacement mode of replication and reveal the presence of additional, alternative origins of lagging light-strand mtDNA synthesis. The conditions used for 2D agarose gel analysis are favorable for branch migration of asymmetrically replicating nascent strands. These data reconcile the original displacement mode of replication with the data obtained from 2D gel analyses. PMID:16230534

  8. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  9. Method and apparatus for testing a forward-moving strand

    DOEpatents

    Ducommun, Joel; Vulliens, Philippe

    1980-01-01

    In a method for testing a continuously forward-moving strand a light beam which passes along a plane that extends approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the strand is introduced into the strand. The brightness value is measured on a place of the strand exterior which is distal from the light incidence place by means of at least one photoelectronic element disposed directly on the strand exterior and the measured result is evaluated in a gating circuit which is electrically connected to the photoelectronic element.

  10. After a fall in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not see patients fall. But falls require attention right away to lessen the risk of injury. ... patient's breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. If the patient is ... a hospital emergency code and start CPR. Check for injury, such ...

  11. Predicted climate change effects on streambed scour and risks to Chinook salmon survival in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, J.; Buffington, J. M.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Wenger, S.; Thurow, R.; Nagel, D.; Luce, C.

    2011-12-01

    In response to recent climate warming trends in the Pacific Northwest, the frequency and magnitude of winter floods is expected to increase in some areas where rain-on-snow events occur. Eggs of fall spawning salmonids are incubating in the streambed at this time of year and may be at risk if streambed scour exceeds typical egg burial depths. We investigated how projected trends in streamflow associated with climate change may alter the probability of streambed scour below documented egg burial depths (15-50 cm) for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR), central Idaho. Predictions are made for the magnitude and timing of current and future bankfull flows (approximated by the 2-year flood, Q2) at the basin scale by coupling digital elevation models with empirical predictions of grain size and bankfull shear stress, determined from field surveys of 120 channel reaches distributed throughout the basin. Historic and future values of Q2 were derived from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at the scale of 1/16th degree cells. Future predictions of Q2 were derived from the VIC model using output from an ensemble of Global Climate Models under an A1B emissons scenario for the 2040s and 2080s. Predicted changes in both bankfull flow and the probability of scour to egg burial depths were examined at recent spawning sites (1995-2004 surveys) to assess ecological risk. We found that in the low gradient reaches (Slope <3%) where most spawning occurs, the probability of critical scour was consistently <0.1 under the historic scenario. Future scenarios indicated only a small increase in the length of streams subject to scour in the MFSR, and suggested that this high-elevation system could be largely resistant to climate-driven changes in flow, except under extreme warming scenarios. We are currently extending these analyses to lower elevation basins in rain-dominated and transitional (rain and snow) hydroclimates

  12. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  13. Environmental adaptation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) throughout their North American range.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Benjamin C; Matala, Andrew P; Hess, Jon E; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-11-01

    Landscape genomics is a rapidly growing field with recent advances in both genotyping efficiency and statistical analyses that provide insight towards local adaptation of populations under varying environmental and selective pressure. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are a broadly distributed Pacific salmon species, occupying a diversity of habitats throughout the northeastern Pacific with pronounced variation in environmental and climate features but little is understood regarding local adaptation in this species. We used a multivariate method, redundancy analysis (RDA), to identify polygenic correlations between 19,703 SNP loci and a suite of environmental variables in 46 collections of Chinook salmon (1956 total individuals) distributed throughout much of its North American range. Models in RDA were conducted on both rangewide and regional scales by hierarchical partitioning of the populations into three distinct genetic lineages. Our results indicate that between 5.8 and 21.8% of genomic variation can be accounted for by environmental features, and 566 putatively adaptive loci were identified as targets of environmental adaptation. The most influential drivers of adaptive divergence included precipitation in the driest quarter of the year (Rangewide and North Coastal Lineage, anova P = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively), precipitation in the wettest quarter of the year (Interior Columbia River Stream-Type Lineage, anova P = 0.03), variation in mean diurnal range in temperature (South Coastal Lineage, ANOVA P = 0.005), and migration distance (Rangewide, anova P = 0.001). Our results indicate that environmental features are strong drivers of adaptive genomic divergence in this species, and provide a foundation to investigate how Chinook salmon might respond to global environmental change. PMID:26465117

  14. Ichthyophoniasis: An emerging disease of Chinook salmon in the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Winton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Before 1985, Ichthyophonus was unreported among Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. from the Yukon River; now it infects more than 40% of returning adult Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha. Overall infection prevalence reached about 45% in the Yukon River and about 30% in the Tanana River between 1999 and 2003. Mean infection prevalence was greater in females than males in the main-stem Yukon River during each of the 5 years of the study, but the infection prevalence in males increased each year until the difference was no longer significant. Clinical signs of ichthyophoniasis (presence of visible punctate white lesions in internal organs) were least at the mouth of the Yukon River (∼10%) but increased to 29% when fish reached the middle Yukon River and was 22% at the upper Tanana River. However, clinical signs increased each year from 7% in 1999 to 27% in 2003 at the mouth of the river. As fish approached the upper reaches of the Yukon River (Canada) and the spawning areas of the Chena and Salcha rivers (Alaska), infection prevalence dropped significantly to less than 15% in females on the Yukon River and less than 10% for both sexes in the Chena and Salcha rivers, presumably because of mortality among infected prespawn fish. Age was not a factor in infection prevalence, nor was the position of fish within the run. The source of infection was not determined, but Ichthyophonus was not found in 400 Pacific herring Clupea pallasi from the Bering Sea or in 120 outmigrating juvenile Chinook salmon from two drainages in Alaska and Canada. Freshwater burbot Lota lota from the middle Yukon River were subclinically infected with Ichthyophonus, but the origin and relationship of this agent to the Chinook salmon isolate is unknown.

  15. An evaluation of the maximum tag burden for implantation of acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Abstract.—The influence of a surgically implanted acoustic micro-transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon was examined. Growth and survival were compared between treatment (implanted) and control fish within three fork length (FL) size groups (80-89, 90-99, and 100-109 mm). The acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag implanted in our study had a combined weight of 0.74 g. Weights of study fish ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 g for treatment fish and from 5.1 to 16.8 g for control fish. The burden for the combined acoustic and PIT tag experienced by implanted fish ranged from 8.8% to 15.7% for the 80-89 mm FL group, 6.0-10.9% for the 90-99 mm FL group, and 4.5-8.6% for the 100-109 mm FL group. Results indicated that growth and survival were size-dependent among implanted juvenile Chinook salmon. Significant differences in growth rate and survival were observed between treatment and control fish in the 80-89 mm FL group. Within this group, growth of fish smaller than 88.5 mm FL (tag burden > 10.0%) was negatively affected by the implantation or presence of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag. Survival of fish in the 90-99 mm FL group did not differ between treatment and control fish. However, survival of implanted fish within this size group that were smaller than 97.2 mm FL (tag burden > 7.4%) was negatively influenced. These results indicate that the burden of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag should be maintained at or below about 7.0% for studies that use hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon.

  16. Detecting Falling Snow from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick; Johnson, Ben; Munchak, Joe

    2012-01-01

    There is an increased interest in detecting and estimating the amount of falling snow reaching the Earth's surface in order to fully capture the atmospheric water cycle. An initial step toward global spaceborne falling snow algorithms includes determining the thresholds of detection for various active and passive sensor channel configurations, snow event cloud structures and microphysics, snowflake particle electromagnetic properties, and surface types. In this work, cloud resolving model simulations of a lake effect and synoptic snow event were used to determine the minimum amount of snow (threshold) that could be detected by the following instruments: the W -band radar of CloudSat, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) Ku and Ka band, and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) channels from 10 to 183 plus or minus 7 GHz. Eleven different snowflake shapes were used to compute radar reflectivities and passive brightness temperatures. Notable results include: (1) the W-Band radar has detection thresholds more than an order of magnitude lower than the future GPM sensors, (2) the cloud structure macrophysics influences the thresholds of detection for passive channels, (3) the snowflake microphysics plays a large role in the detection threshold for active and passive instruments, (4) with reasonable assumptions, "the passive 166 GHz channel has detection threshold values comparable to the GPM DPR Ku and Ka band radars with approximately 0.05 g per cubic meter detected at the surface, or an approximately 0.5-1 millimeter per hr. melted snow rate (equivalent to 0.5-2 centimeters per hr. solid fluffy snowflake rate). With detection levels of falling snow known, we can focus current and future retrieval efforts on detectable storms and concentrate advances on achievable results. We will also have an understanding of the light snowfall events missed by the sensors and not captured in the global estimates.

  17. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  18. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  19. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Program Grande Ronde - Imnaha Spring Chinook Hatchery Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-05-15

    The Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon native to the Grande Ronde and Imnaha Rivers of Northeast Oregon are listed as threatened and are protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Adequate, contemporary hatchery facilities are needed in mitigation and recovery of these fish stocks. Currently, the Lookingglass Hatchery in the Grande Ronde subbasin and the Imnaha Satellite Facility in the Imnaha subbasin are the only two existing permanent hatchery facilities for spring chinook in Northeast Oregon. Both of these facilities were built in the early 1980's. These facilities do not provide adequate space, the best available technical and scientific advancements, or suitable rearing and migration conditions to provide for the conservation and recovery of ESA-listed species. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and local fishery and hatchery managers recognize that modernization and augmentation of hatchery facilities is needed to increase the success of mitigation efforts and to halt the decline of spring/summer chinook runs. Agency decision-makers and local fishery and hatchery co-managers will consider the following purposes (i.e. objectives) in evaluating alternative ways to meet the conservation and recovery needs described above: (1) Provide adequate, contemporary hatchery facilities in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha subbasins to help in the conservation and recovery of ESA-listed spring/summer chinook salmon native to the Grande Ronde and Imnaha Rivers, and thus further the implementation of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's (LSRCP) hatchery fish production program. (2) Coordinate the operation at the existing Lookingglass Hatchery and related LSRCP hatchery facilities with the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC or Council), thereby aiding Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) efforts to mitigate and recover anadromous fish

  20. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-01

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines. PMID:11062128

  1. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  3. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-01

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines.

  4. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  5. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1998-05-01

    In August 1996, we PIT tagged and released 1,360 wild chinook salmon parr in the South Fork of the Salmon River and two of its tributaries in Idaho. During spring and summer 1997, the overall adjusted percentage of PIT-tagged fish from Idaho detected at six downstream dams averaged 18.3% (range 16.0 to 27.3% depending on stream of origin). Peak detections of all wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts (from Idaho and Oregon) at Lower Granite Dam occurred during variable but increasing river flows in April. High river flows from mid-April to mid-May moved most of these fish through Lower Granite Dam, with 50 and 90% passage occurring on 24 April and 21 May, respectively. From 1989 to 1996, peak detections of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts were highly variable and generally independent of river flows before about 9 May at this dam; however, during these years (including 1997), peak detections of wild fish coincided with periods of peak flow at the dam from 9 May to the end of May. In both 1995 and 1996, in excess of 90% of the wild fish had migrated past Lower Granite Dam by the time peak flows occurred in June. In 1989, we observed a period of peak detections of wild fish that coincided with peak flows at the dam in June. After examining chinook salmon smolt passage timing at the dams over the last 9 years, it has become clear that flow is only one of several factors that influence passage timing. Other factors, such as annual climatic conditions, water temperature, turbidity, physiological development, variability in stock behavior, fish size, and other yet unknown conditions may equally affect wild smolt passage timing at dams. As additional environmental monitors and traps are installed in study streams, we will be able to more accurately monitor parr and smolt movements out of rearing areas and examine the relationships of these movements to environmental parameters within the streams. Mapped over time, this information will provide the basis for

  7. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  8. The variability of meteoroid falling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  9. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles,...

  15. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  16. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  17. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  18. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. Probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations.

  19. Glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. IV. Humoral and tissue responses of coho and chinook salmon to experimental infection with Margaritefera Margaritifera (L. ) (Pelecypoda: Margaritanidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, T.R.; Millemann, R.E.; Fustish, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are more resistant than chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to experimental infection with the glochidia of the freshwater mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Histological sections of gills from coho salmon 16 hr postinfection (p.i.) showed that parasite encystment either did not occur or had progressed incompletely, which accounted for the loss of many glochidia from the gills. The remaining encysted glochidia were sloughed within 2 days (p.i.) by a well-developed hyperplasia. On chinook salmon, the parasites developed normally with no sloughing or hyperplasia. Analysis of blood samples taken from coho salmon at intervals during the infection showed significant increases in hematocrit, hemoglobin, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and leukocyte numbers when compared with control fish. In infected chinook salmon only the hematocrit, erythrocyte numbers, and MCV increased while the MCHC decreased. Total plasma protein increased in coho salmon but decreased in chinook salmon during infection. Glochidial antibodies were demonstrated in the blood plasma of coho and chinook salmon 8 to 12 wk p.i. Fewer glochidia attached to the excised gills of coho salmon than to the gills of chinook salmon. Also, the in vitro survival time of parasites in mucus and plasma from coho salmon was less than in the same chinook salmon fluids.

  20. The role of aromatic-aromatic interactions in strand-strand stabilization of β-sheets

    PubMed Central

    Budyak, Ivan L.; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Gierasch, Lila M.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic-aromatic interactions have long been believed to play key roles in protein structure, folding, and binding functions. Yet we still lack full understanding of the contributions of aromatic-aromatic interactions to protein stability and the timing of their formation during folding. Here, using as a case study an aromatic ladder in the β-barrel protein, cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1), we find aromatic π stacking plays a greater role in the Phe65-Phe71 cross-strand pair while in another pair, Phe50-Phe65, hydrophobic interactions are dominant. The Phe65/Phe71 pair spans β-strands 4 and 5 in the β-barrel, which lack interstrand hydrogen bonding, and we speculate that it compensates energetically for the absence of strand-strand backbone interactions. Using perturbation analysis, we find that both aromatic-aromatic pairs form after the transition state for folding of CRABP1, thus playing a role in the final stabilization of the β-sheet rather than in its nucleation as had been earlier proposed. The aromatic interaction between strands 4–5 in CRABP1 is highly conserved in the intracellular lipid-binding protein (iLBP) family, and several lines of evidence combine to support a model wherein it acts to maintain barrel structure while allowing the dynamic opening that is necessary for ligand entry. Lastly, we carried out a bioinformatic analysis and found 51 examples of aromatic-aromatic interactions across non-hydrogen-bonded β-strands outside the iLBPs, arguing for the generality of the role played by this structural motif. PMID:23810905